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1

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

2

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.  

E-print Network

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected. 2. Very likely (>90% certainty), humans are causing most of the warming. 3. No single technology are very likely to impose net annual costs, which will increase over time as global temperatures increase

Minnesota, University of

3

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination  

E-print Network

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Keywords: climate change; global warming; temperature-dependent sex determination; reptile; Sphenodon 1

Sheridan, Jennifer

4

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

5

Mechanisms Affecting the Overturning Response in Global Warming Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models used to produce global warming scenarios exhibit widely diverging responses of the thermohaline circulation (THC). To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this variability, a regional Atlantic Ocean model driven with forcing diagnosed from two coupled greenhouse gas simulations has been employed. One of the coupled models (MPI) shows an almost constant THC, the other (GFDL) shows a declining

U. Schweckendiek; J. Willebrand

2005-01-01

6

Will global warming affect males and females differently? FHL Tide Bites #4 Dec. 2013  

E-print Network

Will global warming affect males and females differently? FHL Tide Bites #4 Dec. 2013 Life and responses to global warming depending on demographics like age and sex. As a postdoctoral researcher in Dr the next century, global temperatures are predicted to rise by as much as 5.8° C. How will nature respond

Carrington, Emily

7

Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

Hileman, Bette

1989-01-01

8

Scientist warns against overselling climate change Climate change forecasters should admit that they cannot predict how global warming will affect  

E-print Network

that they cannot predict how global warming will affect individual countries, a leading physicist has said-of-deaths-from-ozone-predicted.html) Antarctic sea floor gives clues about effects of future global warming (/earth/environment/climatechange /5279223/Antarctic-sea-floor-gives-clues-about-affects-of-future-global-warming.html) The Vanishing Face

Stevenson, Paul

9

Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface

John Houghton

2005-01-01

10

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

11

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

12

global warming's six americas  

E-print Network

global warming's six americas in september 2012 #12;Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012, G. & Howe, P. (2013) Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012. Yale University and George Mason and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11

Haller, Gary L.

13

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND?t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

14

Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to the colonization of these waters by alien picocyanobacterial groups.

Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mah, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Bendif, E. M.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

2011-05-01

15

Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 0.11 C in average per decade, P < 0.01). In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise) and in June-July 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mah, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

2011-09-01

16

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

on record. -- NOAA Global Warming is Real Thursday, January 23, 2014 #12;Temperature Anomalies RelativeUnderstanding Global Warming Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge Thursday, January a period of six months to assess aspects of 25 global warming models applicable to Southern California

Klein, David

17

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

Schwartz, Stephen E.

18

Global Warming --What's Your  

E-print Network

Global Warming -- What's Your Score? In the United States, a typical household of two peopleEd PEr YEar #12;aCtions You Can takE Global Warming -- What Can You Do? If you took all of the actionslbs./year HomeHeating Transportation ElectricityUse Global Warming -- WhatCanYouDo? Waste Disposal #12

19

Global Warming Observations  

E-print Network

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

Schofield, Jeremy

20

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

.ipcc.ch) IPCC Climate Models Thursday, January 24, 2013 #12;U.S. Climate Change Science Program (2008) Warming warming models applicable to Southern California. Findings: UCLA Center for Climate Change Solutions 2012Understanding Global Warming Math 483 Spring Semester, 2013 California State University, Northridge

Klein, David

21

Cows Causing Global Warming  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

Hacker, Randi

2008-08-06

22

Global warming: A myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in the concentration of several greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during the last few decades has warmed up the\\u000a atmosphere, a phenomena popularly known as global warming. There are people who believe that global warming does not exist,\\u000a or will have negligible consequences on the earth and its biosphere, if at all it exists. Satellite record over the past

Deepanjan Majumdar

2001-01-01

23

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

24

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve CLIMATE, Ph.D. Climate Change and Energy Use in Today's World Some Chilling Considerations About Global Warming by Stephen E. Schwartz, Ph.D., Brookhaven National Laboratory A view of Brookhaven National Lab

Schwartz, Stephen E.

25

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

26

Economic Theory and Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hirofumi Uzawa's theoretical framework addresses three major problems concerning global warming and other environmental hazards. First, it considers all phenomena involved with global environmental issues that exhibit externalities of one kind or another. Secondly, it covers global environmental issues involving international and intergenerational equity and justice. Lastly, it deals with global environmental issues concerning the management of the atmosphere, the oceans, water, soil, and other natural resources having to be decided by a consensus of affected countries.

Uzawa, Hirofumi

2003-08-01

27

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

Schwartz, Stephen E.

28

Clouds and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real clouds may moderate global warming by negative feedback, or may work the other way. Comparison between observations and predictions suggests that clouds are cooling influences outside the tropics.

John Maddox

1990-01-01

29

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

30

Group Work: Global warming & natural variability  

E-print Network

Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

Allan, Richard P.

31

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

Schwartz, Stephen E.

32

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-print Network

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

33

Global Warming: Undo It  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Warming: Undo It is a national campaign developed by Environmental Defense "to ramp up the fight against global warming, the most critical environmental issue we face." The Web site contains a multimedia tutorial of sorts, where users can learn more about global warming and lifestyle changes they can make cut down on their carbon dioxide production. The site also includes a multimedia gallery, with video clips of the campaign's television commercials, an interview with Environmental Defense president Fred Drupp and another with Senator John McCain, and more. Users may also choose to sign an e-petition to help get the McCain-Lieberman bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act passed in Congress.

34

Global Warming News Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news page, provided by space.com, posts news stories and other current information related to global warming. Touching on topics ranging from industrial pollution to jet contrails to glacier meltings, this Website attempts to centralize news about many of the recent advances in our understanding of global warming. In many cases, news articles mention the scientific resource(s) upon which the findings are based, serving as a helpful hint for readers wishing to delve deeper into the science behind the news story.

1999-01-01

35

Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming  

E-print Network

Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming What factors influence cause change on decadal, warming due to greenhouse gases began to exceed natural climate variability, so that global meanC, but affect global mean temperatures by much less, ~0.1 oC for about 2-3 years. Produce SO2 aerosols

Toohey, Darin W.

36

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University;)

2002-10-01

37

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average well-observed sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1 C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1 C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

38

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part interactive feature illustrates principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human factors. In the first part, students explore climate at Mono Lake in California. They will estimate the temperature for a particular time period by computing the surface energy in the area, and use the model to estimate temperature for any month, in modern and ice age climates, and to predict future temperatures. In the second part, they use data on fossil fuel emissions, gross domestic product, energy types, land use, and other gas emissions to model temperature changes in different world cities for a selected month and year. The exercise includes assessment materials for teachers and tutorials on global warming.

39

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

40

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests  

E-print Network

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A Historical Perspective Carlos Jaramillo and Andr´es C) in the face of global warming. Will TRFs collapse? The fossil record can inform us about that. Our compilation during global warm events, even though temperatures were appropriate for doing so, suggesting that solar

Collin, Rachel

41

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots  

E-print Network

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots from Causes to Solutions* Jim Hansen 26 February 2007 National://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/worldwatch_nov2006.pdf) 5. Communicating dangers and opportunities in global warming, Amer-16, 2006. (http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2006/2006_Hansen.pdf) 8. Global warming: Connecting the dots from

Hansen, James E.

43

Global Warming Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn firsthand how society and environment might be impacted by global warming and how to help people make better decisions regarding all the complicated issues surrounding climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Students will take on the role of scientist, business leader, or policy maker and be part of a climate action team, which will make some of the same discoveries and decisions that are made in the real world every day.

2007-01-01

44

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

45

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

De Nie, Michael W.

46

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination and hatching phenology in tuatara?  

PubMed Central

How will climate change affect species' reproduction and subsequent survival? In many egg-laying reptiles, the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature experienced during a critical period of embryonic development (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD). Increasing air temperatures are likely to skew offspring sex ratios in the absence of evolutionary or plastic adaptation, hence we urgently require means for predicting the future distributions of species with TSD. Here we develop a mechanistic model that demonstrates how climate, soil and topography interact with physiology and nesting behaviour to determine sex ratios of tuatara, cold-climate reptiles from New Zealand with an unusual developmental biology. Under extreme regional climate change, all-male clutches would hatch at 100% of current nest sites of the rarest species, Sphenodon guntheri, by the mid-2080s. We show that tuatara could behaviourally compensate for the male-biasing effects of warmer air temperatures by nesting later in the season or selecting shaded nest sites. Later nesting is, however, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Our approach allows the assessment of the thermal suitability of current reserves and future translocation sites for tuatara, and can be readily modified to predict climatic impacts on any species with TSD. PMID:18595840

Mitchell, Nicola J; Kearney, Michael R; Nelson, Nicola J; Porter, Warren P

2008-01-01

47

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These materials illustrate the principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human-caused factors. They include a set of activities on the Earth's energy budget and future climate change. The energy budget model uses Mono Lake, California as an example. The future climate change activity uses the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data for six scenarios can be examined and comparisons can be observed by selecting a change or stabilization in emissions. The tools in the activity can generate data that examine predicted changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global and regional temperatures, sea level, and flooding. There are also tutorials on a variety of topics, such as Milankovitch Cycles, Earth's seasons, the Carbon cycle, and others. An assessment tool is included so that instructors can determine how well learning objectives are being met.

48

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming  

E-print Network

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

Kuang, Zhiming

49

Will afforestestion strategies help mitigate global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow down and mitigate global warming. Deforestation releases CO2 to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, and evapotranspiration with associated changes in the cloud cover, also affect climate. While

K. Caldeira; M. Wickett; T. Phillips; D. Lobell

2006-01-01

50

Global warming - A reduced threat  

SciTech Connect

Issues associated with global warming are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial warming from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.

Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (United States))

1992-10-01

51

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

52

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

53

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

54

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

55

Understanding Public Perceptions of Global Warming.  

E-print Network

??In this dissertation, I investigate the determinants on Americans perceptions of global warming and individuals environmentally significant behaviors to reduce global warming. Specially, I examine (more)

Shao, Wanyun

2012-01-01

56

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

Schwartz, Stephen E.

57

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

58

Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

1992-10-01

59

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-print Network

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

60

Global warming continues in 1989  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current rate of global warming it will take another 10 years or so to be confident that the greenhouse effect is with us. Although the global warming trend is consistent with an increasing contribution by the greenhouse effect, direct signs that the greenhouse effect is intensifying are still hard to come by in the temperature record. Greenhouse models agree that if that is happening, the temperature increase should be most pronounced around the Arctic. Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Siberia warmed sharply in the 1980s, but the region from eastern Canada through Greenland and into Scandinavia cooled markedly.

Kerr, R.A.

1990-02-02

61

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

62

Global warming: A myth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConclusionEarths atmosphere is a dynamic system and is driven by numerous interacting factors, which are yet to be studied with precision.\\u000a Computer models, which are generally run under CO2 doubling scenario, may have uncertainties for several reasons. At the present CO2 emission rate, doubling may be attained only after 7095 years (at 1% increase yr-1). Global efforts to cut back

Deepanjan Majumdar

2001-01-01

63

Global Warming and Coastal Erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most certain consequences of global warming is an increase of global (eustatic) sea level. The resulting inundation\\u000a from rising seas will heavily impact low-lying areas; at least 100 million persons live within one meter of mean sea level\\u000a and are at increased risk in the coming decades. The very existence of some island states and deltaic coasts

Keqi Zhang; Bruce C. Douglas; Stephen P. Leatherman

2004-01-01

64

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the schools traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles, and developed solutions to the traffic problem. Their solutions, if implemented, will reduce their schools carbon footprint. Completing this project made other students in the school aware of the severity of the global climate change problem.

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

65

Global Warming, Irreversibility and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of economists have argued that the literature on the irreversibility effect implies that current abatement of greenhouse gas emissions should be greater when there is the possibility of obtaining better information in the future about the potential damages from global warming than when there is no possibility of obtaining better information. In this paper the authors show that

Alistair Ulph; David Ulph

1997-01-01

66

Global warming and nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper seeks to give a review of reasons for believing that the problem of global warming is more urgent than widely assumed, largely following the lead of a recent book by Lovelock. It is argued that increased use of nuclear power is the best course, especially if fusion power can be achieved. A short note is appended

Alex M. Andrew

2007-01-01

67

Early Paleogene Arctic terrestrial ecosystems affected by the change of polar hydrology under global warming: Implications for modern climate change at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of both the role and impact of Arctic environmental changes under the current global warming climate is\\u000a rather limited despite efforts of improved monitoring and wider assessment through remote sensing technology. Changes of Arctic\\u000a ecosystems under early Paleogene warming climate provide an analogue to evaluate long-term responses of Arctic environmental\\u000a alteration to global warming. This study reviews Arctic

Qin Leng; Gaytha A. Langlois; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

68

Global warming at the summit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

Showstack, Randy

69

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

E-print Network

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

2007-06-28

70

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24

71

Global warming debates: the reading course  

E-print Network

of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

Huybers, Peter

72

Global warming and its astro-causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the problem of global warming from the viewpoint of wholeness. That is, the problem of global warming will be looked at in a comprehensive study considering several aspects of the cosmos, the Earth, and the phenomenon of life. With such a broad understanding in mind, first analyzes both the disadvantageous and advantageous aspects of the current global warming.

Zhenqiu Ren; Yi Lin

2001-01-01

73

The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance  

E-print Network

The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood qualitatively using the two concepts: Greenhouse effect: natural, beneficial consequence of an atmosphere Global warming: our (possible) enhancement of the greenhouse effect Two important Definitions #12;Observed

Blais, Brian

74

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

75

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

76

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a history of research on global warming. It supplements a short monograph that tells the history of climate change research as a single story. The web site contains essays on a wide range of topics including factors that influence climate, data on climate changes, theories and models of climate, and societal issues. This material can be used as a resource for teaching about physics issues impacting society, sustainability, or scientific methods.

Weart, Spencer

2013-06-13

77

Global warming and economic externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite worldwide policy efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) remains a negative externality.\\u000a Economic equilibrium paths in the presence of such an uncorrected externality are inefficient; as a consequence, there is\\u000a no real economic opportunity cost to correcting this externality by mitigating global warming. Mitigation investment using\\u000a resources diverted from conventional investments can raise

Armon Rezai; Duncan K. Foley; Lance Taylor

2012-01-01

78

The threat of global warming  

SciTech Connect

If the scientific predictions of global warming hold true, there`s trouble ahead for much of the world`s fresh water - and for people living in low-lying areas. The phenomenon, first described in the 1980`s, attributes projected rises in global temperatures to the emission of carbon dioxide and other {open_quotes}greenhouse gases,{close_quotes} so called because they trap the sun`s solar energy close to the Earth`s surface, much as a glass roof helps keep a greenhouse warm. The overwhelming source of these emission is the burning of fossil fuels such as oil, gasoline, coal and natural gas, the principal power sources of modern industry and transportation. In 1988, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the validity and potential effects of global warming. The panel, composed of an international group of climate scientists, issued a report in June 1990 predicting a nearly two-degree rise in the globe`s average temperature by 2020. At that unprecedented rate of increase, the panel found, humankind would be living in a hotter environment that ever before.

NONE

1995-12-15

79

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

80

Global warming: a vicious circle.  

PubMed

The problem of global warming (GW) is larger than it was originally suspected. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (ME), and nitrous oxide (NO2) by the activities of humans will do more than simply raise the global temperature. It will also trigger a variety of feedback loops that will accelerate the GW process. The extent of these feedback loops is currently impossible to incorporate into the computer models because they are not fully understood. But, from what we do know, it is clear that reductions in greenhouse gas (GG) emissions must be halted immediately. We are already committed to regional droughts, storms, water shortages, fishery disruptions and plant and animal extinctions. But the response of the oceans, forest, and ice masses has not yet been incorporated into our predictions. Almost all the feedbacks identified promise to increase GG concentrations. The carbon cycle is going to be affected in a variety of ways. Plants and soil store almost 3 times the CO2 as found in the atmosphere. Increased temperatures will increase plant respiration, thus increasing CO2 emissions. Forests will die, permafrost will melt and the result will be increased releases of CO2 and ME. The oceans and plankton can not absorb as much CO2 as the water temperature rises. At present levels GG concentrations will double by 2025. Thus scientists are calling for an immediate 60-80% reduction in CO2 and other GG emissions. It is up to the industrialized nations to solve this problem since they are the ones who created it. 75% of all human made CO2 comes from these countries. They also have the ability to help developing nations to do the same. 20 nations have already announced plans to stabilize or reduce their GG emissions, but it is attitudes and lifestyles that must be changed. This is the largest problem to ever face the human race and never before have we acted as we now must act in order to avoid a worldwide catastrophe. PMID:12285369

Sinclair, J

1991-01-01

81

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

82

Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues  

E-print Network

Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues. 1a). Global surface air warming in the past 25 years is now about 0.5°C, and in the past century Bay and extended south and southeast of Greenland (1), have given way to warm anomalies in the past

83

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

84

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid  

E-print Network

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

Hansen, James E.

85

Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts  

E-print Network

will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

2001-01-01

86

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (19532005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

Ibanez, Ines; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

87

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01

88

Mankind Can Strive Against the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most likely the cause of the global warming can be carbon dioxide venting into the atmosphere as a result of organic fuel burning though it isnt proved rigorously. Now it is clear that mankind is in charge of the beginning of the global warming and must prevent it. The point of bifurcation- the point of the loss of stability cant

Michel E. Gertsenstein; Boris N. Shvilkin

89

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming--  

E-print Network

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming-- Potential Linkages and Consequences" --ROGER PIELKE JR LANDSEA NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Miami, Florida --MAX MAYFIELD Tropical Prediction Center appreciate the effort taken by Anthes et al. (2006) to respond to our paper "Hurricanes and global warming

Colorado at Boulder, University of

90

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

91

The economic fundamentals of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

If unpriced emission of greenhouse gases imposes real costs on future generations, both present and future generations can enjoy a higher con- sumption of economic goods and services through the correction of this unpriced externality, so there is no real economic opportunity cost to mitigation of global warming. The misperception that control of global warming is costly rests on the

Duncan K. Foley

2007-01-01

92

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to

W. M. Washington

1993-01-01

93

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

94

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College;)

2003-08-01

95

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

96

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

97

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-print Network

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

98

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

99

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

100

OIKOS 97: 5258, 2002 Artificial climate warming positively affects arbuscular  

E-print Network

of global warming, responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to climate warm- ing are poorly. of Washington, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305, USA. The occurrence of global warming, the increase in near-mitigation poli- cies, the 90% probability interval for 1990­2100 global- mean warming is 1.7­4.9°C (Wigley

Rilli, Matthias C.

101

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

102

Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage  

E-print Network

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

103

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

104

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

E-print Network

Abstract. Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate in reducing both global air pollution and climate change. The Earths history provides a sobering perspective on prospects for climate change. The Earths climate is sensitive to changes in climate forcings, human-made forcings now overwhelm natural climate forcings, and the climate system is dangerously close to tipping points that could have disastrous consequences. Atmospheric composition is now near the limits that must not be exceeded if we wish to maintain a planet resembling the one on which civilization developed, with the equable climate of the Holocene. Yet quantitative examination of climate forcings reveals a potential path to climate stability with a bright future for life on the planet. Except for carbon dioxide, human-made forcings are increasing more slowly than in the scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A focused effort to achieve absolute reductions in non-CO2 forcings, combined with a slowdown of CO2 emissions and phase-out of coal use except at power plants that capture and store the gas, could keep additional global warming well below 1C. Attainment of this alternative scenario for future climate requires overturning the common presumption of energy departments that all fossil fuels, including those that are remote or difficult to extract, must be exploited before the world turns to energy sources beyond fossil fuels and begins placing much greater emphasis on energy efficiency and renewable energies. Cooperation between developed and developing countries is essential. Recognition of responsibilities for the present situation and the numerous mutual benefits of required actions make such cooperation plausible. 1.

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

105

Issues in-depth: Inside global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last 15 years, much attention has been given to global warming, and whether the increase in the Earth's temperature in recent decades threatens the survival of life on Earth. As such, it's important that science teachers understand the basics behind the scientific phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the topic, and how to discuss and explore global warming with their students. This comprehensive discussion includes suggestions, activities, and resources that are designed for use in the middle school science classroom.

Greitz-Miller, Roxanne

2006-10-01

106

Televised news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

107

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

108

Global Warming: Is it Real?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the Why Files discusses research that provides new evidence for a century-long warming trend. The research is based on records of lake and river ice melting and freezing dates over a 150-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. Researcher John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison published his results in the journal Science.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-09-11

109

Global warming continues in 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current

R. A. Kerr

1990-01-01

110

NPR: Atmospheric Dry Spell Eases Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from NPR explains why the effects of global warming may not have been noticeable during the past few years. The article warns that there are several factors, such as ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor levels, that mask the problem of rising global temperatures.

2010-03-12

111

Advanced Review Drought under global warming  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous

Dai, Aiguo

112

Global warming, rice production, and water use in China: Developing a probabilistic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainties in global climate models (GCMs) and emission scenarios affect assessments of the impact of global warming as well as the communication of scientific results. Here, we developed a probabilistic technique to deal with the uncertainties and to simulate the impact of global warming on rice production and water use in China, against a global mean temperature (GMT) increase scale

Fulu Tao; Yousay Hayashi; Zhao Zhang; Toshihiro Sakamoto; Masayuki Yokozawa

2008-01-01

113

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch William W. L changes in sea surface temperature5 . This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global. Cheung1 , Reg Watson2 & Daniel Pauly3 Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through

Pauly, Daniel

114

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

115

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

Haller, Gary L.

116

The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and  

E-print Network

The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

Reed, Christopher A.

117

Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Vitousek, P.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-10-01

118

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

SciTech Connect

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

119

Geodetic effects of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthropogenic increase of greenhouse gas will probably induce significant changes of the atmospheric and oceanic global circulation. We have evaluated the variation of the Earth's gravity field, geocenter motion and rotational variations using the available atmospheric and oceanic outputs from coupled general circulation models participating to Couple Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP 2+) and the corresponding ice sheets (Antarctica and

J. Boy; O. de Viron; P. Huybrechts

2003-01-01

120

CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

by artificial lake. Decrease in length about 15 meters per year. In 2003, decrease was 30 m in length and 6.5 m;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL 288K 106 68 169 327 90 16 Rayleigh Aerosol = 31% 69% = 1 - 1/4 S0 1/4 S0 =(1-) T 4 Shortwave Longwave

Schwartz, Stephen E.

121

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

122

On Global Warming (Softening Global Constraints)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe soft versions of the global cardinality constraint and the regular constraint, with ecien t ltering algorithms maintaining domain consistency. For both constraints, the softening is achieved by augmenting the underlying graph. The softened constraints can be used to extend the meta-constraint framework for over-constrained problems proposed by Petit, R egin and Bessi ere.

Willem Jan Van Hoeve; Gilles Pesant; Louis-Martin Rousseau

2004-01-01

123

Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents results from a national study of what Americans understand about how the climate system works, and the causes, impacts, and potential solutions to global warming. Among other findings, the study identifies a number of important gaps in public knowledge and common misconceptions about climate change.

Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward; Renouf, Connie R.; Feinberg, Geoff; Howe, Peter

2013-01-01

124

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Nio phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

125

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

126

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

127

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

128

Global Warming as a Public Bad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of the economic analysis of global - warming is that emissions of greenhouse gases are a negative externality, a real consequence of economic decisions for which decision makers see no market price signal. The purpose of the following work is to solve for the intertemporal allocation of capital with such an uncorrected externality and compare it to the

Armon Rezai; Duncan K. Foley; Lance Taylor

129

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

130

Global warming: solar variability and energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements support evidence for short-term global warming of the earth's surface. The average trend of the earth's surface anomaly as a function of the time was fitted by a simple thermodynamical model including short-term variation of the solar irradiance as well as anthropogenic forcing.

Nigro, A.; Pagano, A.; Zuccarello, F.

131

Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greenland coastal temperatures have followed the early 20th century global warming trend. Since 1940, however, the Greenland coastal stations data have undergone predominantly a cooling trend. At the summit of the Greenland ice sheet the summer average temperature has decreased at the rate of 2.2 C per decade since the beginning of the measurements in 1987. This suggests that

Petr Chylek; Jason E. Box; Glen Lesins

2004-01-01

132

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

133

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-16

134

Global warming and state-corporate crime: the politicalization of global warming under the Bush administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is one of the most significant and difficult issues facing the world today. As result, researchers in a number\\u000a of disciplines have directed their attention to addressing issues relevant to the study of and responses to global warming.\\u000a This has been less true in the social sciences, and especially within specific social sciences such as criminology, in comparison

Michael J. Lynch; Ronald G. Burns; Paul B. Stretesky

2010-01-01

135

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the \\

C. Fabara; B. Hoeneisen

2005-01-01

136

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-print Network

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01

137

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on  

E-print Network

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

Schmittner, Andreas

138

Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster  

E-print Network

Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

Hansen, James E.

139

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds  

E-print Network

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds Yoram Yom-Tov Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ( yomtov@post.tau.ac.il) Global warming may a¡ect the physiology in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule

Yom-Tov, Yoram

140

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-print Network

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

141

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near  

E-print Network

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

Hansen, James E.

142

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming  

E-print Network

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

Bhatt, Uma

143

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1  

E-print Network

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

Wang, Chunzai

144

Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies  

E-print Network

#12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P .............................................. 1.3 1.3 Global Warming Potential Index ................................... 1.6 1.4 Methodology .......................................... 2.9 3. APPLICATION-DEPENDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS 3.1 Introduction

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

145

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

E-print Network

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming William E. Bradshaw observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warm- ing during the latter half- tent with an adaptive evolutionary response to recent global warming. The latter half of the 20th

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

146

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong  

E-print Network

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong Minh.Ha.Duong@cmu.edu CNRS, France HDGC, Carnegie Mellon Possible global warming futures ­ p.1/36 #12;SRES: Forecasts or scenarios? +5.5 C in 2100 the controversy using imprecise probabilities, a more general information theory. . . Possible global warming

147

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Todorov, Alex

148

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila  

E-print Network

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

149

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-print Network

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

150

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-print Network

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

151

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust  

E-print Network

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

Rust, Bert W.

152

Special issue on: Accounting for global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper opens a debate, in the accounting literature, on global warming. This debate began, in earnest, in the 1970's, with the Club of Rome's alert that we were depleting non-renewable resources. Since then, depletion rates have increasedunabated. However a recently convergence of eventstsunami threats, increased cyclone, hurricane and tornado activity, Katrina, ice cap melt, Sky-rocketing oil prices, decline in

Aida Sy

2008-01-01

153

Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.  

PubMed

Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. PMID:23676754

Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

2013-05-16

154

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1993-12-31

155

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1  

E-print Network

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

Fischlin, Andreas

156

Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.  

PubMed

Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective. PMID:20166910

Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

2009-11-01

157

Drought and Freshwater Resources under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the big concerns associated with global warming is the potential change to drought and freshwater resources that could greatly impact our society. How drought and freshwater supply have changed during recent past and how it might change in the coming decades is increasingly becoming a great concern as global warming continues and more severe droughts are reported in the media. In this talk, I will present results from analyses of historical precipitation and streamflow data and drought indices to show that there is a drying trend and a decrease in river flow during the last 50-60 years over many low-latitude land areas. These changes have been caused mainly by decreases in precipitation over Africa, East and South Asia, the Mediterranean region, and eastern Australia. However, rapid warming since the 1980s may also have contributed significantly to the recent drying over many land areas. The recent drying and decreases in streamflow at low latitudes are consistent with model-predicted streamflow changes in the 21st century, although the models predict increased streamflow for northern high-latitude rivers due to increased precipitation there. For more details, see Dai et al. (2009, J. Climate, 22, 2773-2791) and Dai (2011, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 45-65).

Dai, A.

2011-12-01

158

Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability.  

PubMed

The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future. PMID:14558904

Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert

2003-09-15

159

Separating Contributions from Anthropogenic Warming and from Natural Oscillations to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past five decades, global air temperatures have been warming at a rather high rate (IPCC-2013) resulting in scientific and social concern. This warming trend is observed in field data sampling and model simulations and affects both air temperatures over land and over the ocean. However, the warming rate changes with time and this has led to question the causes underlying the observed trends. Here, we analyze recent measured and modeled data on global mean surface air temperature anomalies (GMTA) covering the last 160 years using spectral techniques. The spectral analysis of the measured data does show a strong secular trend (ST) and a clear multidecadal sinusoidal oscillation (MDV) that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The observed acceleration of the warming during the period from 1970 to 2000 therefore appears to be caused by a superimposition of anthropogenic-induced warming (~60%) with the positive phase of a multidecadal oscillation (~40%), while the recent slowdown (hiatus) of this tendency is likely due to a shift in the MDV phase. It has been proposed that this change in the MDV phase could mask the effect of global warming in the forthcoming decades and our analysis indicates that this is quite likely, the current hiatus being already a manifestation of this phenomenon. Most current generation global circulation models (CMIP5) do not reproduce this MDV and are missing the actual temperature hiatus. Therefore, it is less likely that such models could correctly forecast the temperature evolution during the coming decades. We propose here to use the climate dynamics that is inherent in the GMTA data to forecast temperatures until 2100. These forecasts, based on the analyzed secular trend and the multidecadal oscillations are indeed capable of reproducing the actual hiatus and generally result, in comparison to CMIP5 forecasts, in much lower temperature increases for 2100 of only about 1oC. Global mean air temperatures could be even decreasing for the next 2-3 decades. Henceforth, for a correct assessment of the anthropogenic-induced warming of the global air temperatures in the future natural multidecadal temperature oscillations should be taken into account.

Konrad Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa

2014-05-01

160

Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

Somerville, R. C.

2006-12-01

161

Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate changea global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

Firor, John W.

1994-06-01

162

Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.

Cazenave, Anny

2014-05-01

163

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

164

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

165

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and flow structure of the climate, however, means \\

John Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

2002-01-01

166

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and flow structure of the climate, however, means \\

John Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

2003-01-01

167

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

SciTech Connect

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too late to do the real work and force parties to confront each other instead of working together to solve the problem. He encouraged joint implementation as an important factor in speeding the transfer of much-needed, appropriate technologies from the United States and other developed countries to the nations of the developing world. First, he urged the DOE to continue its aggressive voluntary emissions reduction programs, particularly its effort to negotiate greenhouse gas reductions with the electric utility industry. Second, he suggested that the US move to focus the international debate on no more than six major projects. The global warming issue is so broad, he warned, that without such a focus, no progress will be made.

Wamsted, D.

1994-10-07

168

Black carbon contribution to global warming  

SciTech Connect

Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

1996-12-31

169

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enough coal exists to sustain world energy consumption growth through at least the end of the next century. If fossil carbon fuel consumption continues to increase at current rates, however, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will likely more than double, probably leading to significant warming of global climate, shifts in regional climates, and sea-level rise. Scientists and citizens throughout the world are discussing what should be done about the effects of our energy economy on the global environment.The issue is very broad and engaging, ranging from basic issues of geoscience to economics to fundamental value systems, and it has mobilized great economic interests and concern for our global environment. We live in an interesting time when human activities have begun to compete with the global capacities of Earth to recycle the elements of life. In the coming years, we will see how the world community reacts to this challenge, and what combination of conservation, technological development, and adaptation is ultimately adopted.

Hartmann, Dennis L.

170

Potential effects on health of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

Haines, A. (Univ. College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Unit)

1993-12-01

171

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming  

E-print Network

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc of as much as several meters per degree of warming during previous intervals of Earth history when global. Moore, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing, China, and accepted by the Editorial

Marzeion, Ben

172

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-print Network

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds4599857392 CentAUR #7326E125C47E3E3C7E=472B43!E.E07D4 07D4:BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS. In addition, we provide a comprehensive and self-consistent set of new calculations of REs and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

173

Trends in global warming and evolution of nucleoproteins from influenza A viruses since 1918.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only the environment where we live, but also all living species to different degree, including influenza A virus. We recently conducted several studies on the possible impact of global warming on the protein families of influenza A virus. More studies are needed in order to have a full picture of the impact of global warming on living organisms, especially its effect on viruses. In this study, we correlate trends in global warming with evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus and then analyse the trends with respect to northern/southern hemispheres, virus subtypes and sampling species. The results suggest that global warming may have an impact on the evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus. PMID:20825589

Yan, S; Wu, G

2010-12-01

174

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science.  

PubMed

Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact. PMID:22444758

Mychaskiw Ii, George

2012-01-01

175

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

PubMed Central

Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact PMID:22444758

2012-01-01

176

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

Hansen, James

2007-04-01

177

Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on August 30 2000, this 34-page report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) warns that "global warming could fundamentally alter one third of plant and animal habitats by the end of this century, and cause the eventual extinction of certain plant and animal species." According to the report, the danger is greatest in the northern latitudes of Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia, where warming is predicted to be the most rapid, destroying up to 70 percent of habitat. In many other areas it predicts local species loss of up to 20 percent. These predictions are based on "a moderate estimate that concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere will double from pre-industrial levels during this century." However, as the press release notes, some have projected a three-fold increase in concentrations by 2010 unless corrective action is taken. The full text of the report is available in .pdf or Word format at the site, along with an executive summary, conclusions, and discussion of the methods used to create the report.

Malcolm, Jay R.; Markham, Adam, 1948-.

2000-01-01

178

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Third Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"What kind of world will our grandchildren inherit? prods the large, yellow bullet point jumping out from the black background on the back cover of John Houghton's already classic textbook, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Students in an undergraduate or first year graduate seminar coursethe clear target audience for this bookwill come away with little doubt about the answer to this question: a warmer one.Essentially, this is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process distilled into a textbook. The first seven chapters, about two thirds of the book's 350 pages, provide a compelling account of the consensus IPCC view of the greenhouse effect, climate variability, climate modeling, climate projections, and the impacts of climate change. These chapters are without doubt the core strength of this excellent textbook, synthesizing an unprecedented two decades of community effort, scientific cooperation, and consensus building into a coherent view.

Alverson, Keith

179

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

SciTech Connect

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

180

Global Warming Education for Astro 101 Classes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAS Sustainability Committee (SC) aims to reduce the ecological footprint of the AAS. The SC has identified three major areas of concern on which to focus for the coming year: (1) AAS Meetings, which are energy-intensive because of their associated travel, lodging, and conference center needs; (2) other travel, including to observing runs, team meetings, and conferences -- some of that travel could reasonably be replaced with teleconferencing options, which we are exploring; and (3) education. There will be a special session at this meeting devoted to helping astronomy professors include global warming in their Astro 101 classes. Several seasoned educators will share their tips and provide online resources such as PowerPoint slides and figures on climate change.

Lowenthal, James D.; Guinan, E. F.; Knezek, P.; Lacy, J. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Rykoff, E.; Sheth, K.

2012-01-01

181

INTRODUCTION A long period of global warming characterized  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION A long period of global warming characterized late Paleocene to early Eocene time, culminating in the Eocene thermal maximum at about 49 Ma. The warming has two distinct peaks, near Paleocene thermal maximum is recog- nized by a rapid worldwide warming of high- to mid-latitude surface

Bermingham, Eldredge

182

Drought under Global Warming: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the big concerns associated with global warming is the potential change to land surface moisture conditions that could have a huge impact on agriculture, freshwater resources, and many other aspects of our society and the environment. How drought has changed during recent past and how it might change in the coming decades is increasingly becoming a great concern as global warming continues and more severe droughts are reported in the media. In this presentation, I will provide an overview, based on my own and others' work, of how drought has changed in the last several centuries and during recent decades over many regions around the world based on historical records, and how it might change in the coming decades based on IPCC AR4 model-predicted climate changes. I will present results from analyses of changes in precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and (improved) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to show that aridity has increased during the last 50-60 years over many land areas, and rapid warming since the 1980s has contributed significantly to this drying. The PDSI (with improved evapotranspiration estimates) calculated from the AR4 multi-model predicted future climate suggests severe drying in the next 20-50 years over most land areas except the northern high-latitudes and parts of Asia. This drying pattern is consistent with other analyses of model-predicted soil moisture and precipitation changes. Although the quantitative interpretation of the future PDSI values may need to be cautious, combined with the other analyses, the PDSI result points to a dire situation with more severe to extreme droughts in the coming decades over the continental U.S., most of Africa and South America, Australia, southern Europe, and western and southeastern Asia. Changes in precipitation play an important role over many land areas, but enhanced evaporation due to increased radiative heating is also a major factor for the model-predicted drying. For more details, see Dai (2011, JGR, 116, D12115, doi:10.1029/2010JD015541) and Dai (2011, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 45-65).

Dai, A.

2011-12-01

183

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

SciTech Connect

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01

184

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds.  

PubMed Central

Global warming may affect the physiology, distributions, phenology and adaptations of plants and animals. In Israel, minimum summer temperatures increased by an average of 0.26 degrees C per decade during the second half of the 20th century. Bergmann's rule predicts that, in warm-blooded animals, races from warm regions are smaller than races from cold regions. Numerous studies have reported general correlations between body mass in fossil animals and independently established palaeoclimatic changes from various parts of the world in accordance with this rule. Using museum specimens, I tested the prediction that the body mass and tarsus length of five resident passerine species in Israel declined between 1950 and 1999. The body mass of four species (the graceful warbler Prinia gracilis, the house sparrow Passer domesticus, the yellow-vented bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos and the Sardinian warbler Sylvia melanocephala, but not of the crested lark Galerida cristata) declined significantly during this period. Tarsus length also declined significantly during this period for two species (the graceful warbler and the house sparrow). Body condition (body mass-to-tarsus length ratio) decreased in the Sardinian warbler, the yellow-vented bulbul and the crested lark. It is suggested that the above declines in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule. The above explanation does not exclude the possibility that other factors, such as a decrease in food availability, contributed to the decline in body mass. These declines may have serious implications for community structure and competition among bird species and may affect the survival of small passerines. PMID:11370968

Yom-Tov, Y.

2001-01-01

185

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds.  

PubMed

Global warming may affect the physiology, distributions, phenology and adaptations of plants and animals. In Israel, minimum summer temperatures increased by an average of 0.26 degrees C per decade during the second half of the 20th century. Bergmann's rule predicts that, in warm-blooded animals, races from warm regions are smaller than races from cold regions. Numerous studies have reported general correlations between body mass in fossil animals and independently established palaeoclimatic changes from various parts of the world in accordance with this rule. Using museum specimens, I tested the prediction that the body mass and tarsus length of five resident passerine species in Israel declined between 1950 and 1999. The body mass of four species (the graceful warbler Prinia gracilis, the house sparrow Passer domesticus, the yellow-vented bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos and the Sardinian warbler Sylvia melanocephala, but not of the crested lark Galerida cristata) declined significantly during this period. Tarsus length also declined significantly during this period for two species (the graceful warbler and the house sparrow). Body condition (body mass-to-tarsus length ratio) decreased in the Sardinian warbler, the yellow-vented bulbul and the crested lark. It is suggested that the above declines in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule. The above explanation does not exclude the possibility that other factors, such as a decrease in food availability, contributed to the decline in body mass. These declines may have serious implications for community structure and competition among bird species and may affect the survival of small passerines. PMID:11370968

Yom-Tov, Y

2001-05-01

186

Global warming and 21st century drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of ?-1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of ?-1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-03-01

187

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of < or = -1) by the end of the twenty-first century from 12 to 30 %. PET induced moderate drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01

188

Global Warming - Myth or Reality?, The Erring Ways of Climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the global-warming debate, definitive answers to questions about ultimate causes and effects remain elusive. In Global Warming: Myth or Reality? Marcel Leroux seeks to separate fact from fiction in this critical debate from a climatological perspective. Beginning with a review of the dire hypotheses for climate trends, the author describes the history of the 1998 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Marcel Leroux

2005-01-01

189

GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers psychological aspects of global warming and climate change. It begins with a brief consideration of the public and political recognition of global warming and climate change as significant environmental issues. The chapter then turns to a review of the scientific evidence of the causes and consequences of climate change, and some of the issues in psychology that

Taciano L. Milfont

190

Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we utilize content analysis techniques to examine how the issue of global warming and climate change has been characterized during the period of 1992 through 2005 by the Houston Chroniclethe largest regional newspaper in the Texas coastal region. A total of 795 global warming and climate change news articles from the Houston Chronicle are collected, coded and

Xinsheng Liu; Arnold Vedlitz; Letitia Alston

2008-01-01

191

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

192

Lowering Real Interest Rates Could Slow Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion have increased markedly in this century. Increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are thought likely to help produce a warming of global climate. Many strategies to reduce or reverse the anticipated global warming point to reductions of fossil fuel combustion as a primary ingredient. This paper examines the possibility of obtaining a

Craig S Marxsen

1991-01-01

193

ATM S 111: Global Warming Review Sheet for Quiz #2  

E-print Network

ATM S 111: Global Warming Review Sheet for Quiz #2 I suggest going chunks of ice on land · Greenland melting would cause 7 m of global sea is not melting, mostly due to smaller warming there § Sea ice is important for

Frierson, Dargan

194

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dryness of terrestrial climate can be measured by the ratio of annual precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET), where the latter represents the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which depends on the surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and available energy. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 transient CO2 increase to 2 CO2 simulations. We show that the (percentage) increase (rate) in P averaged over land is ~1.7%/C ocean mean surface air temperature increase, while the increase in PET is 5.3%/C, leading to a decrease in P/PET (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by ~3.4%/C. Noting a similar rate of percentage increase in P over land to that in evaporation (E) over ocean, we propose a framework for examining the change in P/PET, in which we compare the change in PET over land and E over ocean, both expressed using the Penman-Monteith formula. We show that a drier terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative humidity over land but an increase over ocean, (iii) part of increase in net downward surface radiation going into the deep ocean, and (iv) different responses of PET over land and E over ocean for given changes in atmospheric conditions (largely associated with changes in temperatures). The relative contributions to the change in terrestrial mean aridity from these four factors are about 35%, 35%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. The slight slowdown of the surface wind over both land and ocean has little impact on the terrestrial mean aridity.

Fu, Qiang; Feng, Song

2014-07-01

195

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

196

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-print Network

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

197

Expansion of World Drylands Under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world drylands including both semi-arid and arid regions comprise of one-third of the global land surfaces, which support 14% of the world's inhabitants and a significant share of the world agriculture. Because of meager annual precipitation and large potential evaporative water loss, the ecosystems over drylands are fragile and sensitive to the global change. By analyzing the observations during 1948-2008 and 20 fully coupled climate model simulations from CMIP5 for the period 1900-2100, this study evaluated the changes of the world drylands that are defined with a modified form of the Thornthwaite's moisture index. The results based on observational data showed that the world drylands are steadily expanding during the past 60 years. The areas occupied by drylands in 1994-2008 is about 2.010^6km^2 (or 4%) larger than the average during the 1950s. Such an expansion is also a robust feature in the simulations of the 20 global climate models, though the rate is much smaller in the models. A stronger expanding rate is projected during the first half of this century than the simulations in the last century, followed by accelerating expansion after 2050s under the high greenhouse gas emission scenario (RCP8.5). By the end of this century, the world drylands are projected to be over 5810^6km^2 (or 11% increase compared to the 1961-1990 climatology). The projected expansion of drylands, however, is not homogeneous over the world drylands, with major expansion of arid regions over the southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa and Australia. Major expansions of semi-arid regions are projected over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, North and South America. The global warming is the main factor causing the increase of potential evapotranspiration estimated by Penman-Monteith algorithm, which in turn dominants the expansion of drylands. The widening of Hadley cell, which has impact on both temperature and precipitation, also play an important role. This study accentuates the urgent to develop proactive planning and adaptation strategies for increasing aridity in the world drylands to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience in those regions.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.; Hu, Q. S.

2012-12-01

198

A Contribution by Ice Nuclei to Global Warming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ice nuclei (IN) significantly affect clouds via supercooled droplets, that in turn modulate atmospheric radiation and thus climate change. Since the IN effect is relatively strong in stratiform clouds but weak in convective ones, the overall effect depends on the ratio of stratiform to convective cloud amount. In this paper, 10 years of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data are analyzed to confirm that stratiform precipitation fraction increases with increasing latitude, which implies that the IN effect is stronger at higher latitudes. To quantitatively evaluate the IN effect versus latitude, large-scale forcing data from ten field campaigns are used to drive a CRM (cloud-resolving model) to generate longterm cloud simulations. As revealed in the simulations, the increase in the net downward radiative flux at the TOA (top of the atmosphere) from doubling the current IN concentrations is larger at higher latitude, which is attributed to the meridional tendency in the stratiform precipitation fraction. Surface warming from doubling the IN concentrations, based on the radiative balance of the globe, is compared with that from anthropogenic COZ . It is found that the former effect is stronger than the latter in middle and high latitudes but not in the Tropics. With regard to the impact of IN on global warming, there are two factors to consider: the radiative effect from increasing the IN concentration and the increase in IN concentration itself. The former relies on cloud ensembles and thus varies mainly with latitude. In contrast, the latter relies on IN sources (e.g., the land surface distribution) and thus varies not only with latitude but also longitude. Global desertification and industrialization provide clues on the geographic variation of the increase in IN concentration since pre-industrial times. Thus, their effect on global warming can be inferred and then be compared with observations. A general match in geographic and seasonal variations between the inferred and observed warming suggests that IN may have contributed positively to global warming over the past decades, especially in middle and high latitudes.

Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zhang, Minghua; Hou, Arthur Y.; Xie, Shaocheng; Lang, Stephen; Li, Xiaowen; Starr, David O.; Li, Xiaofan

2009-01-01

199

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections.  

PubMed

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases. PMID:21257353

Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

2011-06-01

200

Microbial diseases of corals and global warming.  

PubMed

Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, penetrate into the coral epidermis, multiply intracellularly, differentiate into a viable-but-not-culturable (VBNC) state and produce toxins that inhibit photosynthesis and lyse the symbiotic zooxanthellae. In black band disease, sulphide is produced at the coral-microbial biofilm interface, which is probably responsible for tissue death. Reports of newly emerging coral diseases and the lack of epidemiological and biochemical information on the known diseases indicate that this will become a fertile area of research in the interface between microbial ecology and infectious disease. PMID:12071977

Rosenberg, Eugene; Ben-Haim, Yael

2002-06-01

201

Editorial The Global Warming Fight is Bringing Sexy Back, Are You Ready?  

E-print Network

mentioned global warming in 1992, climate change was notglobal warming highly increased awareness of climate changeglobal warming, it made America visualize the potential consequences of climate change.

Jankowska, Marta Maja

2006-01-01

202

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

2011-07-01

204

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

PubMed

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller, Charles F

2007-01-01

205

The European climate under a 2?C global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global warming of 2?C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods corresponding to 2?C global warming, describe the range of projected changes for the European climate for this level of global warming, and investigate the uncertainty across the multi-model ensemble. Robust changes in mean and extreme temperature, precipitation, winds and surface energy budgets are found based on the ensemble of simulations. The results indicate that most of Europe will experience higher warming than the global average. They also reveal strong distributional patterns across Europe, which will be important in subsequent impact assessments and adaptation responses in different countries and regions. For instance, a North-South (West-East) warming gradient is found for summer (winter) along with a general increase in heavy precipitation and summer extreme temperatures. Tying the ensemble analysis to time periods with a prescribed global temperature change rather than fixed time periods allows for the identification of more robust regional patterns of temperature changes due to removal of some of the uncertainty related to the global models climate sensitivity.

Vautard, Robert; Gobiet, Andreas; Sobolowski, Stefan; Kjellstrm, Erik; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Watkiss, Paul; Mendlik, Thomas; Landgren, Oskar; Nikulin, Grigory; Teichmann, Claas; Jacob, Daniela

2014-03-01

206

Shifts in winter distribution in birds: effects of global warming and local habitat change.  

PubMed

As global warming intensified toward the end of the 20th century, there was a northward shift in winter ranges of bird species in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. These poleward shifts were correlated to local increases in minimum winter temperatures and global temperature anomalies. This evidence, plus other recent results, suggests that during the last two decades global warming has led to massive and widespread biogeographic shifts with potentially major ecological and human consequences. Local habitat changes associated with urban sprawl affected mainly forest birds with more northern winter distributions. In Cape Cod, the effects of warming on bird distributions are more substantial at the start of the 21st century, than those of habitat alteration, but as urban sprawl continues its importance may rival that of global warming. PMID:14703907

Valiela, Ivan; Bowen, Jennifer L

2003-11-01

207

Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronounced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming. PMID:16697507

Aptroot, A; van Herk, C M

2007-03-01

208

[Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].  

PubMed

Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Nio Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18033654

Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Grtler, L; Reisinger, E C

2007-11-01

209

Possible human health impacts of a global warming  

SciTech Connect

Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

1995-03-01

210

Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview.  

E-print Network

Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) consensus forecast for climate is an increase in global temperature by 2 - 5o C of atmospheric CO2 would yield an increase in global mean temperature of T2X = 3.5o C (6.7 o F, with 95

Creel, Scott

211

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley  

E-print Network

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley Climate System Research Center University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;How have global temperatures changed & why? 1. Average instrumental records from around the world; express all as anomalies from 1961-90 average #12;#12;Overall trend is upward ("global

Mountziaris, T. J.

212

Global warming: it's not only size that matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed and model simulated warming is particularly large in high latitudes, and hence the Arctic is often seen as the posterchild of vulnerability to global warming. However, Mahlstein et al (2011) point out that the signal of climate change is emerging locally from that of climate variability earliest in regions of low climate variability, based on climate model data, and

Gabriele C. Hegerl

2011-01-01

213

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of

G. T. Stone

2006-01-01

214

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

E-print Network

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming Charles D. Kovena,b,1 , Bruno, and approved July 12, 2011 (received for review March 24, 2011) Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon

215

Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

Martn R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrs Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Snchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

2006-01-01

216

Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning,...

J. E. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, V. Oinas

2000-01-01

217

Can Iron-Enriched Oceans Thwart Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News addresses the possibility of adding iron to ocean systems in order to improve phytoplankton growth, which would remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and decrease global warming via increased photosynthesis.

Roach, John; News, National G.

218

American Generation of Environmental Warnings: Avian Influenza and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalistic reporting of global warming and of avian influenza rose and fell nearly simultaneously in newspapers of the United States, Canada, Britain, Ireland, and Australia. Some international news peaks are reasonably interpreted as American- generated \\

Allan Mazur

219

Waiting to Exhale?: Global Warming and Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the links between energy policy, tax policy and global warming. This article focuses on tax policy, because the emerging consensus among legal scholars favors economic incentives rather than command-and-control regulations for reaching environmental goals, and the Federal income tax has proved an effective delivery system for economic incentives.\\u000aAfter briefly discussing of the science of global warming

Roberta F. Mann

2002-01-01

220

Effects of Fuel Consumption of Commercial Turbofans on Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main objective of this study is to parametrically investigate the fuel consumption effect of commercial turbofans on global\\u000a warming. In this regard, of the important parameters, specific fuel consumption of commercial turbofans is taken into consideration.\\u000a In order to minimize the effect of fuel consumption on global warming, the values of engine design parameters are optimized\\u000a for maintaining minimum

Onder Turan; T. Hikmet Karakoc

221

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General  

E-print Network

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

Kreinovich, Vladik

222

Majority of Americans Believe Global Warming Is Occurring, Survey Shows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-eight percent of the American public believe that global warming has been occurring, according to a 2012 survey presented by Jon Krosnick, senior fellow with the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, at a 28 March briefing on Capitol Hill on the trajectory of public perceptions about global warming and government involvement in the issue. While the percentage has varied from 75% to 85% since 1997, the survey results "contradict any claims that Americans have turned away from this issue in large numbers," said Krosnick, who is also the Frederic O. Glover Professor in Humanities and Social Sciences at Stanford University, Calif. "They still believe that warming has been happening."

Showstack, Randy

2013-04-01

223

Global Warming Pattern Formation: Sea Surface Temperature and Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall changes over the tropics are investigated based on ensemble simulations for the first half of the 21st century under the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario A1B with coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Despite a GHG increase that is nearly uniform in space, pronounced patterns emerge in both SST and precipitation. Regional differences in SST warming can be as large as the tropical mean warming. Specifically, the tropical Pacific warming features a conspicuous maximum along the equator and a minimum in the southeast subtropics. The former is associated with westerly wind anomalies while the latter is linked to intensified southeast trade winds, suggestive of wind-evaporation-SST feedback. There is a tendency for a greater warming in the northern than southern subtropics in accordance with asymmetries in trade wind changes. Over the equatorial Indian Ocean, surface wind anomalies are easterly, the thermocline shoals and the warming is reduced in the east, indicative of Bjerknes feedback. In the midlatitudes, ocean circulation changes generate narrow banded structures in SST warming. The warming is negatively correlated with wind speed change over the tropics, and positively correlated with ocean heat transport change in the northern extratropics. Tropical precipitation changes are positively correlated with spatial deviations of SST warming from the tropical mean. In particular, the equatorial maximum in SST warming over the Pacific anchors a band of pronounced rainfall increase. The gross moist instability follows closely relative SST change as equatorial wave adjustments flatten upper tropospheric warming. The comparison with atmospheric simulations in response to a spatially uniform SST warming illustrates the importance of SST patterns for rainfall change, an effect overlooked in current discussion of precipitation response to global warming. Implications for global and regional response of tropical cyclones are discussed.

Xie, S.; Deser, C.; Vecchi, G.; Ma, J.; Teng, H.; Wittenberg, A. T.

2010-12-01

224

Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.  

PubMed

Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

Pimentel, D

1991-01-01

225

Global warming and the hydrologic cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse warming, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surfaceatmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up

Hugo A. Loaiciga; Juan B. Valdes; Richard Vogel; Jeff Garvey; Harry Schwarz

1996-01-01

226

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCurrent global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

Larisa R. G. Desantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden; Jon Moen

2009-01-01

227

Global warming effects: future feasibility of current cooling equipment for animal houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in global warming effects on the agricultural systems is currently high, especially in areas which are likely to be more affected by this temperature rising, i.e. the Mediterranean area (IPCC, 2008). According to this report, the model projections of surface warming predict a temperature increase between 0.5C to 1.5C in the European area by the period 2020-2029. The aim

V. Valio; A. Perdigones; J. L. Garca; S. de La Plaza

2009-01-01

228

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting

M. C. MacCracken

2005-01-01

229

Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward

1991-01-01

230

Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots.

JAY R. MALCOLM; CANRAN LIU; RONALD P. NEILSON; LARA HANSEN; LEE HANNAH

2006-01-01

231

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from

Terry L. Root; Jeff T. Price; Kimberly R. Hall; Stephen H. Schneider; Cynthia Rosenzweig; J. Alan Pounds

2003-01-01

232

The impact of global warming on river runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

River runoff from the world's major rivers is an important part of the hydrologic cycle. Runoff changes in response to global greenhouse-induced warming will have impacts in many areas, including agriculture, water resources, and land use. A global atmospheric model is used to calculate the annual river runoff for 33 of the world's major rivers for the present climate and

James R. Miller; Gary L. Russell

1992-01-01

233

Discounting and distributional considerations in the context of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economics of global warming is reviewed with special emphasis on how the cost depends on the discount rate and on how costs in poor and rich regions are aggregated into a global cost estimate. Both of these factors depend on the assumptions made concerning the underlying utility and welfare functions. It is common to aggregate welfare gains and losses

Christian Azar; Thomas Sterner

1996-01-01

234

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

E-print Network

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)  

E-print Network

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

Schecter, Stephen

236

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming  

E-print Network

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

237

An investigation of middle school students' alternative conceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because global warming presents a serious potential threat to our biosphere, it is receiving considerable attention by scientists, policy makers, and educators. This article presents alternative conceptions about global warming held by a sample of 24 grade 6 to 8 students. Students completed interviews on global warming approximately two weeks after instruction from a Science?Technology?Society (STS) global warming unit. The

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba; Randall L. Wiesenmayer

1997-01-01

238

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

239

Likely cause found for global warming "hiatus"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Atlantic current may be the cause of the recent warming "hiatus" observed since the beginning of the 21st century, according to new research published last week in the journal Science (doi:10.1126/science.1254937). The conclusion is based on observations of deep-sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, from floats that sample water down to 2000 meters deep and from looking at historical records from the mid- to late 20th century.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

240

Global warming: Take action or wait?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious split in opinion exists with regard to how to deal with the ongoing buildup of CO2 in our atmosphere. One group contends that, until the warming has more clearly expressed itself, we should put off costly\\u000a actions. The other group contends that, even if we were to take immediate action, the buildup of CO2 is likely to reach

W. S. Broecker

2006-01-01

241

Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach.  

PubMed

Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario. PMID:21508031

Huertas, I Emma; Rouco, Mnica; Lpez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

2011-12-01

242

Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach  

PubMed Central

Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario. PMID:21508031

Huertas, I. Emma; Rouco, Monica; Lopez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

2011-01-01

243

Interpretation of High Projections for Global-Mean Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently released its Third Assessment Report (TAR), in which new projections are given for global-mean warming in the absence of policies to limit climate change. The full warming range over 1990 to 2100, 1.4 to 5.8C, is substantially higher than the range given previously in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. Here we

T. M. L. Wigley; S. C. B. Raper

2001-01-01

244

The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.  

PubMed

Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb. PMID:20039819

Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

2009-01-01

245

Large-scale dynamics and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of future climate change raise a variety of issues in large-scale atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Several of these are reviewed in this essay, including the sensitivity of the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean to increasing freshwater input at high latitudes; the possibility of greenhouse cooling in the southern oceans; the sensitivity of monsoonal circulations to differential warming of the two hemispheres; the response of midlatitude storms to changing temperature gradients and increasing water vapor in the atmosphere; and the possible importance of positive feedback between the mean winds and eddy-induced heating in the polar stratosphere.

Held, I.M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1993-02-01

246

Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.  

PubMed

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1C hour(-1), the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40C to 35.4C, while the decrease was more than 10C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T; Morley, Simon A; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E; Peck, Lloyd S

2011-01-01

247

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

PubMed Central

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1C hour?1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 4152C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 3741C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40C to 35.4C, while the decrease was more than 10C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 23C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.; Peck, Lloyd S.

2011-01-01

248

Needed : a realistic strategy for global warming  

E-print Network

Through a brief look at the science and economics of climate, the authors show that if climate change turns out to be a serious threat, an effective response will require a substantial and very long-term global effort. ...

Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Schmalensee, Richard.

249

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

250

Satellite Lidar for Global Warming Gas Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change studies require a higher spatial and temporal density of measurements of greenhouse gases to achieve increased precision. Confident predictions based on these models require a better knowledge of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks in order to increase our understanding of the global atmospheric carbon cycle. Space-based observations of CO2 mixing ratios are an efficient way to

D. M. Sonnenfroh; G. E. Galica; T. Nakamura; B. D. Green; J. Flint; P. Moulton; H. Nakajima; N. Sugimoto

2005-01-01

251

Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory  

SciTech Connect

Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global warming resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will warm by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the warming will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global warming has already been detected is pretty close to zero.

Lee, R.W.

1991-04-01

252

Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.  

PubMed

Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603

Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

2013-01-01

253

Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

2012-12-01

254

Global Warming Policy and the Pennsylvania Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the impacts of global warming policy have been performed at the national level. However, national averages obscure the fact that some regions may be affected much more than others. We formulated a regional computable general equilibrium model to analyze the impact of a carbon tax on the Pennsylvania economy. The model incorporates special features relating to labor

Ping-Cheng Li; Adam Rose

1995-01-01

255

Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have

R. POULIN

2005-01-01

256

Paper No: 693 Engaging Architects and Architectural Students in Global Warming Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Global warming is a major dilemma facing our globe that has changed the world concerns to reconsider the pollution sources affecting planet earth. This along with the tremendous increase in carbon dioxide emissions all over the world in the last decade has simulated the EDRG (Environmental Design Research Group, at the Architectural Engineering and Environmental Design Department) at the

Amira ELNOKALY; Ahmed ELSERAGY; Ingy ELGEBALY

257

The effects of climate change due to global warming on river flows in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming due to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will affect temperature and rainfall, and hence river flows and water resources. This paper presents results from an investigation into potential changes in river flows in 21 catchments in Great Britain, using a daily rainfall-runoff model and both equilibrium and transient climate change scenarios. Annual runoff was

N. W. Arnell; N. S. Reynard

1996-01-01

258

Utilizing E-Commerce and M-Commerce Applications to Address the Effect of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global warming is particularly signif icant to African countries with growing economies. The process of reducing carbon emissions has the potential to negatively impact emerging economies. However the use of web technologies and mobile technologies may be a way of reducing carbon emission without adversely affecting the economy. Unlike developed countries, developing nations are less reliant on

Keshnee Padayachee

259

Global warming tugs at trophic interactions.  

PubMed

Climate change impacts are becoming increasingly evident as 1 degree C warming above pre-industrial temperatures is approached. One of the signature biological effects is a shift towards earlier-timed reproduction. If individual species lack sufficient adaptive plasticity to alter phenology, they will have reduced fitness in a hotter world. Yet, a long-term study of an oak-caterpillar-songbird-sparrowhawk food web reveals that what could matter as much is if trophic interactions are disrupted. Multiple selective pressures may be triggered by climate change, leading to a tug-of-war between the need to stay in synchrony with the timing of maximum food, and the benefits of minimizing predation. PMID:19120595

Brook, Barry W

2009-01-01

260

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005  

E-print Network

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists radiation. This imbalance provides confirmation of global warming theory and a measure of the net forcing global warming `in-the-pipeline' ­ warming that will occur this century without any further increases

Hansen, James E.

261

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming,  

E-print Network

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming, local warming. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming during the twentieth century, the lack of seasonality century. This study addresses the statistical relationships of this rise to global warming (IPCC, 2001

Haak, Hein

262

Global Warming, Clouds, and Albedo: Feedback Loops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), offers a detailed explanation, with diagrams, of both Earth's water cycle and the global heat flow, including the processes that produce the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are listed, and their relative contributions to the greenhouse effect are enumerated. Special attention is paid to the role of clouds.

2009-05-27

263

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is ad- dressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate mod- els can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emis- sions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in

Pierre-Marie Robitaille

2009-01-01

264

Studying Global Warming in Biosphere 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, two students discuss the greenhouse effect and visit with research scientists at Biosphere 2 in Arizona, who research the effects of global climate change on organisms in a controlled facility. Their current research (as of 2002) focuses on the response to increased quantities of CO2 in a number of different model ecosystems.

Thirteen; Wnet; Domain, Teachers'

265

Global warming and the insurance industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations

G. A. Berz

1992-01-01

266

The impact of Global Warming on global crop yields due to changes in pest pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A billion people currently lack reliable access to sufficient food and almost half of the calories feeding these people come from just three crops: rice, maize, wheat. Insect pests are among the largest factors affecting the yield of these three crops, but models assessing the effects of global warming on crops rarely consider changes in insect pest pressure on crop yields. We use well-established relationships between temperature and insect physiology to project climate-driven changes in pest pressure, defined as integrated population metabolism, for the three major crops. By the middle of this century, under most scenarios, insect pest pressure is projected to increase by more than 50% in temperate areas, while increases in tropical regions will be more modest. Yield relationships indicate that the largest increases in insect pest pressure are likely to occur in areas where yield is greatest, suggesting increased strain on global food markets.

Battisti, D. S.; Tewksbury, J. J.; Deutsch, C. A.

2011-12-01

267

What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average  

E-print Network

What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

Hansen, James E.

268

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a  

E-print Network

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

Baez, John

269

More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory  

SciTech Connect

Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

NONE

1997-05-26

270

What are the Consequences of Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this textbook chapter, sea level rise, ocean acidification, storm surge, desertification, ecosystem loss, and extreme weather are all discussed, along with economic and social costs to society. A video clip of NASA scientist, Dr. Tom Wagner, discusses sea level rise. A video discussing pitfalls of statistical analysis and an interactive map of human impacts of climate change are linked. The resource includes a classroom investigation, discussion questions, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 8 in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

271

Global warming: is weight loss a solution?  

PubMed

The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health. PMID:21792168

Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

2012-03-01

272

Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the\\u000a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 ^C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it

Michael H. Huesemann

2006-01-01

273

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.740.18¨C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate

S. Shrestha; Y. Hisaki

2007-01-01

274

Effects of global warming on wind energy availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wind energy reduces our greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a generic power-law relationship between global warming and the usable wind energy (Betzs law). The power law index (?4, region dependent) is then determined using simulated atmospheric parameters from eight global coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models (CGCMs). It is found that the power-law

Diandong Ren

2010-01-01

275

Economic Analysis of Global Warming: FEEM's WITCH Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a complex phenomenon. Human activities, such as energy consumption, industrial processes, land use, are re sponsible for emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) that concentrate in the atmosphere. Complex exchanges with the biosphere contribute to an absor ption of GHGs and thus to a natural reduction of concentrations. The rapid incr ease in GHGs emissions into the atmosphere

Valentina Bosetti; Emanuele Massetti; Massimo Tavoni

276

Impact of global warming and climate change on social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a lot of discussion on global warming and climate change and its implications for social development an area that Mohan has devoted his life to. It is now accepted that climate change is real and its impacts will be felt across different sectors ranging from water resources to industries to social arenas. In

Ashok K. Mishra; Vijay P. Singh; Sharad K. Jain

2010-01-01

277

Issues of the Global Warming and Climate Change Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the issues of global warming and climate change simulations as a task of the Center for Climate System Research in the COE21 Project. The issues cover better simulation of various feedback processes among atmosphere, ocean, land, and cryosphere, and realistic simulation of physical and chemical condition of the system. One of the goals of the COE21 Project

Teruyuki Nakajima; Masahide Kimoto; Ayako Abe; Hiroyasu Hasumi

278

Seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was administered to students. These data were

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat

2009-01-01

279

Introduction Climatologists have sounded the clarion call that global warming  

E-print Network

over will be impacted by global warming, but because they are diurnal, and experience scarcity of food and drinking water and, more importantly, temperatures that are already extreme, desert birds may be among where vast deserts occur, simulations for climate change predict that daily Ta will increase by 3­5°C

Williams, Jos. B.

280

On the global warming problem due to carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of global warming due to the increased use of fossil fuels is analyzed using a modification of the predator prey equations. The results of the calculation indicate that both the fossil fuels and civilization will both become extinct as time increases.

Karl E. Lonngren; Er-Wei Bai

2008-01-01

281

How Much More Rain Will Global Warming Bring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models and satellite observations both indicate that the total amount of water in the atmosphere will increase at a rate of 7% per kelvin of surface warming. However, the climate models predict that global precipitation will increase at a much slower rate of 1 to 3% per kelvin. A recent analysis of satellite observations does not support this prediction

Frank J. Wentz; Lucrezia Ricciardulli; Kyle Hilburn; Carl Mears

2007-01-01

282

Quantifying Global Warming from the Retreat of Glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure: one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last

Johannes Oerlemans

1994-01-01

283

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979

Shaobing Peng; Jianliang Huang; John E. Sheehy; Rebecca C. Laza; Romeo M. Visperas; Xuhua Zhong; Grace S. Centeno; Gurdev S. Khush; Kenneth G. Cassman

2004-01-01

284

Endogenous Substitution among Energy Resources and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of global warming with endogenous substitution of energy resources and multiple energy demands is developed. It suggests that, if historical rates of cost reduction in the production of solar energy are maintained, most of the world's coal will never be used. The world will move from oil and natural gas use to solar energy. Temperatures will rise by

Ujjayant Chakravorty; James Roumasset; Kinping Tse

1997-01-01

285

International Equity and Differentiation in Global Warming Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ne of the major obstacles to reaching a comprehensive agreement on global warming is the setting of greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for individual countries. Long-standing tensions between industrialized and developing countries have raised the issue of equity in burden-sharing. Moreover, individual industrialized nations have pleaded special circumstances and have sought differentiation in their obligations. This paper analyzes alternative rules

Adam Rose; Brandt Stevens; Jae Edmonds; Marshall Wise

1998-01-01

286

Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that US prestige-press coverage of global warming from 1988 to 2002 has contributed to a significant divergence of popular discourse from scientific discourse. This failed discursive translation results from an accumulation of tactical media responses and practices guided by widely accepted journalistic norms. Through content analysis of US prestige pressmeaning the New York Times, the Washington Post,

Maxwell T Boykoff; Jules M Boykoff

2004-01-01

287

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2011-01-01

288

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2012-01-01

289

Study of Countermeasures Model against Global Warming in City Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a next-generation city, it is necessary to minimize energy consumption, and to observe environmental regulation. This report would make clear the extent to which a new environmental/energy management model proposed herein contributes to prevention of global warming.

Doi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Sawako

290

Study of Countermeasures Model against Global Warming in City Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a next-generation city, it is necessary to minimize energy consumption, and to observe environmental regulation. This report would make clear the extent to which a new environmental\\/energy management model proposed herein contributes to prevention of global warming.

Atsushi Doi; Sawako Takeuchi

2005-01-01

291

Perspective of Adaptation as Responses to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol, which became effective in February 2005, has been promoting a series of countermeasures against global warming on an international scale under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). As a result of overwhelming impacts of the heat wave in Europe in 2003 and Hurricane Katrina that devastated the city of New Orleans in August 2005, there

Nobuo MIMURA

292

The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save  

E-print Network

The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save Democracy Joel Rogers UW-Madison, COWS, JR Commons over next ten (2005) · At present rates of growth, CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere should reach Idea Let us set as our national goal, in the spirit of Apollo, with the determination of the Manhattan

Sheridan, Jennifer

293

Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest -

Jeanne Stevens

2007-01-01

294

Gille-ESYS 10 1 EPA Global Warming: Position Papers  

E-print Network

Gille-ESYS 10 1 EPA Global Warming: Position Papers Fact Sheet on the Kyoto Protocol, October 1999 Convention on Climate Change agreed to an historic Protocol to reduce green- house gas emissions. International Emissions Trading The Kyoto Protocol allows nations with emissions targets to trade greenhouse gas

Gille, Sarah T.

295

From Global Warming to Sustainable Transport 19892006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with a review of a 1990 article on the impact of global warming on the transportation infrastructure, this article summarizes the changes in our knowledge of climate change and its impact on transport over the past sixteen years. Although most of the basic scientific knowledge has not changed there has been an increase in our understanding of the potential

William R. Black; Noriyuki Sato

2007-01-01

296

Natural gas and efficient technologies: A response to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become recognized by the international scientific community that global warming due to fossil fuel energy buildup of greenhouse CO in the atmosphere is a real environmental problem. Worldwide agreement has also been reached to reduce CO emissions. A leading approach to reducing CO emissions is to utilize hydrogen-rich fuels and improve the efficiency of conversion in the power

Steinberg

1998-01-01

297

Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costbenefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and

Eric Neumayer

1999-01-01

298

Cloud virtualization: A potential way to reduce global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest environmental challenge today is global warming, which is caused by carbon emissions. A report by the Energy Information Administration says that about 98 percent of CO2 emissions (or 87 percent of all CO2- equivalent emissions from all greenhouse gases) can be directly attributed to energy consumption. The major challenge of many organizations today is a desire to operate

B. Yamini; D. Vetri Selvi

2010-01-01

299

The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional costbenefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of

Andrea Baranzini; Marc Chesney; Jacques Morisset

2003-01-01

300

Global Warming Is True Isnt It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists are now sure that global warming is a real phenomenon. No ifs or buts, this is a definite statement. Its true. Three of the past 8 years have been the hottest since at least the Middle Ages. What could be more definite? Three years in the last 500, maybe 600 years and they were all in the last decade.

John A. Hoskins

1998-01-01

301

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

302

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

303

Global warming---The role for nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial

J. E. Jr. Jones; W. Fulkerson

1989-01-01

304

Subpolar glaciers network as natural sensors of global warming evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the expeditions carried out both to temperate and subpolar glaciers in both hemispheres, we have observed the existence of endoglacier and subglacier flows and drainages also in subpolar glaciers. Our main work hypothesis is centred on investigating the role played by subpolar glacier discharge in global warming, as we consider this discharge may represent that unknown third of sea

Adolfo Eraso

305

Tropical and subtropical precipitation changes under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the latest generation of climate models, there can be striking discrepancies in the anthropogenic changes in rainfall patterns that occur in global warming simulations. This is particularly true of regions of strong precipitation increase and decrease in the tropics and subtropics. An understanding of the causal mechanisms producing these anomalies can aid in assessing these anomalies, including indications

J. Neelin; M. Munnich; H. Su; J. E. Meyerson; C. E. Holloway; K. Hales; O. Peters

2006-01-01

306

Public policies against global warming: a supply side approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have pledged to limit global warming by reducing the demand for fossil fuels. But what about supply? If suppliers do not react, demand reductions by a subset of countries are ineffective. They simply depress the world price of carbon and induce the environmental sinners to consume what the Kyoto countries have economized

Hans-Werner Sinn

2008-01-01

307

Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will

Michael Hoel; Snorre Kverndokk

1996-01-01

308

Depletion of Fossil Fuels and the impact of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyse problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will

Snorre Kverndokk

1994-01-01

309

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-print Network

demonstrates the connections between fossil fuel emissions, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations coupling that warming to global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. 1 #12;2 B. W. Rust Figure 1: Michael Crichton and Statistics, Vol. 37. Abstract In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques

Rust, Bert W.

310

Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft  

E-print Network

Creation" Chart 10: Fossil Fuel Emissions: Pie & Bar Charts C. Personal Opinion: "Connecting the Dots" Chart 11: Inferences (Opinions) Chart 12: Fossil Fuel Facts & Opinions #12;I speak today for myselfCommunicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American

Hansen, James E.

311

WATER VAPOR FEEDBACK AND GLOBAL WARMING1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas, the most important gaseous source of infrared opacity in the atmosphere. As the concentrations of other greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, increase because of human activity, it is centrally important to predict how the water vapor distribution will be affected. To the extent that water vapor concentrations increase in a warmer world,

Isaac M. Held; Brian J. Soden

2000-01-01

312

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach  

E-print Network

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach E the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment including seasonal variations and global warming is also proposed in this work. Three scenarios of global

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Global Warming and Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this activity, students think about their personal carbon emissions and driving habits. They reflect on what might be done to reduce our carbon emissions, as individuals and as a society as a whole. In the second part of the activity, students calculate how much sea level would rise if a range of ice melting scenarios occur. They then examine topographic maps of local coastlines to see how different regions would be affected under the range of scenarios.

Kokorowski, Heather

314

Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?  

E-print Network

Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang 2012; revised 18 February 2012; accepted 20 February 2012; published 16 March 2012. [1] Monsoons of people around the world. The global monsoon precipitation had an increasing trend over the past three

Li, Tim

315

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

PubMed Central

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582

2011-01-01

316

Potential effects of global warming on calving caribou  

SciTech Connect

Calving grounds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are often in the portion of their range that remains covered by snow late into spring. The authors propose that global warming would alter the duration of snow cover on the calving grounds and the rate of snowmelt, and thus affect caribou population dynamics. The rationale for this hypothesis is based upon the following arguments. For females of the Porcupine Herd, one of the few forages available before and during early calving are the inflorescences of cotton grass (Eriophorum vaginatum), which are very digestible, high in nitrogen and phosphorus, and low in phenols and acid-detergent fiber. The nutritional levels of the inflorescences are highest in the early stages of phenology and decline rapidly until they are lowest at seed set, about 2 weeks after being exposed from snow cover. The high nutritional level of cotton grass inflorescences is important to post-paturient caribou attempting to meet nutritional requirements of lactation while minimizing associated weight loss. The pattern of weight regain in summer is important to herd productivity as female body weight at mating influences conception in late summer and calving success in spring. Therefore, temporal changes in snowmelt may have major effects on nutritional regimes of the female.

Eastland, W.G.; White, R.G.

1992-03-01

317

Are outbreaks of Nilaparvata lugens (Stl) associated with global warming?  

PubMed

Outbreaks of the Nilaparvata lugens (Stl), have occurred frequently in China during the past few years, resulting in a broad and significant reduction in rice yield. N. lugens immigrate into China each spring from Southeast Asia, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the first area affected. Light trap catches for the early season period (March-June) in Guangxi for the past 30 yr have been analyzed, and the catch sequences for five observation stations (Longzhou, Hepu, Yongning Yongfu, and Quanzhou) were studied in detail. It was found that during the past 10 yr the first appearance of N. lugens at light traps occurs earlier, there is a higher frequency of days with large light-trap catches, and catches in southern Guangxi are larger. Recently light-trap catches have also increased in northern Guangxi. It is concluded that the increasing number of immigrants from overseas is one of the primary reasons for the increase in N. lugens outbreaks in the past 10 yr. Global warming, and specifically winter temperature increases, appears to be for a factor accelerating outbreaks of N. lugens in Asia. PMID:22182533

Hu, Gao; Xie, Mao-Chang; Lin, Zuo-Xiao; Xin, De-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhai, Bao-Ping

2010-12-01

318

An Investigation of Student Engagement in a Global Warming Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOTE: This is a large file, 77 mb in size! This article describes an investigation into how using debate as a pedagogical tool for addressing earth system science concepts can promote active student learning, present a realistic and dynamic view of science, and provide a mechanism for integrating the scientific, political and social dimensions of global environmental change. Using global warming as an example of earth system science, the authors consider how participation in debate provides an avenue for engaging students in science. The investigation draws from studies of school science that focus on the use of argument as a pedagogical tool and examines how students make use of observationally-based climatic data sets when debating the cause of global warming.

Schweizer, Diane; Kelly, Gregory

2005-01-01

319

Runoff sensitivities of major global river basins in a warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff is a key index of renewable water resources which affect almost all human and natural systems. Any substantial change in runoff therefore has the potential to impact food and freshwater security. We analyze the runoff response to global warming as predicted by climate change experiments generated for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In contrast to previous work, we estimate the sensitivity of runoff per degree of global mean temperature change, with the rationale that the global average temperature change is indexed to cumulative global emissions, and therefore removes most of the dependence on emissions scenarios. Our results show that the predicted fractional change in runoff per degree warming is relatively stable across emissions scenarios and global mean temperature increments, but varies substantially across models with the exception of the high-latitudes and currently arid or semi-arid areas. Among the 194 large global river basins studied, the number of basins with decreasing runoff increases by about 12% per degree global temperature increase, and the associated fraction of global land area, effected population, and effected Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increases by about 6, 5, and 8%, respectively. The areas, where the projected runoff decreases more than 10% of the runoff in the period of 1970-1999, cover 13% of the global land area and 20% of the global GDP at a 2 degree C global warming, suggesting substantial expansion of drought area in a warming climate. The estimated runoff elasticity to precipitation ranges from about one to three. The predicted runoff decreases between 2 to 6% per degree local temperature increase over most basins in North America and the middle and high latitudes of Eurasia.

Tang, Q.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2011-12-01

320

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

Lau, William; Wu, H. T.; Agu

321

Global warming and the insurance industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

Berz, G. A.

1992-06-01

322

Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1  

E-print Network

Warming". A quick search of the internet uncovers literally hundreds of items about "Global Warming, usually meaning "Global Warming" or some aspect thereof. Whole generations of graduate students have been that the warming of the past century was anthropogenic in origin, i.e. man-made and due to carbon dioxide emission

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

323

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global  

E-print Network

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC-Watch FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming Tags: Canada, Recycling, Certifier conflict of interest undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming in Pine Falls to manufacture paper with some

324

Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.  

PubMed

Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands. PMID:23504838

Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Genevive; Binet, Philippe; Buttler, Alexandre; Laggoun-Dfarge, Fatima; Delarue, Frdric; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Francez, Andr-Jean; Gilbert, Daniel

2013-03-01

325

Trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus.  

PubMed

The global warming is an important factor affecting the biological evolution, and the influenza is an important disease that threatens humans with possible epidemics or pandemics. In this study, we attempted to analyze the trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus, because this protein is a target of anti-flu drug, and its mutation would have significant effect on the resistance to anti-flu drugs. The evolution of matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus from 1959 to 2008 was defined using the unpredictable portion of amino-acid pair predictability. Then the trend in this evolution was compared with the trend in the global temperature, the temperature in north and south hemispheres, and the temperature in influenza A virus sampling site, and species carrying influenza A virus. The results showed the similar trends in global warming and in evolution of M2 proteins although we could not correlate them at this stage of study. The study suggested the potential impact of global warming on the evolution of proteins from influenza A virus. PMID:20640805

Yan, Shao-Min; Wu, Guang

2009-12-01

326

Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change Alireza/Democrats are more likely to ex- press personal concern about global warming than are self-identified conservatives

Sukthankar, Gita Reese

327

Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from precipitation and runoff from melting snow on frozen or saturated soils (Figure 2). Annual water levels fluctuate widely due to climate variability in the Great Plains (Borchert 1950, Kantrud et al. 1989b). Climate affects the quality of habitat for breeding waterfowl by controlling regional water conditions--water depth, areal extent, and length of wet/dry cycles (Cowardin et al. 1988)--and vegetation patterns such as the cover ration (the ratio of emergent plant cover to open water). With increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate models project warmer and, in some cases, drier conditions for the northern Great Plains (Karl et al. 1991, Manabe and Wetherald 1986, Mitchell 1983, Rind and Lebedeff 1984). In general, a warmer, drier climate could lower waterfowl production directly by increasing the frequency of dry basins and indirectly by producing less favorable cover rations (i.e., heavy emergent cover with few or no open-water areas). The possibility of diminished waterfowl production in a greenhouse climate comes at a time when waterfowl numbers have sharply declined for other reasons (Johnson and Shaffer 1987). Breeding habitat continues to be lost or altered by agriculture, grazing, burning, mowing, sedimentation, and drainage (Kantrud et al. 1989b). For example, it has been estimated that 60% of the wetland area in North Dakota has been drained (Tiner 1984). Pesticides entering wetlands from adjacent agricultural fields have been destructive to aquatic invertebrate populations and have significantly lowered duckling survival (Grue et al. 1988). In this article, we discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns, and waterflow habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model. The extent to which intensive management of the waterfowl resource will be needed in the f

Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

1991-01-01

328

Floods, Droughts and Global Warming: Rolling the Climate Dice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we find from analyses of projections of 14 CMIP5 models a robust, canonical global response in rainfall characteristics to CO2 greenhouse warming. Under a scenario of 1% increase per year of CO2 emission, the model ensemble projects globally more heavy precipitation (+72.4%K-1), less moderate precipitation (-2.50.6%K-1), more light precipitation (+1.81.3%K-1), and increased length of dry (no-rain) periods (+4.72.1%K-1). Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy precipitation over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics especially the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Asian monsoon regions, and more dry periods over the land areas of the subtropics and the tropical marginal convective zones. Changes in the global circulation associated with the precipitation changes include a narrowing and deepening of convective zone, a rise of the center of gravity and acceleration of the upper branch of the Hadley circulation, an expansion of the subtropics and a poleward shift of the jetstream. Our results suggest that increased risks of severe floods and droughts worldwide induced by increased CO2 emission is the manifestation of a canonical response of the global rainfall system in association with a re-adjustment of the global circulation system, in a competition for increased availability of atmospheric moisture from global warming.

Lau, W. K.; Wu, H.; Kim, K.

2013-12-01

329

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

2009-01-01

330

Mechanisms driving change: altered species interactions and ecosystem function through global warming.  

PubMed

1. We review the mechanisms behind ecosystem functions, the processes that facilitate energy transfer along food webs, and the major processes that allow the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, and use case studies to show how these have already been, and will continue to be, altered by global warming. 2. Increased temperatures will affect the interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs (e.g. pollination and seed dispersal), and between heterotrophs (e.g. predators-prey, parasites/pathogens-hosts), with generally negative ramifications for important ecosystem services (functions that provide direct benefit to human society such as pollination) and potential for heightened species co-extinction rates. 3. Mitigation of likely impacts of warming will require, in particular, the maintenance of species diversity as insurance for the provision of basic ecosystem services. Key to this will be long-term monitoring and focused research that seek to maintain ecosystem resilience in the face of global warming. 4. We provide guidelines for pursuing research that quantifies the nexus between ecosystem function and global warming. These include documentation of key functional species groups within systems, and understanding the principal outcomes arising from direct and indirect effects of a rapidly warming environment. Localized and targeted research and monitoring, complemented with laboratory work, will determine outcomes for resilience and guide adaptive conservation responses and long-term planning. PMID:20487086

Traill, Lochran W; Lim, Matthew L M; Sodhi, Navjot S; Bradshaw, Corey J A

2010-09-01

331

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements confirm an increase in CO2, whether anthropogenic or natural, had any effect on global temperatures. There is however, strong evidence that anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the major cause of the recent abnormal warming. CFCs have created both unnatural atmospheric cooling and warming based on these facts: CFCs have destroyed ozone in the lower stratosphere/ upper troposphere causing these zones in the atmosphere to cool 1.37C from 1966 to 1998. This time span was selected to eliminate the effect of the natural solar irradiance (cooling-warming) cycle effect on the earth's temperature. The loss of ozone allowed more UV light to pass through the stratosphere at a sufficient rate to warm the lower troposphere plus 8-3/4" of the earth by 0.48C (1966 to 1998). Mass and energy balances show that the energy that was absorbed in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere hit the lower troposphere/earth at a sustainable level of 1.69 10 18 Btu more in 1998 than it did in 1966. Greater ozone depletion in the Polar Regions has caused these areas to warm some two and one-half (2 1/2) times that of the average earth temperature -1.2C versus 0.48C. This has caused permafrost to melt, which is releasing copious quantities of methane, estimated at 100 times that of manmade CO2 release, to the atmosphere. Methane in the atmosphere slowly converts to CO2 and water vapor and its release has contributed to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. There is a temperature anomaly in Antarctica. The Signey Island landmass further north, warmed like the rest of the Polar Regions; but south at Vostok, there has been a cooling effect. Although the cooling at Vostok needs to be analyzed in more detail, because of the large ozone hole there, black body radiation from Vostok, some 11,400 feet above sea level, to outer space is most likely the cause. Especially, since this phenomenon occurred over the same period that stratospheric ozone destruction took place. Chlorofluorocarbon destruction of stratospheric ozone can be correlated nicely with both the cooling and warming temperature anomalies seen over the time span from 1966 to 1998 and compared to actual temperature measurements, the ozone signature for global warming is the closest of the five signature impacts developed by the IPCC. Further,the "greenhouse signature" is not seen at all. One can account for most, if not all, of the 0.48C rise in earth's temperature from 1966 to 1998 with the additional UV light that hit the earth due to ozone destruction in the upper atmosphere.

Ashworth, R. A.

2008-12-01

332

GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

333

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

SciTech Connect

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

Longstreth, J.

1993-06-01

334

Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change"Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Changeglobal warming potential (GWP) method. GWP is a method to compare the global climate change

Horvath, Arpad

2005-01-01

335

GEOL 110 GLOBAL WARMING Spring Semester 2012 LFG 102, 1:00 2:15pm  

E-print Network

/Wednesday 2:30-3:30 pm Textbook/Materials: Climate Change, The science of global warming and our energy climate changes and the current anthropogenic global warming. We will define the radiative forcingGEOL 110 GLOBAL WARMING Spring Semester 2012 LFG 102, 1:00 ­ 2:15pm Professor: Dr. Matthew Lachniet

Lachniet, Matthew S.

336

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

...22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of...A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98Global Warming Potentials Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time Horizon]...

2014-07-01

337

2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming ,55 million years ago global warming6 . The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about 24.5 to 26 per mil

338

Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

E-print Network

and Global Warming Brian Blais Science and Technology Department Bryant College bblais@bryant.edu August 29, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming analysis, but is much more intuitive for students. 1 Introduction The topic of global warming is of current

Blais, Brian

339

Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble*  

E-print Network

Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble* XIAO-TONG ZHENG,1 The response of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode to global warming is investigated based on simu- lations- mospheric feedback and zonal wind variance weaken under global warming. The negative skewness in eastern

Xie, Shang-Ping

340

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming*  

E-print Network

Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* XIAO-TONG ZHENG under global warming are in- vestigated using a pair of integrations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics itself weakens in response to global warming. In the prior spring, an antisymmetric pattern of rainfall

Xie, Shang-Ping

341

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming  

E-print Network

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes this: Global warming is a myth. It's all model predictions, nothing but simulations. Before you believe

Edwards, Paul N.

342

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*  

E-print Network

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

Xie, Shang-Ping

343

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3  

E-print Network

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

Li, Tim

344

Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED  

E-print Network

354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

California at Berkeley, University of

345

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) case  

E-print Network

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass ± are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris of chukar partridges Alectoris chukar has changed as a result of global warming. Body mass showed warming, Israel INTRODUCTION Recent global environmental changes are providing scientists

Yom-Tov, Yoram

346

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Nio versus Global Warming  

E-print Network

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Niño versus Global Warming JIAN LU Pacific. The hydrological impacts of global warming also exhibit distinct patterns over the subtropics response to global warming: 1) The increase in static stability of the subtropical and midlatitude

Chen, Gang

347

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee  

E-print Network

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

348

The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming  

E-print Network

The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming Jim Hansen 3 October 2007 presented provides most important information on global warming. Recorded human history occurs within the Holocene for these large climate change is perturbations of Earth's orbit. #12;Continental Drift Fig. 1 "Global Warming

Hansen, James E.

349

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,  

E-print Network

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney

350

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite  

E-print Network

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite minimally contributed $10­30% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1980­2002. Citation: Scafetta, N., and B. J. West (2005), Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using

Scafetta, Nicola

351

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

Huey, Raymond B.

352

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU  

E-print Network

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU Physical Oceanography in global warming are studied using simulations of a climate model in which the freshwater flux changes that the warm climate leads to an acceleration of the global water cycle, which causes freshening in the high

353

Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist  

E-print Network

Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

354

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?  

E-print Network

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

Ribes, Aurélien

355

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how  

E-print Network

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how vulnerable their own local area is to global warming, thanks to a new report led by UEA. STARDEX, a European Union is taken to reduce human-induced global warming. "Although more research is needed to increase our

Feigon, Brooke

356

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of...A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98Global Warming Potentials Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time Horizon]...

2013-07-01

357

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE  

E-print Network

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

358

A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?  

E-print Network

A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

Hansen, James E.

359

Climate and conflicts: the security risks of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007, the securitization\\u000a of global warming has reached a new level. Numerous public statements and a growing research literature have discussed the\\u000a potential security risks and conflicts associated with climate change. This article provides an overview of this debate and\\u000a introduces an assessment framework

Jrgen Scheffran; Antonella Battaglini

2011-01-01

360

The World Watcher Project: The Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn about the scientific factors contributing to the global warming debate. Students act as advisors to the heads of state of several nations and explore the issues as they respond to the various questions and concerns of these leaders. Activities include a combination of physical labs and investigations using World Watcher software, a geographic data visualization tool developed by Northwestern University.

2001-01-01

361

Global warming and the future of Caribbean coral reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulations with the COREEF model (Graus et al. 1984) demonstrate that the growth of Caribbean coral reefs will be\\u000a unable to match all but the most optimistic predicted rates of sea level rise that global warming is expected to cause over\\u000a the next few centuries, and, therefore, these reefs will gradually become more submerged. As they deepen, higher waves

Richard R. Graus; Ian G. Macintyre

1998-01-01

362

Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would

E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks

1995-01-01

363

Collective Action and Citizen Responses to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the relevance of the collective interest model of mass political action to explain collective-action behavior\\u000a in the context of global warming and climate change. The analysis is an attempt to answer Ostroms call for a behavioral model\\u000a of collective action that can be generalized beyond political protest to other collective-action problems. We elaborate, specify,\\u000a and empirically test

Mark Lubell; Sammy Zahran; Arnold Vedlitz

2007-01-01

364

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

365

The Global Warming Debate and the Arctic Ice Caps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze two figures: a graph of Arctic sea ice extent in September between 1950 and 2006, and a graph showing poll results for 2006-2009 for percentage of adults that believe there exists scientific evidence for global warming. They will develop linear models for both graphs. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

366

American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts  

E-print Network

1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening � What might have caused global warming � Whether global warming

Ford, Andrew

367

On global warming: Flow-based soft global constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In case a CSP is over-constrained, it is natural to allow some constraints, called soft constraints, to be violated. We propose a generic method to soften global constraints that can be represented by a flow in a graph. Such constraints are softened by adding violation arcs to the graph and then computing a minimum-weight flow in the extended graph to

Willem-Jan Van Hoeve; Gilles Pesant; Louis-martin Rousseau

2006-01-01

368

Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds  

E-print Network

One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

Sloan, T

2010-01-01

369

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

E-print Network

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

Fabara, C

2005-01-01

370

Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, whose positive and negative climate forcings are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change of climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs In the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific longterm global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

371

Defining risk, motivating responsibility and rethinking global warming.  

PubMed

This paper breaks with the sociological notion of 'risk society' and argues in favour of a philosophical view that sees the two planetary threats of late modernity, nuclear weapons and global warming, as ultimate challenges to morality and politics rather than risks that we can take and manage. The paper also raises the question of why we should feel responsible for the effects of these two global challenges on future generations and in this sense elaborates on the transgenerational chain of parenthood rather than on considerations of justice. PMID:19798589

Cerutti, Furio

2010-09-01

372

Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests  

PubMed Central

African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P.

2013-01-01

373

PROBLEM OF GLOBAL WARMING AND EMERGING PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CONSCIOUSNESS. INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate changes are emerging factors in Euro pean landscapes. The article is not dealing with discussion concerns anthropogenic infl uence of global climate changes, we offer the other picture: how are information of glo bal warming working in the perception of university students in three countries Czech Republ ic, New Zealand and United States of America. There is hypotheses

Miloslav Lapka; Eva Cudlnov

374

Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels  

SciTech Connect

State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

Purdie, J. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Washington Center for Real Estate Research

1995-09-01

375

Public understanding of the politics of global warming in the news media: the hostile media approach.  

PubMed

This study uses the politics of global warming in the US to investigate an affective mechanism of hostile media perception and the democratic consequences of such perception, in an effort to delineate audience and journalistic barriers to stimulating urgent concern about climate change. The study confirms that partisanship played a significant role in perceptual differences with regard to media bias in an important area of science journalism--climate change. News consumers' anger perception was tested as a mediator in seeking an affective mechanism of hostile media perception. Hostile media perception has important democratic consequences in that it is positively associated with individuals' trust in news coverage of global warming and with selective media use. PMID:22164707

Kim, Kyun Soo

2011-09-01

376

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the clathrate gun hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2 negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

377

Global warming and the regions in the Middle East  

SciTech Connect

The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N. [Univ. of Bahrain (Bahrain). Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering

1996-12-31

378

Influence of the Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Climatology: An Experiment with the JMA Global Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the global warming on tropical cyclones has been examined using a high resolution AGCM. Two ten-year integrations were performed with the JMA global model at T106 horizontal resolu- tion. For the control experiment, the observed SST for the period 1979-1988 is prescribed, while for the doubling CO2 (2 ? CO2) experiment, SST anomaly due to the global

Masato SUGI; Akira NODA; Nobuo SATO

2002-01-01

379

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

380

National Geographic Map Simulation of Global Warming Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map shows what global environmental problems can arise based on the 2001 IPCC report on climate change. Users can see which problems affect different areas and can click on these areas for more information.

Geographic, National

381

Projection of Global Warming using an Empirical Model of Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical model of climate based on multiple linear regression of the century-long global surface temperature record is used to quantify the rise in global average temperature in 2053, the time CO2 reaches 560 ppm (2x pre-industrial) in the RCP 8.5 scenario. This rise in temperature is inherently uncertain due to the cantilevering of aerosol radiative forcing and climate feedback, coupled with the projection that aerosol radiative forcing will diminish in the coming decades due to air quality concerns. We show that, considering this cantilevering, the rise in global temperature at the time CO2 doubles will likely be between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius (relative to a 1961 to 1990 baseline). This empirically driven estimate of future warming is considerably less than projected by CMIP5 models.

Canty, Tim; Hope, Austin; Mascioli, Nora; Salawitch, Ross

2014-05-01

382

Global scale energy budget contrast between warm and cold years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution analyses changes to the energy budget of the troposphere associated to global warm anomalies of the Earth surface temperature. This is important for understanding the dynamics of climate change. A phenomenological approach is adopted, comparing coldest and warmest years over the last century. Data are provided by the results of 10 simulations carried out within the ERA-20CM experiment and covering the period 1900-2010. This ensemble is forced by 10 perturbed realizations of SST fields and greenhouse gases concentration time series. Analysis considers the annual mean meridional distribution of zonal mean tropospheric and surface temperature, net downward solar radiation at top of atmosphere and Earth surface, surface heat flux (SHF), consisting of net longwave upward radiation, latent heat and sensible heat vertical fluxes, and outgoing longwave radiation at top of atmosphere (OLR). Differences of these variables between the warmest and coldest years are computed, in order to analyze how the energy budget of the atmosphere is associated to the warming the Earth surface. During warm years, it is observed that tropospheric warming occurs at all latitudes, decreasing at its top, being rather uniform but larger/smaller around the North/South Pole than at the tropics. This is consistent with the overall increase of OLR at all latitudes. Shortwave absorption in the troposphere increases, with a peak around 30 degrees north, as a result of increased net downward solar radiation at the top. The warming of the surface is associated with reduced SHF almost everywhere, particularly at higher latitudes. This combined effect might be interpreted as a reduction of solar reflection by cloud cover and an increased moisture in the lower troposphere, inhibiting evaporation and heat fluxes from the surface, and increasing downward flow of longwave radiation to the surface. Finally, the meridional distribution of residual net energy budget in the troposphere suggests an increased meridional transport toward high latitudes, as well as a more intense energy loss to the surface and to outer space

Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

2014-05-01

383

Global warming: it's not only size that matters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed and model simulated warming is particularly large in high latitudes, and hence the Arctic is often seen as the posterchild of vulnerability to global warming. However, Mahlstein et al (2011) point out that the signal of climate change is emerging locally from that of climate variability earliest in regions of low climate variability, based on climate model data, and in agreement with observations. This is because high latitude regions are not only regions of strong feedbacks that enhance the global warming signal, but also regions of substantial climate variability, driven by strong dynamics and enhanced by feedbacks (Hall 2004). Hence the spatial pattern of both observed warming and simulated warming for the 20th century shows strong warming in high latitudes, but this warming occurs against a backdrop of strong variability. Thus, the ratio of the warming to internal variability is not necessarily highest in the regions that warm fastestand Mahlstein et al illustrate that it is actually the low-variability regions where the signal of local warming emerges first from that of climate variability. Thus, regions with strongest warming are neither the most important to diagnose that forcing changes climate, nor are they the regions which will necessarily experience the strongest impact. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio has been known to the detection and attribution community, but has been buried in technical 'optimal fingerprinting' literature (e.g., Hasselmann 1979, Allen and Tett 1999), where it was used for an earlier detection of climate change by emphasizing aspects of the fingerprint of global warming associated with low variability in estimates of the observed warming. What, however, was not discussed was that the local signal-to-noise ratio is of interest also for local climate change: where temperatures emerge from the range visited by internal climate variability, it is reasonable to assume that changes in climate will also cause more impacts than temperatures that have occurred frequently due to internal climate variability. Determining when exactly temperatures enter unusual ranges may be done in many different ways (and the paper shows several, and more could be imagined), but the main result of first local emergence in low latitudes remains robust. A worrying factor is that the regions where the signal is expected to emerge first, or is already emerging are largely regions in Africa, parts of South and Central America, and the Maritime Continent; regions that are vulnerable to climate change for a variety of regions (see IPCC 2007), and regions which contribute generally little to global greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, strong emissions of greenhouse gases occur in regions of low warming-to-variability ratio. To get even closer to the relevance of this finding for impacts, it would be interesting to place the emergence of highly unusual summer temperatures in the context not of internal variability, but in the context of variability experienced by the climate system prior to the 20th century, as, e.g. documented in palaeoclimatic reconstructions and simulated in simulations of the last millennium (see Jansen et al 2007). External forcing has moved the temperature range around more strongly for some regions and in some seasons than others. For example, while reconstructions of summer temperatures in Europe appear to show small long-term variations, winter shows deep drops in temperature in the little Ice Age and a long-term increase since then (Luterbacher et al 2004), which was at least partly caused by external forcing (Hegerl et al 2011a) and therefore 'natural variability' may be different from internal variability. A further interesting question in attempts to provide a climate-based proxy for impacts of climate change is: to what extent does the rapidity of change matter, and how does it compare to trends due to natural variability? It is reasonable to assume that fast changes impact ecosystems and society more than slow, gradual ones. Also, is it really the mean seasonal temp

Hegerl, Gabriele C.

2011-09-01

384

A mechanism for landocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate  

E-print Network

A mechanism for land­ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate J. Fasullo of the global monsoon record involves reported decreases in rainfall over land during an era in which the global in the monsoons in a warming climate while bolstering the concept of the global monsoon in the context of shared

Fasullo, John

385

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan

2003-01-01

386

Global warming: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat  

SciTech Connect

A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global warming could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global warming, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and environmental necessity for out nation, and for our earth.

Not Available

1989-09-01

387

A brief history of climate the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming  

E-print Network

1 A brief history of climate � the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming maritime climate � from the Last Glacial Maximum through to the projected global warming of the 21st understanding of past, present, and projected future climate change in the northern seas region. Warm and cold

Drange, Helge

388

Phase Speed Spectra and the Latitude of Surface Westerlies: Interannual Variability and Global Warming Trend  

E-print Network

eddies. In response to global warming, the dominant eddies exhibit a trend toward faster eddy phase Warming Trend GANG CHEN Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and global warming trends in the midlatitude surface westerlies and the space­time spectra of associated eddy

Chen, Gang

389

ICE SHEETS, GLOBAL WARMING, AND ARTICLE 2 OF THE UNFCCC An Editorial Essay  

E-print Network

ICE SHEETS, GLOBAL WARMING, AND ARTICLE 2 OF THE UNFCCC An Editorial Essay 1. Introduction Rapid of global warming (Mercer, 1968, 1978; Revelle, 1983) and climate scientists have cast a wary eye toward); and the LI, a potential analog in some respects for future climate, may have been too warm in Greenland

Oppenheimer, Michael

390

Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming  

E-print Network

Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming EDWARD HANNA summer warmth and Greenland Ice Sheet melt and runoff since 1990 to global warming. Southern Greenland Greenland summer temperatures until the early 1990s but not thereafter. Significant warming in southern

Huybrechts, Philippe

391

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?  

E-print Network

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

Limpasuvan, Varavut

392

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well?  

E-print Network

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Reto Knutti1 global surface warming so well?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL034932. 1 models reproduce the observed surface warming better than one would expect given the uncertainties

Fischlin, Andreas

393

ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS OF NOT-IN-KIND AND NEXT GENERATION  

E-print Network

#12;ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS OF NOT-IN-KIND AND NEXT GENERATION CFC AND HCFC ALTERNATIVES ....................................... 2 GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS ....................................... 2 CO2 EMISSION RATES of the Total Equivalent Warming Study (TEWI-II). A companion report on solvents and cleaning technologies

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

394

Northern hemisphere glaciation during the globally warm early Late Pliocene.  

PubMed

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B David A; Van Renterghem, Cdric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

395

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL) to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, most climate models agree that up to one fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfill their current emissions pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change the area potentially at risk of severe ecosystem change considering all AOGCMs is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single AOGCM.

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-05-01

396

From low-flows to floods under global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-flows and floods regimes of the Acheloo's river at the Mesochora catchment outfall in Western-Central Greece were analyzed under global warming conditions. The global warming patterns were simulated through a set of hypothetical and monthly GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) downscaled scenarios of temperature increases, coupled with downscaled precipitation changes. The hydrology of the catchment is dominated by spring snowmelt runoff. Thus, the daily outflow of the catchment was simulated via the coupling of the snowmelt and soil moisture accounting models of the US National Weather Service River Forecast System. A low-flow day was defined as a day during which the streamflow did not reach the quarter of the long-term mean daily streamflow. A flood day was defined as a day during which the streamflow was more than two or three times the long-term mean daily streamflow In both hydrological cases (low-flows and floods) the basic components (number of days and episodes, duration, magnitude, frequency, etc) were determined. Both representations of global warming resulted in more numerous and longer low-flow episodes, as well as smaller mean values of minimum streamflows. Also, all climate cases posted larger low-flow deficits as the precipitation increased. On the other hand, both hypothetical and GISS downscaled climate cases predicted more numerous and longer flood episodes, as well as greater mean values of peak streamflows. Also, all climate cases reflected larger flood volumes as the precipitation increased. The low-flows results could possibly further jeopardize the river water quality, the reliability of the storages and dams, as well the water supply from local groundwater sources, while the combination of higher and more frequent floods could lead to greater risk of inundation and possible damage of existing structures.

Panagoulia, D.

2009-04-01

397

Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene  

PubMed Central

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf StreamNorth Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cederic; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

398

Global warming mitigation potential of biogas plants in India.  

PubMed

Biogas technology, besides supplying energy and manure, provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reducing global warming through substituting firewood for cooking, kerosene for lighting and cooking and chemical fertilizers. A study was undertaken to calculate (1) global warming mitigation potential (GMP) and thereby earning carbon credit of a family size biogas plant in India, (2) GMP of the existing and target biogas plants in the country and (3) atmospheric pollution reduction by a family size biogas plant. The GMP of a family size biogas plant was 9.7 t CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and with the current price of US $10 t( - 1) CO(2) equiv., carbon credit of US $97 year( - 1) could be earned from such reduction in greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism (CDM). A family size biogas plant substitutes 316 L of kerosene, 5,535 kg firewood and 4,400 kg cattle dung cake as fuels which will reduce emissions of NOx, SO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere by 16.4, 11.3, 987.0 and 69.7 kg year( - 1), respectively. Presently 3.83 million biogas plants are operating in the country, which can mitigate global warming by 37 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1). Government of India has a target of installing 12.34 million biogas plants by 2010. This target has a GMP of 120 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and US $1,197 million as carbon credit under the CDM. However, if all the collectible cattle dung (225 Mt) produced in the country is used, 51.2 million family size biogas plants can be supported which will have a GMP of 496 Mt of CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and can earn US $4,968 million as carbon credit. The reduction in global warming should encourage policy makers to promote biogas technology to combat climate change and integration of carbon revenues will help the farmers to develop biogas as a profitable activity. PMID:18843544

Pathak, H; Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Mohanty, S; Gupta, Navindu

2009-10-01

399

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

400

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.  

PubMed

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m C(-1) and 1.2 m C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-08-20

401

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming  

PubMed Central

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m C?1 and 1.2 m C?1 of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m C?1 within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U.; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A.; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-01-01

402

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%  

E-print Network

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same warming since the mid-20th century" (IPCC, Assessment Report 5, AR5), then surely

Lovejoy, Shaun

403

Response of monsoon precipitation in the Himalayas to global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstruction of annual net accumulation using ice cores from the Dasuopu glacier reveals monsoon precipitation variability in the central Himalayas over the past three centuries. We found that the broad features of the snow accumulation are reverse to the Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction over the past 300 years. On average, a 0.1C change in Northern Hemisphere temperature is associated with about 100 10 mm change in snow accumulation in the Dasuopu ice core. Especially during the period 1920-1995 the snow accumulation in the Dasuopu ice core decreased about 500 mm while Northern Hemisphere temperature increased about 0.5C, which contrasts with previous studies that indicate an increase of summer monsoon precipitation in High Asia is a consequence of global warming. For the period 1900-1995 Indian monsoon precipitation in the Himalayas, Nepal, Bangladesh and northern India highly correlate with the thermal contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and the tropic Indian Ocean. Although the Tibetan Plateau has experienced statistically significant warming until to the early 1960s, the linear warming trend on the Tibetan Plateau is still less than that in the tropical Indian Ocean during the period 1900-1995, suggesting a decreasing thermal contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and the tropical Indian Ocean. We infer that transportation of water vapor from the tropical Indian Ocean to the Himalayas is decreasing as a result of the decreasing thermal contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and the tropical Indian Ocean.

Duan, Keqin; Yao, Tandong; Thompson, Lonnie G.

2006-10-01

404

Global warming, drought events, and GPP performance (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first decade of the 21st century was the warmest decade recorded since the start of modern measurements in 1850, according to a new report on July 3, 2013 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Global warming may now be exacerbating droughts in the world, and leading to more reduction in crop production, plant growth and hence carbon fixation, and further warming climate. How do we quantify the relationship between drought event and ecosystem performance? Here, we developed a method called 'perfect-deficit approach' and a local dryness index based on eddy-flux measurements. We applied these concepts and mathematical method to remote sensing observations (MODIS) to examine the world ecosystem performance in the first decade of 21st century and identify the associated climate extremes. The initial results show that the deficits of ecosystem performances in lower latitudes were caused mainly by drought events, while at high latitudes cold/warm events also exert substantial influences on ecosystem performances, particularly in spring season. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83)

Yi, C.; Jensen, K.; Wei, S.; Hendrey, G.

2013-12-01

405

Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: modelling the effects of temperature.  

PubMed

Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems. This review summarizes recent literature on the influence of temperature on coral growth, coral bleaching, and modelling the effects of high temperature on corals. Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and coral bleaching information available on the internet is an important tool in monitoring and modelling coral responses to temperature. Within the narrow temperature range for coral growth, corals can respond to rate of temperature change as well as to temperature per se. We need to continue to develop models of how non-steady-state processes such as global warming and climate change will affect coral reefs. PMID:18565794

Crabbe, M James C

2008-10-01

406

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Part 1, Progress report  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ``Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature``. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

407

Uncertainties of global warming metrics: CO2 and CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive evaluation of uncertainties in the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) of CH4, using a simple climate model calibrated to AOGCMs and coupled climate-carbon cycle models assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In addition, we estimate uncertainties in these metrics probabilistically by using a method that does not rely on AOGCMs but instead builds on historical constraints and uncertainty estimates of current radiative forcings. While our mean and median GWPs and GTPs estimates are consistent with previous studies, our analysis suggests that uncertainty ranges for GWPs are almost twice as large as estimated in the AR4. Relative uncertainties for GTPs are larger than for GWPs, nearly twice as high for a time horizon of 100 years. Given this uncertainty, our results imply the possibility for substantial future adjustments in best-estimate values of GWPs and in particular GTPs.

Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Manning, Martin; Bodeker, Greg

2010-07-01

408

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

409

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in the proportion of small-sized species and young age classes and a decrease in size-at-age. These results are in accordance with the ecological rules dealing with the temperaturesize relationships (i.e., Bergmann's rule, James' rule and TemperatureSize Rule). Our study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events. PMID:19620720

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-01-01

410

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

PubMed Central

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35C and 1.13C, respectively, for the period 19792003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2004-01-01

411

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming.  

PubMed

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35 degrees C and 1.13 degrees C, respectively, for the period 1979-2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1 degrees C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E; Laza, Rebecca C; Visperas, Romeo M; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S; Khush, Gurdev S; Cassman, Kenneth G

2004-07-01

412

Potential effect of global warming on mosquito-borne arboviruses.  

PubMed

If global warming occurs in California, daily mean temperatures may increase by 3 to 5 degrees C, precipitation patterns will change, and sea level may rise 1 m. Studies were done on effect of temperature changes on survival of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, the primary vector of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses, in two regions where temperatures differed by 5 degrees C. Daily mortality of adult vectors increased by 1% for each 1 degree C increase in temperature. At 25 degrees C, only 5% of Cx. tarsalis survived for 8 or more days, the time required for extrinsic incubation of these viruses. Extrinsic incubation times for these viruses shortened when temperatures were increased from 18 to 25 degrees C. WEE virus infection was modulated and transmission decreased at 32 degrees C. If temperatures in the warmer region increase by 5 degrees C, WEE virus may disappear and SLE virus would persist. In the cooler region, a 5 degrees C increase would decrease vector survivorship and virus activity in midsummer. In North America, epidemics of WEE have prevailed above a 21 degrees C isotherm and those of SLE below this isotherm. With global warming, epidemics of these viruses could extend into currently unreceptive northern areas. WEE virus would disappear from more southern regions. Geographic distribution of vector, human, and animal populations could be altered. North America could become more receptive to invasion by tropical vectors and diseases. PMID:8057305

Reeves, W C; Hardy, J L; Reisen, W K; Milby, M M

1994-05-01

413

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives: The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods: We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented

Gowri Koneswaran; Danielle Nierenberg

2008-01-01

414

Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change  

PubMed Central

Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flrke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

2014-01-01

415

Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions and makes a 1.5 deg C target far more difficult to achieve than a 2 deg C target. For example, one credible 1.5 deg C scenario requires average total emission reductions of ~15% per year, well above the rate that is considered feasible. Limiting warming to 2 deg C requires an immediate start to mitigation, with emissions peaking in c. 2020 and absolute emission reduction rates of ~3% per year. Such a reduction is considered economically feasible, although historical absolute emission reduction rates from 1990 - 2010, which reflect the net of carbon intensity decline and economic growth, have only reached ~1% per year in a few EU countries such as Denmark and Germany. Delaying the start of mitigation rapidly increases the required absolute emission reduction rates and moves the 2 deg C goal beyond the realm of economic feasibility. A later start of mitigation or lower absolute emission reduction rates would lead to warming of 3 to 4 deg C. For example, a 3 deg goal could be achieved with emission reductions of 0.7% per year and emissions peaking in c. 2030. Current national pledges, as analyzed by both UNEP and IEA, still allow for growth in emissions of >1% per year and therefore do not meet the requirements of any of the temperature targets.

Lea, D. W.

2011-12-01

416

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

417

THE OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE TROPOSPHERE AND THEIR GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS  

E-print Network

THE OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE TROPOSPHERE AND THEIR GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS W. J of methane and ozone. The main factors influencing the global warming potentials of the 10 organic compounds pulses of 10 organic compounds were followed in a global 3-D Lagrangian chemistry-transport model

418

Muted precipitation increase in global warming simulations: A surface evaporation perspective  

E-print Network

Muted precipitation increase in global warming simulations: A surface evaporation perspective Ingo ocean. Citation: Richter, I., and S.-P. Xie (2008), Muted precipitation increase in global warming; published 31 December 2008. [1] Atmospheric moisture content is expected to rise in response to global

Xie, Shang-Ping

419

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming  

E-print Network

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

420

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

E-print Network

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

John Michael Williams

2000-08-28

421

Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

2007-05-01

422

Climate extremes and ecosystem productivity in global warming simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem responses to present-day droughts and heat-waves are often considered indicative of future global warming impacts on ecosystems, under the assumption that the temperature above which vegetation experiences heat and drought stress is invariant with changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration. Understanding how the impacts of temperature extremes on ecosystems can change with climate change is essential for correctly evaluating and developing Earth System Models (ESMs). The Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) historical and future (RCP8.5) climate predictions were analyzed in this study to illustrate non-stationarity of climate impacts on ecosystems, as evident by changes in the distribution of Gross Primary Production (GPP) as a function of temperature between future and historical climates. These changes consist of (1) a uniform shift in the GPP distribution toward warmer temperatures between future and historical climates, and (2) a proportional increase in GPP at all temperatures, consistent with CO2 fertilization. The temperature at which GPP has a local maximum within a given climate increases with global warming and closely tracks the change in mean temperature for each ecosystem. This maximum GPP temperature can be conceptualized as a stable equilibrium determined by the temperature at which an increase in plant water stress is compensated by a decrease in light stress (decreasing cloud cover) with increasing temperature. Temperature relative to the temperature of maximum GPP is proposed as an improved measure of climate extremes more relevant to ecosystem productivity than absolute temperature. The percentage change in GPP attributed to changes in relative temperature extremes is up to 3% per K (decrease in GPP), and reflects both an increase in the frequency of climate extremes in global warming scenarios and the change in temperature criteria for negative climate impacts on ecosystem productivity. Temperature at GPP maximum as a function of the growing season average temperature, for each ecosystem type. Lengths of crosshairs indicate the standard error of the CMIP5 ensemble average. Both future and historical averages are shown (the temperature of GPP maximum increases monotonically with growing season average temperature between future and historical simulations).

Williams, I. N.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Wehner, M. F.; Collins, W.

2013-12-01

423

Regional Tropical Precipitation Change Mechanisms in ECHAM4/OPYC3 under Global Warming*  

E-print Network

Regional Tropical Precipitation Change Mechanisms in ECHAM4/OPYC3 under Global Warming* CHIA CHOU, Contribution Number 6243. Corresponding author address: Chia Chou, Research Center for Environmental Changes

Chou, Chia

424

Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 ?m wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 ?m band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document major sub-glacial eruptions that occurred during DO 0, A, and 1 (11.6, 13.1, and 14.6 ka) and similar but less well dated activity at least over the past million years. Massive melting of a thick ice sheet by volcanoes would decrease overburden pressure on the magma chambers, potentially increasing volcanism. Continued basaltic eruptions over decades enhanced by such a feedback c8ould explain why the intervals between DO events (1300 to 8800 years) are more random than cyclic and the evidence for sudden influxes of fresh water into the North Atlantic documented during DO events. Concentrations of sulfate in Greenland were as high from 1928 to 1985 as during the largest DO event. Trace element analysis shows this sulfate came from smoke stacks in northern Russia, Europe, and central North America. Observed levels of SO2, NO_{x}, tropospheric O$_{3} and black carbon are more than sufficient to have been the primary cause of 20th century global warming. Efforts to reduce acid rain by reducing emissions of these pollutants "accidentally" slowed global warming by 1998. Mean global surface temperatures have remained high but have not increased since then.

Ward, P. L.

2011-12-01

425

Vulnerability of Lake Tahoe (CA-NV) mixing patterns in response to global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological-driven processes exert large and diverse impacts on lakes internal heating, cooling and mixing. Thus, lakes' mixing pattern and ecosystem will likely be affected with continued global warming and climate change. The impact of climate change on Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada) was investigated here as a case study of climate change effects on the physical processes occurring within the lake. Climate

G. B. Sahoo; G. Schladow; J. E. Reuter

2008-01-01

426

The observed global warming record: what does it tell us?  

PubMed

Global, near-surface temperature data sets and their derivations are discussed, and differences between the Jones and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change data sets are explained. Global-mean temperature changes are then interpreted in terms of anthropogenic forcing influences and natural variability. The inclusion of aerosol forcing improves the fit between modeled and observed changes but does not improve the agreement between the implied climate sensitivity value and the standard model-based range of 1.5-4.5 degrees C equilibrium warming for a CO2 doubling. The implied sensitivity goes from below the model-based range of estimates to substantially above this range. The addition of a solar forcing effect further improves the fit and brings the best-fit sensitivity into the middle of the model-based range. Consistency is further improved when internally generated changes are considered. This consistency, however, hides many uncertainties that surround observed data/model comparisons. These uncertainties make it impossible currently to use observed global-scale temperature changes to narrow the uncertainty range in the climate sensitivity below that estimated directly from climate models. PMID:11607739

Wigley, T M; Jones, P D; Raper, S C

1997-08-01

427

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

428

A set of experiments to understand global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of experiments addressed to pupils from the age of 14 to teach the basic causes and effects of global warming. Through ten experiments conducted in turns by the pupils themselves, they will understand the physics, biology and chemistry of the main issues linked to the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. More specifically, the hand-made, low-cost material, allow the students to discover and experiment the science of the greenhouse effect, sea level rise, ocean circulation, ocean acidification, species relocation and extinction, differential heating according to the albedo, carbon cycle, and photosynthesis. Technical notes give background theory input. All the experiments can easily be reproduced.

Bouquelle, Veronique; Bauwens, Anne; De Bont, Adele; Kivits, Sandrine; Marbaix, Philippe

2014-05-01

429

Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Many physiological responses in present-day coral reefs to climate change are interpreted as consistent with the imminent disappearance of modern reefs globally because of annual mass bleaching events, carbonate dissolution, and insufficient time for substantial evolutionary responses. Emerging evidence for variability in the coral calcification response to acidification, geographical variation in bleaching susceptibility and recovery, responses to past climate change, and potential rates of adaptation to rapid warming supports an alternative scenario in which reef degradation occurs with greater temporal and spatial heterogeneity than current projections suggest. Reducing uncertainty in projecting coral reef futures requires improved understanding of past responses to rapid climate change; physiological responses to interacting factors, such as temperature, acidification, and nutrients; and the costs and constraints imposed by acclimation and adaptation. PMID:21778392

Pandolfi, John M; Connolly, Sean R; Marshall, Dustin J; Cohen, Anne L

2011-07-22

430

Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

431

GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET PETR CHYLEK1, 3, JASON E. BOX2 and GLEN LESINS3  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET PETR CHYLEK1, 3, JASON E. BOX2 and GLEN LESINS3 1Space temperatures have followed the early 20th century global warm- ing trend. Since 1940, however, the Greenland the current global warming trend. A considerable and rapid warming over all of coastal Greenland occurred

Born, Andreas

432

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE  

E-print Network

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

433

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.

2007-04-01

434

New report affirms surface global warming, but falls short of reconciling temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new report by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) affirms that the global surface temperature on Earth has warmed during the past 20 years. The report, issued on January 13, also says the lower to mid-troposphere has warmed less than the surface during the past two decades, and that a ``substantial disparity remains'' between these measurements. ``The warming trend

Randy Showstack

2000-01-01

435

Climate Response of the Equatorial Pacific to Global Warming PEDRO N. DINEZIO  

E-print Network

Climate Response of the Equatorial Pacific to Global Warming PEDRO N. DINEZIO Cooperative Institute balance the heating over the warm pool, while increased cooling by ocean vertical heat transport balances the warming over the cold tongue. This increased cooling by vertical ocean heat transport arises from

436

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets*  

E-print Network

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions of recent warming of these regions in global heat and sea level budgets. The authors 1) compute warming produces a 0.053 (60.017) mm yr21 increase in global average sea level and the deep warming south

Johnson, Gregory C.

437

Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases  

SciTech Connect

Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

1996-12-31

438

Permafrost and infrastructure in the usa Basin (Northeast European Russia): possible impacts of global warming.  

PubMed

The relationship between permafrost conditions and the distribution of infrastructure in the Usa Basin, Northeast European Russia, is analyzed. About 75% of the Basin is underlain by permafrost terrain with various degrees of continuity (isolated patches to continuous permafrost). The region has a high level of urban and industrial development (e.g., towns, coal mines, hydrocarbon extraction sites, railway, pipelines). GIS-analyses indicate that about 60% of all infrastructure is located in the 'high risk' permafrost area, here defined as the zones of isolated to discontinuous permafrost (3-90% coverage) with 'warm' ground temperatures (0 to -2 degrees C). Ground monitoring, aerial photo interpretation, and permafrost modeling suggest a differential response to future global warming. Most of the permafrost-affected terrain will likely start to thaw within a few decades to a century. This forecast poses serious challenges to permafrost engineering and calls for long-term investments in adequate infrastructure that will pay back overtime. PMID:15387061

Mazhitova, Galina; Karstkarel, Nanka; Oberman, Naum; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Kuhry, Peter

2004-08-01

439

Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of emerging threats to global food security.

Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

2009-01-01

440

Energy and environmental policy and electric utilities' choice under uncertain global warming  

E-print Network

The paper reviews and discusses uncertainty about global warming science, impact on society. It also discusses what assumptions have been made and how appropriate the assumptions in scenarios have been for estimating global ...

Takahashi, Masaki

1992-01-01

441

Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.  

PubMed

In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver behind all three stressors, the primary mitigation strategy is to reduce these emissions. PMID:21502171

Gruber, Nicolas

2011-05-28

442

Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming  

PubMed Central

Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities. PMID:20534610

La Sorte, Frank A.; Jetz, Walter

2010-01-01

443

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41% of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948-2008 and climate model simulations for 1948-2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario are projected to be 5.8 106 km2 (or 10%) larger than in the 1961-1990 climatology. The major expansion of arid regions will occur over southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa, and Australia, while major expansions of semiarid regions will occur over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and North and South America. The global dryland expansions will increase the population affected by water scarcity and land degradations.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.

2013-06-01

444

Application of PIXE technique to studies on global warming\\/cooling effect of atmospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the importance of global warming has been recognized worldwide. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the global warming\\/cooling effects. The physicochemical properties of aerosol particles are fundamental to understanding such effects. In this study, the PIXE technique was applied to measure the average chemical properties of aerosols. Micro-PIXE was also applied to investigate the mixing

M. Kasahara; R. Hller; S. Tohno; Y. Onishi; C.-J. Ma

2002-01-01

445

Territorial Manifestations of the Economical Influence Areas of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic space is structured by the relationship between the anthropogenic and economic factors, with a dynamical evolution defined by the financial flows around the world and technology evolution. The global warming and the climate change are two different processes associated on the planet, due to different etiologies: the global warming is produced principally by anthropogenic effects, whereas the climate change

Y. G. Garcia Lopez; J. A. Perez-Peraza; V. M. Velasco Herrera

2007-01-01

446

Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate Australia is a global hotspot for marine biodiversity and its waters have experienced well-above global average rates of ocean warming. We review the observed impacts of climate change (e.g. warming, ocean acidification, changes in storm patterns) on subtidal temperate coasts in Australia and assess how these systems are likely to respond to further change. Observed impacts are region specific

Thomas Wernberg; Bayden D. Russell; Pippa J. Moore; Scott D. Ling; Daniel A. Smale; Alex Campbell; Melinda A. Coleman; Peter D. Steinberg; Gary A. Kendrick; Sean D. Connell

2011-01-01

447

Global warming and the regional persistence of a temperate-zone insect (Tenodera sinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal

T. P. Rooney; A. T. Smith; L. E. Hurd

1996-01-01

448

Global Warming and Sea Level Rise: the Past, Present, and Future  

E-print Network

1 Global Warming and Sea Level Rise: the Past, Present, and Future Paul Liu jpliu@ncsu.edu MEAS recent Warming up, With some cooling events #12;The time series shows the combined global land and marine;19 Evidence · Ice cores · Deep sea cores · Coral reef · Lake · Loess · Stalagmite · ... #12;20 Drill

Parker, Matthew D. Brown

449

How Dry is the Tropical Free Troposphere? Implications for Global Warming Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The humidity of the free troposphere is being increasingly scrutinized in climate research due to its central role in global warming theory through positive water vapor feedback. This feedback is the primary source of global warming in general circulation models (GCMs). Because the loss of infrared energy to space increases nonlinearly with decreases in relative humidity, the vast dry zones

Roy W. Spencer; William D. Braswell

1997-01-01

450

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-order physical-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming simulations and collapses at high levels of carbon dioxide. Projected changes in the marine carbon cycle have a modest impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Fortunat Joos; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Thomas F. Stocker; Olivier Marchal; Andreas Schmittner

1999-01-01

451

Potential impacts of global warming on the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely recognised that the most significant impacts of global warming are likely to be experienced through changes in the frequency of extreme events, including flooding. This paper reviews physical and empirical arguments which suggest that global warming may result in a more intense hydrological cycle, with an associated increase in the frequency and\\/or magnitude of heavy precipitation.

A. M. Fowler; K. J. Hennessy

1995-01-01

452

On the evaluation of halocarbon radiative forcing and global warming potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net global warming potentials and instantaneous radiative forcing values that include the cooling from halocarbon-induced ozone destruction have been calculated for 14 of the most significant halocarbons. These calculations were performed by incorporating knowledge of direct global warming potentials with an evaluation of the relationship between tropospheric cooling from stratospheric ozone loss and tropospheric halocarbon mixing ratios. The indirect cooling

John S. Daniel; Susan Solomon; Daniel L. Albritton

1995-01-01

453

DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-print Network

DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry--Fri, Dec 1, 2006 DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry Division Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton NY 11973 USA [Abstract] Tropospheric sulfate

Schwartz, Stephen E.

454

A Future Network for Monitoring the Driving Function of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new future network is proposed to monitor the radiative forcing of global warming by greenhouse gases. The greenhouse radiation is the downward infrared heat radiation from greenhouse gases, otherwise known as the surface forcing radiation. The increase in this radiation due to increased carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is the driving function of global warming. In an experimental

W. F. Evans

2007-01-01

455

Effective Temperature Like an Indicative of Global Warming at Rio Grande do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of effective temperature has been proven valuable in studies of climate changes and global warming. Pielke (2004) has shown that monitoring the moist static energy, which is a function of temperature and moisture content in the air, is a more proper metric to assess surface global warming. The effective temperature is proportional to the moist static energy by

A. P. Berger; N. Krusche

2007-01-01

456

CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Diet for a Greenhouse Planet: A Citizen's Guide for Slowing Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide discusses the global warming issue and offers a plan to facilitate a decrease in the emissions of the major greenhouse gases in the United States, including those under the control of individual citizens. A letter from the organization's president describes its involvement with the global warming issue. A brief overview presented in the

DeCicco, John; And Others

457

Nonlinear Dependence of Global Warming Prediction on Ocean State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global temperature has increased by 0.8 C since the pre-industrial era, and is likely to increase further if greenhouse gas emission continues unchecked. Various mitigation efforts are being negotiated among nations to keep the increase under 2 C, beyond which the outcome is believed to be catastrophic. Such policy efforts are currently based on predictions by the state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere ocean models (AOGCM). Caution is advised for their use for the purpose of short-term (less than a century) climate prediction as the predicted warming and spatial patterns vary depending on the initial state of the ocean, even in an ensemble mean. The range of uncertainty in such predictions by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models may be underreported when models were run with their oceans at various stages of adjustment with their atmospheres. By comparing a very long run (> 1000 years) of the coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model with what was reported to IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), we show that the fully adjusted model transient climate sensitivity should be 30% higher for the same model, and the 2 C warming should occur sooner than previously predicted. Using model archives we further argue that this may be a common problem for the IPCC AR4 models, since few, if any, of the models has a fully adjusted ocean. For all models, multi-decadal climate predictions to 2050 are highly dependent on the initial ocean state (and so are unreliable). Such dependence cannot be removed simply by subtracting the climate drift from control runs.

Liang, M.; Lin, L.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.; Sun, S.

2010-12-01

458

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

PubMed Central

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68Pg to a 27+-7Pg sink to 4+-18Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25+-3 to 85+-16PgC, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62+-7PgC loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34TgCH4/y to 4170TgCH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-01-01

459

Response and impact of equatorial ocean dynamics and tropical instability waves in the tropical Atlantic under global warming  

E-print Network

Atlantic under global warming: A regional coupled downscaling study Hyodae Seo1,2 and ShangPing Xie1. Under global warming, both global and regional models exhibit an increased (decreased) rainfall thermal stratification is suggested to be more important under global warming. The strengthened upwelling

Xie, Shang-Ping

460

Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

Warner, L.; Henson, R.

2004-05-01

461

Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs.  

PubMed

Though scientific evidence for the existence of global warming continues to mount, in the United States and other countries belief in global warming has stagnated or even decreased in recent years. One possible explanation for this pattern is that information about the potentially dire consequences of global warming threatens deeply held beliefs that the world is just, orderly, and stable. Individuals overcome this threat by denying or discounting the existence of global warming, and this process ultimately results in decreased willingness to counteract climate change. Two experiments provide support for this explanation of the dynamics of belief in global warming, suggesting that less dire messaging could be more effective for promoting public understanding of climate-change research. PMID:21148457

Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

2011-01-01

462

An attack on science? Media use, trust in scientists, and perceptions of global warming.  

PubMed

There is a growing divide in how conservatives and liberals in the USA understand the issue of global warming. Prior research suggests that the American public's reliance on partisan media contributes to this gap. However, researchers have yet to identify intervening variables to explain the relationship between media use and public opinion about global warming. Several studies have shown that trust in scientists is an important heuristic many people use when reporting their opinions on science-related topics. Using within-subject panel data from a nationally representative sample of Americans, this study finds that trust in scientists mediates the effect of news media use on perceptions of global warming. Results demonstrate that conservative media use decreases trust in scientists which, in turn, decreases certainty that global warming is happening. By contrast, use of non-conservative media increases trust in scientists, which, in turn, increases certainty that global warming is happening. PMID:23825287

Hmielowski, Jay D; Feldman, Lauren; Myers, Teresa A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward

2014-10-01

463

Is Global Warming Melting the Greenland Ice Sheet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerted observational and modelling programmes are underway to determine the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and therefore help predict its response to future climatic change. We present results of meteorological modelling based on ERA-40 reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Our novel surface-mass-balance history of the ice sheet for 1958-2003, is based on accumulation (snowfall minus evaporation/sublimation) modelling and a new monthly melt-water runoff model by Janssens & Huybrechts (Huybrechts 2002). These techniques combined yield valuable insights into the past and present state and variability of the Greenland ice mass and links with climate. Aspects of the validation of the new accumulation, runoff and SMB series are discussed. There was considerable interannual variability in snow accumulation, runoff and mass balance over the last 46 years. By comparing with long-term temperature, precipitation and accumulation records from the meteorological stations and ice cores, we discuss possible climatic factors forcing the ice in this period. There are distinct signals in runoff and SMB following three major volcanic eruptions. Runoff losses from the ice sheet were 280(28) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 and 391(+-39) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Significantly rising runoff since the 1990s has been partly offset by more precipitation. However, our best estimate of overall mass balance declined from -3(53) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 to -65(61) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Additional dynamical factors that cause an acceleration of ice flow near the margins, and possible enhanced iceberg calving, may have led to a more negative mass balance in the past few years than suggested here. The implication is a significant and accelerating recent contribution from the ice sheet, about 0.22 mm yr^-1 over the last six years, to global sea-level rise. Runoff and thinning of the ice-sheet margins increased substantially since the 1990s. However, massive snow accumulation over south-east Greenland during winter 2002/03, well shown in our analysis, led to unprecedented thickening in recent NASA aircraft LIDAR surveys. Do these recent changes indicate more extreme weather conditions including warming over the Ice Sheet, more storminess and higher accumulation events, due to global warming?

Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Janssens, I.; McConnell, J.; Das, S.; Cappelen, J.; Steffen, K.; Krabill, W.; Thomas, R.; Stephens, A.

2004-12-01

464

Do disease cycles follow changes in weather? Researchers ponder global warming`s effect on the carriers of human illness  

SciTech Connect

Two years ago, Mother Nature one-upped an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee big time. In 1991, the committee had wracked its collective brains to come up with a plausible epidemic scenario for a report on disease emergence. The team finally settled on a potential southern US outbreak of yellow fever, a well-known African viral disease carried by mosquitoes. The idea was realistic, if not particularly imaginative. Yellow fever is an old problem. Shortly after the report on microbe-induced epidemics was released, Mother Nature displayed tremendous creativity. In the spring of 1993, a mysterious virus began killing young people in the Southwest. The culprit turned out to be a previously unrecognized strain of hantavirus, which causes a deadly respiratory disease. Emerging from its natural host, the common deer mouse, the hantavirus strain affected at least 131 people. Half died. Today, emerging viruses have shocked the public and sent scientists searching for causes of epidemics and factors that determine how serious disease outbreaks might be be. One factor gaining attention climate. To learn how global warming might affect mosquitoes, mice and other microbe carriers, biologists are studying diseases within an environmental context. This article discusses the work in this area and some of the results, speculations, and future areas of interest.

Brown, K.S.

1996-07-01

465

Albedo enhancement of marine clouds to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that changes in solar radiation affect the hydrological cycle more strongly than equivalent CO2 changes for the same change in global mean surface temperature. Thus, solar radiation management "geoengineering" proposals to completely offset global mean temperature increases by reducing the amount of absorbed sunlight might be expected to slow the global water cycle and reduce runoff over land. However, proposed countering of global warming by increasing the albedo of marine clouds would reduce surface solar radiation only over the oceans. Here, for an idealized scenario, we analyze the response of temperature and the hydrological cycle to increased reflection by clouds over the ocean using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. When cloud droplets are reduced in size over all oceans uniformly to offset the temperature increase from a doubling of atmospheric CO2, the global-mean precipitation and evaporation decreases by about 1.3% but runoff over land increases by 7.5% primarily due to increases over tropical land. In the model, more reflective marine clouds cool the atmospheric column over ocean. The result is a sinking motion over oceans and upward motion over land. We attribute the increased runoff over land to this increased upward motion over land when marine clouds are made more reflective. Our results suggest that, in contrast to other proposals to increase planetary albedo, offsetting mean global warming by reducing marine cloud droplet size does not necessarily lead to a drying, on average, of the continents. However, we note that the changes in precipitation, evaporation and P-E are dominated by small but significant areas, and given the highly idealized nature of this study, a more thorough and broader assessment would be required for proposals of altering marine cloud properties on a large scale.

Bala, G.; Caldeira, Ken; Nemani, Rama; Cao, Long; Ban-Weiss, George; Shin, Ho-Jeong

2011-09-01

466

Global warming---The role for nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

467

Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

468

Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

Stevens, Jeanne

2007-05-01

469

Observed magnified runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming is crucial, but is poorly discussed due to the limited data length and human alteration. Historical rainfall and runoff records in pristine catchments in Taiwan were investigated through trend analysis and cross temperature difference analysis. Trend analysis showed that both rainfall and runoff in the 99.9-percentile have been significantly increasing in terms of frequency and intensity over the past four decades. Cross temperature difference analysis quantified that the rainfall and runoff extremes (including the 99.0-99.9-percentiles) may increase by 69.5% and 99.8%, respectively, under a future scenario of 1 C increase in temperature. This increase in intensity resembles the increase in intensity observed between 1971-1990 and 1991-2010. The amplified runoff response can be related to the limited catchment storage capacity being preoccupied by rainfall extremes. The quantified temperature effect on rainfall and runoff intensification can be a strong basis for designing scenarios, confirming and fusing GCMs results. In addition, the runoff amplification should be a warning for other regions with significant rainfall intensification. Appropriate strategies are indispensable and urgently needed to maintain and protect the development of societies.

Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lee, Jun-Yi

2014-03-01

470

Perfluorodecalin: global warming potential and first detection in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfluorodecalin (C 10F 18) has a range of medical uses that have led to small releases. Recently, it has been proposed as a carrier of vaccines, which could lead to significantly larger emissions. Since its emissions are controlled under the Kyoto Protocol, it is important that values for the global warming potential (GWP) are available. For a 50:50 mixture of the two isomers of perfluorodecalin, laboratory measurements, supplemented by theoretical calculations, give an integrated absorption cross-section of 3.9110 -16 cm 2 molecule -1 cm -1 over the spectral region 0-1500 cm -1; calculations yield a radiative efficiency of 0.56 W m -2 ppbv -1 and a 100-year GWP, relative to carbon dioxide, of 7200 assuming a lifetime of 1000 years. We report the first atmospheric measurements of perfluorodecalin, at Bristol, UK and Mace Head, Ireland, where volume mixing ratios are about 1.510 -15. At these concentrations, it makes a trivial contribution to climate change, but on a per molecule basis it is a potent greenhouse gas, indicating the need for careful assessment of its possible future usage.

Shine, Keith P.; Gohar, Laila K.; Hurley, Michael D.; Marston, George; Martin, Damian; Simmonds, Peter G.; Wallington, Timothy J.; Watkins, Matt

471

Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming  

E-print Network

Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

A. Bershadskii

2008-05-14

472

Human-induced global ocean warming on multidecadal timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale increases in upper-ocean temperatures are evident in observational records. Several studies have used well-established detection and attribution methods to demonstrate that the observed basin-scale temperature changes are consistent with model responses to anthropogenic forcing and inconsistent with model-based estimates of natural variability. These studies relied on a single observational data set and employed results from only one or two models. Recent identification of systematic instrumental biases in expendable bathythermograph data has led to improved estimates of ocean temperature variability and trends and provide motivation to revisit earlier detection and attribution studies. We examine the causes of ocean warming using these improved observational estimates, together with results from a large multimodel archive of externally forced and unforced simulations. The time evolution of upper ocean temperature changes in the newer observational estimates is similar to that of the multimodel average of simulations that include the effects of volcanic eruptions. Our detection and attribution analysis systematically examines the sensitivity of results to a variety of model and data-processing choices. When global mean changes are included, we consistently obtain a positive identification (at the 1% significance level) of an anthropogenic fingerprint in observed upper-ocean temperature changes, thereby substantially strengthening existing detection and attribution evidence.

Gleckler, P. J.; Santer, B. D.; Domingues, C. M.; Pierce, D. W.; Barnett, T. P.; Church, J. A.; Taylor, K. E.; Achutarao, K. M.; Boyer, T. P.; Ishii, M.; Caldwell, P. M.

2012-07-01

473

High-resolution peatland photos show change with global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As global average temperatures rise, vast tracks of peatland currently encased in permafrost will be affected. As the ground thaws, peatlands will evolve in either of two directions. Along one path, land that was previously propped up by supportive permafrost subsides, forming a shallow basin that fills with watera thermokarst lake. In the new lake, peat undergoes anaerobic bacterial decay, releasing methane to the environment. Alternatively, permafrost thawing can result in lake drainage. In the drained lake beds, fen vegetation and mosses can grow, drawing down atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The prevalence of these two processes, and their relationship to changing temperatures, remains an important question in understanding the consequences of permafrost thaw on the global carbon cycle.

Schultz, Colin

2011-11-01

474

LA MONTAGNE : UNE VOIE D'ADAPTATION AU CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE ? MOUNTAIN : A WAY FOR ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL WARMING?  

E-print Network

TO GLOBAL WARMING? Etienne DELAY1,* , Fabio ZOTTELE2 , Hervé QUENOL3 , Giorgio DEROS4 1 Laboratoire GEOLAB be set up through agent based modeling. Key words: Agent Based Modeling, landscape, global warming

Brest, Université de

475

Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often interpolated or extrapolated to give an indication of the likelihood of a certain event within a given period or interval. Under changing climatic conditions, the statistical properties of climate extremes are also changing. It is an important scientific goal to predict how the properties of extreme events change. To achieve this goal, observational and model studies aimed at revealing important features are a necessary prerequisite. Notable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms that influence climate variability and extremes in many parts of the globe including Europe. However, some of the recently observed unprecedented extremes cannot be fully explained from the already identified forcing factors. A better understanding of why these extreme events occur and their sensitivity to certain reinforcing and/or competing factors is useful. Understanding their basic form as well as their temporal variability is also vital and can contribute to global scientific efforts directed at advancing climate prediction capabilities, particularly making skilful forecasts and realistic projections of extremes. In this thesis temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe and Africa, respectively, are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of the e