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1

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

2

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Ms. Schultz

2007-12-03

3

Scientist warns against overselling climate change Climate change forecasters should admit that they cannot predict how global warming will affect  

E-print Network

that they cannot predict how global warming will affect individual countries, a leading physicist has said-of-deaths-from-ozone-predicted.html) Antarctic sea floor gives clues about effects of future global warming (/earth/environment/climatechange /5279223/Antarctic-sea-floor-gives-clues-about-affects-of-future-global-warming.html) The Vanishing Face

Stevenson, Paul

4

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

5

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

6

Will global warming affect males and females differently? FHL Tide Bites #4 Dec. 2013  

E-print Network

Will global warming affect males and females differently? FHL Tide Bites #4 Dec. 2013 Life on a rocky shore is challenging. With each passing tide, the animals and plants of this land-sea interface that her focal snails eat in rhythm with the tides, feeding in hoards when low tide exposure is at night

Carrington, Emily

7

global warming's six americas  

E-print Network

global warming's six americas in september 2012 #12;Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012, G. & Howe, P. (2013) Global Warming's Six Americas, September 2012. Yale University and George Mason and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11

Haller, Gary L.

8

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND?t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

9

Global Warming Observations  

E-print Network

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions

Schofield, Jeremy

10

Long range global warming  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

11

Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to the colonization of these waters by alien picocyanobacterial groups.

Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mah, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Bendif, E. M.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

2011-05-01

12

Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 0.11 C in average per decade, P < 0.01). In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise) and in June-July 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mah, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

2011-09-01

13

Global Warming Local Warning  

E-print Network

Global Warming Local Warning The Greens I European Free Alliance in the European Parliament Dr;2 Global Warming, Local Warning contents Foreword 3 Introduction 4 Section 1 ­ Climate Change 5 Section 2 Cornwall. Taken by Cherry Puddicombe. #12;Global Warming, Local Warning 3 foreword O ver the coming years

Williams, Paul

14

Global warming elucidated  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many

Shen

1995-01-01

15

Space Weather and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will give discussions of the broad topic of Space Weather, and of Global Warming (these have some associations, as well as differences). Both have the Sun as the major energy source; short-term differences in solar activity are the sources of space weather (which affects the entire solar system, not just our Earth), whereas global warming is a longer-term

George Carruthers

2009-01-01

16

The impact of global warming on floral traits that affect the selfing rate in a high-altitude plant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in the abiotic environment, as those expected under global warming, can influence plant mating systems through changes in floral traits that affect selfing. Herkogamy (spatial separation of male and female functions within a flower), dichogamy (temporal separation) and total flower number af...

17

Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little information is available about management practice effects on the net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional-tillage malt barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.]fallow [CTB-F], no-ti...

18

Did global warming and alien invasions affect surf zone hyperbenthic communities on sandy beaches in Belgium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to global warming, southern hyperbenthic species were expected, which extend their distribution range northwards. It was\\u000a also expected that alien species would have invaded the surf zone hyperbenthos. Therefore, the species composition of the\\u000a hyperbenthos occurring along the Belgian coast was determined, and spatial and temporal patterns in community composition\\u000a were assessed. The hyperbenthos was sampled with a hand-pushed

Koen Lock; Jan Mees; Magda Vincx; Peter L. M. Goethals

2011-01-01

19

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

20

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

21

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

22

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

23

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-print Network

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

24

An Analysis of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Warming is an active research issue that concerns science fields as well as economic, environmental and political concerns. In this paper, I summarized the observations of global warming and the causes and possible effects of the warming. Modeling studies are also discussed and disputed. While all the questions are not answered about global warming, scientists are striving towards the

John Cangialosi

25

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University; )

2002-10-01

26

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average well-observed sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1 C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1 C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

27

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

E-print Network

Forecasting phenology under global warming Ine´s Iba´n~ez1,*, Richard B. Primack2, Abraham J in phenology. Keywords: climate change; East Asia, global warming; growing season, hierarchical Bayes; plant is shifting, and these shifts have been linked to recent global warming (Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al

Silander Jr., John A.

29

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part interactive feature illustrates principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human factors. In the first part, students explore climate at Mono Lake in California. They will estimate the temperature for a particular time period by computing the surface energy in the area, and use the model to estimate temperature for any month, in modern and ice age climates, and to predict future temperatures. In the second part, they use data on fossil fuel emissions, gross domestic product, energy types, land use, and other gas emissions to model temperature changes in different world cities for a selected month and year. The exercise includes assessment materials for teachers and tutorials on global warming.

30

Global Warming Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will allow students to learn firsthand how society and environment might be impacted by global warming and how to help people make better decisions regarding all the complicated issues surrounding climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Students will take on the role of scientist, business leader, or policy maker and be part of a climate action team, which will make some of the same discoveries and decisions that are made in the real world every day.

2007-01-01

31

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

32

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained.

N. C. Low; S. Shen

1996-01-01

33

GLOBAL WARMING IS GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global air temperature increase is an inadequate measure of global warming, which rather should be considered in terms of energy. The ongoing global warming means that heat has been accumulating since 1880, in air, ground, and water. Before explaining this warming by external heat sources the net heat emissions on Earth must be considered. Such emissions, from e.g. the

Bo Nordell; Bruno Gervet

2008-01-01

34

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

35

Global Warming FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research is dedicated to understanding the atmosphere??the air around us??and the interconnected processes that make up the Earth system, from the ocean floor to the Sun's core. The National Center for Atmospheric Research and the UCAR Office of Programs provide research, observing and computing facilities, and a variety of services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. Here, they have helpfully provided a series of frequently asked questions about Climate Change. Each question provides a clear and concise answer and provides links to further information. In addition, the site includes a special inset on Global Warming, a "Ask a Scientist" section, and links at the bottom of the page to learn more.

36

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

37

Global Warming and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to

Atul A. Khasnis; Mary D. Nettleman

2005-01-01

38

In League: Global Warming And Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

What relationship exists between the phenomena of global warming and globalization? How can a small grassroots organization promote green living and cultural food traditions through environmental education?\\u000aExamination of the relationship between global warming and globalization has required a process of basic research of pre-written texts; resulting in a theoretical analysis on selected journalism within this field of research. The

Allissa Beth Cloer

2008-01-01

39

Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will global warming affect developing countries, which rely heavily on agriculture as a source of economic growth? William Cline asserts that developing countries have more at risk than industrial countries as global warming worsens. Using general circulation and agricultural impact models, Cline boldly examines 2070-99 to forecast the effects of global warming and its economic impact. This detailed study:

William R. Cline

40

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

41

SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, New York Global Warming Perspectives An Interdisciplinary Lecture Series on Global Warming Stony Brook University 12 Carbondioxidemixingratio,ppm 2000195019001850180017501700 Law Dome (Antarctica) Siple (Antarctica) Mauna Loa (Hawaii) Law

Schwartz, Stephen E.

42

Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming  

E-print Network

1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

Lovejoy, Shaun

43

Pleistocene Reindeer and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns for the future of reindeer and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus )i nthe far north under conditions of global warming focus on the increased energetic and predation costs associated with warmer winters and on vegetation change and increased insect harassment caused by warmer summers. At the Grotte XVI archaeological site (Dordogne, southwestern France), episodes of summer warming between about

DONALD K. GRAYSON; FRANCOISE DELPECH

2005-01-01

44

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

45

Global Health Threats: Global Warming in Perspective  

E-print Network

Some authorities have claimed that global warming is one of the mostif not the mostimportant public health threat of this century. They do not, however, support this assertion by comparative analysis of the relative magnitude and severity of various health threats. Such an analysis, presented here, shows that other global health threats outrank global warming at present, and are likely to continue to do so through the foreseeable future, even under the warmest scenario developed by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Exaggerated and unsupported claims about the importance of global warming risk skewing the worlds public health priorities away from real, urgent health problems. Policies curbing global warming would, moreover, increase energy prices and reduce its usage, retarding both economic development and advances in human wellbeing. That would slow advances in societys adaptive capacity to deal not only with the effects of global warming, but all other sources of adversity. Through the foreseeable future, global health would be advanced farther, faster, more surely, and more economically if efforts are focused not on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but on reducing vulnerability to todays urgent health problems that may be exacerbated by global warming, while increasing adaptive capacity, particularly of developing countries, through economic development.

Indur M. Goklany, Ph.D.

46

Soil Microbes and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, discover how warmer winters in Alaska may cause soil microbes to release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2009-02-26

47

Global warming, global research, and global governing  

SciTech Connect

The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

Preining, O.

1997-12-31

48

CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

Global warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world, putting millions of people at risk from floods, droughts and lack of drinking water. It is a complex issue full of uncertainties and controversies. This article discusses amongst cause of global warming and consequences of global warming on the environment. Keywords:Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Global environment, Atmosphere.

Pharm Res; Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt; Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt; Corresponding Ranjana Bhatt

49

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

50

Above-and belowground linkages in Sphagnum-peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions  

E-print Network

global warming is causing ecological communities to rapidly change, resulting in modifications1 Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum-peatland: climate warming affects plant) Running title: Warming affects plant-microbial interactions Keywords: aboveground, belowground, climate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Global Warming of the Atmosphere in Radiative Convective Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of global warming have commonly reported positive warming feedback by water vapor, exhibiting relative humidity in the atmosphere unchanged for different warming conditions. However, this is not self-evident, since water vapor content in the atmosphere may be significantly affected by atmospheric convections, such as cumulus convection, which involve strong vertical motions of air. To find an explanation, global

Yoshiharu Iwasa; Yutaka Abe; Hiroshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

52

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

. In case the effect of anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases, aerosols) on the radiative balance and ocean surface temperature show a warming of 0.85C from 1880 to 2012 The atmospheric concentrations with a complete forcing which includes changes in greenhouse gases, aerosols, observed volcanic eruptions

Klein, David

53

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.  

E-print Network

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

Rathbun, Julie A.

54

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-print Network

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

55

What Do Financial Markets Reveal about Global Warming? *  

E-print Network

Financial market information can provide an objective assessment of expected losses due to global warming. In a Merton-type asset pricing model, with asset prices affected by changes in investment opportunities caused by global warming, the risk premium is significantly negative and growing over time, loadings for most assets are negative, and asset portfolios in more vulnerable industries have stronger negative loadings on the global warming factor. Required returns are 0.11 percent higher due to global warming, implying a present value loss of 4.18 percent of wealth. These costs complement and exceed previous estimates of the cost of global warming.

Ronald Balvers; Ding Du; Xiaobing Zhao

2009-01-01

56

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01

57

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01

58

The heated debate. [Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming

Balling; R. C. Jr

1992-01-01

59

Understanding Global Warming  

E-print Network

increase in anthropogenic (human) greenhouse gas concentrations. Global atmospheric concentrations includes changes in greenhouse gases, aerosols, observed volcanic eruptions and variable solar radiation, show reasonable agreement with the observations over the entire 20th century. In case the effect

Klein, David

60

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

61

Global Warming Materials for Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Materials available at this site include a set of educational toolkits about ecosystems, a global warming map, a renewable energy teaching guide, and two reports. Each of the toolkits focuses on a specific ecosystem service, such as water purification or forest carbon storage. The map (and accompanying curriculum guide) shows where the fingerprints and harbingers of global warming have occurred in recent years. The teaching guide includes hands-on activities, games, action projects, and a resource guide. The reports focus on climate change impacts in California and in the Gulf Coast region. Corresponding teaching guides consist of multiple activities that are closely tied to and build upon the reports.

62

Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a  

E-print Network

Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a Post Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 3 Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World Worry About Global Warming.. 14 Everybody Loses on Fuel Efficiency

63

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

1991-01-01

64

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

Berg, T.F.

1991-09-01

65

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the school's traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched green

Christopher Blough

2009-11-01

66

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the Greenhouse Effect have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

67

Early Paleogene Arctic terrestrial ecosystems affected by the change of polar hydrology under global warming: Implications for modern climate change at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of both the role and impact of Arctic environmental changes under the current global warming climate is\\u000a rather limited despite efforts of improved monitoring and wider assessment through remote sensing technology. Changes of Arctic\\u000a ecosystems under early Paleogene warming climate provide an analogue to evaluate long-term responses of Arctic environmental\\u000a alteration to global warming. This study reviews Arctic

Qin Leng; Gaytha A. Langlois; Hong Yang

2010-01-01

68

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths < 3.6 cover 13% of the globe and have a net warming effect

D. L. Mitchell

2009-01-01

69

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

70

Global warming debates: the reading course  

E-print Network

Global warming debates: the reading course Spring 2014 Instructors: Peter Huybers and Eli Tziperman of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

Huybers, Peter

71

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-print Network

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

72

Global warming and its astro-causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the problem of global warming from the viewpoint of wholeness. That is, the problem of global warming will be looked at in a comprehensive study considering several aspects of the cosmos, the Earth, and the phenomenon of life. With such a broad understanding in mind, first analyzes both the disadvantageous and advantageous aspects of the current global warming.

Zhenqiu Ren; Yi Lin

2001-01-01

73

What Do Financial Markets Reveal about Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial market information can provide an objective assessment of expected losses due to global warming. In a Merton-type asset pricing model, with asset prices affected by changes in investment opportunities caused by global warming, the risk premium is significantly negative and growing over time, loadings for most assets are negative, and asset portfolios in more vulnerable industries have stronger negative

Ronald Balvers; Ding Du; Xiaobing Zhao

2009-01-01

74

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, numerous conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global warming science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).

MacCracken, Michael C.

2004-07-01

75

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

76

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

77

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming,

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Knut Makowski

2007-01-01

78

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01

79

Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

1996-12-31

80

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

Haller, Gary L.

81

Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of

Thomas J. Crowley

2006-01-01

82

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming--  

E-print Network

Reply to "Hurricanes and Global Warming-- Potential Linkages and Consequences" --ROGER PIELKE JR LANDSEA NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division Miami, Florida --MAX MAYFIELD Tropical Prediction Center appreciate the effort taken by Anthes et al. (2006) to respond to our paper "Hurricanes and global warming

Colorado at Boulder, University of

83

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

84

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

85

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College; )

2003-08-01

86

Mankind Can Strive Against the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most likely the cause of the global warming can be carbon dioxide venting into the atmosphere as a result of organic fuel burning though it isnt proved rigorously. Now it is clear that mankind is in charge of the beginning of the global warming and must prevent it. The point of bifurcation- the point of the loss of stability cant

Michel E. Gertsenstein; Boris N. Shvilkin

87

Global warming policy: some economic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many analysts believe that the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity are contributing to global warming, but the linkage is highly uncertain. The largest such source of these gases is carbon dioxide (CO2) from the growing consumption of fossil fuels. Consequently, the conservation of fossil fuels figures prominently in any strategy to reduce the threat of global warming.

Stephen P. A. Brown

1998-01-01

88

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

89

Infrared warming affects intrarow soil carbon dioxide efflux during early vegetative growth of spring wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming will likely affect carbon cycles in agricultural soils. Our objective was to deploy infrared (IR) warming to characterize the effect of global warming on soil temperature (Ts), volumetric soil-water content ('s), and intrarow soil CO2 efflux (Fs) of an open-field spring wheat (Triticu...

90

Thursday, November 13 2014 Global warming could increase U.S.  

E-print Network

Thursday, November 13 2014 Ad Wonkblog Global warming could increase U.S. lightning strikes by 50, a team of researchers deliver an alarming prediction: A global warming world will see a major increase affect lightning. The upshot was that while precipitation may increase in some areas under global warming

Romps, David M.

91

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

92

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

93

Global warming: The complete briefing  

SciTech Connect

John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global warming. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.

Houghton, J.

1994-12-31

94

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

95

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-print Network

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

96

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

97

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

98

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

99

Earths Albedo and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, learn about Earth's albedo (the ratio of reflected vs. incident solar radiation), how pollution alters albedo, and how ice-albedo feedback may accelerate global warming.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2008-01-17

100

Review Article CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

Global warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world, putting millions of people at risk from floods, droughts and lack of drinking water. It is a complex issue full of uncertainties and controversies. This article discusses amongst cause of global warming and consequences of global warming on the environment. Keywords:Global warming, Green housages, Global environment, Atmosphere.

Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt

101

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

102

Televised news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

103

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

104

Terrestrial carbon cycle affected by non-uniform climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedbacks between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate change could affect many ecosystem functions and services, such as food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation. The rate of climate warming varies on diurnal and seasonal timescales. A synthesis of global air temperature data reveals a greater rate of warming in winter than in summer in northern mid and high latitudes, and the inverse pattern in some tropical regions. The data also reveal a decline in the diurnal temperature range over 51% of the global land area and an increase over only 13%, because night-time temperatures in most locations have risen faster than daytime temperatures. Analyses of satellite data, model simulations and in situ observations suggest that the impact of seasonal warming varies between regions. For example, spring warming has largely stimulated ecosystem productivity at latitudes between 30 and 90 N, but suppressed productivity in other regions. Contrasting impacts of day- and night-time warming on plant carbon gain and loss are apparent in many regions. We argue that ascertaining the effects of non-uniform climate warming on terrestrial ecosystems is a key challenge in carbon cycle research.

Xia, Jianyang; Chen, Jiquan; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Luo, Yiqi; Wan, Shiqiang

2014-03-01

105

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch William W. L changes in sea surface temperature5 . This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global. Cheung1 , Reg Watson2 & Daniel Pauly3 Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through

Pauly, Daniel

106

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and

Norman L

2009-01-01

107

Advanced Review Drought under global warming  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous

Dai, Aiguo

108

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in

J. R. Sand; S. K. Fischer; V. D. Baxter

1997-01-01

109

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and

B. G. Levi; D. Hafemeister; R. Scribner

1992-01-01

110

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and

B. G. Levi; D. Hafemeister; R. Scribner

1992-01-01

111

The NAO, the AO, and Global Warming: How Closely Related?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and closely related Arctic Oscillation (AO) strongly affect Northern Hemisphere (NH) surface temperatures with patterns similar to the global warming trend. The NAO and AO have been in a positive trend for much of the 1970s and 1980s with historic highs in the early 1990s, and it has been suggested that they contribute significantly to

J. L. Cohen; M. Barlow

2004-01-01

112

Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteri- ously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmaco- logical factors. In this paper we present an over- view

Arthur Saniotis; Peng Bi

2009-01-01

113

Fishing for an Analogy to Global Warming William Menke  

E-print Network

Fishing for an Analogy to Global Warming William Menke That our beloved Wilson Lake once harbored and smaller fish. Any sort of unfavorable weather conditions could reduce the supply of food, which in turn, but whether the salt has affected the fish is hotly debated. Some environmentalists say that increased

Menke, William

114

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical

Khanh Dung T. Nguyen; Simon A. Morley; Chien-Houng Lai; Melody S. Clark; Koh Siang Tan; Amanda E. Bates; Lloyd S. Peck

2011-01-01

115

The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and  

E-print Network

The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

Reed, Christopher A.

116

Global Warming and its Effects on Glaciers  

E-print Network

The addition of more greenhouse gasses to earths atmosphere has been blocking an increased amount of the heat radiated out from the earths surface. This in turn has lead to higher average global temperatures, or global warming. One of the main problems posed by this development is the melting of the earths glaciers. This is problematic because more liquid water will cause the planets sea levels to rise, possibly by as much as 66m if they are completely melted. Other environmental concerns related to melting include changes to mountain habitats and an accelerated water cycle. Although some modeling has shown no serious deterioration of the earths glaciers it is becoming increasingly evident that continued global warming would have serious repercussions on the planets ice. With the increasing acceptance of global warming as an important phenomenon occurring in our environment today, its effects on the natural cycles of the planet are becoming the center of research. One of the most interesting of these topics is the effect of global warming on the earths glaciers. It has been observed that increasing temperatures have and will continue to lead to glacial melting, and that the additional water will lead to a rise in the earths sea levels. The other potential effects of glacial melting are still the subject of controversy but it is becoming clear that natures equilibriums are being altered. Factors such as global warming have been blamed for the melting of the Earths glaciers. The overall global temperature has been increasing due to the greenhouse effect; over the past century the average global temperature has risen by about 0.5-0.6 degrees C (Bernarde, 1992). Around the turn of the century, Swedish chemist and

Andrew Grosvenor; Will Roble; Marcus De Castro

117

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Bruce Allen

118

Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2008-07-01

119

Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change  

SciTech Connect

While ecologists involved in management or policy often are advised to learn to deal with uncertainty, some components of global environmental change are certainly occurring and are certainly human-caused. All have important ecological consequences. Well-documented global changes include: Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; alterations in the biogeochemistry of the global nitrogen cycle; and ongoing land use/land cover change. Human activity - now primarily fossil fuel combustion - has increased carbon dioxide concentrations from [approximately] 280 to 355 [mu]L/L since 1800 and is likely to have climatic consequences and direct effects on biota in all terrestrial ecosystems. The global nitrogen cycle has been altered so that more nitrogen is fixed annually by humanity than by all natural pathways combined. Altering atmospheric chemistry and aquatic ecosystems, contributes to eutrophication of the biosphere, and has substantial regional effects on biological diversity. Finally, human land use/land cover change has transformed one-third to one-half of Earth's ice-free surface, representing the most important component of global change now. Any clear dichotomy between pristine ecosystems and human-altered areas that may have existed in the past has vanished, and ecological research should account for this reality. Certain components of global environmental change are the primary causes of anticipated changes in climate, and of ongoing losses of biological diversity. They are caused by the extraordinary growth in size and resource use of the human population. On a broad scale, there is little uncertainty about any of these components of change or their causes. However, much of the public believes the causes of global change to be uncertain and contentious. By speaking out effectively,the focus of public discussion towards what can and should be done about global environmental change can be shifted. 135 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Vitousek, P.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-10-01

120

Keeping cool on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that

F. Seitz; W. Hawkins; W. Nierenberg; J. Salmon; R. Jastrow; J. H. Moore

1992-01-01

121

Global warming facts, assessment, countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global primary energy consumption amounts to 8.38 billion tonnes oil equivalent (OE) (1996) and is projected to increase by 1.3% per year for the industrialized countries and by up to 9.2% per year for the developing countries. Fossil energy's share was 7.541 billion tonnes OE in 1996 with rising tendency. The order of magnitude of proved reserves of fossil energy

Dagobert G Kessel

2000-01-01

122

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken to protect the human race's only home - Earth. Most studies of global warming have investigated the rates and quantities of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. In this paper, we focus on the Earth's carbon budget and the associated energy transfer between various components of the climate system. This research invokes some new concepts: (i) certain biochemical processes which strongly interact with geophysical processes in climate system; (ii) a hypothesis that internal processes in the oceans rather than in the atmosphere are at the center of global warming; (iii) chemical energy stored in biochemical processes can significantly affect ocean dynamics and therefore the climate system. Based on those concepts, we propose a new hypothesis for global warming. We also propose a revolutionary strategy to deal with global climate change and provide domestic energy security at the same time. Recent ocean exploration indicates that huge deposits of oceanic methane hydrate deposits exist on the seafloor on continental margins. Methane hydrate transforms into water and methane gas when it dissociates. So, this potentially could provide the United States with energy security if the technology for mining in the 200-mile EEZ is developed and is economically viable. Furthermore, methane hydrate is a relatively environmentally benign, clean fuel. Such technology would help industry reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, and thus reduce global warming by harnessing the energy from the deep sea.

Lai, C. A.

2004-12-01

123

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

124

Global warming - uncertainties, effects, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental policy making is a challenging task. Often the scope of an issue is not fully comprehended, and its future impact is even less well understood. Global warming is one of these environmental issues. The issue is made more complex because, first, there is a question of whether it is a problem at all and, second, unilateral policy making by

Ravi K. Jain; Lloyd V. Urban

1998-01-01

125

The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance  

E-print Network

qualitatively using the two concepts: Greenhouse effect: natural, beneficial consequence of an atmosphere Global warming: our (possible) enhancement of the greenhouse effect Two important Definitions #12;Observed increases (arbitrary energy units) Greenhouse Effect 101: Energy from the Sun #12;30 units of energy output

Blais, Brian

126

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Nio phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

127

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A

Norman Myers

1993-01-01

128

Microbial diseases of corals and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the con- sequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleach- ing of Oculina

Eugene Rosenberg; Yael Ben-Haim

2002-01-01

129

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

130

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

131

The economic fundamentals of global warming  

E-print Network

If unpriced emission of greenhouse gases imposes real costs on future generations, both present and future generations can enjoy a higher consumption of economic goods and services through the correction of this unpriced externality, so there is no real economic opportunity cost to mitigation of global warming. The misperception that control of global warming is costly rests on the mistaken assumption that the investment allocation of the world economy without mitigation measures is efficient, but in the presence of an externality the world economy is not on its efficiency frontier. Once the externality is corrected, global warming presents no novel issues of the distribution of economic welfare between generations that are not already inherent in other investment choices. The costs of greenhouse gas mitigation can be shifted to future generations by reducing conventional investment, rather than by reducing current standards of living. This suggests financing investments in greenhouse gas emission, including compensation of current generations for the necessary substitution away from carbon intensive energy, through borrowing. The question of the appropriate intergenerational discount rate to apply to the benefits of greenhouse gas emission mitigation is irrelevant to global warming policy. The relevant question is the marginal value future generations will put on a lower stock of atmospheric greenhouse gases relative to conventional capital. This value should determine the composition of the entire capital stock, including the stock of greenhouse gases, current generations bestow on the future.

Duncan K. Foley

2007-01-01

132

Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report presents results from a national study of what Americans understand about how the climate system works, and the causes, impacts, and potential solutions to global warming. Among other findings, the study identifies a number of important gaps in public knowledge and common misconceptions about climate change.

Anthony Leiserowitz

2013-01-01

133

Response to Skeptics of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the scientific community involved in climate research is convinced of the reality of a current and future global warming due to the greenhouse effect, a change that must be largely caused by human activities. However, a minority of scientists is still skeptical of the notion that mankind is significantly influencing the climate of the earth, and it

William W. Kellogg

1991-01-01

134

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

135

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

136

Going Local with Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial investigates evidence for contemporary climate change by examining multi-year weather, statistical and anecdotal records obtained from several U.S. localities. Learners plot and identify trends in regional weather data, learn the difference between weather and climate, and explore the pedagogic advantages associated with learning about global climate change by examining regional data. Videos describing local phenological data of changing seasonality, data portals, an interview with NASA scientist, Dr. Eric Fetzer, and activities to adapt for middle and high school classrooms are included. Vocabulary are linked to a glossary. This is the third of ten professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

2012-10-18

137

Policies on global warming and ozone depletion  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery of a dramatic seasonal drop in the amount of ozone over Antarctica has catalyzed concern for protection of stratospheric ozone, the layer of gas that shields the entire planet from excess ultraviolet radiation. Conservative scientific models predict about a 5% reduction in the amount of global ozone by the middle of the next century, with large local variations. The predicted global warming from increased emissions of greenhouse gases will also have differing effects on local climate and weather conditions and consequently on agriculture. Although numerous uncertainties are associated with both ozone depletion and a global warming, there is a consensus that world leaders need to address the problems. The US Congress is now beginning to take note of the task. In this article, one representative outlines some perceptions of the problems and the policy options available to Congress.

Green, B.

1987-04-01

138

Global warming and state-corporate crime: the politicalization of global warming under the Bush administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is one of the most significant and difficult issues facing the world today. As result, researchers in a number\\u000a of disciplines have directed their attention to addressing issues relevant to the study of and responses to global warming.\\u000a This has been less true in the social sciences, and especially within specific social sciences such as criminology, in comparison

Michael J. Lynch; Ronald G. Burns; Paul B. Stretesky

2010-01-01

139

A ten-year decrease in plant species richness on a neotropical inselberg:1 detrimental effects of global warming?2  

E-print Network

of global warming?2 3 EMILE FONTY*, CORINNE SARTHOU, DENIS LARPIN§ and JEAN-FRAN?OIS4 PONGE*1 5 6 *Muséum 15 Keywords: aridity, biodiversity loss, global warming, low forest, plant communities, tropical16 probable cause of the observed species disappearance is global warming, which severely28 affected northern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global warming a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6

Gould, Laurence I.

2007-04-01

141

Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.  

PubMed

Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. PMID:23676754

Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

2013-05-16

142

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01

143

The global warming signal is the average of  

E-print Network

The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

Jones, Peter JS

144

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong  

E-print Network

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong Minh.Ha.Duong@cmu.edu CNRS, France HDGC, Carnegie Mellon Possible global warming futures ­ p.1/36 #12;SRES: Forecasts or scenarios? +5.5 C in 2100 the controversy using imprecise probabilities, a more general information theory. . . Possible global warming

145

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

E-print Network

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming William E. Bradshaw observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warm- ing during the latter half- tent with an adaptive evolutionary response to recent global warming. The latter half of the 20th

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

146

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on  

E-print Network

Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

Schmittner, Andreas

147

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

Rust, Bert W.

148

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial  

E-print Network

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Oppenheimer, Michael

149

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming  

E-print Network

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

Bhatt, Uma

150

The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill  

E-print Network

The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

Pratt, Vaughan

151

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-print Network

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

152

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-print Network

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative and updated. This is the most comprehensive review of the radiative efficiencies49 and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

153

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-print Network

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

154

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-print Network

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

155

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1  

E-print Network

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18 observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase shear which reduces U.S. landfalling hurricanes. Whether future global warming increases the vertical

Wang, Chunzai

156

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds  

E-print Network

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds Yoram Yom-Tov Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ( yomtov@post.tau.ac.il) Global warming may a¡ect the physiology in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule

Yom-Tov, Yoram

157

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust  

E-print Network

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

Rust, Bert W.

158

Introduction Climatologists have sounded the clarion call that global warming  

E-print Network

1053 Introduction Climatologists have sounded the clarion call that global warming is causing doubt global warming, the increase in the earth's air temperature over the last 100years seems are to predict the consequences of global warming for animals, we will need to understand how their physiological

Williams, Jos. B.

159

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila  

E-print Network

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

160

Review Article CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

Global warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world, putting millions of people at risk from floods, droughts and lack of drinking water. It is a complex issue full of uncertainties and controversies. This article discusses amongst cause of global warming and consequences of global warming on the environment. Keywords:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Issn Xxxx-xxxx Www. Ijlbpr. Com; Dr. Anjali Goel; Ranjana Bhatt

161

Standing and Global Warming: Is Injury to All Injury to None?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since global warming potentially affects everyone in the world, does any individual have standing to sue the U.S. EPA or other federal agencies to force them to address climate change issues? Suits addressing global warming raise difficult standing questions because some Supreme Court decisions have stated or implied that courts should not allow standing for plaintiffs who file suits alleging

Bradford Mank

2005-01-01

162

Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

163

Global warming and Australian public health: reasons to be concerned.  

PubMed

Studies in global warming and climate change indicate that human populations will be deleteriously affected in the future. Studies forecast that Australia will experience increasing heat waves and droughts. Heat stress caused by frequent heat waves will have a marked effect on older Australians due to physiological and pharmacological factors. In this paper we present an overview of some of the foreseeable issues which older Australians will face from a public health perspective. PMID:20166910

Saniotis, Arthur; Bi, Peng

2009-11-01

164

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1  

E-print Network

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

Fischlin, Andreas

165

Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.  

PubMed

Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. PMID:25051508

Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

2014-08-19

166

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements

Robert A. Ashworth

167

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements confirm

R. A. Ashworth

2008-01-01

168

Will Melting Ice Caps Increase Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity, students will test one aspect of a theory that reduction in the polar caps will speed global warming. They simulate a polar region with pans of water, one painted white to represent a glacier, and one painted black or blue to represent the same area after the ice has melted. They place the covered pans in the sun with water in the bottom, and measure and compare the temperature of the water in the two pans over time. A thermometer is needed in the investigation. The investigation is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

169

Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in a double-cropping cereal rotation as affected by nitrogen and straw management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nitrogen and straw management on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) in a winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system on the North China Plain were investigated. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and studied net GWP (NGWP) and GHGI by calculating the net exchange of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) from greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural inputs and management practices, as well as changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), based on a long-term field experiment established in 2006. The field experiment includes six treatments with three fertilizer N levels (zero N (control), optimum and conventional N) and straw removal (i.e. N0, Nopt and Ncon) or return (i.e. SN0, SNopt and SNcon). Optimum N management (Nopt, SNopt) saved roughly half of the fertilizer N compared to conventional agricultural practice (Ncon, SNcon), with no significant effect on grain yields. Annual mean N2O emissions reached 3.90 kg N2O-N ha-1 in Ncon and SNcon, and N2O emissions were reduced by 46.9% by optimizing N management of Nopt and SNopt. Straw return increased annual mean N2O emissions by 27.9%. Annual SOC sequestration was 0.40-1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in plots with N application and/or straw return. Compared to the conventional N treatments the optimum N treatments reduced NGWP by 51%, comprising 25% from decreasing N2O emissions and 75% from reducing N fertilizer application rates. Straw return treatments reduced NGWP by 30% compared to no straw return because the GWP from increments of SOC offset the GWP from higher emissions of N2O, N fertilizer and fuel after straw return. The GHGI trends from the different nitrogen and straw management practices were similar to the NGWP. In conclusion, optimum N and straw return significantly reduced NGWP and GHGI and concomitantly achieved relatively high grain yields in this important winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system.

Huang, T.; Gao, B.; Christie, P.; Ju, X.

2013-12-01

170

Global warming and the hydrologic cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse warming, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surfaceatmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. This paper examines the current predictive capability of general circulation models linked with macroscale and landscape-scale hydrologic models that simulate regional and local hydrologic regimes under global warming scenarios. Issues concerning hydrologic model calibration and validation in the context of climate change are addressed herein. It is shown that the natural uncertainty in hydrologic regimes in the present climate introduces a signal-to-noise interpretation problem for discerning greenhouse-induced variations in regional hydrologic regimes. Simulations of river basins by means of macroscale hydrologic models nested within general circulation models have been implemented in a few selected cases. From the perspective of water resources management, such simulations, carried out in detail under greenhouse-warming scenarios in midlatitudinal basins of the United States, predict shorter winter seasons, larger winter floods, drier and more frequent summer weather, and overall enhanced and protracted hydrologic variability. All these predictions point to potentially worsening conditions for flood control, water storage, and water supply in areas of semiarid midlatitudinal climate currently dependent of spring snowmelt. Little information of this type is currently available for other areas of the world. Practice of sound water resources engineering principles ought to be adequate to cope with additional hydrologic uncertainty that might arise from global warming.

Loaiciga, Hugo A.; Valdes, Juan B.; Vogel, Richard; Garvey, Jeff; Schwarz, Harry

1996-01-01

171

Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

Somerville, R. C.

2006-12-01

172

GLOBAL WARMING IS LARGE-SCALE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a controversial and CO2 free explanation to global warming and to show that global warming means that large-scale thermal energy storage. Global\\u000a warming is here explained by dissipation of heat from the global use of non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels and nuclear\\u000a power). Resulting net heat is thus released into the atmosphere.

Bo Nordell

173

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

174

Does coral bleaching mean global warming  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the implications of global warming on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.

Miller, J.A.

1991-02-01

175

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

176

Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.

Cazenave, Anny

2014-05-01

177

Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric measurements show that concentrations of several radiatively important gases, greenhouse gases, are changing and growing. Concern about the effects of these changes on climate has centered on carbon dioxide (CO2), because it is an important greenhouse gas, and because its atmospheric concentration is rapidly increasing. However, other gases have contributed to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. The most important of these greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and halons. In this talk we will discuss the orgins of what molecular properties determine that a specific molecule will have a potentially large contribution to global warming.

Lee, Timothy; Francisco, Joseph

2004-03-01

178

Black carbon contribution to global warming  

SciTech Connect

Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

1996-12-31

179

Does Global Warming Influence Tornado Activity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tornadoes and other severe thunderstorm phenomena frequently cause as much annual property damage in the United States as do hurricanes, and often cause more fatalities (see http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml). In 2008, there were 2176 preliminary tornado reports logged through mid-December, with 1600 ``actual counts'' (duplicate reports removed) through September, the highest total in the past half century (Figure 1). The mass media have covered these events extensively, and experts have been deluged with requests for explanations, including possible links to anthropogenic global warming. Although recent research has yielded insight into the connections between global warming and tornado and severe thunderstorm forcing, these relationships remain mostly unexplored, largely because of the challenges in observing and numerically simulating tornadoes. Indeed, a number of questions that have been answered for other climate-related phenomena remain particularly difficult for climate and severe weather scientists, including whether there are detectable trends in tornado occurrence and if so, what causes them. This article explores the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these areas of research.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Trapp, Robert J.; Brooks, Harold

2008-12-01

180

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

2012-10-01

181

Mitigating the anthropogenic global warming in the electric power industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most current and widely discussed factors that could lead to the ultimate end of man's existence and the world at large is global warming. Global warming, described as the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century, is the increase in the average global air temperature near the surface of the Earth, caused by the gases that trap

M. F. Akorede; H. Hizam; M. Z. A. Ab Kadir; I. Aris; S. D. Buba

2012-01-01

182

R&D for technology to solve global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a problem in which the combustion of coal, oil, and other fossil fuels causes the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), to increase. This results in mounting global air temperatures that lead to climatic change. Specifically, global warming will cause a rise in sea levels, changes in the rain-fall patterns, and other problems.

K. Honjo

1996-01-01

183

Ecosystem Warming Affects CO2 Flux in an Agricultural Soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming seems likely based on present-day climate predictions. Our objective was to characterize and quantify the interactive effects of ecosystem warming (i.e., canopy temperature, TS), soil moisture content ('S) and microbial biomass (BM: bacteria, fungi) on the intra-row soil CO2 flux (FS)...

184

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-print Network

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds4599857392 CentAUR #7326E125C47E3E3C7E=472B43!E.E07D4 07D4:BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS. In addition, we provide a comprehensive and self-consistent set of new calculations of REs and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

185

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

Hansen, James

2007-04-01

186

Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on August 30 2000, this 34-page report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) warns that "global warming could fundamentally alter one third of plant and animal habitats by the end of this century, and cause the eventual extinction of certain plant and animal species." According to the report, the danger is greatest in the northern latitudes of Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia, where warming is predicted to be the most rapid, destroying up to 70 percent of habitat. In many other areas it predicts local species loss of up to 20 percent. These predictions are based on "a moderate estimate that concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere will double from pre-industrial levels during this century." However, as the press release notes, some have projected a three-fold increase in concentrations by 2010 unless corrective action is taken. The full text of the report is available in .pdf or Word format at the site, along with an executive summary, conclusions, and discussion of the methods used to create the report.

Malcolm, Jay R.

2000-01-01

187

Global warming and changes in drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recently published studies have produced apparently conflicting results of how drought is changing under climate change. The reason is thought to lie in the formulation of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the data sets used to determine the evapotranspiration component. Here, we make an assessment of the issues with the PDSI in which several other sources of discrepancy emerge, not least how precipitation has changed and is analysed. As well as an improvement in the precipitation data available, accurate attribution of the causes of drought requires accounting for natural variability, especially El Nio/Southern Oscillation effects, owing to the predilection for wetter land during La Nia events. Increased heating from global warming may not cause droughts but it is expected that when droughts occur they are likely to set in quicker and be more intense.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Dai, Aiguo; van der Schrier, Gerard; Jones, Philip D.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Briffa, Keith R.; Sheffield, Justin

2014-01-01

188

The Water Cycle and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baylor University College of Medicine continues to work at a furious pace on their delightful BioEd Online site, and educators everywhere love them for their work and dedication. Recently, they placed this â??ready-to-goâ? lessson on the water cycle and global warming online, and itâ??s a true delight. As with the other lessons in this series, the materials here include a brief description of the lessonâ??s objective, along with information on the intended audience, the materials required to complete the lesson, and so on. Teachers will note that they will need to download a slide set, several activity sheets, and a â??State of the Climate Reportâ? offered from the National Climatic Data Center.

189

Tropical drought regions in global warming and El Nio teleconnections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate model global warming simulations predict large regional changes in tropical rainfall, including regions of drought. Qualitatively similar changes occur during El Nio interannual variability. Using an intermediate climate model, we have identified a mechanism that creates regional reductions in precipitation at the margins of convection zones during warming. In this upped-ante mechanism, a warm troposphere increases the value of

J. D. Neelin; C. Chou; H. Su

2003-01-01

190

Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

Crowley, Thomas J.

2006-02-01

191

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

SciTech Connect

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01

192

From low-flows to floods under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-flows and floods regimes of the Acheloo's river at the Mesochora catchment outfall in Western-Central Greece were analyzed under global warming conditions. The global warming patterns were simulated through a set of hypothetical and monthly GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) downscaled scenarios of temperature increases, coupled with downscaled precipitation changes. The hydrology of the catchment is dominated by

D. Panagoulia

2009-01-01

193

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

194

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley  

E-print Network

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley Climate System Research Center University around the world; express all as anomalies from 1961-90 average #12;#12;Overall trend is upward ("global warming") 9 of the 10 warmest years have occurred since 1990 Greenhouse gas "forcing" became increasingly

Mountziaris, T. J.

195

AN INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR REACTOR AS A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having

Robson Silva da Silva; Farhang Sefidvash

2007-01-01

196

Global warming and the future of Pacific Island countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline the cause of global warming, its trends and consequences as indicated by the International Panel on Climate Change. Sea-level rise is one consequence of particular concern to Pacific Island states. It also reviews the views of economists about connections between economic growth and global warming. Design\\/methodology\\/approach International efforts, such

Clem Tisdell

2008-01-01

197

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken

Chung-Chieng A. Lai; David E. Dietrich; Malcolm J. Bowman

2005-01-01

198

Global Warming and the Future of Pacific Island Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly outlines the cause of global warming, its trends and consequences as indicated by the International Panel on Climate Change. Sea-level rise is one consequence of particular concern to Pacific island states. It also reviews the views of economists about connections between economic growth and global warming. Whereas the majority of economists did not foresee a conflict between

Clement A. Tisdell

2007-01-01

199

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken

C. A. Lai

2004-01-01

200

GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers psychological aspects of global warming and climate change. It begins with a brief consideration of the public and political recognition of global warming and climate change as significant environmental issues. The chapter then turns to a review of the scientific evidence of the causes and consequences of climate change, and some of the issues in psychology that

Taciano L. Milfont

201

Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we utilize content analysis techniques to examine how the issue of global warming and climate change has been characterized during the period of 1992 through 2005 by the Houston Chroniclethe largest regional newspaper in the Texas coastal region. A total of 795 global warming and climate change news articles from the Houston Chronicle are collected, coded and

Xinsheng Liu; Arnold Vedlitz; Letitia Alston

2008-01-01

202

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dryness of terrestrial climate can be measured by the ratio of annual precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET), where the latter represents the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which depends on the surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and available energy. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 transient CO2 increase to 2 CO2 simulations. We show that the (percentage) increase (rate) in P averaged over land is ~1.7%/C ocean mean surface air temperature increase, while the increase in PET is 5.3%/C, leading to a decrease in P/PET (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by ~3.4%/C. Noting a similar rate of percentage increase in P over land to that in evaporation (E) over ocean, we propose a framework for examining the change in P/PET, in which we compare the change in PET over land and E over ocean, both expressed using the Penman-Monteith formula. We show that a drier terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative humidity over land but an increase over ocean, (iii) part of increase in net downward surface radiation going into the deep ocean, and (iv) different responses of PET over land and E over ocean for given changes in atmospheric conditions (largely associated with changes in temperatures). The relative contributions to the change in terrestrial mean aridity from these four factors are about 35%, 35%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. The slight slowdown of the surface wind over both land and ocean has little impact on the terrestrial mean aridity.

Fu, Qiang; Feng, Song

2014-07-01

203

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-print Network

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

204

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

205

Editorial The Global Warming Fight is Bringing Sexy Back, Are You Ready?  

E-print Network

mentioned global warming in 1992, climate change was notglobal warming highly increased awareness of climate changeglobal warming, it made America visualize the potential consequences of climate change.

Jankowska, Marta Maja

2006-01-01

206

Report nixes Geritol fix for global warming  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea ignited a firestorm of controversy that rages on today. While the idea quickly won supporters - including some prominent members of the National Academy of Sciences - much of the oceanographic community was incensed, arguing that you don't tinker with a perfectly health ecosystem to clean up humanity's mess. Now the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) has a report that represents the views of much of the oceanographic community. In the report, released in late summer, ASLO trounces the idea of fertilizing the oceans with iron as a greenhouse fix, as expected. But in an unexpected twist, the society endorses a small-scale experiment in which iron would be added to the open ocean. The idea isn't to engineer the oceans, but to test the hypothesis that might answer one of the longstanding puzzles in biological oceanography: why do the phytoplankton of the Southern Ocean, as well as those in parts of the subarctic and equatorial Pacific, grow so poorly, even though the waters are rich in nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen The answer could shed light not only on how the food web operates, but on the global carbon cycle as well.

Roberts, L.

1991-09-27

207

Microbial diseases of corals and global warming.  

PubMed

Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades. As outbreaks of these diseases are highly correlated with increased sea-water temperature, one of the consequences of global warming will probably be mass destruction of coral reefs. The causative agent(s) of a few of these diseases have been reported: bleaching of Oculina patagonica by Vibrio shiloi; black band disease by a microbial consortium; sea-fan disease (aspergillosis) by Aspergillus sydowii; and coral white plague possibly by Sphingomonas sp. In addition, we have recently discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea. In the case of coral bleaching by V. shiloi, the major effect of increasing temperature is the expression of virulence genes by the pathogen. At high summer sea-water temperatures, V. shiloi produces an adhesin that allows it to adhere to a beta-galactoside-containing receptor in the coral mucus, penetrate into the coral epidermis, multiply intracellularly, differentiate into a viable-but-not-culturable (VBNC) state and produce toxins that inhibit photosynthesis and lyse the symbiotic zooxanthellae. In black band disease, sulphide is produced at the coral-microbial biofilm interface, which is probably responsible for tissue death. Reports of newly emerging coral diseases and the lack of epidemiological and biochemical information on the known diseases indicate that this will become a fertile area of research in the interface between microbial ecology and infectious disease. PMID:12071977

Rosenberg, Eugene; Ben-Haim, Yael

2002-06-01

208

Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage.  

PubMed

Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171

Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

2014-01-01

209

Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage  

PubMed Central

Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171

Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

2014-01-01

210

GLOBAL WARMING AND THE SECURITY OF ATOLL COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that the low-lying atoll-countries of Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Tokelau and Tuvalu are vulnerable to global warming. This article discusses the security implications of global warming for these countries and explores the political issues and policy responses at the global, regional, national and local levels of action. The atoll-countries have been very active in seeking to

Jon Barnett

211

A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming  

SciTech Connect

Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

Timilsina, G.R. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Energy Program

1996-12-31

212

Grazing Effects on Net Global Warming Potential in Mixed Grass Prairie  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantification of global warming potential (GWP) for grassland ecosystems is critically important given their vast geographical extent and inherent capacity to affect the global carbon cycle. Contributions of grassland ecosystems to net GWP, however, are largely unknown. In this study, we sought t...

213

The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition  

PubMed Central

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-01-01

214

Shifts in winter distribution in birds: effects of global warming and local habitat change.  

PubMed

As global warming intensified toward the end of the 20th century, there was a northward shift in winter ranges of bird species in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. These poleward shifts were correlated to local increases in minimum winter temperatures and global temperature anomalies. This evidence, plus other recent results, suggests that during the last two decades global warming has led to massive and widespread biogeographic shifts with potentially major ecological and human consequences. Local habitat changes associated with urban sprawl affected mainly forest birds with more northern winter distributions. In Cape Cod, the effects of warming on bird distributions are more substantial at the start of the 21st century, than those of habitat alteration, but as urban sprawl continues its importance may rival that of global warming. PMID:14703907

Valiela, Ivan; Bowen, Jennifer L

2003-11-01

215

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

PubMed

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller, Charles F

2007-01-01

216

The European climate under a 2?C global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global warming of 2?C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods corresponding to 2?C global warming, describe the range of projected changes for the European climate for this level of global warming, and investigate the uncertainty across the multi-model ensemble. Robust changes in mean and extreme temperature, precipitation, winds and surface energy budgets are found based on the ensemble of simulations. The results indicate that most of Europe will experience higher warming than the global average. They also reveal strong distributional patterns across Europe, which will be important in subsequent impact assessments and adaptation responses in different countries and regions. For instance, a North-South (West-East) warming gradient is found for summer (winter) along with a general increase in heavy precipitation and summer extreme temperatures. Tying the ensemble analysis to time periods with a prescribed global temperature change rather than fixed time periods allows for the identification of more robust regional patterns of temperature changes due to removal of some of the uncertainty related to the global models climate sensitivity.

Vautard, Robert; Gobiet, Andreas; Sobolowski, Stefan; Kjellstrm, Erik; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Watkiss, Paul; Mendlik, Thomas; Landgren, Oskar; Nikulin, Grigory; Teichmann, Claas; Jacob, Daniela

2014-03-01

217

Possible human health impacts of a global warming  

SciTech Connect

Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

1995-03-01

218

Global warming, energy use, and economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by country group and also in response to the levels of factor use. It is found that classifying countries according to the GDP growth rate yields statistically different slope coefficients. Using the estimated translog production function, the capital and labour requirements of reductions in energy use are approximated. Analytical expressions for the elasticity of energy intensity with respect to factor inputs and also autonomous energy efficiency improvements are provided.

Khanna, Neha

219

Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of

Martn R. Bustamante; Jamie A. Consuegra; Michael P. L. Fogden; Pru N. Foster; Enrique La Marca; Karen L. Masters; Andrs Merino-Viteri; Robert Puschendorf; Santiago R. Ron; G. Arturo Snchez-Azofeifa; Christopher J. Still; Bruce E. Young; J. Alan Pounds

2006-01-01

220

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

221

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC`s

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

222

Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that determine the tropical precipitation anomalies under global warming are examined in an intermediate atmospheric model coupled with a simple land surface and a mixed layer ocean. To compensate for the warm tropospheric temperature, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) moisture must increase to maintain positive convective available potential energy (CAPE) in convective regions. In nonconvective regions, ABL moisture is controlled

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin

2004-01-01

223

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

224

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of

G. T. Stone

2006-01-01

225

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-01-01

226

American Generation of Environmental Warnings: Avian Influenza and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalistic reporting of global warming and of avian influenza rose and fell nearly simultaneously in newspapers of the United States, Canada, Britain, Ireland, and Australia. Some international news peaks are reasonably interpreted as American- generated \\

Allan Mazur

227

Can Iron-Enriched Oceans Thwart Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News addresses the possibility of adding iron to ocean systems in order to improve phytoplankton growth, which would remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and decrease global warming via increased photosynthesis.

John Roach

228

In Brief: Public concern about global warming wanes, survey finds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new national survey of the American public's attitude toward global warming has found a sharp decline over the past year in the percentage of Americans who say there is solid evidence that global temperatures are rising. Thirty-six percent of respondents agreed that global warming is because of human activity, an 11% drop from April 2008. The survey, Fewer Americans see solid evidence of global warming; modest support for cap and trade policy, was issued on 22 October by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. The report found that 57% of survey respondents agreed that there is solid evidence the Earth is warming, compared with 71% who agreed with that statement in April 2008, a 14% drop.

Showstack, Randy

2009-11-01

229

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General  

E-print Network

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

Kreinovich, Vladik

230

Waiting to Exhale?: Global Warming and Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the links between energy policy, tax policy and global warming. This article focuses on tax policy, because the emerging consensus among legal scholars favors economic incentives rather than command-and-control regulations for reaching environmental goals, and the Federal income tax has proved an effective delivery system for economic incentives.\\u000aAfter briefly discussing of the science of global warming

Roberta F. Mann

2002-01-01

231

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

2014-11-01

232

Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the united states. Risk Analysis  

E-print Network

Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass publics subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forcesinformedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacyare related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

Paul M. Kellstedt; Sammy Zahran; Arnold Vedlitz

2008-01-01

233

Slowing global warming: benefits for patients and the planet.  

PubMed

Global warming will cause significant harm to the health of persons and their communities by compromising food and water supplies; increasing risks of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases and heat stress; changing social determinants of health resulting from extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and expanding flood plains; and worsening air quality, resulting in additional morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations such as children, older persons, persons living at or below the poverty level, and minorities will be affected earliest and greatest, but everyone likely will be affected at some point. Family physicians can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, stabilize the climate, and reduce the risks of climate change while also directly improving the health of their patients. Health interventions that have a beneficial effect on climate change include encouraging patients to reduce the amount of red meat in their diets and to replace some vehicular transportation with walking or bicycling. Patients are more likely to make such lifestyle changes if their physician asks them to and leads by example. Medical offices and hospitals can become more energy efficient by recycling, purchasing wind-generated electricity, and turning off appliances, computers, and lights when not in use. Moreover, physicians can play an important role in improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by advocating for enforcement of existing air quality regulations and working with local and national policy makers to further improve air quality standards, thereby improving the health of their patients and slowing global climate change. PMID:21842773

Parker, Cindy L

2011-08-01

234

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming  

E-print Network

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

235

Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2  

E-print Network

Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2 , Manish A. Desaia,1 for global warming is its current annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)*. The second most common the causes of global warming, because the amount of global warming occurring at any time is ac- tually due

Silver, Whendee

236

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)  

E-print Network

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

Schecter, Stephen

237

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

E-print Network

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2  

E-print Network

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 Aaron warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn

Battisti, David

239

An investigation of middle school students' alternative conceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because global warming presents a serious potential threat to our biosphere, it is receiving considerable attention by scientists, policy makers, and educators. This article presents alternative conceptions about global warming held by a sample of 24 grade 6 to 8 students. Students completed interviews on global warming approximately two weeks after instruction from a Science?Technology?Society (STS) global warming unit. The

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba; Randall L. Wiesenmayer

1997-01-01

240

Global Warming and Extinctions of Endemic Species from Biodiversity Hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots.

JAY R. MALCOLM; CANRAN LIU; RONALD P. NEILSON; LARA HANSEN; LEE HANNAH

2006-01-01

241

Volcanic Forcing of Global Warming during the Pleistocene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic forcing hypothesis is a new model of global climatic change that may have significance for the history of the Earth and palaeoclimate. The rapid injection of CO2 into the atmosphere during volcanic eruption through underlying massive carbonate appears to trigger global warming through the emission of this greenhouse gas. The record of eruptions (10-20 Kya) of 6 volcanoes

J. E. Ericson

2002-01-01

242

Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward

1991-01-01

243

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation

J. D. Neelin; M. Mnnich; H. Su; J. E. Meyerson; C. E. Holloway

2006-01-01

244

Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach  

PubMed Central

Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario. PMID:21508031

Huertas, I. Emma; Rouco, Mnica; Lpez-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

2011-01-01

245

Global warming: What does the data tell us?  

E-print Network

We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically ? 0.6 o C (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically ? 0.400.01 o C per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702 (errors are statistical only, one standard deviation). The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acceleration of global warming in this period. We conclude that the effect of humankind on global warming up to 1990 is 0.0 0.1 o C. Therefore, contrary to popular belief, the data support the view that human activity has had no significant effect on global warming up to the year 1990 covered by this study. 1

E. X. Albn; B. Hoeneisen

2002-01-01

246

"Category-6" supertyphoon Haiyan in global warming hiatus: Contribution from subsurface ocean warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the extra-ordinary intensity of 170 kts, supertyphoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in November 2013. This intensity is among the highest ever observed for tropical cyclones (TCs) globally, 35 kts well above the threshold (135kts) of the existing highest category of 5. Though there is speculation to associate global warming with such intensity, existing research indicate that we have been in a warming hiatus period, with the hiatus attributed to the La Nia-like multi-decadal phenomenon. It is thus intriguing to understand why Haiyan can occur during hiatus. It is suggested that as the western Pacific manifestation of the La Nia-like phenomenon is to pile up warm subsurface water to the west, the western North Pacific experienced evident subsurface warming and created a very favorable ocean pre-condition for Haiyan. Together with its fast traveling speed, the air-sea flux supply was 158% as compared to normal for intensification.

Lin, I.-I.; Pun, Iam-Fei; Lien, Chun-Chi

2014-12-01

247

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

248

Likely cause found for global warming "hiatus"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Atlantic current may be the cause of the recent warming "hiatus" observed since the beginning of the 21st century, according to new research published last week in the journal Science (doi:10.1126/science.1254937). The conclusion is based on observations of deep-sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, from floats that sample water down to 2000 meters deep and from looking at historical records from the mid- to late 20th century.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

249

Quantifying the likelihood of a continued hiatus in global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the end of the twentieth century, global mean surface temperature has not risen as rapidly as predicted by global climate models (GCMs). This discrepancy has become known as the global warming `hiatus and a variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed slowdown in warming. Focusing on internally generated variability, we use pre-industrial control simulations from an observationally constrained ensemble of GCMs and a statistical approach to evaluate the expected frequency and characteristics of variability-driven hiatus periods and their likelihood of future continuation. Given an expected forced warming trend of ~0.2 K per decade, our constrained ensemble of GCMs implies that the probability of a variability-driven 10-year hiatus is ~10%, but less than 1% for a 20-year hiatus. Although the absolute probability of a 20-year hiatus is small, the probability that an existing 15-year hiatus will continue another five years is much higher (up to 25%). Therefore, given the recognized contribution of internal climate variability to the reduced rate of global warming during the past 15 years, we should not be surprised if the current hiatus continues until the end of the decade. Following the termination of a variability-driven hiatus, we also show that there is an increased likelihood of accelerated global warming associated with release of heat from the sub-surface ocean and a reversal of the phase of decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean.

Roberts, C. D.; Palmer, M. D.; McNeall, D.; Collins, M.

2015-04-01

250

Global warming and amphibian extinctions in eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pounds et al. recently argued that the dramatic, fungal pathogen-linked extinctions of numerous harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.) in upland rainforests of South America mostly occurred immediately following exceptionally warm years,implicating global warming as a likely trigger for these extinctions.I tested this hypothesis using temperature data for eastern Australia, where at least 14 upland-rainforest frog species have also experienced extinctions or

WILLIAM F. LAURANCE

2008-01-01

251

PBS Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of global warming, including related research and policy decisions, together with instructional materials. Includes interactives on rises in temperature and sea level and on comparing vehicles in terms of emissions and fuel costs; a lesson plan on Arctic warming; archived news stories; and links to related PBS features. Some of the archived news stories are available as streaming video, RealAudio as well as text.

252

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

Stone, G. T.

2006-12-01

253

Lay Perceptions of Global RiskPublic Views of Global Warming in Cross-National Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results from a 1992 Gallup survey conducted in six nations (Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Portugal and Russia) that explored public perceptions of global warming in some detail. Overall the results tend to support those of the small-scale but in-depth studies on which the present study built: Lay publics in these six nations see global warming as a

Riley E. Dunlap

1998-01-01

254

Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.  

PubMed

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1C hour(-1), the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40C to 35.4C, while the decrease was more than 10C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T; Morley, Simon A; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E; Peck, Lloyd S

2011-01-01

255

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

PubMed Central

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1C hour?1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 4152C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 3741C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40C to 35.4C, while the decrease was more than 10C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 23C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.; Peck, Lloyd S.

2011-01-01

256

The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.  

PubMed

Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb. PMID:20039819

Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

2009-01-01

257

The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Nio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a naturally occurring fluctuation that originates in the tropical Pacific region and affects ecosystems, agriculture, freshwater supplies, hurricanes and other severe weather events worldwide. Under the influence of global warming, the mean climate of the Pacific region will probably undergo significant changes. The tropical easterly trade winds are expected to weaken; surface ocean temperatures

Mat Collins; Soon-Il An; Wenju Cai; Alexandre Ganachaud; Eric Guilyardi; Fei-Fei Jin; Markus Jochum; Matthieu Lengaigne; Scott Power; Axel Timmermann; Gabe Vecchi; Andrew Wittenberg

2010-01-01

258

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: A stochastic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are subjected to environmental actions affecting their performance, serviceability and safety. Among these actions, chloride ingress leads to corrosion and has been recognized as a critical factor reducing service life of RC structures. This paper presents a stochastic approach to study the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment

E. Bastidas-Arteaga; A. Chateauneuf; M. Snchez-Silva; Ph. Bressolette; F. Schoefs

2010-01-01

259

Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have

R. POULIN

2005-01-01

260

IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER  

E-print Network

IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RAYMOND A. ASSEL US. Department CO, scenariosprovides a preliminaryassessmentof the sensitivity of the Great Lakes ice cover Great Lakes ice cover is important because it affects the economy of the United States and Canada

261

Global Warming Policy and the Pennsylvania Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the impacts of global warming policy have been performed at the national level. However, national averages obscure the fact that some regions may be affected much more than others. We formulated a regional computable general equilibrium model to analyze the impact of a carbon tax on the Pennsylvania economy. The model incorporates special features relating to labor

Ping-Cheng Li; Adam Rose

1995-01-01

262

Sensitivity of evapotranspiration to global warming: a case study of arid zone of Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming due to greenhouse effect is expected to cause major changes in climate of some areas. The change in climate is likely to have a profound effect on hydrological cycle viz. precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture etc. Evapotranspiration (ET) being the major component of hydrological cycle will affect crop water requirement and future planning and management of water resources. In

R. K. Goyal

2004-01-01

263

Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

2012-12-01

264

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

265

Balance as bias: global warming andthe US prestige press $  

E-print Network

This paper demonstrates that US prestige-press coverage of global warming from 1988 to 2002 has contributed to a significant divergence of popular discourse from scientific discourse. This failed discursive translation results from an accumulation of tactical media responses and practices guided by widely accepted journalistic norms. Through content analysis of US prestige press meaning the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, andthe Wall Street Journalthis paper focuses on the norm of balanced reporting, and shows that the prestige presss adherence to balance actually leads to biased coverage of both anthropogenic contributions to global warming andresultant action.

Maxwell T. Boykoff A; Jules M. Boykoff B

2001-01-01

266

How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?  

E-print Network

How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Haifeng Qian Advisor: Prof. Ning IPCC report, global warming was predicted under different CO2 scenarios. Under such warming conditions carbon cycle to the climate system, which means that under the global warming condition, the ecosystem

Maryland at College Park, University of

267

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming,  

E-print Network

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming, local warming. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming during the twentieth century, the lack of seasonality century. This study addresses the statistical relationships of this rise to global warming (IPCC, 2001

Haak, Hein

268

Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations from GPS and GRACE in global warming  

E-print Network

Global warming is affecting our Earth's environment. For example, sea level is rising with thermal expansion of water and fresh water input from the melting of continental ice sheets due to human-induced global warming. However, observing and modeling Earth's surface change has larger uncertainties in the changing rate and the scale and distribution of impacts due to the lack of direct measurements. Nowadays, the Earth observation from space provides a unique opportunity to monitor surface mass transfer and deformations related to climate change, particularly the global positioning system (GPS) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) with capability of estimating global land and ocean water mass. In this paper, the Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations are derived and analyzed from global GPS and GRACE measurements. The fluids loading deformation and its interaction with Earth system, e.g., Earth Rotation, are further presented and discussed.

Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping

2011-01-01

269

Atmospheric impacts of sea ice decline in CO2 induced global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover have important consequences for both Earth's energy budget and atmospheric dynamics. Sea ice acts as a positive feedback in the climate system, amplifying effects of radiative forcing while also affecting the meridional and interhemispheric temperature gradients that can impact mid- and low latitude atmospheric circulation. In this study, we partition and evaluate the effects of changing sea ice cover on global warming using a set of simulations with active and suppressed sea ice response. Two aspects of CO2-induced sea ice changes are investigated: (1) the effect of changing sea ice cover on global and local temperature changes; and (2) the impact of sea ice loss on atmospheric circulation and extreme weather events. We find that in the absence of sea ice decline, global temperature response decreases by 21-37 %, depending on the sea ice treatment and the CO2 forcing applied. Weakened global warming in the absence of changes in sea ice cover is not only due to a decreased high latitude warming but is also a consequence of a weaker tropical warming. In the northern midlatitudes, sea ice decline affects the magnitude and sign of zonal wind response to global warming in the winter and autumn seasons. Presence or absence of sea ice cover impacts the intensity and frequency of winter extreme precipitation and temperature events (temperature minima, number of heavy precipitation days and number of ice days). For some of the analyzed extreme weather indices, the difference between the responses with and without sea ice decline is eliminated when taking into account the amplifying effect of sea ice loss on hemispheric warming. However, in other cases, we find the influence of higher order factors, exerting weaker but opposing effects than those expected from the global temperature increase.

Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken

2015-03-01

270

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a  

E-print Network

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

Baez, John

271

Studying Global Warming in Biosphere 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, two students discuss the greenhouse effect and visit with research scientists at Biosphere 2 in Arizona, who research the effects of global climate change on organisms in a controlled facility. Their current research (as of 2002) focuses on the response to increased quantities of CO2 in a number of different model ecosystems.

Thirteen

272

Is Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Causing Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every knowledgeable scientist will stipulate that global temperatures are rising (0.7^o the last century). There are those that see a universal scientific consensus that atmospheric CO2 is the culprit; they have put in place a cap-and-trade system to forcibly reduce anthropogenic CO2 in the USA. What is the scientific evidence behind this volatile issue?

Peter Glanz

2009-01-01

273

OIL vs. WARMING FOSSIL FUEL SCARCITY WILL NOT SAVE US FROM GLOBAL WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of global warming which will be experienced on the Earth in the next centuries will be constrained by the trajectories of the anthropic fossil fuel consumption as well as by geological fuel availability. An important paper by W. P. Nel and C. J. Cooper (Nel and Cooper, 2009) will appear in Energy Policy (already available online) attempting to

Antonio Zecca; Luca Chiari

274

Mitigation of Global Warming: Policy Options for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased volumes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases released by burning of fossil fuels, land clearing and agriculture, and other activities are the primary sources of the human-induced component of global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) endorsed that the average global temperature had raised 0.6oC 0.2 since the late 19th century and most of

Raghavendra G. Rao

2006-01-01

275

Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the\\u000a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 ^C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it

Michael H. Huesemann

2006-01-01

276

The Value of Human Life in Global Warming Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent article in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change by Fankhauser and Tol makes monetary estimates\\u000a of potential global warming damages that assign higher value to each life lost in wealthy countries as opposed to poor ones.\\u000a Regardless of how much sense such a procedure may make to GDP-oriented economists, it is morally unacceptable to most of the

Philip M. Fearnside

1998-01-01

277

Influence of global warming on coastal infrastructural instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing infrastructure instability is an important issue in relation to the influences of global climate change in\\u000a urban areas. A serious issue pertaining to this is the dual nature of damage triggered by events combined with climate change\\u000a and natural hazards. For example, catastrophic damage could result from the combination of global warming with a great earthquake,\\u000a which is

K. Yasuhara; S. Murakami; N. Mimura; H. Komine; J. Recio

2007-01-01

278

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.740.18¨C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate

S. Shrestha; Y. Hisaki

2007-01-01

279

What are the Consequences of Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this textbook chapter, sea level rise, ocean acidification, storm surge, desertification, ecosystem loss, and extreme weather are all discussed, along with economic and social costs to society. A video clip of NASA scientist, Dr. Tom Wagner, discusses sea level rise. A video discussing pitfalls of statistical analysis and an interactive map of human impacts of climate change are linked. The resource includes a classroom investigation, discussion questions, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 8 in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

2012-09-28

280

The Petition: A Global Warming Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this dilemma case study is to teach students about global climate change. The setting is a faculty meeting where the discussion has turned to a petition circulating in the scientific community against signing the Kyoto Treaty. Students read graphs and interpret data and consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the controversy. The case would be appropriate for use in a variety of courses, including biology, geology, chemistry, physics, meteorology, economics, political science, and ethics.

Bruce C. Allen

2002-01-01

281

Compilation of Ozone Depletion Potentials and Global Warming Potentials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The ozone depletion potentials database (1) contains experimental Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) compiled from the open literature. It is searchable by CAS Registry number, and a lookup table for CAS numbers is provided.

282

States' roles in reducing global warming: Achieving international goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

National governments hold major responsibility for reducing global warming. However, some of the most important efforts to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases must occur at sub-national levels. In federal systems composed of states, as well as unitary systems that impose national policies upon regions, smaller administrative units are involved in energy conservation and end-use efficiency programs, CFC reduction activities,

D. L. Feldman; C. A. Wilt

1994-01-01

283

Public policies against global warming: a supply side approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have pledged to limit global warming by reducing the demand for fossil fuels. But what about supply? If suppliers do not react, demand reductions by a subset of countries are ineffective. They simply depress the world price of carbon and induce the environmental sinners to consume what the Kyoto countries have economized

Hans-Werner Sinn

2008-01-01

284

Impact of global warming on streamflow drought in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in climate modeling suggest that global warming is likely to favor conditions for the development of droughts in many regions of Europe. Studies evaluating possible changes in drought hazard typically have employed indices that are derived solely from climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, whereas many of the impacts of droughts are more related to hydrological variables

Luc Feyen; Rutger Dankers

2009-01-01

285

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of

Longstreth

1993-01-01

286

Desertification in Crete and the Effect of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

By definition the desertification is due to both climatic variation and human impact. The world sees nowadays an increasing global warming period which in its turn has been attributed to heliogenic and\\/or anthropogenic effects. In this paper we report on our first results on a correlation study between Sun activity and the appearance of drought periods in Greece for a

MARIA TSAKONA; VASSILIS GEKAS

287

From Global Warming to Sustainable Transport 19892006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with a review of a 1990 article on the impact of global warming on the transportation infrastructure, this article summarizes the changes in our knowledge of climate change and its impact on transport over the past sixteen years. Although most of the basic scientific knowledge has not changed there has been an increase in our understanding of the potential

William R. Black; Noriyuki Sato

2007-01-01

288

CONTRIBUTIONS REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains analyses about the effects of global warming and climate change. The impacts of climate change may be physical,ecological, social or economic. Evidence of observed climate change includes the increasing temperature, CO2 emissions, droughts, floods, etc. Human activities have contributed to a number of the observed changes in climate. This contribution has principally been through the burning of

Gabriela PRELIPCEAN; Angela Cozorici; Mariana LUPAN

2011-01-01

289

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the

Zekai Sen

2009-01-01

290

Economic Analysis of Global Warming: FEEM's WITCH Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a complex phenomenon. Human activities, such as energy consumption, industrial processes, land use, are re sponsible for emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) that concentrate in the atmosphere. Complex exchanges with the biosphere contribute to an absor ption of GHGs and thus to a natural reduction of concentrations. The rapid incr ease in GHGs emissions into the atmosphere

Valentina Bosetti; Emanuele Massetti; Massimo Tavoni

291

Tropical and subtropical precipitation changes under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even in the latest generation of climate models, there can be striking discrepancies in the anthropogenic changes in rainfall patterns that occur in global warming simulations. This is particularly true of regions of strong precipitation increase and decrease in the tropics and subtropics. An understanding of the causal mechanisms producing these anomalies can aid in assessing these anomalies, including indications

J. Neelin; M. Munnich; H. Su; J. E. Meyerson; C. E. Holloway; K. Hales; O. Peters

2006-01-01

292

Simulated response of North Pacific Mode Waters to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the response of the Mode Waters in the North Pacific to global warming based on a set of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models. Solutions between a present-day climate and a future, warmer climate are compared. Under the warmer climate scenario, the Mode Waters are produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and are

Yiyong Luo; Qinyu Liu; Lewis M. Rothstein

2009-01-01

293

Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming  

E-print Network

interactions and potential changes in ecosystem function that are associated with climate change (3, 4Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming J. O 63121; Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; Yanayacu Biological Station

Coley, Phyllis

294

ATM S 111: Global Warming Review Sheet for Quiz #2  

E-print Network

ATM S 111: Global Warming Review Sheet for Quiz #2 I suggest going, preventing erosion · Ice-albedo feedback o Ice sheets: Greenland and Antarctica § Huge level rise (SLR) · Antarctica would cause 61 m of SLR (east Antarctica

Frierson, Dargan

295

Research in Human Ecology Public Perceptions of Global Warming  

E-print Network

This study explored public perceptions of global warming and the diverse meanings that lay people attribute to the phenomenon. The data came from six weeks of observation of visitors to a special Smithsonian Institution exhibit on global warming. The focus of the fieldwork was to document the meanings that people gave to global warming and related concepts during their tour of the exhibit by recording the comments, questions, and other narrative accounts of the visitors. Six weeks of field research yielded approximately 150 individual observations of visitors interpretations of global warming, energy consumption, the greenhouse effect, nonrenewable resources, pollution, and ozone depletion. Three patterns emerged from the data: a gradient of knowledge with the attentive public falling between the average citizen and those who have become engaged, a catastrophism that represents a reverse availability heuristic, and a belief in the robustness of the biosphere. While each of these have some relation to previous work, it would be useful to see if survey-based or experimental studies confirm these tentative conclusions.

Adam Douglas Henry

296

Forecasting the Effects of Global Warming on Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theory models that group species by habitat (more specifically, by environmental conditions under which a species can

DANIEL B. BOTKIN; HENRIK SAXE; MIGUEL B. ARAJO; RICHARD BETTS; RICHARD H. W. BRADSHAW; TOMAS CEDHAGEN; PETER CHESSON; TERRY P. DAWSON; JULIE R. ETTERSON; DANIEL P. FAITH; SIMON FERRIER; ANTOINE GUISAN; ANJA SKJOLDBORG HANSEN; DAVID W. HILBERT; CRAIG LOEHLE; CHRIS MARGULES; MARK NEW; MATTHEW J. SOBEL; DAVID R. B. STOCKWELL

2007-01-01

297

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

FRONTLINE/NOVA

298

Global Warming on the International Agenda. Teaching Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan that teaches students the links between industrialization and global warming, and analyzes the conflicting values and priorities involved in the debate between economic development and environmental concerns. Students role play delegates from countries attending an environmental conference. Handouts provide background

Keenan-Byrne, Patricia; Malkasian, Mark

1997-01-01

299

Global warming impacts on regional hydrology and water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) outputs for temperature, precipitation, land surface wetness (precipitation less evapotranspiration) and stream flow are analyzed at regional and decadal scales to determine the plausible impacts of global warming on regional hydrology and water resources. Precipitation events and stream flow are analyzed to investigate anticipated changes in the intensity, duration and frequency of

A. R. Ganguly; M. L. Branstetter; K. J. Steinhaeuser; D. J. Erickson; E. S. Parish; N. Singh

2008-01-01

300

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2011-01-01

301

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2012-01-01

302

On the global warming problem due to carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of global warming due to the increased use of fossil fuels is analyzed using a modification of the predator prey equations. The results of the calculation indicate that both the fossil fuels and civilization will both become extinct as time increases.

Karl E. Lonngren; Er-Wei Bai

2008-01-01

303

The Impact of Global Warming on Aquatic Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, almost all climatologists have agreed on that the climate change results from the increase in the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and this comes as a consequence of various human activities. The dissolution of carbon dioxide, which has the largest share among greenhouse gases in terms of contribution in global warming and climate change, in sea water is

Ebru ZDEM; Ahmet ALTINDA

304

Surface Measurements of Global Warming Causing Atmospheric Constituents in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interestin climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of globalwarming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and arenot being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda,since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological

Sung-Nam Oh; Yong-Hoon Youn; Ki-Jun Park; Hee-Kyoung Min; Russell C. Schnell

2001-01-01

305

Global Warming: Are We Confusing Cause and Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writers show that the present-day global warming is not due to the increase in the volume of greenhouse gases, but rather to the increased solar activity. It appears that we are at the rising phase of the latest 8090 year cycle of the solar activity. At the present time, there is no sound justification for the cut in the

LEONID KHILYUK

2003-01-01

306

Global Warming: Are We Confusing Cause and Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writers show that the present-day global warming is not due to the increase in the volume of greenhouse gases, but rather to the increased solar activity. It appears that we are at the rising phase of the latest 80-90 year cycle of the solar activity. At the present time, there is no sound justification for the cut in the

LEONID F. KHILYUK; GEORGE V. CHILINGAR

2003-01-01

307

Global Warming: If You Can't Stand the Heat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global warming is the progressive, gradual rise of the earth's average surface temperature, thought to be caused in part by increased concentrations of "greenhouse" gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's temperature has risen by about one degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated

Baird, Stephen L.

2005-01-01

308

Impact of global warming and climate change on social development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a lot of discussion on global warming and climate change and its implications for social development an area that Mohan has devoted his life to. It is now accepted that climate change is real and its impacts will be felt across different sectors ranging from water resources to industries to social arenas. In

Ashok K. Mishra; Vijay P. Singh; Sharad K. Jain

2010-01-01

309

Seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was administered to students. These data were

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat

2009-01-01

310

Issues of the Global Warming and Climate Change Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the issues of global warming and climate change simulations as a task of the Center for Climate System Research in the COE21 Project. The issues cover better simulation of various feedback processes among atmosphere, ocean, land, and cryosphere, and realistic simulation of physical and chemical condition of the system. One of the goals of the COE21 Project

Teruyuki Nakajima; Masahide Kimoto; Ayako Abe; Hiroyasu Hasumi

311

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach  

E-print Network

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach E the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment including seasonal variations and global warming is also proposed in this work. Three scenarios of global

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Grassland vegetation changes and nocturnal global warming  

PubMed

Global minimum temperatures (TMIN) are increasing faster than maximum temperatures, but the ecological consequences of this are largely unexplored. Long-term data sets from the shortgrass steppe were used to identify correlations between TMIN and several vegetation variables. This ecosystem is potentially sensitive to increases in TMIN. Most notably, increased spring TMIN was correlated with decreased net primary production by the dominant C4 grass (Bouteloua gracilis) and with increased abundance and production by exotic and native C3 forbs. Reductions in B. gracilis may make this system more vulnerable to invasion by exotic species and less tolerant of drought and grazing. PMID:9880257

Alward; Detling; Milchunas

1999-01-01

313

Global Warming and Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this activity, students think about their personal carbon emissions and driving habits. They reflect on what might be done to reduce our carbon emissions, as individuals and as a society as a whole. In the second part of the activity, students calculate how much sea level would rise if a range of ice melting scenarios occur. They then examine topographic maps of local coastlines to see how different regions would be affected under the range of scenarios.

Heather Kokorowski

314

Latitudinal pattern in species diversity and its response to global warming in permafrost wetlands in the Great Hingan Mountains, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permafrost wetlands are one of the most sensitive plant communities in response to global warming. Global warming could induce\\u000a natural plant communities to shift into cooler climate zones, or extirpate. To understand how plant communities in permafrost\\u000a wetlands are affected by global warming, we examined the patterns of plant species diversity in the 24 permafrost wetlands\\u000a in the Great Hingan

J. Sun; X. Z. Li; X. W. Wang; J. J. Lv; Z. M. Li; Y. M. Hu

2011-01-01

315

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

PubMed Central

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582

2011-01-01

316

A dynamic analysis of the global timber market under global warming: an integrated modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a dynamic integrated modeling approach to identify the effect of global warming on the global timber market. The Timber Supply Model 2000, BIOME 3, and Hamburg were used as a suitable economic and ecological model. The TSM 2000 was adopted to model dynamic economic behavior in the global timber market. BIOME 3 was utilized as our steady state

Dug Lee; Kenneth Lyon

2001-01-01

317

A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Timber Market under Global Warming: An Integrated Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a dynamic integrated modeling approach to identify the effect of global warming on the global timber market. The Timber Supply Model (TSM) 2000, BIOME 3, and Hamburg are used as suitable economic and ecological models. In particular, the TSM 2000 is developed to incorporate important additional components in the global timber market. We estimate dynamic ecological change based

Dug Man Lee; Kenneth S. Lyon

2004-01-01

318

An Investigation of Student Engagement in a Global Warming Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOTE: This is a large file, 77 mb in size! This article describes an investigation into how using debate as a pedagogical tool for addressing earth system science concepts can promote active student learning, present a realistic and dynamic view of science, and provide a mechanism for integrating the scientific, political and social dimensions of global environmental change. Using global warming as an example of earth system science, the authors consider how participation in debate provides an avenue for engaging students in science. The investigation draws from studies of school science that focus on the use of argument as a pedagogical tool and examines how students make use of observationally-based climatic data sets when debating the cause of global warming.

2005-01-01

319

The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming  

E-print Network

A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

Sloan, Terry

2011-01-01

320

Global warming solutions and the path to recovery.  

PubMed

We will look back on the last year as a period when extraordinary economic events marked the unraveling of one economic model and placed in front of the global community a set of choices. Either we restructure the architecture of the global economy and replace it with something else, or we face a future of devastating economic consequences. The Blue Green Alliance has become one of America's leading advocates for global warming solutions and we believe that the benefits and economic opportunities will far outweigh the costs. We have popularized the terms "green economy" and "green jobs" and we believe that every job in America should turn into a green job. PMID:19608497

Foster, David

2009-01-01

321

Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers  

SciTech Connect

Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

1994-04-08

322

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

William Lau

323

Satellite Lidar for Global Warming Gas Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change studies require a higher spatial and temporal density of measurements of greenhouse gases to achieve increased precision. Confident predictions based on these models require a better knowledge of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks in order to increase our understanding of the global atmospheric carbon cycle. Space-based observations of CO2 mixing ratios are an efficient way to generate the required database. These orbital observations are needed to define the spatial gradients from which sources and sinks can be quantified and separated from the seasonal fluctuation component. A precision of 1-2 ppmv, which represents 0.5 % of the average ambient concentration of CO2, will be needed. Measurements are primarily needed in the lower and middle troposphere as that is where the gradients arising from sources and sinks will be the largest. To fulfill the need for space-based observations of CO2 mixing ratios, we are pursuing system designs for active satellite-based sensors. These studies suggest that a satellite-borne lidar sensor operating at wavelengths in the near-IR offers real potential for making these measurements in the near future. We review the concepts and technologies for a satellite-borne, all solid-state, differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter for the measurement of column densities of CO2, CH4, and O2. Approaches to sensing CO2 at 1.6 micron and at 2 micron were investigated. A laser transmitter at 1.6 micron offers the additional advantage for remotely sensing CH4. We have also estimated the impact of cirrus clouds on the measurement precision. We have outlined an algorithm for retrieving vertical profile of mixing ratios from the returns at selected wavelength offsets. We have examined several aspects of the lidar system as a whole. We carried out an analysis of the sensor transmitter performance, developed system concepts including a system functional block diagram, and developed mission profile concepts, including type and altitude of orbit.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.; Galica, G. E.; Nakamura, T.; Green, B. D.; Flint, J.; Moulton, P.; Nakajima, H.; Sugimoto, N.

2005-12-01

324

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global  

E-print Network

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC-Watch FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming Tags: Canada, Recycling, Certifier conflict of interest undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming in Pine Falls to manufacture paper with some

325

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

SciTech Connect

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01

326

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

E-print Network

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1uC hour 21, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 4152uC, but this range was narrower and reduced to 3741uC in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40uC to 35.4uC, while the decrease was more than 10uC in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 23uC above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the

Khanh Dung; T. Nguyen; Simon A. Morley; Chien-houng Lai; Melody S. Clark; Koh Siang Tan; A E. Bates; Lloyd S. Peck

2011-01-01

327

Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change Alireza/Democrats are more likely to ex- press personal concern about global warming than are self-identified conservatives

Sukthankar, Gita Reese

328

Global warming and the insurance industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

Berz, G. A.

1992-06-01

329

Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites  

PubMed Central

Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Gnthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

2012-01-01

330

Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.  

PubMed

Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ? 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Gnthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

2012-01-01

331

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems. PMID:19492043

DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

2009-01-01

332

Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change"Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Changeglobal warming potential (GWP) method. GWP is a method to compare the global climate change

Horvath, Arpad

2005-01-01

333

Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.  

PubMed

We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global warming. In stark contrast to the amplified warming observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense warming, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense warming in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The environmental repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529

Rhland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P

2013-12-01

334

Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium  

PubMed Central

We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global warming. In stark contrast to the amplified warming observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense warming, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense warming in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The environmental repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529

Rhland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.

2013-01-01

335

Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

Caplan, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States). Dept. of Economics] [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Economics] [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Economics

1999-05-01

336

Atmospheric impacts of changing sea ice cover in CO2 induced global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover have important consequences for both Earth's energy budget and atmospheric dynamics. Sea ice amplifies the effects of applied radiative forcing, insulates ocean from atmosphere and induces changes in the meridional temperature gradients thus affecting atmospheric motion in several ways. In this study, we partition and evaluate the effect of changing sea ice cover in global warming using sets of simulations with active and suppressed sea ice response. In particular, we investigate the effect of CO2 induced sea ice changes on global circulation response and extratropical precipitation extremes. Importantly, our setup employs the Atmospheric General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean, thus enabling the atmosphere-surface ocean interactions and global atmospheric teleconnections from remote areas. Mid-latitude circulation patterns are found to be most strongly affected by the sea ice changes. In the standard, 'active' ice setup, westerly winds weaken in response to CO2-induced warming. In contrast, in the absence of sea ice response, westerly winds strengthen with global warming. These contrasting wind responses further affect the atmospheric weather patterns and extreme precipitation event development. We identify two opposing roles of sea ice decline on extreme events: (i) a dominant warming effect leads to an increase in the number and strength of extreme events; (ii) a decrease in the pole to equator gradient (a consequence of sea ice loss) acts to temper the development of precipitation extremes due to a decreased midlatitude dry static energy transport.This leads to the conclusion that for the same global temperature increase, the magnitude and frequency of mid-latitude precipitation extremes is smaller when sea ice loss is enabled than when it is suppressed. In general, in the absence of sea ice feedbacks, we find up to 35% less global warming (depending on the simulation type). This is not only due to the smaller high latitude warming but it is also a consequence of a weaker tropical warming. Tropical precipitation changes and cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport anomalies are also weakened in the absence of sea ice loss.

Cvijanovic, I.; Caldeira, K.

2013-12-01

337

The Power of One: Citizen Suits in the Fight Against Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaintiffs seeking compensation from the effects of global warming have encountered challenging legal barriers. Until 2009, courts consistently dismissed global warming suits as political questions or for lack of standing. In Comer v. Murphy Oil USA, property owners along the Mississippi Gulf coast sued oil and energy companies in nuisance for emitting greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming and

Katherine A Guarino

2011-01-01

338

American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'.

D. M. Reiner; T. E. Curry; M. A. de Figueiredo; H. J. Herzog; S. D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

2006-01-01

339

Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards  

E-print Network

Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards Lacerta, Madrid, Spain Abstract Recent global warming threatens many species and has already caused population and individual-based approaches. Keywords: body size, fitness, global warming, life-history trade-offs, lizards

Danchin, Etienne

340

Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously  

E-print Network

Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously information suggest that ethanol is neither clean nor has it been shown that it can slow global warming in the U.S. It will also divert resources from the primary practical solutions to global warming and air

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

341

Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

E-print Network

and Global Warming Brian Blais Science and Technology Department Bryant College bblais@bryant.edu August 29, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming analysis, but is much more intuitive for students. 1 Introduction The topic of global warming is of current

Blais, Brian

342

What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by  

E-print Network

What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by the collective actions rainandozonedepletioninanattempt toconfusethepublicaboutthescience of global warming and delay regula- tion of greenhouse of Engineering,itdiffersfromtheothers in its attitude towards those who deny the reality of global warming, or hu

Robock, Alan

343

Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist  

E-print Network

Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

344

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee  

E-print Network

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

345

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?  

E-print Network

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

Ribes, Aurélien

346

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3  

E-print Network

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

Li, Tim

347

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*  

E-print Network

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model motion, often neglected in interannual variability, is an important thermodynamic term for global warming

Xie, Shang-Ping

348

JP4.21 GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS ON GREAT LAKES WATER: MORE PRECIPITATION BUT LESS WATER?  

E-print Network

JP4.21 GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS ON GREAT LAKES WATER: MORE PRECIPITATION BUT LESS WATER? Brent M of the net effect of global warm- ing, and of other changes in climate on water re- sources can often be more contrasting results derived from different methods for determining the effect of global warming on Great Lakes

349

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) case  

E-print Network

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass ± are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris of chukar partridges Alectoris chukar has changed as a result of global warming. Body mass showed altered their migratory habits and attributed the above phenomena to global warming; Jenkins & Watson

Yom-Tov, Yoram

350

Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED  

E-print Network

354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

California at Berkeley, University of

351

Phase Speed Spectra and the Latitude of Surface Westerlies: Interannual Variability and Global Warming Trend  

E-print Network

, dynamical characteristics. In particular, La Niña, global warming, and the positive phase of annular modes and global warming trends in the midlatitude surface westerlies and the space­time spectra of associated eddy eddies. In response to global warming, the dominant eddies exhibit a trend toward faster eddy phase

Chen, Gang

352

GEOL 110 GLOBAL WARMING Spring Semester 2012 LFG 102, 1:00 2:15pm  

E-print Network

GEOL 110 GLOBAL WARMING Spring Semester 2012 LFG 102, 1:00 ­ 2:15pm Professor: Dr. Matthew Lachniet.lachniet@unlv.edu; Phone: 702-895-4388 Webpage: http://faculty.unlv.edu/lachniet/Global_Warming.html Office Hours: Tuesday/Wednesday 2:30-3:30 pm Textbook/Materials: Climate Change, The science of global warming and our energy

Lachniet, Matthew S.

353

Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas P. Allamano,1  

E-print Network

Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas P. Allamano,1 P. Claps,1 and F. Laio1. Citation: Allamano, P., P. Claps, and F. Laio (2009), Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous the impact of global warming on flood risk in mountainous regions, providing measurable evidence of possible

Poggi, Davide

354

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE  

E-print Network

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

355

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,  

E-print Network

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney

356

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA  

E-print Network

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting Larry Karp 207 Giannini Hall, University of California-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive illustrates the role of hyperbolic discounting in a model of global warming. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights

Karp, Larry S.

357

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Nio versus Global Warming  

E-print Network

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Niño versus Global Warming JIAN LU Pacific. The hydrological impacts of global warming also exhibit distinct patterns over the subtropics response to global warming: 1) The increase in static stability of the subtropical and midlatitude

Chen, Gang

358

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how  

E-print Network

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how vulnerable their own local area is to global warming, thanks to a new report led by UEA. STARDEX, a European Union is taken to reduce human-induced global warming. "Although more research is needed to increase our

Feigon, Brooke

359

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite  

E-print Network

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite minimally contributed $10­30% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1980­2002. Citation: Scafetta, N., and B. J. West (2005), Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using

Scafetta, Nicola

360

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU  

E-print Network

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU Physical Oceanography in global warming are studied using simulations of a climate model in which the freshwater flux changes that the warm climate leads to an acceleration of the global water cycle, which causes freshening in the high

361

Toward a Critical Anthropology on the Impact of Global Warming on Health and Human Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only

Hans A. Baer

2008-01-01

362

Rapid diversification and dispersal during periods of global warming by plethodontid salamanders  

E-print Network

Rapid diversification and dispersal during periods of global warming by plethodontid salamanders that coincided with major global warming events during the late Cretaceous and again during the Paleocene- ously with similar phenomena in angiosperms, arthropods, birds, and mammals. Periods of global warming

Wake, David B.

363

Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes''  

E-print Network

Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes'', Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01706, doi:10, may represent global warming, ENSO-like (including the Pacific decadal oscillation), and the Atlantic

Wang, Chunzai

364

Assessment of global warming impacts on water resources and ecology of a river basin in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming may cause serious problems in the world. However, the influence of water-related factors, such as water resources and basin ecology, due to global warming has not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, a distributed hydrological and environmental model is applied to assess the impacts of global warming on water resources and ecology of the Nagara River in Japan.

Toshiharu Kojiri; Toshio Hamaguchi; Mariko Ode

2008-01-01

365

GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

366

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

SciTech Connect

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

Longstreth, J.

1993-06-01

367

Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming  

SciTech Connect

The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

Lasco, R.D.

1997-12-31

368

Climate and conflicts: the security risks of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007, the securitization\\u000a of global warming has reached a new level. Numerous public statements and a growing research literature have discussed the\\u000a potential security risks and conflicts associated with climate change. This article provides an overview of this debate and\\u000a introduces an assessment framework

Jrgen Scheffran; Antonella Battaglini

2011-01-01

369

Snow: a reliable indicator for global warming in the future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryosphere consists of water in the solid form at the Earths surface and includes, among others, snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Since the 1990s the cryosphere and its components have often been considered as indicators of global warming because rising temperatures can enhance the melting of solid water (e.g. Barry et al 1993, Goodison and Walker 1993,

H-W Jacobi

2012-01-01

370

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

371

Future pattern of Asian drought under global warming scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of global warming on drought patterns over Asia at the end of the twenty-first century\\u000a by a multi-model ensemble method based on daily precipitation data of 15 coupled climate models simulations under SRES A1B\\u000a scenario, thereby assessing the consistency of responses among different models. The projected precipitation climatology was\\u000a translated into the change in drought

Do-Woo Kim; Hi-Ryong Byun

2009-01-01

372

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected\\u000a to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on\\u000a a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are\\u000a assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the

Zekai ?en

2009-01-01

373

The World Watcher Project: The Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn about the scientific factors contributing to the global warming debate. Students act as advisors to the heads of state of several nations and explore the issues as they respond to the various questions and concerns of these leaders. Activities include a combination of physical labs and investigations using World Watcher software, a geographic data visualization tool developed by Northwestern University.

2001-01-01

374

The Global Warming Debate and the Arctic Ice Caps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze two figures: a graph of Arctic sea ice extent in September between 1950 and 2006, and a graph showing poll results for 2006-2009 for percentage of adults that believe there exists scientific evidence for global warming. They will develop linear models for both graphs. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

375

New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which

Courtright

1994-01-01

376

Global warming potential for CF[sub 4  

SciTech Connect

With sufficient emissions, fluorinated gases such as CF[sub 4] could contribute significantly to the concerns about global warming because they are greenhouse gases, are chemically very inert, and have long accumulation lifetimes in the atmosphere. At this time, the only significant known source of CF[sub 4] is primary aluminum smelting (Abrahamson, 1992). While current emissions are small, additional sources could make CF[sub 4] an important contribution to climate forcing in the future.

Wuebbles, D J; Grossman, A S

1992-11-16

377

Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

Cahoon, Donald R.

1997-01-01

378

Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds  

E-print Network

One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

Sloan, T

2010-01-01

379

The impact of global warming on health and mortality.  

PubMed

Initial concern about the possible effects of global warming on infections has declined with the realization that the spread of tropical diseases is likely to be limited and controllable. However, the direct effects of heat already cause substantial numbers of deaths among vulnerable people in the summer. Action to prevent these deaths from rising is the most obvious medical challenge presented by a global rise in temperature. Strategies to prevent such deaths are in place to some extent, and they differ between the United States and Europe. Air conditioning has reduced them in the United States, and older technologies such as fans, shade, and buildings designed to keep cool on hot days have generally done so in Europe. Since the energy requirements of air conditioning accelerate global warming, a combination of the older methods, backed up by use of air conditioning when necessary, can provide the ideal solution. Despite the availability of these technologies, occasional record high temperatures still cause sharp rises in heat-related deaths as the climate warms. The most important single piece of advice at the time a heat wave strikes is that people having dangerous heat stress need immediate cooling, eg, by a cool bath. Such action at home can be more effective than transporting the patient to hospital. Meanwhile, it must not be forgotten that cold weather in winter causes-many more deaths than heat in summer, even in most subtropical regions, and measures to control cold-related deaths need to continue. PMID:15586600

Keatinge, W R; Donaldson, G C

2004-11-01

380

Defining risk, motivating responsibility and rethinking global warming.  

PubMed

This paper breaks with the sociological notion of 'risk society' and argues in favour of a philosophical view that sees the two planetary threats of late modernity, nuclear weapons and global warming, as ultimate challenges to morality and politics rather than risks that we can take and manage. The paper also raises the question of why we should feel responsible for the effects of these two global challenges on future generations and in this sense elaborates on the transgenerational chain of parenthood rather than on considerations of justice. PMID:19798589

Cerutti, Furio

2010-09-01

381

Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests.  

PubMed

African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P

2013-01-01

382

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the clathrate gun hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2 negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

383

National Geographic Map Simulation of Global Warming Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map shows what global environmental problems can arise based on the 2001 IPCC report on climate change. Users can see which problems affect different areas and can click on these areas for more information.

National Geographic

384

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

385

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally increasing temperatures are likely to have impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems that are difficult to manage. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is fundamental to substantiating the discussion on climate mitigation targets and adaptation planning. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL) to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits global warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, our simulations for most climate models agree that up to one-fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate ecosystem change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfil their current emissions reduction pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change, the area potentially at risk of major ecosystem change considering all climate models is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single model.

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-10-01

386

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

387

Global scale energy budget contrast between warm and cold years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution analyses changes to the energy budget of the troposphere associated to global warm anomalies of the Earth surface temperature. This is important for understanding the dynamics of climate change. A phenomenological approach is adopted, comparing coldest and warmest years over the last century. Data are provided by the results of 10 simulations carried out within the ERA-20CM experiment and covering the period 1900-2010. This ensemble is forced by 10 perturbed realizations of SST fields and greenhouse gases concentration time series. Analysis considers the annual mean meridional distribution of zonal mean tropospheric and surface temperature, net downward solar radiation at top of atmosphere and Earth surface, surface heat flux (SHF), consisting of net longwave upward radiation, latent heat and sensible heat vertical fluxes, and outgoing longwave radiation at top of atmosphere (OLR). Differences of these variables between the warmest and coldest years are computed, in order to analyze how the energy budget of the atmosphere is associated to the warming the Earth surface. During warm years, it is observed that tropospheric warming occurs at all latitudes, decreasing at its top, being rather uniform but larger/smaller around the North/South Pole than at the tropics. This is consistent with the overall increase of OLR at all latitudes. Shortwave absorption in the troposphere increases, with a peak around 30 degrees north, as a result of increased net downward solar radiation at the top. The warming of the surface is associated with reduced SHF almost everywhere, particularly at higher latitudes. This combined effect might be interpreted as a reduction of solar reflection by cloud cover and an increased moisture in the lower troposphere, inhibiting evaporation and heat fluxes from the surface, and increasing downward flow of longwave radiation to the surface. Finally, the meridional distribution of residual net energy budget in the troposphere suggests an increased meridional transport toward high latitudes, as well as a more intense energy loss to the surface and to outer space

Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

2014-05-01

388

Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the clean development mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested.

Philip M. Fearnside

1999-01-01

389

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well?  

E-print Network

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Reto Knutti1 global surface warming so well?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL034932. 1 models reproduce the observed surface warming better than one would expect given the uncertainties

Fischlin, Andreas

390

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?  

E-print Network

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

Limpasuvan, Varavut

391

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming Qiang Fu1,2  

E-print Network

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming Qiang Fu1,2 and Song Feng3 1 College. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative

Hochberg, Michael

392

A brief history of climate the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming  

E-print Network

1 A brief history of climate ­ the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming maritime climate ­ from the Last Glacial Maximum through to the projected global warming of the 21st understanding of past, present, and projected future climate change in the northern seas region. Warm and cold

Drange, Helge

393

Global warming: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat  

SciTech Connect

A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global warming could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global warming, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and environmental necessity for out nation, and for our earth.

Not Available

1989-09-01

394

Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene  

PubMed Central

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf StreamNorth Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cdric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

395

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL) to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, most climate models agree that up to one fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfill their current emissions pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change the area potentially at risk of severe ecosystem change considering all AOGCMs is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single AOGCM.

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-05-01

396

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Part 1, Progress report  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ``Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature``. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

397

Independent confirmation of global land warming without the use of station temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confidence in estimates of anthropogenic climate change is limited by known issues with air temperature observations from land stations. Station siting, instrument changes, changing observing practices, urban effects, land cover, land use variations, and statistical processing have all been hypothesized as affecting the trends presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others. Any artifacts in the observed decadal and centennial variations associated with these issues could have important consequences for scientific understanding and climate policy. We use a completely different approach to investigate global land warming over the 20th century. We have ignored all air temperature observations and instead inferred them from observations of barometric pressure, sea surface temperature, and sea-ice concentration using a physically based data assimilation system called the 20th Century Reanalysis. This independent data set reproduces both annual variations and centennial trends in the temperature data sets, demonstrating the robustness of previous conclusions regarding global warming.

Compo, Gilbert P.; Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.; Whitaker, Jeffrey S.; Brohan, Philip; Jones, Philip D.; McColl, Chesley

2013-06-01

398

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%  

E-print Network

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same warming since the mid-20th century" (IPCC, Assessment Report 5, AR5), then surely

Lovejoy, Shaun

399

Ongoing Global Warming and Local Warm Extremes: a Case Study of Winter 2006-2007 in Helsinki, Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2006 and March 2007 were both record warm in large parts of northern Europe. Here we focus on temperatures observed in Helsinki, Finland, and study whether these mild winter months can be interpreted just as an extreme of natural variability or whether they should be regarded as a symptom of the ongoing global warming. A regression analysis suggests that

Jouni Risnen; Leena Ruokolainen

2008-01-01

400

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Chris Fox

401

Global warming mitigation potential of biogas plants in India.  

PubMed

Biogas technology, besides supplying energy and manure, provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reducing global warming through substituting firewood for cooking, kerosene for lighting and cooking and chemical fertilizers. A study was undertaken to calculate (1) global warming mitigation potential (GMP) and thereby earning carbon credit of a family size biogas plant in India, (2) GMP of the existing and target biogas plants in the country and (3) atmospheric pollution reduction by a family size biogas plant. The GMP of a family size biogas plant was 9.7 t CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and with the current price of US $10 t( - 1) CO(2) equiv., carbon credit of US $97 year( - 1) could be earned from such reduction in greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism (CDM). A family size biogas plant substitutes 316 L of kerosene, 5,535 kg firewood and 4,400 kg cattle dung cake as fuels which will reduce emissions of NOx, SO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere by 16.4, 11.3, 987.0 and 69.7 kg year( - 1), respectively. Presently 3.83 million biogas plants are operating in the country, which can mitigate global warming by 37 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1). Government of India has a target of installing 12.34 million biogas plants by 2010. This target has a GMP of 120 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and US $1,197 million as carbon credit under the CDM. However, if all the collectible cattle dung (225 Mt) produced in the country is used, 51.2 million family size biogas plants can be supported which will have a GMP of 496 Mt of CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and can earn US $4,968 million as carbon credit. The reduction in global warming should encourage policy makers to promote biogas technology to combat climate change and integration of carbon revenues will help the farmers to develop biogas as a profitable activity. PMID:18843544

Pathak, H; Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Mohanty, S; Gupta, Navindu

2009-10-01

402

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.  

PubMed

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m C(-1) and 1.2 m C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-08-20

403

Global warming, drought events, and GPP performance (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first decade of the 21st century was the warmest decade recorded since the start of modern measurements in 1850, according to a new report on July 3, 2013 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Global warming may now be exacerbating droughts in the world, and leading to more reduction in crop production, plant growth and hence carbon fixation, and further warming climate. How do we quantify the relationship between drought event and ecosystem performance? Here, we developed a method called 'perfect-deficit approach' and a local dryness index based on eddy-flux measurements. We applied these concepts and mathematical method to remote sensing observations (MODIS) to examine the world ecosystem performance in the first decade of 21st century and identify the associated climate extremes. The initial results show that the deficits of ecosystem performances in lower latitudes were caused mainly by drought events, while at high latitudes cold/warm events also exert substantial influences on ecosystem performances, particularly in spring season. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83)

Yi, C.; Jensen, K.; Wei, S.; Hendrey, G.

2013-12-01

404

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE TRIGGERED BY GLOBAL WARMING A POSITION PAPER FROM THE CENTER FOR INQUIRY  

E-print Network

for this material to be shared for noncommercial, educational purposes, provided that this notice appears on the reproduced materials, the full authoritative version is retained, and copies are not altered. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the Center for Inquiry, Inc. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE TRIGGERED BY GLOBAL WARMING EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This paper will offer compelling evidence from a large body of research that global climate change caused by global warming is already underway and requires our immediate attention. The research in question appears in refereed scientific literature, and most of it reflects a broad consensus of the worldwide climatology community. The principal points of this position paper are summarized below and are considered in detail, with supporting references, in the text that follows. Convincing evidence that the Earths climate is undergoing significant, and in some cases alarming, changes has accumulated rapidly in recent years, especially during the past three decades.

unknown authors

405

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

406

Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming  

PubMed Central

The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35C and 1.13C, respectively, for the period 19792003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

2004-01-01

407

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation anomalies). Models agree on the overall amplitude of the precipitation decreases that occur at the margins of the convective zones, with percent error bars of magnitude similar to those for the tropical warming. Similar agreement is found on a precipitation climate sensitivity defined here and on differential moisture increase inside and outside convection zones, a step in a hypothesized causal path leading to precipitation changes. A measure of local intermodel agreement on significant trends indicates consistent predictions for particular regions. Observed rainfall trends in several data sets show a significant summer drying trend in a main region of intermodel agreement: the Caribbean/Central-American region. PMID:16606851

Neelin, J. D.; Mnnich, M.; Su, H.; Meyerson, J. E.; Holloway, C. E.

2006-01-01

408

Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.  

PubMed

Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flrke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

2014-03-01

409

Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change  

PubMed Central

Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flrke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

2014-01-01

410

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives: The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods: We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented

Gowri Koneswaran; Danielle Nierenberg

2008-01-01

411

Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions and makes a 1.5 deg C target far more difficult to achieve than a 2 deg C target. For example, one credible 1.5 deg C scenario requires average total emission reductions of ~15% per year, well above the rate that is considered feasible. Limiting warming to 2 deg C requires an immediate start to mitigation, with emissions peaking in c. 2020 and absolute emission reduction rates of ~3% per year. Such a reduction is considered economically feasible, although historical absolute emission reduction rates from 1990 - 2010, which reflect the net of carbon intensity decline and economic growth, have only reached ~1% per year in a few EU countries such as Denmark and Germany. Delaying the start of mitigation rapidly increases the required absolute emission reduction rates and moves the 2 deg C goal beyond the realm of economic feasibility. A later start of mitigation or lower absolute emission reduction rates would lead to warming of 3 to 4 deg C. For example, a 3 deg goal could be achieved with emission reductions of 0.7% per year and emissions peaking in c. 2030. Current national pledges, as analyzed by both UNEP and IEA, still allow for growth in emissions of >1% per year and therefore do not meet the requirements of any of the temperature targets.

Lea, D. W.

2011-12-01

412

Global Warming: Energy, Environmental Pollution, and the Impact of Power Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global energy consumption is dramatically increasing due to our quest for a higher standard of living and the increasing world population. Most of our energy comes from fossil fuels, and burning these fuels causes environmental problems, and in particular, the global warming problem. Global warming raises the sea level; brings drought in tropical regions near the equator; increases hurricanes, tornadoes,

BIMAL K. BOSE

2010-01-01

413

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming  

E-print Network

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

414

Effect of increased fire activity on global warming in the boreal forest  

E-print Network

REVIEW Effect of increased fire activity on global warming in the boreal forest France Oris, Hugo on global warming by calculating the radiative forcing of several factors by 2100 in the boreal region, possibly changing the effect of fires on climate change to a positive feedback that would exacerbate global

Asselin, Hugo

415

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

John Michael Williams

2000-01-01

416

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

417

Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

418

Vulnerability of Lake Tahoe (CA-NV) mixing patterns in response to global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological-driven processes exert large and diverse impacts on lakes internal heating, cooling and mixing. Thus, lakes' mixing pattern and ecosystem will likely be affected with continued global warming and climate change. The impact of climate change on Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada) was investigated here as a case study of climate change effects on the physical processes occurring within the lake. Climate

G. B. Sahoo; G. Schladow; J. E. Reuter

2008-01-01

419

The Effects of Global Warming on the Mining Industry: Issues, Tradeoffs & Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global warming has become one of the primary topics of environmental concern in recent years. The source of this concern arises\\u000a from confusion and uncertainty over exactly what global warming entails, where and to what degree it will occur, what the\\u000a implications of global warming are in terms of physical effect, climate change, weather patterns, and the resultant economic\\u000a and

H. Stuart Burness; Wade E. Martin

420

Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

2007-05-01

421

Snow: a reliable indicator for global warming in the future?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryosphere consists of water in the solid form at the Earth's surface and includes, among others, snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Since the 1990s the cryosphere and its components have often been considered as indicators of global warming because rising temperatures can enhance the melting of solid water (e.g. Barry et al 1993, Goodison and Walker 1993, Armstrong and Brun 2008). Changes in the cryosphere are often easier to recognize than a global temperature rise of a couple of degrees: many locals and tourists have hands-on experience in changes in the extent of glaciers or the duration of winter snow cover on the Eurasian and North American continents. On a more scientific basis, the last IPCC report left no doubt: the amount of snow and ice on Earth is decreasing (Lemke et al 2007). Available data showed clearly decreasing trends in the sea ice and frozen ground extent of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the global glacier mass balance. However, the trend in the snow cover extent (SCE) of the NH was much more ambiguous; a result that has since been confirmed by the online available up-to-date analysis of the SCE performed by the Rutgers University Global Snow Lab (climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover/). The behavior of snow is not the result of a simple cause-and-effect relationship between air temperature and snow. It is instead related to a rather complex interplay between external meteorological parameters and internal processes in the snowpack. While air temperature is of course a crucial parameter for snow and its melting, precipitation and radiation are also important. Further physical properties like snow grain size and the amount of absorbing impurities in the snow determine the fraction of absorbed radiation. While all these parameters affect the energy budget of the snowpack, each of these variables can dominate depending on the season or, more generally, on environmental conditions. As a result, the reduction in SCE in spring and summer in the NH was attributed to faster melting because of higher air temperatures, while the winter months (December to February) saw an increase in the SCE due to increased precipitation (Lemke et al >2007). Cohen et al (2012) confirmed these opposing effects in the SCE and showed that on the Eurasian continent the average SCE in October has increased by approximately 3 106 km2 in the last two decades; a growth of almost 40%, corresponding to roughly 1.5 times the area of Greenland. For the same period, Cohen et al (2012) found a negligible trend in the average temperatures above the continents of the NH for the winter months despite a significant increase in the annual mean temperature for the same regions. Cohen et al (2012) propose the following link between temperatures and snow: the reduced sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and the enhanced air temperatures in fall cause higher evaporation from the Arctic Ocean, leading to increased tropospheric moisture in the Arctic. More moisture results in more snowfall over the Eurasian continent, increasing the SCE. The increased snow cover strengthens the Siberian High, a strong anticyclonic system generally persistent between October and April. This system is strong enough to affect weather patterns in large parts of the NH, resulting in changes in the large-scale circulation of the NH (Panagiotopoulos et al 2005). As a result, outbreaks of cold Arctic air masses into the mid-latitudes are more frequent, leading to low temperatures over the eastern part of North America and Northern Eurasia. According to Cohen et al (2012), these are exactly the same regions that have experienced a cooling trend in the winter temperature over the past twenty years. While this chain of events is plausible (and some are confirmed by observations), existing climate models are not yet capable of reproducing these processes. On the contrary, Cohen et al (2012) showed that they predict a slightly decreasing SCE in October for Eurasia and an increase in winter temperatures over the continents in the NH. This is not surprising because the simu

Jacobi, H.-W.

2012-03-01

422

Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 ?m wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 ?m band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document major sub-glacial eruptions that occurred during DO 0, A, and 1 (11.6, 13.1, and 14.6 ka) and similar but less well dated activity at least over the past million years. Massive melting of a thick ice sheet by volcanoes would decrease overburden pressure on the magma chambers, potentially increasing volcanism. Continued basaltic eruptions over decades enhanced by such a feedback c8ould explain why the intervals between DO events (1300 to 8800 years) are more random than cyclic and the evidence for sudden influxes of fresh water into the North Atlantic documented during DO events. Concentrations of sulfate in Greenland were as high from 1928 to 1985 as during the largest DO event. Trace element analysis shows this sulfate came from smoke stacks in northern Russia, Europe, and central North America. Observed levels of SO2, NO_{x}, tropospheric O$_{3} and black carbon are more than sufficient to have been the primary cause of 20th century global warming. Efforts to reduce acid rain by reducing emissions of these pollutants "accidentally" slowed global warming by 1998. Mean global surface temperatures have remained high but have not increased since then.

Ward, P. L.

2011-12-01

423

The relationship between global warming, local warming in the Netherlands and changes in circulation in the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature in De Bilt in the Netherlands has risen by 1K over the 20th century. This rise parallels the rise in global temperature quite closely, albeit with a slightly higher amplitude. A linear relationship between the two, with a regression coefficient close to one, is an obvious first-order approximation. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming

G. J. van Oldenborgh; A. van Ulden

2003-01-01

424

ATM S 211 Climate and Climate Change Prof. David Catling EXAMPLES OF MISINFORMATION FROM GLOBAL WARMING DENIERS  

E-print Network

in great detail in the IPCC report. The IPCC consensus concluded: - There was a global warming trend warming. Kuwaiti Foundation funded Balling's skeptic book on global warming. Prof. Richard Lindzen (MIT) Mostly has his own scientific reasons for "opposing" global warming. But 1991 trip to Senate hearings

Catling, David C.

425

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE  

E-print Network

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

426

Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Many physiological responses in present-day coral reefs to climate change are interpreted as consistent with the imminent disappearance of modern reefs globally because of annual mass bleaching events, carbonate dissolution, and insufficient time for substantial evolutionary responses. Emerging evidence for variability in the coral calcification response to acidification, geographical variation in bleaching susceptibility and recovery, responses to past climate change, and potential rates of adaptation to rapid warming supports an alternative scenario in which reef degradation occurs with greater temporal and spatial heterogeneity than current projections suggest. Reducing uncertainty in projecting coral reef futures requires improved understanding of past responses to rapid climate change; physiological responses to interacting factors, such as temperature, acidification, and nutrients; and the costs and constraints imposed by acclimation and adaptation. PMID:21778392

Pandolfi, John M; Connolly, Sean R; Marshall, Dustin J; Cohen, Anne L

2011-07-22

427

A set of experiments to understand global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set of experiments addressed to pupils from the age of 14 to teach the basic causes and effects of global warming. Through ten experiments conducted in turns by the pupils themselves, they will understand the physics, biology and chemistry of the main issues linked to the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. More specifically, the hand-made, low-cost material, allow the students to discover and experiment the science of the greenhouse effect, sea level rise, ocean circulation, ocean acidification, species relocation and extinction, differential heating according to the albedo, carbon cycle, and photosynthesis. Technical notes give background theory input. All the experiments can easily be reproduced.

Bouquelle, Veronique; Bauwens, Anne; De Bont, Adele; Kivits, Sandrine; Marbaix, Philippe

2014-05-01

428

Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

429

Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals.  

PubMed

Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

Garcia-Solache, Monica A; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-04-01

430

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

431

More hurricanes to hit Western Europe due to global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a very high resolution global climate model (~25 km grid size) with prescribed sea surface temperatures we have investigated the change in the occurrence of hurricane-force (> 32.6 m/s) storms over Western Europe due to climate change. The results show a large increase during early autumn (Aug-Oct). The majority of these storms originate as a tropical cyclone. Using SST sensitivity experiments we have tested the hypothesis that the increase is due to the rise in Atlantic tropical SST thereby extending eastwards the breeding ground of tropical cyclones, yielding more frequent and intense hurricanes following pathways directed towards Europe. En route they transform into extra-tropical depressions and re-intensify after merging with the mid-latitude baroclinic unstable flow. Detailed analysis indicates that the development of a warm seclusion is the main mechanism for the re-intensification and that the hurricane winds are caused by a sting jet.

Haarsma, Reindert; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel; de Vries, Hylke; Ster, Andreas; Bintanja, Richard; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Brink, Henk; Baatsen, Michiel

2014-05-01

432

Parental overwintering history affects the responses of Thlaspi arvense to warming winters in the North  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwintering conditions of northern plants are expected to change substantially due to global warming. For perennial plants, winter warming may increase the risk of frost damage if the plants start dehardening prematurely. On the other hand, evergreen plants may remain photosynthetically active and thereby benefit from milder winters. The positive and negative effects of mild winters on annual plants

Timo Saarinen; Robin Lundell; Helena strm; Heikki Hnninen

2011-01-01

433

Climate feedback analysis of the GFDL IPCC AR4 global warming simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both observed and modeled global warming pattern shows a large surface polar warming and a large upper atmospheric warming in the tropics. This pattern leads to an amplification (reduction) of the temperature gradient at upper levels (surface). Physical processes behind this temperature change are the external radiative forcing, and subsequent feedback processes that may amplify or dampen the climate response.

Christelle Clemence Castet

2009-01-01

434

Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases  

SciTech Connect

Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

1996-12-31

435

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.

2007-04-01

436

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets*  

E-print Network

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions of recent warming of these regions in global heat and sea level budgets. The authors 1) compute warming produces a 0.053 (60.017) mm yr21 increase in global average sea level and the deep warming south

Johnson, Gregory C.

437

Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of emerging threats to global food security.

Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

2009-01-01

438

GLOBAL WARMING IN THE ERA OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

Global warming is the result of human activity. It is manifested in an increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected continuing increase in the temperature. According to the scientists estimate, if the concentration of CO2 reaches 400 ppm, we can expect the temperature rise at the global level by 2 C. If the concentration reached 550 ppm, still can be avoided disaster scenarios. However, if it reaches 750 ppm, the disaster scenarios are inevitable. Increase of 2 C would result in sea level rise and ocean for a few meters. Forecasts and expert team of UN World Meteorological Organization are that there may be an increase in temperature of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees by the end of this century, and that, even if we manage to curb emissions of carbon dioxide, the temperature will continue to rise over the next 100 to 300 years, since the gases remain in the atmosphere for a long time.

Zorka Jugovi? Phd; Danijela Pecarski Msc; Aleksandar Peuli? Phd; Branka Jordovi? Phd; Zoran Jevremovi? Msc

439

Impact of global warming on the Asian winter monsoon in a coupled GCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian winter monsoon (AWM) response to the global warming was investigated through a long-term integration of the transient greenhouse warming with the ECHAM4\\/OPYC3 CGCM. The physics of the response was studied through analyses of the impact of the global warming on the variations of the ocean and land contrast near the ground in the Asian and western Pacific region

Zeng-Zhen Hu; Lennart Bengtsson; Klaus Arpe

2000-01-01

440

Diadromous fish conservation plans need to consider global warming issues: An approach using biogeographical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the European diadromous fish species are endangered and listed in the habitats fauna and flora directive, the bern convention and the IUCN Red List. Current conservation plans do not address global warming issues and consider the 1900 distribution range as the reference without taking into account the potential re-distribution of these species under global warming. However, for other

Graldine Lassalle; Mlanie Bguer; Laurent Beaulaton; Eric Rochard

2008-01-01

441

Future African Water Resources: Interactions between Soil Degradation and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a well-established water balance methodology to evaluate the relative impact of global warming and soil degradation due to desertification on future African water resources. Using a baseline climatology, a GCM global warming scenario, a newly derived soil water-holding capacity data set, and a worldwide survey of soil degradation between 1950 and 1980, four climate and soil degradation

Johannes J. Feddema

1999-01-01

442

Forest decline of the world: A linkage with air pollution and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various forest declines and forest health conditions have been described for forest ecosystems throughout the world. The connection to global warming and air pollution is clear in some area, but not in others. In this study, some evidences that support or contradict air pollution and global warming being causal factors in reported cases of decline in Eastern North America, Central

Su Young Woo

2009-01-01

443

The Understandings of Global Warming and Learning Styles: A Phenomenographic Analysis of Prospective Primary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, statements by prospective primary school teachers such as "I think the word global warming ..." or "I think the term global warming means ..." were analyzed by using qualitative phenomenographic research methods. 142 female (48.3%) and 152 male (51.7%) primary school teacher candidates (n = 294) participated in the study. Moreover,

Demirkaya, Hilmi

2008-01-01

444

Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica  

E-print Network

Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around determining the future ice shelf­ocean interaction by ana- lyzing global warming experiments in a coarse Antarctica Tore Hattermann ? Anders Levermann Received: 28 January 2009 / Accepted: 25 July 2009 / Published

Levermann, Anders

445

Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means of assessing the relative impact of different renewable energy technologies on global warming has been developed. All power plants emit thermal energy to the atmosphere. Fossil fuel power plants also emit CO2 which accumulates in the atmosphere and provides an indirect increase in global warming via the greenhouse effect. A fossil fuel power plant may operate for some

Ian Edmonds; Geoff Smith

2011-01-01

446

Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C  

E-print Network

LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below risks, impacts and damages1,2 . However, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions corresponding to a specified

Imamoglu, Atac

447

Options for controlling the global-warming impact from motor vehicles. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great deal of interest in the subject of global warming and potential ways to mitigate the impacts of emissions that contribute to global warming. The paper discusses ways to formulate approaches that could be involved in a regulatory program for control of carbon dioxide emissions from cars and light trucks.

R. M. Heavenrich; J. D. Murrell; K. H. Hellman

1989-01-01

448

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date

P. D. Fairchild; S. K. Fischer

1991-01-01

449

Beyond Global Warming: Interacting Ecocrises and the Critical Anthropology of Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human health is at growing risk due to the multiple climatic effects of global warming. More importantly, it is becoming evident that individual ecocrises are not independent phenomenon but are entwined with and contribute to the intensification of other environmental predicaments. In light of a range of imagined futures that share a narrative about global warming that posits the existence

Merrill Singer

2009-01-01

450

Which came first building cooling loads or global warming? a cause and effect examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

While weather changes from day to day, climate change occurs on a time scale far in excess of a human lifetime. Climate had been changing dramatically even before humans evolved on Earth. Notwithstanding this, there is evidence supporting an accelerated global warming trend over the last century. Scientists agree that much of the global warming can be attributed to increases

L O Degelman

2002-01-01

451

The PollsTrends: Twenty Years of Public Opinion About Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractOver the past 20 years, there have been dozens of news organization, academic, and nonpartisan public opinion surveys on global warming, yet there exists no authoritative summary of their collective findings. In this article, we provide a systematic review of trends in public opinion about global warming. We sifted through hundreds of polling questions culled from more than 70 surveys

Matthew C. Nisbet; Teresa Myers

2007-01-01

452

CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Diet for a Greenhouse Planet: A Citizen's Guide for Slowing Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide discusses the global warming issue and offers a plan to facilitate a decrease in the emissions of the major greenhouse gases in the United States, including those under the control of individual citizens. A letter from the organization's president describes its involvement with the global warming issue. A brief overview presented in the

DeCicco, John; And Others

453

Territorial Manifestations of the Economical Influence Areas of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic space is structured by the relationship between the anthropogenic and economic factors, with a dynamical evolution defined by the financial flows around the world and technology evolution. The global warming and the climate change are two different processes associated on the planet, due to different etiologies: the global warming is produced principally by anthropogenic effects, whereas the climate change

Y. G. Garcia Lopez; J. A. Perez-Peraza; V. M. Velasco Herrera

2007-01-01

454

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming.  

PubMed

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH(4) emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO(2) by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO(2) fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH(4)/y to 41-70 Tg CH(4)/y, with increases due to CO(2) fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH(4) flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

Koven, Charles D; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-09-01

455

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

PubMed Central

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68Pg to a 27+-7Pg sink to 4+-18Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25+-3 to 85+-16PgC, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62+-7PgC loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34TgCH4/y to 4170TgCH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-01-01

456

Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

Warner, L.; Henson, R.

2004-05-01

457

Do disease cycles follow changes in weather? Researchers ponder global warming`s effect on the carriers of human illness  

SciTech Connect

Two years ago, Mother Nature one-upped an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee big time. In 1991, the committee had wracked its collective brains to come up with a plausible epidemic scenario for a report on disease emergence. The team finally settled on a potential southern US outbreak of yellow fever, a well-known African viral disease carried by mosquitoes. The idea was realistic, if not particularly imaginative. Yellow fever is an old problem. Shortly after the report on microbe-induced epidemics was released, Mother Nature displayed tremendous creativity. In the spring of 1993, a mysterious virus began killing young people in the Southwest. The culprit turned out to be a previously unrecognized strain of hantavirus, which causes a deadly respiratory disease. Emerging from its natural host, the common deer mouse, the hantavirus strain affected at least 131 people. Half died. Today, emerging viruses have shocked the public and sent scientists searching for causes of epidemics and factors that determine how serious disease outbreaks might be be. One factor gaining attention climate. To learn how global warming might affect mosquitoes, mice and other microbe carriers, biologists are studying diseases within an environmental context. This article discusses the work in this area and some of the results, speculations, and future areas of interest.

Brown, K.S.

1996-07-01

458

Atmospheric degradation and global warming potentials of three perfluoroalkenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vapour phase reactions of perfluoropropene, CF 3?CF?CF 2, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene, CF 2?CF?CF?CF 2, with OH, NO 3 and O 3 were studied at 2984 K and 7405 Torr using long-path FT-IR detection. The reactions with ozone are very slow, kCF 3CFCF 2+O 3=(6.21.5)10 -22 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+O 3=(6.50.2)10 -21 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1, and upper limits of 310 -15 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1 are reported for the NO 3 reaction rate coefficients. The OH reaction rate coefficients were determined as kCF 3CFCF 2+OH =(2.60.7)10 -12 and kCF 2CFCFCF 2+OH =(1.10.3)10 -11 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1; perfluoropropene gave a nearly quantitative yield of CF 3CFO and CF 2O as organic products, while perfluorobuta-1,3-diene gave from 130% to 170% of CF 2O. A chemistry transport model was applied to calculate the atmospheric distributions and lifetimes of the perfluoroalkenes; the global and yearly averaged lifetimes were calculated as 1.9 day for C 2F 4 and C 4F 6 and 6 days for C 3F 6. Quantitative infrared cross-sections of perfluoroethene, perfluoropropene, and perfluorobuta-1,3-diene have been obtained at 298 K in the region 100-2600 cm -1. Radiative forcing calculations have been performed for these gases assuming either constant vertical profiles or the distribution derived from the chemistry transport model. The results show that the Global Warming Potentials are totally negligible for these compounds.

Acerboni, G.; Beukes, J. A.; Jensen, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Myhre, G.; Nielsen, C. J.; Sundet, J. K.

459

High-resolution peatland photos show change with global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As global average temperatures rise, vast tracks of peatland currently encased in permafrost will be affected. As the ground thaws, peatlands will evolve in either of two directions. Along one path, land that was previously propped up by supportive permafrost subsides, forming a shallow basin that fills with watera thermokarst lake. In the new lake, peat undergoes anaerobic bacterial decay, releasing methane to the environment. Alternatively, permafrost thawing can result in lake drainage. In the drained lake beds, fen vegetation and mosses can grow, drawing down atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The prevalence of these two processes, and their relationship to changing temperatures, remains an important question in understanding the consequences of permafrost thaw on the global carbon cycle.

Schultz, Colin

2011-11-01

460

LA MONTAGNE : UNE VOIE D'ADAPTATION AU CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE ? MOUNTAIN : A WAY FOR ADAPTATION TO GLOBAL WARMING?  

E-print Network

TO GLOBAL WARMING? Etienne DELAY1,* , Fabio ZOTTELE2 , Hervé QUENOL3 , Giorgio DEROS4 1 Laboratoire GEOLAB be set up through agent based modeling. Key words: Agent Based Modeling, landscape, global warming

Brest, Université de

461

Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

Stevens, Jeanne

2007-05-01

462

Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

463

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

2008-10-01

464

Atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of a perfluoropolyether.  

PubMed

Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) are a family of perfluorinated fluids used mainly in industrial applications. Lower molecular weight commercial PFPE fractions have boiling points ranging between 55 and 270 degrees C, and have the potential to escape into the atmosphere. To improve our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of PFPEs, a distilled fraction of a commercial mixture containing perfluoropolymethylisopropyl ethers (PFPMIEs) was introduced into an atmospheric chamber system. Relative rate techniques were used to determine upper limits for the rate constants for reactions of OH and Cl with PFPMIE in 700 Torr of air at 296 K. The reactivity of PFPMIE with Cl was less than 2 x 10(-17) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), while the reactivity with OH was less than 6.8 x 10(-16) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), indicating low reactivity in the troposphere. Consequently, the lifetime of PFPMIE should be limited bytransport to the mesosphere, where photolysis by Lyman-alpha radiation at 121.6 nm will be efficient. By analogy to perfluorinated alkanes, the lower limit for the total atmospheric lifetime is 800 years. PFPMIE was shown to have instantaneous radiative forcing of 0.65 W m(-2) ppb(-1), which corresponds to a global warming potential on a 100 year time scale of 9000 relative to CO2 and 1.95 relative to CFC-11. PMID:16646459

Young, Cora J; Hurley, Michael D; Wallington, Timothy J; Mabury, Scott A

2006-04-01

465

Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often interpolated or extrapolated to give an indication of the likelihood of a certain event within a given period or interval. Under changing climatic conditions, the statistical properties of climate extremes are also changing. It is an important scientific goal to predict how the properties of extreme events change. To achieve this goal, observational and model studies aimed at revealing important features are a necessary prerequisite. Notable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms that influence climate variability and extremes in many parts of the globe including Europe. However, some of the recently observed unprecedented extremes cannot be fully explained from the already identified forcing factors. A better understanding of why these extreme events occur and their sensitivity to certain reinforcing and/or competing factors is useful. Understanding their basic form as well as their temporal variability is also vital and can contribute to global scientific efforts directed at advancing climate prediction capabilities, particularly making skilful forecasts and realistic projections of extremes. In this thesis temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe and Africa, respectively, are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of the extremes, their predictability and their likely response to global warming. The focus is on some selected seasons when extremes typically occur. An atmospheric energy budget analysis for the record-breaking European Autumn 2006 event has been carried out with the goal to identify the sources of energy for the extreme event. Net radiational heating is compared to surface turbulent fluxes of energy and dynamic horizontal advection of heat. There is clear evidence that the central North Atlantic Ocean was the major source of energy for the Autumn 2006 extreme event. Within Europe, anomalously high atmospheric water-vapor loading played a significant role through its strong greenhouse effect which resulted in an increase of downwelling infrared flux to the surface. Potential influences and connections between boreal snow cover during the melt season (February--April) and near-surface temperature in the spring season are established. Large amounts of snow act as a precursor to cold spring seasons by altering the coupling between the land and the overlying air through a modification of the surface energy and hydrological processes. In operational numerical models, a snow signal is found to provide some seasonal forecast skill for cold spring seasons in Europe. Changes in the intensity of droughts and floods in Africa in response to global warming are investigated and compared with changes in mean precipitation simulated by an ensemble of climate models selected from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report (AR4) set. The model simulations are objectively combined using a Bayesian weighting procedure. In southern Africa south of about 15 S, the most robust climate-change signal is a shortening of the main rainfall season. This arises from a delayed onset of seasonal rainfall associated with a reduction in lower-tropospheric moisture advection from the southwestern Indian Ocean. The semi-arid areas closer to the Kalahari desert are projected to become drier, while the wet areas are projected to become wetter. East Africa is projected to get wet in the future climate, much wetter than other regions within the same latitudinal belt. The zonal asymmetry in tropical precipitation increase is associated with a shift towards positive Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM)-like events via an alteration in the structure of the Eastern Hemisphere Walker circulation.

Shongwe, M. E.

2010-01-01

466

Satellite-based estimate of global aerosol-cloud radiative forcing by marine warm clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in aerosol concentrations affect cloud albedo and Earth's radiative balance. Aerosol radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present due to the effect of atmospheric aerosol levels on the micro- and macrophysics of clouds bears the largest uncertainty among external influences on climate change. Of all cloud forms, low-level marine clouds exert the largest impact on the planet's albedo. For example, a 6% increase in the albedo of global marine stratiform clouds could offset the warming that would result from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Marine warm cloud properties are thought to depend on aerosol levels and large-scale dynamic or thermodynamic states. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of multiple measurements from the A-Train constellation of Earth-observing satellites, to quantify the radiative forcing exerted by aerosols interacting with marine clouds. Specifically, we analyse observations of co-located aerosols and clouds over the world's oceans for the period August 2006-April 2011, comprising over 7.3 million CloudSat single-layer marine warm cloud pixels. We find that thermodynamic conditions--that is, tropospheric stability and humidity in the free troposphere--and the state of precipitation act together to govern the cloud liquid water responses to the presence of aerosols and the strength of aerosol-cloud radiative forcing.

Chen, Yi-Chun; Christensen, Matthew W.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Seinfeld, John H.

2014-09-01

467

Climate sensitivity of tropical and subtropical marine low cloud amount to ENSO and global warming due to doubled CO2  

E-print Network

Climate sensitivity of tropical and subtropical marine low cloud amount to ENSO and global warming of tropical and subtropical marine low cloud amount to ENSO and global warming due to doubled CO2, J. Geophys-level clouds can markedly offset or amplify the global warming due to increasing greenh

Bretherton, Chris

468

Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming  

E-print Network

Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming)-like variability to global warming varies comparatively between the two different climate system models, i are reduced in the eastern equatorial Pacific under global warming, which erodes the thermo- cline feedback

Noh, Yign

469

In Proceedings of the 76th American Meteorological SocietyMeetings,January 1996. STUDENT CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING: A COLLABORATIVENETWORK-SUPPORTED ECOLOGICALLYHlERARCHIC GEOSCIENCES CURRICULUM Schoolof Education and SocialPolicy Evanston, Illinois 60208 1. INTRODUCTION A five week global warming. WHY GLOBALWARMING? The controversyaround global warming has been growing over the past few decades

Boyer, Edmond

470

Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+  

E-print Network

Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney

471

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the  

E-print Network

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised impact of NT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP) determined by fluxes of the three is essential to realize the full benefit from carbon storage in the soil for purposes of global warming

Six, Johan

472

WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming  

E-print Network

WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

Baez, John

473

Partial Response to the London Channel 4 Film "The Great Global Warming Swindle" Carl Wunsch 11 March 2007  

E-print Network

Partial Response to the London Channel 4 Film "The Great Global Warming Swindle" Carl Wunsch 11" or that with global warming Britain would go into a "new ice age" are either scientifically impossible or so unlikely---which is that global warming is both real and threatening. Many of us feel an obligation to talk to the media---i

Wunsch, Carl

474

The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas: A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility

Jon A. Krosnick; Allyson L. Holbrook; Laura Lowe; Penny S. Visser

2006-01-01

475

Global Warmings Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation Analysis (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the first rules of effective communication is to know thy audience. People have different psychological, cultural and political reasons for acting - or not acting - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change educators can increase their impact by taking these differences into account. In this presentation we will describe six unique audience segments within the American public that each responds to the issue in its own distinct way, and we will discuss methods of engaging each. The six audiences were identified using a nationally representative survey of American adults conducted in the fall of 2008 (N=2,164). In two waves of online data collection, the publics climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, values, policy preferences, conservation, and energy-efficiency behaviors were assessed. The data were subjected to latent class analysis, yielding six groups distinguishable on all the above dimensions. The Alarmed (18%) are fully convinced of the reality and seriousness of climate change and are already taking individual, consumer, and political action to address it. The Concerned (33%) - the largest of the Six Americas - are also convinced that global warming is happening and a serious problem, but have not yet engaged with the issue personally. Three other Americas - the Cautious (19%), the Disengaged (12%) and the Doubtful (11%) - represent different stages of understanding and acceptance of the problem, and none are actively involved. The final America - the Dismissive (7%) - are very sure it is not happening and are actively involved as opponents of a national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigating climate change will require a diversity of messages, messengers and methods that take into account these differences within the American public. The findings from this research can serve as guideposts for educators on the optimal choices for reaching and influencing target groups with varied informational needs, values and beliefs.

Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

2009-12-01

476

Predicting Global Warming Impacts on Regional Water Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As climate warms during the 21st century, resultant changes in water availability are an extremely important issue for society, perhaps even more important than the magnitude of warming itself. In this paper, we use the results from different climate model simulations to calculate changes in regional water availability. We examine the possibilities and problems associated with these calculations, focused

Jennifer Alltop Aminzade; David Rind

477

The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible,

Ahmed Boucenna

2008-01-01

478

Global warming prolongs the thermal stratification of dimictic lake Mondsee.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pre-alpine Lake Mondsee is situated at the northern margin of the European Alps (47 49N, 13 24E) in the Salzkammergut lake district of Upper Austria at a sea level of 481 m. The lake has a surface area of 14,21 km and a maximum water depth of 68 m (volume is 500 Mio m and theoretical water retention time is 1,8 years). Sediment samples confirm oligotrophic conditions as historical reference status of the lake. From 1970 to 1985 the lake suffered from severe eutrophication leading to cyanobacterial blooms (Planctothrix rubescens). Reduction of nutrient load in the course of improved sewage treatment resulted in re-oligotrophication from 1985 to about 2000. Currently, lake Mondsee is assessed mesotrophic and the biological quality elements "phytoplankton" and "macrophytes" classify the lake in the "moderate ecological status". According to the Water Framework Directive, a key initiative throughout the EU, the aim is to improve water quality and reach the "good ecological status". Temperature data of the Lake have been measured since the 30ies of the last century in varying intervals. In the present study (1991 - 2009) water temperature measured at the deepest point of the lake shows an increase in average surface temperature (0 - 5 m) of about 2 C over the last two decades. The increase is less pronounced in deeper water layers and almost not visible below 15 m depth. Due to global change and rising temperatures stratification is starting earlier in the season and is prolonged from formerly end of November to the middle or even end of December. Thus, between 1999 and 2011 in several years the stratification period was extended for 5 weeks. During stratification oxygen depletion occurs in the depth of lakes and prolonged stratification results in increased areas of oxygen depletion. The oxygen concentration controls the phosphorus release of lake sediments. Therefore prolonged stratification results in increased internal phosphorus load of the lake. Global warming may thus enhance internal eutrophication and lead to problems reaching and sustaining the "good ecological status" of prealpine lakes.

Blatterer, Hubert; Luger, Martin

2013-04-01

479

Germination Shifts of C3 and C4 Species under Simulated Global Warming Scenario  

PubMed Central

Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies. PMID:25137138

Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

2014-01-01

480

Global Warming Pattern Formation: Sea Surface Temperature and Rainfall  

E-print Network

Spatial variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall changes over the tropics are investigated based on ensemble simulations for the first half of the 21st century under the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario A1B with coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Despite a GHG increase that is nearly uniform in space, pronounced patterns emerge in both SST and precipitation. Regional differences in SST warming can be as large as the tropical mean warming. Specifically, the tropical Pacific warming features a conspicuous maximum along the equator and a minimum in the southeast subtropics. The former is associated with westerly wind anomalies while the latter is linked to intensified southeast trade winds, suggestive of wind-evaporation-SST feedback. There is a tendency for a greater warming in the northern than southern subtropics in accordance with asymmetries in trade wind changes. Over the equatorial Indian Ocean, surface wind anomalies are easterly, the thermocline shoals and the warming is reduced in the east, indicative of Bjerknes feedback. In the midlatitudes, ocean circulation changes generate narrow banded structures in SST warming. The warming is negatively correlated with wind speed change over

Shang-ping Xie; Clara Deser; Gabriel A. Vecchi; Jian Ma; Haiyan Teng; Andrew T. Wittenberg

2009-01-01

481

Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the inclusion of science-technology-society (STS) education in social studies. Provides background information on global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer. Focuses on reasons for teaching global climate change in the social studies classroom and includes teaching suggestions. Offers a list of Web sites about global climate

Rye, James A.; Strong, Donna D.; Rubba, Peter A.

2001-01-01

482

Recent weakening of northern East Asian summer monsoon: A possible response to global warming  

E-print Network

of the surface air temperature (SAT) averaged over the Lake Baikal region (45 ­65 N, 80 ­130 E) defined as SATI that the global warming is likely responsible for the local warming around the Lake Baikal, which in turn weakens

Wang, Bin

483

June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are  

E-print Network

June 1998 GPS WORLD 33 Global warming and greenhouse gases are familiar terms of late, spurred the earth's surface, counteracting, to an extent, the warming associated with increas- ing greenhouse gases and at the University of Hawaii. In this article, we will discuss the T R A C K I N G evolution of our smart balloon

Businger, Steven

484

Drought in the Western US and Floods in China: Pacific Response to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional response to increased warming due to greenhouse forcing is of vital interest and is only now beginning to be explored. . The Pacific Ocean plays an important role in modulating regional climate in many parts of the world at interannual to decadal time-scales; the response of the Pacific to global warming is thus important to any future climate predictions.

Y. Asmerom; V. Polyak; S. Burns; J. Rasmussen

2007-01-01

485

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies. Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs

S. K. Fischer; P. J. Hughes; P. D. Fairchild; C. L. Kusik; J. T. Dieckmann; E. M. McMahon; N. Hobday

1991-01-01

486

The greenhouse effect: Chicken Little and our response to global warming  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author suggests that global warming studies are ambiguous and have generated a chicken little response in the public and in policymakers. Uncertainties in studies of ocean warming and ozone depletion are discussed as well as the role of other trace gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

Michaels, P.J.

1989-07-01

487

Vegetation's affect on summer warming may not last  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of vegetation on surface temperatures was analyzed using satellite measurements of surface greenness in the summer and snow extent in the winter. Results confirmed previous research that found that enhanced vegetation leads to cooler surface temperatures but they also indicate that this mechanism for slowing global climate change may not be effective for much longer because a 3-5 degree Celsius temperature increase my harm vegetation growth.

Kaufmann et al.

488

Global warming enhances sulphide stress in a key seagrass species (NW Mediterranean).  

PubMed

The build-up of sulphide concentrations in sediments, resulting from high inputs of organic matter and the mineralization through sulphate reduction, can be lethal to the benthos. Sulphate reduction is temperature dependent, thus global warming may contribute to even higher sulphide concentrations and benthos mortality. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to sulphide stress. Hence, if concentrations build up with global warming, this key Mediterranean species could be seriously endangered. An 8-year monitoring of daily seawater temperature, the sulphur isotopic signatures of water (?(34)S(water)), sediment (?(34)SCRS ) and P. oceanica leaf tissue (?(34)S(leaves)), along with total sulphur in leaves (TS(leaves)) and annual net population growth along the coast of the Balearic archipelago (Western Mediterranean) allowed us to determine if warming triggers P. oceanica sulphide stress and constrains seagrass survival. From the isotopic S signatures, we estimated sulphide intrusion into the leaves (F(sulphide)) and sulphur incorporation into the leaves from sedimentary sulphides (SS(leaves)). We observed lower ?(34)S(leaves), higher F(sulphide) and SS(leaves) coinciding with a 6-year period when two heat waves were recorded. Warming triggered sulphide stress as evidenced by the negative temperature dependence of ?(34)S(leaves) and the positive one of F(sulphide), TS(leaves) and SS(leaves). Lower P. oceanica net population growth rates were directly related to higher contents of TS(leaves). At equivalent annual maximum sea surface water temperature (SST(max)), deep meadows were less affected by sulphide intrusion than shallow ones. Thus, water depth acts as a protecting mechanism against sulphide intrusion. However, water depth would be insufficient to buffer seagrass sulphide stress triggered by Mediterranean seawater summer temperatures projected for the end of the 21st century even under scenarios of moderate greenhouse gas emissions, A1B. Mediterranean warming, therefore, is expected to enhance P. oceanica sulphide stress, and thus compromise the survival of this key habitat along its entire depth distribution range. PMID:24123496

Garca, Rosa; Holmer, Marianne; Duarte, Carlos M; Marb, Nria

2013-12-01

489

Changes in atmospheric eddy length with the seasonal cycle and global warming  

E-print Network

A recent article by Kidston et al. [8] demonstrates that the length of atmospheric eddies increases in simulations of future global warming. This thesis expands on Kidston et al.'s work with additional studies of eddy ...

Mooring, Todd A

2011-01-01

490

Potential impacts of global warming on the diversity and distribution of stream insects in South Korea.  

PubMed

Globally, the East Asian monsoon region is one of the richest environments in terms of biodiversity. The region is undergoing rapid human development, yet its river ecosystems have not been well studied. Global warming represents a major challenge to the survival of species in this region and makes it necessary to assess and reduce the potential consequences of warming on species of conservation concern. We projected the effects of global warming on stream insect (Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera [EOPT]) diversity and predicted the changes of geographical ranges for 121 species throughout South Korea. Plecoptera was the most sensitive (decrease of 71.4% in number of species from the 2000s through the 2080s) order, whereas Odonata benefited (increase of 66.7% in number of species from the 2000s through the 2080s) from the effects of global warming. The impact of global warming on stream insects was predicted to be minimal prior to the 2060s; however, by the 2080s, species extirpation of up to 20% in the highland areas and 2% in the lowland areas were predicted. The projected responses of stream insects under global warming indicated that species occupying specific habitats could undergo major reductions in habitat. Nevertheless, habitat of 33% of EOPT (including two-thirds of Odonata and one-third of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) was predicted to increase due to global warming. The community compositions predicted by generalized additive models varied over this century, and a large difference in community structure in the highland areas was predicted between the 2000s and the 2080s. However, stream insect communities, especially Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were predicted to become more homogenous under global warming. PMID:24372690

Li, Fengqing; Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Kwon, Tae-Sung; Park, Young-Seuk

2014-04-01

491

Eocene global warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced global warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (~65-34million years (Myr) ago). The most extreme hyperthermal was the ~170 thousand year (kyr) interval of 5-7C global warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary carbon

Philip F. Sexton; Richard D. Norris; Paul A. Wilson; Heiko Plike; Thomas Westerhold; Ursula Rhl; Clara T. Bolton; Samantha Gibbs

2011-01-01

492

Scenario analysis of global warming using the Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) is a large-scale model for scenario analyses of green-house gas (GHG) emissions and the impacts of global warming in the Asian Pacific region. The AIM comprises two main models the AIM\\/emission model for predicting GHG emissions and the AIM\\/impact model for estimating the impacts of global warming which are linked by the

Mikiko Kainuma; Tsuneyuki Morita

1995-01-01

493

Impact of global warming on seasonal variations of net precipitation in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of global warming on seasonal variations of net precipitation in polar regions, comparing IPCC simulations with ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA40). IPCC simulations from 5 models (MRI, MIROC-hires, MIROC-medres, GISS and ECHAM) are used. To assess the impact of global warming, the difference between climate of the 20th Century experiment (20C3M) and 720 ppm stabilization experiment (SRES

K. Oshima; K. Yamazaki

2006-01-01

494

Does global warming induce segregation among alien and native beetle species in a mountain-top?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few centuries have seen an increase in the mean air temperature of the planet, a phenomenon that is called global\\u000a warming. One of the most sensitive habitats to the effects of global warming is the high-elevation mountain environments,\\u000a because these habitats are characterized by low temperature. Cushion plants are one of the best-adapted growth forms in this\\u000a habitat,

Marco A. Molina-Montenegro; Ral Briones; Lohengrin A. Cavieres

2009-01-01

495

Japanese Strategies for Global Warming Issues and Energy Conservation in Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, which was called climate change in Chapter 10, is caused by anthropogenic actions. Gases causing global warming\\u000a are called green house gases (GHG), and the most significant GHG is carbon dioxide (CO2). In fact, enormous amounts of CO2 have been emitted since the 19th century from the activities of human beings, for instance, industry, transportation and the utilization

Yuzo Sakamoto

496

Ecosystem change in the western North Pacific associated with global warming using 3D-NEMURO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a 3D ecosystem-biogeochemical model based on NEMURO (North Pacific Ecosystem Model Used for Regional Oceanography) and applied it to the western North Pacific in order to predict the effects of global warming on ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemical cycles. Using datasets of observed climatology and simulated fields according to a global warming scenario, IS92a (CO-AGCM developed by CCSR\\/NIES) as

Taketo Hashioka; Yasuhiro Yamanaka

2007-01-01

497

Global warming vs. climate change, taxes vs. prices: Does word choice matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does climate change seem like a less serious problem than global warming to Americans and Europeans? Does describing the\\u000a costs of climate change mitigation in terms of higher taxes instead of higher prices reduce public support for such efforts?\\u000a In an experiment embedded in an American national survey, respondents were randomly assigned to rate the seriousness of global\\u000a warming, climate

Ana Villar; Jon A. Krosnick

2011-01-01

498

Global warming is predicted to drive almost 40% of lizard populations extinct by 2080 (Sinervo et al. 2010). In Phoenix, AZ, urban heat island (UHI) "hot spots" greatly exceed global warming predictions.  

E-print Network

Global warming is predicted to drive almost 40% of lizard populations extinct by 2080 (Sinervo et al. 2010). In Phoenix, AZ, urban heat island (UHI) "hot spots" greatly exceed global warming. Nelson, and L. Musacchio. 2002. Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks

Hall, Sharon J.

499

The impact of global warming on the range distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata.  

PubMed

The ectothermic nature of reptiles makes them especially sensitive to global warming. Although climate change and its implications are a frequent topic of detailed studies, most of these studies are carried out without making a distinction between populations. Here we present the first study of an Aspidoscelis species that evaluates the effects of global warming on its distribution using ecological niche modeling. The aims of our study were (1) to understand whether predicted warmer climatic conditions affect the geographic potential distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata and (2) to identify potential altitudinal changes of these groups under global warming. We used the maximum entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt) to project the potential distributions expected for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 under a single simulated climatic scenario. Our analysis suggests that some climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata will exhibit reductions and in others expansions in their distribution, with potential upward shifts toward higher elevation in response to climate warming. Different climatic groups were revealed in our analysis that subsequently showed heterogeneous responses to climatic change illustrating the complex nature of species geographic responses to environmental change and the importance of modeling climatic or geographic groups and/or populations instead of the entire species' range treated as a homogeneous entity. PMID:23215975

Gizado-Rodrguez, Martha Anah; Ballesteros-Barrera, Claudia; Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Barradas-Miranda, Victor Luis; Tllez-Valds, Oswaldo; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaas Hazarmabeth

2012-12-01

500

Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Changes in the type and prevalence of human diseases have occurred during shifts in human social organization, for example, from hunting and gathering to agriculture and with urbanization during the Industrial Revolution. The recent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases appears to be driven by globalization and ecological disruption. We propose that habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribu