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1

Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An overview of current research results discusses if global warming has affected Atlantic hurricane activity. This review, sponsored by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), incorporates recent published findings, presents statistical relationships, and analysis of hurricane records and model simulations of greenhouse warming effects. Related links for supporting research and studies including simulations and climate modeling are available.

2012-11-28

2

Global Warming?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

1994-01-01

3

Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)|

Hileman, Bette

1989-01-01

4

The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.  

PubMed

This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. PMID:22486296

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2012-04-04

5

Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was created as a presentation for a fuel cell training seminar at Hocking College. The presentation covers the basics of global warming, how human behavior has impacted our environment and the change using renewable fuels can have. This document may be downloaded in Power Point file format.

2012-10-08

6

Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface

John Houghton

2005-01-01

7

EPA Global Warming Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Extensive website discussing all aspects of global warming. Discover what global warming is, what the greenhouse gases are and how much we emit, what the potential future impacts are, and what is being done to correct the problem. Site features public, educator, student, and kid resources. Explore how global warming and sea level rise will affect your state, as well as learn what you can do to help.

2010-07-06

8

Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study prepared for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by engineers and economists at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Stanford University concludes that the global warming caused by buildup of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere during the next century can at least be slowed down if we learn to use nonpolluting energy sources more efficiently. It will take international cooperation, however, and prompt action to keep the greenhouse effects to a minimum.The report follows on the heels of two separate studies released in October by the National Research Council and the Environmental Protection Agency on carbon dioxide and global warming (Eos, November 15, 1983, p. 929). Like those groups, the NSF study panel believes that “a significant … warming in the next century probably cannot be avoided.” However, “the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel consumption can be significantly reduced via the adoption of realistic energy strategies that are relatively ‘CO2-benign.”’ The so-called greenhouse effect is caused when carbon dioxide and other gasses create an atmospheric blanket that traps heat near the surface.

9

Global warning, global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life;

Benarde

1992-01-01

10

Global warning, global warming  

SciTech Connect

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.

Benarde, M.A. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

11

Economics of global warming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issu...

G. Pillet W. Hediger S. Kypreos C. Corbaz

1993-01-01

12

EPA GLOBAL WARMING WEBSITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Global Warming Site strives to present or direct viewers to the most timely social, scientific, and logistic information available on the global warming issue. The site offers links to related sites as well as its own selection of material, which is expected to grow ...

13

Global Warming And Meltwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

14

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

15

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

16

Global warming and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research. PMID:16216650

Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

17

Global Warming & Rising Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents the evidence that is accumulating that global warming, induced by fossil fuel use, is becoming a real threat: temperatures have been at a record high for a decade, coastal shorelines have retreated, island nations are losing habitable land, and glaciers are melting on five continents.

Jeffrey Chanton (Florida State University;)

2002-10-01

18

Global warming on trial  

SciTech Connect

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.

Broeker, W.S.

1992-04-01

19

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to

R. Dornbusch; J. M. Poterba

1991-01-01

20

Global Warming Wheel Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

21

Global Warming: Undoubtedly Real  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A major new report issued by the National Research Council of the National Academies on January 12 concludes that global warming is "'undoubtedly real,' and that surface temperatures in the past two decades have risen at a rate substantially greater than average for the past 100 years." In particular, the report examines the apparent conflict between surface temperature and upper-air temperature. The former has risen about 0.4 to 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 0.7 to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, in the last century, while no appreciable warming has been detected in the "atmospheric layer extending up to about 5 miles from the Earth's surface." The report offers a number of explanations for this discrepancy, including long-term (over 100 years) measurements of the surface temperature compared to short-term (about 20 year) data collection from the upper atmosphere, and uncertainties in temperature measurements. While this new report will certainly bolster global warming prevention advocates, it is highly unlikely to settle the debate once and for all.

De Nie, Michael W.

22

Global warming from HFC  

SciTech Connect

Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

Johnson, E. [Atlantic Consulting, London (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

23

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination and hatching phenology in tuatara?  

PubMed

How will climate change affect species' reproduction and subsequent survival? In many egg-laying reptiles, the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature experienced during a critical period of embryonic development (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD). Increasing air temperatures are likely to skew offspring sex ratios in the absence of evolutionary or plastic adaptation, hence we urgently require means for predicting the future distributions of species with TSD. Here we develop a mechanistic model that demonstrates how climate, soil and topography interact with physiology and nesting behaviour to determine sex ratios of tuatara, cold-climate reptiles from New Zealand with an unusual developmental biology. Under extreme regional climate change, all-male clutches would hatch at 100% of current nest sites of the rarest species, Sphenodon guntheri, by the mid-2080s. We show that tuatara could behaviourally compensate for the male-biasing effects of warmer air temperatures by nesting later in the season or selecting shaded nest sites. Later nesting is, however, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Our approach allows the assessment of the thermal suitability of current reserves and future translocation sites for tuatara, and can be readily modified to predict climatic impacts on any species with TSD. PMID:18595840

Mitchell, Nicola J; Kearney, Michael R; Nelson, Nicola J; Porter, Warren P

2008-10-01

24

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination and hatching phenology in tuatara?  

PubMed Central

How will climate change affect species' reproduction and subsequent survival? In many egg-laying reptiles, the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature experienced during a critical period of embryonic development (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD). Increasing air temperatures are likely to skew offspring sex ratios in the absence of evolutionary or plastic adaptation, hence we urgently require means for predicting the future distributions of species with TSD. Here we develop a mechanistic model that demonstrates how climate, soil and topography interact with physiology and nesting behaviour to determine sex ratios of tuatara, cold-climate reptiles from New Zealand with an unusual developmental biology. Under extreme regional climate change, all-male clutches would hatch at 100% of current nest sites of the rarest species, Sphenodon guntheri, by the mid-2080s. We show that tuatara could behaviourally compensate for the male-biasing effects of warmer air temperatures by nesting later in the season or selecting shaded nest sites. Later nesting is, however, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Our approach allows the assessment of the thermal suitability of current reserves and future translocation sites for tuatara, and can be readily modified to predict climatic impacts on any species with TSD.

Mitchell, Nicola J; Kearney, Michael R; Nelson, Nicola J; Porter, Warren P

2008-01-01

25

The Discovery of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important

Michael C. MacCracken

2004-01-01

26

Global warming as analytic tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming, like many other environmental controversies, mixes pervasive uncertainty with the certainties of expert (but contradictory) opinion. How can we know who is right about global warming, if the only things we have to work with are the scientists’ competing scenarios, the truth?value of which has yet to be established? One approach is to rely on narrative policy analysis

Emery M. Roe

1992-01-01

27

Global warming and developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are concerns that the rapid development of the developing countries will hasten global warming and exacerbate resource problems. That is to say, it is quite possible that we cannot solve the North-South problem while at the same time containing global warming and conserving fossil fuels. But this paper attempts to show that, on the contrary, the fast development of

Kokichi Ito

1996-01-01

28

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

29

Global Warming: East-West Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants that damage human health and agricultural productivity, such as tropospheric ozone and black soot, also affect global climate. Multiple benefits of reducing these pollutants become more compelling as concern about global warming increases. Air pollution is especially harmful in developing countries that are now large emitters of carbon dioxide, providing incentive for developed and developing countries to cooperate

James Hansen; Makiko Sato

30

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

31

Soil Microbes and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, viewers learn how one-celled organisms in permafrost may be contributing to greenhouse gas levels and global warming.

Kuac; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

32

Global Warming Kids.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

33

Global Warming: A Reduced Threat?.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One popular and apocalyptic vision of the world influenced by increasing concentrations of infrared-absorbing trace gases is that of ecological disaster brought about by rapidly rising temperatures, sea level, and evaporation rates. This vision developed from a suite of climate models that have since considerably changed in both their dynamics and their estimates of prospective warming. Observed temperatures indicate that much more warming should already have taken place than predicted by earlier models in the Northern Hemisphere, and that night, rather than day, readings in that hemisphere show a relative warming. A high-latitude polar-night warming or a general night warming could be either benign or beneficial. A large number of plant species show both increased growth and greater water-use efficiency under enhanced carbon dioxide.An extensive body of evidence now indicates that anthropo-generated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. The sulfate emissions, though, are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. However, the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies.

Michaels, Patrick J.; Stooksbury, David E.

1992-10-01

34

Global warming: a public health concern.  

PubMed

Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming. PMID:21848352

Afzal, Brenda M

2007-05-31

35

Global warming on trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would

Broeker

1992-01-01

36

Public understanding of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic interviews were conducted with a small but diverse sample of U. S. residents in order to understand how ordinary citizens conceptualize global warming. Most informants had heard of the greenhouse effect. However, they conceptualized global climate change very differently than scientists because they interpreted it in terms of four preexistent categories: Stratospheric ozone depletion, plant photosynthesis, tropospheric pollution, and

Willett Kempton

1991-01-01

37

Global Warming of the Atmosphere in Radiative Convective Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of global warming have commonly reported positive warming feedback by water vapor, exhibiting relative humidity in the atmosphere unchanged for different warming conditions. However, this is not self-evident, since water vapor content in the atmosphere may be significantly affected by atmospheric convections, such as cumulus convection, which involve strong vertical motions of air. To find an explanation, global

Yoshiharu Iwasa; Yutaka Abe; Hiroshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

38

How Were Southwest Pacific Pelagic Ecosystems Affected by Extreme Global Warming During the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four sections in eastern New Zealand provide the only South Pacific record of the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM): a siliciclastic outer shelf section (Tawanui, Hawkes Bay) and three pelagic-hemipelagic sections forming an outer shelf-upper slope transect across a carbonate ramp (Muzzle, Dee and Mead Streams, Clarence Valley). Although the rocks are too indurated to yield reliable oxygen isotope data, the IETM is identified by bulk carbonate carbon isotopes as a sharp negative excursion followed by gradual recovery over 0.6 to 4.0 m. In all sections, the excursion is mirrored by terrigenous sediment concentration, due to reduced biogenic (carbonate and silica) input and increased terrigenous input. Increased precipitation under warm humid conditions appears to have increased terrestrial discharge, recorded by deposition of smectitic marl in pelagic settings and illite/kaolinite-bearing smectitic mudstone in neritic settings. Eutrophic conditions are inferred for the IETM interval at Tawanui based on dysoxia, carbonate dissolution, an acme for the peridinioid dinocyst Apectodinium and abundant Toweius spp in nannofossil assemblages. Continued abundance of Toweius and replacement of Apectodinium by peridinioids of the Deflandrea complex suggests that eutrophic, albeit cooler, conditions persisted for at least 0.5 Ma after the IETM. In contrast, the IETM in Clarence Valley is marked by reduced biogenic silica content but little change in carbonate, and no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Sparse, poorly preserved palynomorphs assemblages suggest organic matter was oxidised under fully oxic conditions. Reduced numbers of upwelling indicators in the siliceous microfossil assemblage and common warm-water planktic foraminifera (Morozovella spp.), nannoplankton (Discoaster spp.) and radiolarians (e.g. Podocyrtis and Theocorys spp.) signal a switch from eutrophic to oligotrophic conditions and significant warming of near-surface waters. A progressive increase in neritic symbiotrophes within the radiolarian assemblage during the IETM recovery phase suggests warm, stratified, oligotrophic oceanic conditions. Radiolarians are scarce and upwelling indicators are very rare in sediments overlying the IETM. In the Southwest Pacific, global warming during the IETM increased terrestrial discharge, which enhanced productivity in shallow marine environments. Reduced productivity in deeper marine settings may have been caused by the poleward expansion of oligotrophic subtropical surface waters, impinging on a southern cyclonic system that had promoted upwelling along the eastern New Zealand margin through the Paleocene. Little evidence is found for local plankton productivity having a role in the gradual decrease in global temperatures that defines the upper IETM.

Hollis, C. J.; Crouch, E. M.; Dickens, G. R.

2004-12-01

39

The Effects of Global Warming on Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW) on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface because of CO? emissions. It is assumed that (i) GW exists, and (ii) higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. The literature on biology and GW supporting these two

Carlos A. Medel

2011-01-01

40

Global warming and nuclear power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to give a review of reasons for believing that the problem of global warming is more urgent than widely assumed, largely following the lead of a recent book by Lovelock. It is argued that increased use of nuclear power is the best course, especially if fusion power can be achieved. A short note is appended

Alex M. Andrew

2007-01-01

41

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

1991-01-01

42

Global Warming: A Critical View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Introductory lecture aimed to engage the audience in a critical examination of the science claims for anthropogenic global warming (AGW). This is followed by a film which offers further critical views of AGW by various climatologists and social commentators. The last part of the workshop will engage audience participation in a discussion of the methodology used by some advocates of AGW.

Gould, Laurence

2007-10-01

43

Global warming potential for CFâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sufficient emissions, fluorinated gases such as CFâ could contribute significantly to the concerns about global warming because they are greenhouse gases, are chemically very inert, and have long accumulation lifetimes in the atmosphere. At this time, the only significant known source of CFâ is primary aluminum smelting (Abrahamson, 1992). While current emissions are small, additional sources could make CFâ

D. J. Wuebbles; A. S. Grossman

1992-01-01

44

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the school's traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched green

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

45

Students' perceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the potential significance of global warming to society, education about this issue is important. However, little is known of the preconceptions and misconceptions of young adults in this area. In this study the ideas of a group of first year undergraduate students about the “Greenhouse Effect” have been studied by questionnaire. The results show that although some

Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

1992-01-01

46

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24

47

Media Construction of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Includes 383-page kit (may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered as a hard copy) with teacher guides for all eight units, including all activities, readings, slide shows, film clips, journal articles, advertisements, and more. Lessons teach core knowledge about the science of climate change, explore conflicting views, and integrate critical thinking skills. Students will apply knowledge of climate change to a rigorous analysis of media messages through asking and answering questions about accuracy, currency, credibility, sourcing, and bias. Lessons address basic climate science, the causes of climate change, scientific debate and disinformation, the consequences of global warming, the precautionary principle, carbon footprints, moral choices, and the history of global warming in media, science, and politics.

Sperry, Chris; Flerlage, Dan; Papouchis, Alexander

48

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a history of research on global warming. It supplements a short monograph that tells the history of climate change research as a single story. The web site contains essays on a wide range of topics including factors that influence climate, data on climate changes, theories and models of climate, and societal issues. This material can be used as a resource for teaching about physics issues impacting society, sustainability, or scientific methods.

Weart, Spencer

2013-06-13

49

Global warming and hyperbolic discounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a constant discount rate to study long-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive to the discount rate, and with moderate discount rates, large future damages have almost no effect on current decisions. Time-consistent quasi-hyperbolic discounting alleviates both of these modeling problems, and is a plausible description of how people

Larry S Karp

2004-01-01

50

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

51

The Discovery of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the prospect of ``global warming'' as a result of human activities was thought to be far off, and in any case, likely to be beneficial. As we begin the twenty-first century, science adviser to the British government, Sir David King, has said that he considers global warming to be the world's most important problem, including terrorism. Yet, dealing with it has become the subject of a contentious international protocol, numerous conferences of international diplomats, and major scientific assessments and research programs. Spencer Weart, who is director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics, has taken on the challenge of explaining how this came to be. In the tradition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which was established in 1988 to evaluate and assess the state of global warming science, this book is roughly equivalent to the Technical Summary, in terms of its technical level, being quite readable, but with substantive content about the main lines of evidence. Underpinning this relatively concise presentation, there is a well-developed-and still developing-Web site that, like the detailed chapters of the full IPCC assessment reports, provides vastly more information and linkages to a much wider set of reference materials (see http://www.aip.org/history/climate).

MacCracken, Michael C.

2004-07-01

52

The heated debate. [Global warming  

SciTech Connect

The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

Balling, R.C. Jr.

1992-01-01

53

What Do Financial Markets Reveal about Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial market information can provide an objective assessment of expected losses due to global warming. In a Merton-type asset pricing model, with asset prices affected by changes in investment opportunities caused by global warming, the risk premium is significantly negative and growing over time, loadings for most assets are negative, and asset portfolios in more vulnerable industries have stronger negative

Ronald Balvers; Ding Du; Xiaobing Zhao

2009-01-01

54

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming.…

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

55

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource for teaching about the consequences of global warming. Discusses feedback from the temperature increase, changes in the global precipitation pattern, effects on agriculture, weather extremes, effects on forests, effects on biodiversity, effects on sea levels, and actions which will help the global community cope with global warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1995-01-01

56

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

PubMed

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

2011-03-03

57

Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global warming's implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01

58

Thermal pollution causes global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

Nordell, Bo

2003-09-01

59

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

60

Global Warming in 5 Steps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists say the planet is warming because of human activities, namely the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere when burning fossil fuels. But, how do we know? How do scientists know? Students are presented with the following questions: 1) What makes a greenhouse gas a greenhouse gas? 2) Is carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas? [Instructor: How do we know?] 3) Is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? How do we know? 4) Is carbon dioxide [in the atmosphere] increasing because of human activities? [Instructor: How do we know?] ---- Discussion of results and prediction of what students expect will happen to global average temperature... 5) Is global average temperature increasing? How do we know? Separate groups of students research just one question each on the internet and submit a brief summary to the instructor. The instructor and class go over results for just the first four questions. The instructor addresses "How do we know" for questions 2 and 4. Then, students are asked what they think will happen to global average temperature based on results of the first four questions (i.e. make an hypothesis). Finally, the results from the last group are presented and students are asked to discuss how observed global temperature changes compare with their hypothesis.

Taylor, Stephen

61

Global Warming in Asheville, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As predicted by Svante Arrhenius in 1896, global warming is taking place as evidenced by documented rises in average sea level\\u000a of about 1.7 mm\\/year during the 20th century. There have been naturally occurring cycles of global warming and cooling throughout\\u000a the history of the world. Much has been written about the catastrophe that global warming would present to humankind, but

George Ford; William McDaniel; Aaron Ball

62

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction is an informative, up to date discussion about the predicted impacts of global warming. It draws on material from the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a huge collaborative study drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines, and presents the findings of the panel

Mark Maslin

2005-01-01

63

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economics and the Challenge of Global Warming is a balanced and comprehensive analysis of the role of economics in confronting global warming, the central environmental issue of the twenty-first century. It avoids a technical exposition in order to reach a wide audience and is up to date in its theoretical and empirical underpinnings. It is addressed to all who have

Charles S. Pearson

64

Global Warming and the Definition of Sin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2006 PBS contacted Jan Markell and asked to send a camera crew to film her radio show if she would do one on global warming. They were looking for her response to the global warming statement signed by evangelicals such as Rick Warren, Brian McLaren, and Leif Anderson. Jan asked me to join her because of my background

Bob DeWaay

65

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)|

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

66

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

67

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase of tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. The increased wind shear coincides with a weak but robust downward trend

Chunzai Wang; Sang-Ki Lee

2008-01-01

68

The EPA Global Warming Kids Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site focuses on the science and impacts of global warming or climate change, and on actions that help address global warming. It features games, events, and links to other relevant sites for kids and educators, including activities on climate and weather and the greenhouse effect.

69

Global Warming: Life in a Greenhouse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson investigates evidence and consequences of global warming. Students can debate whether global warming is a potential danger, review their community's climate statistics, log their gas consumption and emissions for a week, create a panel discussion on fossil fuels, investigate alternative energy and transportation and more!

Rebecca Field (Colby-Sawyer College;)

2003-08-01

70

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these issues must be featured along with the underlying science. The

Troy D. Sadler; Michelle L. Klosterman

2009-01-01

71

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

2009-01-01

72

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01

73

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase of tropospheric vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. The increased wind shear coincides with a weak but robust downward trend in U.S. landfalling hurricanes, a reliable measure of hurricanes over the long term. Warmings over the tropical oceans compete with one another, with the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans increasing wind shear and the tropical North Atlantic decreasing wind shear. Warmings in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans win the competition and produce increased wind shear which reduces U.S. landfalling hurricanes. Whether future global warming increases the vertical wind shear in the MDR for Atlantic hurricanes will depend on the relative role induced by secular warmings over the tropical oceans.

Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki

2008-01-01

74

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

75

Global warming and reproductive health.  

PubMed

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-08-09

76

Some economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

77

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction is an informative, up to date discussion about the predicted impacts of global warming. It draws on material from the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a huge collaborative study drawing together current thinking on the subject from experts in a range of disciplines, and presents the findings of the panel for a general readership for the first time. The book also discusses the politics of global warming and what we can do now to adapt to climate change and mitigate its worst effects.

Maslin, Mark

2005-01-01

78

Global warming and nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

79

Measuring the Forcing Function of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate system is warmed by 35 C due to the emission of downward infrared radiation by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (surface radiative forcing) or by the absorption of upward infrared radiation (radiative trapping). Increases in this emission\\/absorption are the driving force behind global warming. Climate models predict that the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has

W. F. Evans

2004-01-01

80

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)|

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

81

Delayed flowering and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

2011-12-01

82

Preparing for Global Warming: Smart Insurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Why should the insurance community insurance agents and brokers, primary insurers, risk managers, and reinsurers--put a premium on addressing global warming. The insurance industry has an opportunity to reduce risk and promote safety by informing policyho...

2000-01-01

83

Resource Letter GW2: Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change,

Michael D. Mastrandrea; Stephen H. Schneider

2008-01-01

84

Issues in-depth: Inside global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last 15 years, much attention has been given to global warming, and whether the increase in the Earth's temperature in recent decades threatens the survival of life on Earth. As such, it's important that science teachers understand the basics behind the scientific phenomenon, the controversy surrounding the topic, and how to discuss and explore global warming with their students. This comprehensive discussion includes suggestions, activities, and resources that are designed for use in the middle school science classroom.

Greitz-Miller, Roxanne

2006-10-01

85

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the "lay" reader and lacks detail required by students. This book successfully bridges this gap, prividing an accessible explanation of the physical mechanisms of global warming--discussed within the wider context of climate change.

Drake, Frances

2000-07-01

86

Should we be concerned about global warming?  

PubMed

Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-warming and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. PMID:17283974

Diaz, James H

87

Television news coverage of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01

88

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

89

Sharing the Costs of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model global warming as a non-excludable public bad jointly pro- duced by countries' emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The distribu- tion of the environmental damage bears no relationship to the distribu- tion of global emissions, due to meteorological factors. We argue that this discrepancy should be offset and propose that countries be fully compen- sated for the costs of

Etienne Billette de Villemeur; Justin Leroux

90

The Problem That Is Global Warming: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming poses significant challenges to society at every level, evading easy definitions that would make the usual instrumental approaches to policymaking and regulation a relatively straightforward task. The embeddedness of the carbon economy in contemporary methods of industrialization and development means that climate protection is at once a problem of environment, the global economy, and human rights. It requires

FIONA HAINES; NANCY REICHMAN

2008-01-01

91

NPR: Atmospheric Dry Spell Eases Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from NPR explains why the effects of global warming may not have been noticeable during the past few years. The article warns that there are several factors, such as ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor levels, that mask the problem of rising global temperatures.

2010-03-12

92

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

SciTech Connect

The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-04-01

93

Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

Dorweiler, V.P. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1998-04-01

94

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

95

Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases

1995-01-01

96

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

97

Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2008-07-01

98

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Allen, Bruce; Herreid, Clyde

99

Potential effects of global warming on calving caribou  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calving grounds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are often in the portion of their range that remains covered by snow late into spring. The authors propose that global warming would alter the duration of snow cover on the calving grounds and the rate of snowmelt, and thus affect caribou population dynamics. The rationale for this hypothesis is based upon the

W. G. Eastland; R. G. White

1992-01-01

100

Possible human health impacts of a global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to

M. C. Nichols; L. S. Kalkstein; S. Cheng

1995-01-01

101

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

SciTech Connect

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

102

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (June 15, 1991), and the subsequent cooling of the earth's lower atmosphere [Dutton and Christy, 1992; Minnis et al., 1993] shows that stratospheric aerosols can have a strong effect on the earth's climate. This supports the notion that the intentional enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer through increased carbonyl sulfide (OCS) emissions might be an effective means for counteracting global warming. Through the use of a one-dimensional photochemical model, we investigate what effect such a program might have on global average stratospheric ozone. In addition, we consider the impact of enhanced OCS emissions on rainwater acidity and on the overall health of both plants and animals. We find that while the warming produced by a single CO2 doubling (1 to 4°C) might be offset with ozone losses of less than 5%, any attempt to use carbonyl sulfide as a permanent solution to global warming could result in depletion of global average ozone by 30% or more. We estimate that in order to achieve cooling of 4°C rainwater pH would fall to between 3.5 and 3.8. Finally, a 4°C cooling at the surface will require that ambient near ground OCS levels rise to above 10 ppmv which is probably greater than the safe exposure limit for humans. Thus, enhanced OCS emissions do not provide an environmentally acceptable solution to the problem of global warming.

Taubman, Steven J.; Kasting, James F.

1995-04-01

103

Global warming and clean electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the possibility of global climate change due to the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The problem can be ameliorated by reducing fossil fuel consumption through conservation and expanded use of nuclear and solar power. In particular, major reductions can be achieved if fossil fuels are replaced in electricity generation and if electricity assumes a larger role

D. Bodansky

1991-01-01

104

Global Warming Molecules: Fluorinated Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important properties quantitating the ability of a molecule to perturb global climate is the ability of the molecule to absorb infrared radiation in the atmospheric window (radiative forcing) and the amount of time that the molecule is in the atmosphere absorbing (atmospheric lifetime). Species in the atmosphere differ markedly in their ability to absorb infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases absorb

Timothy Lee; Joseph Francisco

2004-01-01

105

Atmospheric Moisture Demand Under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming near the surface increases the water vapor holding capacity of the air. Since the vapor saturation level or relative humidity in the air is fairly stable on annual to longer time scales, this would lead to increased atmospheric demand for water vapor if other things being equal. However, accompanying changes in surface wind speed and solar radiation can alter this general trend under global warming at least on regional scales. Decreasing trends in pan evaporation from the 1950s- early 1990s over many parts of the continents suggest that recent warming did not play a dominant role in determining atmospheric demand of water vapor over many areas. In this talk, I will examine historical data for trends in surface humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation and their implications for potential evapotranspiration over global land. I may also discuss climate-model simulated changes in evapotranspiration if time permits.

Dai, A.

2007-12-01

106

Benchmarking the War Against Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the HadCRUT3 reconstruction of the instrumental global temperature record for 1850 through 2008 to decompose thirty-year temperature trends into signal and noise components. The signal represents multidecadal trends and the noise represents annual variability about those trends. Historical estimates of temperature variability (e.g., noise) are used with seven temperature projections to simulate global warming time series. These trends

Douglas J. Sherman; Bailiang Li; Steven M. Quiring; Eugene J. Farrell

2010-01-01

107

Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'—about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored.

Bond, Tami C.

2007-10-01

108

Global Warming - The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely topical over recent years, global warming has been the subject of a huge and growing amount of literature. Current literature however tends to fall into two camps: that which is highly scientific in nature and inaccessible to the average student, and that which is directed to the \\

Frances Drake

2000-01-01

109

Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2

Laurence I. Gould

2007-01-01

110

Does coral bleaching mean global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the implications of global warming on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is

1991-01-01

111

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

112

Global warming studies need synthesis, says Gore  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 27, scientists representing a variety of disciplines presented methods for measuring past climate to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. According to committee member Al Gore (D-Tenn.), the roundtable participants presented a ``set of overwhelming conclusions that support the global warming theory.'' Their studies, said Gore, gave him a clearer understanding of research priorities and the

Susan Bush

1992-01-01

113

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too

Wamsted

1994-01-01

114

Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

Mazzatenta, Claudio

2008-01-01

115

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public

J. E. Hansen

2006-01-01

116

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming Partha P. Bera, Joseph S. Francisco and Timothy J. Lee NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, and Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393 Abstract The physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been investigated to assess

Partha P. Bera; T. J. Lee; J. Francisco

2009-01-01

117

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A

Norman Myers

1993-01-01

118

Global-Warming: A National Security Issue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waters in the Canadian Arctic are quickly becoming free to navigate due to global warming. International shipping bombards the region, the United States and Canada must be ready to face the security implications that will arise. A failure to do so may...

A. J. Klug

2006-01-01

119

Global Warming Advocacy Science: a Cross Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal scholarship has come to accept as true the various pronouncements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other scientists who have been active in the movement for greenhouse gas (ghg) emission reductions to combat global warming. The only criticism that legal scholars have had of the story told by this group of activist scientists – what may

Jason S Johnston

2010-01-01

120

Phenology and global warming research in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional

L. P. C. Morellato

2009-01-01

121

Global warming: Popular vision vs. scientific fact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the popular vision, environmental apocalypse looms over the land. It's a vision of catastrophic global warming that ultimately leads to crop failures, rapid and inundating surges in sea level, enormous hurricanes, and burning forests incapable of renewing themselves. It's become warmer, yes, and perhaps will be warmer still, but to the degree of catastrophe The available data on climate

Michaels

2009-01-01

122

Global Warming and Future Fossil Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential for reducing emissions of CO, by reducing the use of fossil fuels. Following a brief review of current data on greenhouse gas emissions and global warming\\/ the author considers three ways of decreasing fossil fuel consumption: doing without; maximizing conversion efficiencies; and reducing the use of energy intensive products through better design and extensive recycling

Vaclav Smil

1989-01-01

123

Global Warming, Africa and National Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global warming and the resulting climate change is an issue with far reaching security ramifications for the United States. The US has vested interests in regional stability in many critical areas throughout the world. Few of these areas are growing in im...

J. C. Hinkley

2008-01-01

124

Report Nixes ``Geritol'' Fix for Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea

Leslie Roberts

1991-01-01

125

Global warming — facts, assessment, countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global primary energy consumption amounts to 8.38 billion tonnes oil equivalent (OE) (1996) and is projected to increase by 1.3% per year for the industrialized countries and by up to 9.2% per year for the developing countries. Fossil energy's share was 7.541 billion tonnes OE in 1996 with rising tendency. The order of magnitude of proved reserves of fossil energy

Dagobert G Kessel

2000-01-01

126

Geodetic effects of global warming.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic increase of greenhouse gas will probably induce significant changes of the atmospheric and oceanic global circulation. We have evaluated the variation of the Earth's gravity field, geocenter motion and rotational variations using the available atmospheric and oceanic outputs from coupled general circulation models participating to Couple Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP 2+) and the corresponding ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) changes according to Huybrechts et al. (2003). We discuss on the possible detection of these geodetic effects, especially with new space gravity missions such as GRACE.

Boy, J.; de Viron, O.; Huybrechts, P.

2003-12-01

127

Possible impacts of global warming on tundra and boreal forest ecosystems - comparison of some biogeochemical models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global warming affects the magnitude of carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes between biosphere and atmosphere as well as the distribution of vegetation types. Biogeochemical models, global as well as patch models, can be used to estimate the differences bet...

M. Ploechl W. Cramer

1995-01-01

128

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-16

129

Draft global warming study. Draft 1990 Resource Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net c...

1990-01-01

130

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the \\

C. Fabara; B. Hoeneisen

2005-01-01

131

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program has made available the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming Website. Sections included at the site are the Beginning, the Story, the Data, Final Word, and Image Gallery, among others. The Story provides the user with a background on climate and climate variability. The Data section gives an in-depth look at the "instrumental and paleoclimatic data that tells us how the Earth's temperature has changed over the past years to the millennia." A highlight of the site is the Image Gallery section, with images from the following NOAA slide sets: Coral Paleoclimatology, Tree Ring, Lake Sediments, Pollen, and Low-Latitude Ice Cores and Polar Ice Cores. The site helps to highlight the importance of paleoclimatic research and shows how paleoclimatic research relates to global warming and other issues regarding climate change and variability.

Program., National G.

132

Resource Letter: GW1: Global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change-a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The

John W. Firor

1994-01-01

133

Global warming studies need synthesis, says Gore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 27, scientists representing a variety of disciplines presented methods for measuring past climate to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. According to committee member Al Gore (D-Tenn.), the roundtable participants presented a “set of overwhelming conclusions that support the global warming theory.” Their studies, said Gore, gave him a clearer understanding of research priorities and the necessity of the synthesis of research. “For funding, we must pay attention to science in disparate fields,” he added.

Bush, Susan

1992-03-01

134

Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally  

SciTech Connect

Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

Low, N.C. [Low and Associates Actuary, Cerritos, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

135

When could global warming reach 4°C?  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be reached by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'. PMID:21115513

Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G

2011-01-13

136

Toward international law on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming.

Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-01-01

137

Standing and Global Warming: Is Injury to All Injury to None?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since global warming potentially affects everyone in the world, does any individual have standing to sue the U.S. EPA or other federal agencies to force them to address climate change issues? Suits addressing global warming raise difficult standing questions because some Supreme Court decisions have stated or implied that courts should not allow standing for plaintiffs who file suits alleging

Bradford Mank

2005-01-01

138

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of

Eduardo Massad; Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho; Luis Fernandez Lopez; Daniel Rodrigues da Silva

2011-01-01

139

Isolating the signal of ocean global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying the signature of global warming in the world's oceans is challenging because low frequency circulation changes can dominate local temperature changes. The IPCC fourth assessment reported an average ocean heating rate of 0.21 +/- 0.04 Wm-2 over the period 1961-2003, with considerable spatial, interannual and inter-decadal variability. We present a new analysis of millions of ocean temperature profiles designed to filter out local dynamical changes to give a more consistent view of the underlying warming. Time series of temperature anomaly for all waters warmer than 14°C show large reductions in interannual to inter-decadal variability and a more spatially uniform upper ocean warming trend (0.12 Wm-2 on average) than previous results. This new measure of ocean warming is also more robust to some sources of error in the ocean observing system. Our new analysis provides a useful addition for evaluation of coupled climate models, to the traditional fixed depth analyses.

Palmer, M. D.; Haines, K.; Tett, S. F. B.; Ansell, T. J.

2007-12-01

140

Global Warming and Risk of Vivax Malaria in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria (ague) was once common in many parts of Great Britain (GB). Here we identify areas currently at risk from vivax malaria\\u000a and examine how this pattern may change as a consequence of global warming during this century. We used a mathematical model\\u000a to describe how temperature affects the risk of vivax malaria, transmitted by a common British mosquito, Anopheles

Steve W. Lindsay; Chris J. Thomas

2001-01-01

141

Drought and Freshwater Resources under Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the big concerns associated with global warming is the potential change to drought and freshwater resources that could greatly impact our society. How drought and freshwater supply have changed during recent past and how it might change in the coming decades is increasingly becoming a great concern as global warming continues and more severe droughts are reported in the media. In this talk, I will present results from analyses of historical precipitation and streamflow data and drought indices to show that there is a drying trend and a decrease in river flow during the last 50-60 years over many low-latitude land areas. These changes have been caused mainly by decreases in precipitation over Africa, East and South Asia, the Mediterranean region, and eastern Australia. However, rapid warming since the 1980s may also have contributed significantly to the recent drying over many land areas. The recent drying and decreases in streamflow at low latitudes are consistent with model-predicted streamflow changes in the 21st century, although the models predict increased streamflow for northern high-latitude rivers due to increased precipitation there. For more details, see Dai et al. (2009, J. Climate, 22, 2773-2791) and Dai (2011, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 45-65).

Dai, A.

2011-12-01

142

Global Warming - The Research Challenges: A Report of Japan's Global Warming Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book presents the latest results of global warming researches focusing on Japanese and international efforts. In 2002, Japan initiated "Global Warming Research Initiatives" lead by the Council for Science and Technology Policy, which aims to harmonize the national research activities and projects. This book is the first report from the initiative. In this book, latest knowledge and future research directions are described for four study areas of the initiative: monitoring and process study, projection modelling and climate change study, impact and risk assessment, and response policies.

Ichikawa, Atsunobu

143

Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability.  

PubMed

The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future. PMID:14558904

Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert

2003-09-15

144

Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

Somerville, R. C.

2006-12-01

145

Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change-a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

Firor, John W.

1994-06-01

146

Does coral bleaching mean global warming  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the implications of global warming on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.

Miller, J.A.

1991-02-01

147

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

148

Measuring the Forcing Function of Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth's climate system is warmed by 35 C due to the emission of downward infrared radiation by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (surface radiative forcing) or by the absorption of upward infrared radiation (radiative trapping). Increases in this emission/absorption are the driving force behind global warming. Climate models predict that the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has altered the radiative energy balance at the earth's surface by several percent by increasing the greenhouse radiation from the atmosphere. With measurements at high spectral resolution, this increase can be quantitatively attributed to each of several anthropogenic gases. Calibrated radiance spectra of the greenhouse radiation from the atmosphere have been measured at ground level from Peterborough and Mirabel using FTIR spectroscopy at high resolution. This long wave radiation consists of thermal emission from naturally occurring gases such as CO2, H2O and O3 as well as from many trace gases such as CH4, CFC11, CFC12, CFC22 and HNO3. The forcing radiative fluxes from CFC11, CFC12, CCl4, HNO3, O3, N2O, CH4, CO and CO2 have been quantitatively measured over a range of seasons. The contributions from stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone are separated by our measurement techniques. A comparison between our measurements of surface forcing emission and measurements of radiative trapping absorption from the IMG satellite instrument shows reasonable agreement. The experimental fluxes are simulated well by the FASCOD3 radiation code. This code has been used to calculate the increase in surface radiative forcing since 1850 to be 2.55 W/m2. An ensemble summary of our measurements indicates that an energy flux imbalance of 3.5 W/m2 has been created by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases since 1850. This should effectively end the argument by skeptics that no experimental evidence exists for the connection between greenhouse gas increases in the atmosphere and global warming.

Evans, W. F.

2004-05-01

149

Does Global Warming Influence Tornado Activity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tornadoes and other severe thunderstorm phenomena frequently cause as much annual property damage in the United States as do hurricanes, and often cause more fatalities (see http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hazstats.shtml). In 2008, there were 2176 preliminary tornado reports logged through mid-December, with 1600 ``actual counts'' (duplicate reports removed) through September, the highest total in the past half century (Figure 1). The mass media have covered these events extensively, and experts have been deluged with requests for explanations, including possible links to anthropogenic global warming. Although recent research has yielded insight into the connections between global warming and tornado and severe thunderstorm forcing, these relationships remain mostly unexplored, largely because of the challenges in observing and numerically simulating tornadoes. Indeed, a number of questions that have been answered for other climate-related phenomena remain particularly difficult for climate and severe weather scientists, including whether there are detectable trends in tornado occurrence and if so, what causes them. This article explores the challenges and opportunities in pursuing these areas of research.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Trapp, Robert J.; Brooks, Harold

2008-12-01

150

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

SciTech Connect

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too late to do the real work and force parties to confront each other instead of working together to solve the problem. He encouraged joint implementation as an important factor in speeding the transfer of much-needed, appropriate technologies from the United States and other developed countries to the nations of the developing world. First, he urged the DOE to continue its aggressive voluntary emissions reduction programs, particularly its effort to negotiate greenhouse gas reductions with the electric utility industry. Second, he suggested that the US move to focus the international debate on no more than six major projects. The global warming issue is so broad, he warned, that without such a focus, no progress will be made.

Wamsted, D.

1994-10-07

151

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

2012-10-01

152

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

Myers, N.

1993-12-01

153

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero

A. Gnanadesikan; J. L. Russell; F. Zeng

2006-01-01

154

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero

A. Gnanadesikan; J. L. Russell; Fanrong Zeng

2007-01-01

155

In Brief: Public concern about global warming wanes, survey finds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new national survey of the American public's attitude toward global warming has found ``a sharp decline over the past year in the percentage of Americans who say there is solid evidence that global temperatures are rising.'' Thirty-six percent of respondents agreed that global warming is because of human activity, an 11% drop from April 2008. The survey, ``Fewer Americans

Randy Showstack

2009-01-01

156

Potential effects on health of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

Haines, A. (Univ. College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Unit)

1993-12-01

157

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Second Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enough coal exists to sustain world energy consumption growth through at least the end of the next century. If fossil carbon fuel consumption continues to increase at current rates, however, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will likely more than double, probably leading to significant warming of global climate, shifts in regional climates, and sea-level rise. Scientists and citizens throughout the world are discussing what should be done about the effects of our energy economy on the global environment.The issue is very broad and engaging, ranging from basic issues of geoscience to economics to fundamental value systems, and it has mobilized great economic interests and concern for our global environment. We live in an interesting time when human activities have begun to compete with the global capacities of Earth to recycle the elements of life. In the coming years, we will see how the world community reacts to this challenge, and what combination of conservation, technological development, and adaptation is ultimately adopted.

Hartmann, Dennis L.

158

Global Warming of the Atmosphere in Radiative Convective Equilibrium.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of global warming have commonly reported positive warming feedback by water vapor, exhibiting relative humidity in the atmosphere unchanged for different warming conditions. However, this is not self-evident, since water vapor content in the atmosphere may be significantly affected by atmospheric convections, such as cumulus convection, which involve strong vertical motions of air. To find an explanation, global warming experiments were run in this study that included atmospheres at radiative convective equilibrium with differing amounts of a noncondensable greenhouse gas. The models used were the dynamical convection model (DCM) and kinematic circulation model (KCM).When the noncondensable greenhouse gas is increased in the models, the free atmosphere in both the DCM and KCM show similar increases in air temperature and water vapor content. Changes in temperature and water vapor occur such that the relative humidity remains mostly constant. As Iwasa et al. show, water vapor distribution is controlled by a net circulation that is driven by radiative cooling. It is not convectively forced. Relative humidity is unchanged because the net circulation that increases temperature leaves the subsidence flow pattern similar.The DCM reveals a new aspect of global warming. The vertical temperature profile in the dry convective boundary layer (CBL) becomes dry adiabatic, a lapse rate larger than the moist adiabatic lapse rate in the free troposphere. Both the depth of the CBL and tropospheric temperatures increase. The development of the CBL accompanies an additional temperature increase in the bottom atmosphere and at the surface, in contrast to temperature profiles predicted from models without such CBL structures.


Iwasa, Yoshiharu; Abe, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

159

Trends in global warming and evolution of nucleoproteins from influenza A viruses since 1918.  

PubMed

Global warming affects not only the environment where we live, but also all living species to different degree, including influenza A virus. We recently conducted several studies on the possible impact of global warming on the protein families of influenza A virus. More studies are needed in order to have a full picture of the impact of global warming on living organisms, especially its effect on viruses. In this study, we correlate trends in global warming with evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus and then analyse the trends with respect to northern/southern hemispheres, virus subtypes and sampling species. The results suggest that global warming may have an impact on the evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus. PMID:20825589

Yan, S; Wu, G

2010-09-02

160

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the `albedo flip' property of water substance, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that `flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Ice sheet and ocean inertia provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. CO2 is the largest human-made climate forcing, but CH4, O3, N2O and black carbon (BC) are important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could still ``save the Arctic,'' while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity, and the global environment.

Hansen, James

2007-04-01

161

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Third Edition)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"What kind of world will our grandchildren inherit?” prods the large, yellow bullet point jumping out from the black background on the back cover of John Houghton's already classic textbook, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Students in an undergraduate or first year graduate seminar course—the clear target audience for this book—will come away with little doubt about the answer to this question: a warmer one.Essentially, this is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process distilled into a textbook. The first seven chapters, about two thirds of the book's 350 pages, provide a compelling account of the consensus IPCC view of the greenhouse effect, climate variability, climate modeling, climate projections, and the impacts of climate change. These chapters are without doubt the core strength of this excellent textbook, synthesizing an unprecedented two decades of community effort, scientific cooperation, and consensus building into a coherent view.

Alverson, Keith

162

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

SciTech Connect

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

163

Global warming bill promotes recycling, composting  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 1078, the Global Warming Prevention Act, was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives by Rep. Claudine Schneider (R-RI) in February. While key features of the bill revolve around reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing energy conservation and efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, a section deals with recyclable materials. The bill calls for establishment of an Office of Recycling Research and Information within the Dept. of Commerce to promote recyclable materials programs. Other elements include: improving the recycling of government-generated wastes as well as improving procurement of recyclable materials; a pilot project on MSW and sewage sludge composting; and a ban on production or sale of certain designated nonrecyclable consumer goods.

Not Available

1989-06-01

164

The Water Cycle and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Baylor University College of Medicine continues to work at a furious pace on their delightful BioEd Online site, and educators everywhere love them for their work and dedication. Recently, they placed this âÂÂready-to-goâ lessson on the water cycle and global warming online, and itâÂÂs a true delight. As with the other lessons in this series, the materials here include a brief description of the lessonâÂÂs objective, along with information on the intended audience, the materials required to complete the lesson, and so on. Teachers will note that they will need to download a slide set, several activity sheets, and a âÂÂState of the Climate Reportâ offered from the National Climatic Data Center.

165

Drought under Global Warming: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the big concerns associated with global warming is the potential change to land surface moisture conditions that could have a huge impact on agriculture, freshwater resources, and many other aspects of our society and the environment. How drought has changed during recent past and how it might change in the coming decades is increasingly becoming a great concern as global warming continues and more severe droughts are reported in the media. In this presentation, I will provide an overview, based on my own and others' work, of how drought has changed in the last several centuries and during recent decades over many regions around the world based on historical records, and how it might change in the coming decades based on IPCC AR4 model-predicted climate changes. I will present results from analyses of changes in precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and (improved) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to show that aridity has increased during the last 50-60 years over many land areas, and rapid warming since the 1980s has contributed significantly to this drying. The PDSI (with improved evapotranspiration estimates) calculated from the AR4 multi-model predicted future climate suggests severe drying in the next 20-50 years over most land areas except the northern high-latitudes and parts of Asia. This drying pattern is consistent with other analyses of model-predicted soil moisture and precipitation changes. Although the quantitative interpretation of the future PDSI values may need to be cautious, combined with the other analyses, the PDSI result points to a dire situation with more severe to extreme droughts in the coming decades over the continental U.S., most of Africa and South America, Australia, southern Europe, and western and southeastern Asia. Changes in precipitation play an important role over many land areas, but enhanced evaporation due to increased radiative heating is also a major factor for the model-predicted drying. For more details, see Dai (2011, JGR, 116, D12115, doi:10.1029/2010JD015541) and Dai (2011, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 45-65).

Dai, A.

2011-12-01

166

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

SciTech Connect

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01

167

Regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies. Conference statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are v...

1991-01-01

168

Ambiguous Futures: Global Warming and the Third World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing global warming of the earth has been at the foreground of scientific and political debate, leading to international agreements such as The Kyoto Protocol in 1997. While there are some promis- ing signs that the international community is taking the reality of global warming seriously, the limited objec- tives for diminishing the amount of greenhouse gases are insufficient.

Arthur Saniotis; Carl Sagan

2006-01-01

169

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

170

Wind energy — An innovative solution to global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now a days global warming has become a threat to every individual. One of the main causes of global warming is carbon dioxide emissions. One source of carbon dioxide is the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants. Burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes also contributes to large amounts of carbon dioxide being released into the

S. Pal

2009-01-01

171

Physical aspects of the greenhouse effect and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the simplest model of the earth's radiative balance, global warming will occur with certainty as humankind increases its production and consumption of nonsolar energy. This prediction is revisited, using a broader model that allows the greenhouse effect to be considered. The new model predicts a global warming of DeltaTE=(114 K)?, where V is the rate of surface energy

Robert S. Knox

1999-01-01

172

Global Warming and the Future of Pacific Island Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly outlines the cause of global warming, its trends and consequences as indicated by the International Panel on Climate Change. Sea-level rise is one consequence of particular concern to Pacific island states. It also reviews the views of economists about connections between economic growth and global warming. Whereas the majority of economists did not foresee a conflict between

Clement A. Tisdell

2007-01-01

173

Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

2004-01-01

174

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken

C. A. Lai

2004-01-01

175

Behind The Curve: The National Media's Reporting on Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2004, eight States, the City of New York and three land trusts filed suit against five electric power corporations for contributing to global warming. The complaints allege that the defendants are the largest global warming polluters in the United States. The plaintiffs seek an injunction under the federal common law of public nuisance, or in the alternative, under

Matthew F Pawa; Benjamin A Krass

2006-01-01

176

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken

Chung-Chieng A. Lai; David E. Dietrich; Malcolm J. Bowman

2005-01-01

177

THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING UPON SPRING ARRIVAL OF BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper considers the impact of global warming upon spring arrival of birds in Lithuania, Žuvintas Strict Nature Reserve, basing on registration of phenological phenomena since 1966. The analysis of arrival dates of 128 bird species registered showed that under the effect of global warming spring arrival dates in Žuvintas became markedly earlier both for short- and long-distance migrants.

Feliksas IVANAUSKAS; Vytautas NEDZINSKAS; Me?islovas ŽALAKEVI?IUS

1997-01-01

178

Environmental Change, Global Warming and Infectious Diseases in Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are increasing our clinical surveillance for new and increasing infectious diseases that may relate to environmental changes occurring in the short term and global warming over the longer term. It is predicted that with global warming the tropical north of Australia will become both hotter and wetter. This is likely to expand the receptive area within Australia for mosquito-borne

Bart J. Currie

2001-01-01

179

Global warming: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant environmental changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global warming event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene.

1993-01-01

180

The global warming debate heats up - An analysis and perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of present and future effects of global warming are discussed and the two opposing schools of thought concerning global warming are summarized. It is pointed out that scientific concern for a high probability of unprecedented climatic change over the next 50 years is not based upon the detailed fluctuations in the climate record to date, but on physical processes

Stephen H. Schneider

1990-01-01

181

Effects of Global Warming on Civil Life in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is progressing, and its direct and indirect influences on various fields and in vari- ous regions have come to the surface. Although there have been few studies of the effect of global warming on civil life, I have summarized the effects that have been detected so far and those that are predicted to occur in the future. Effects

Hideo HARASAWA

182

Confidence in Scientists and Engineers to Solve Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust in scientists has emerged as a key variable used to explain attitudes toward global warming and other environmental issues. Previous studies have shown that the more trust one has in scientists, the more likely one is to be concerned about global warming, to believe that steps should be taken to limit it, and to take action oneself. A closely

Eric Smith; Holly Klick

183

From low-flows to floods under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-flows and floods regimes of the Acheloo's river at the Mesochora catchment outfall in Western-Central Greece were analyzed under global warming conditions. The global warming patterns were simulated through a set of hypothetical and monthly GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) downscaled scenarios of temperature increases, coupled with downscaled precipitation changes. The hydrology of the catchment is dominated by

D. Panagoulia

2009-01-01

184

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

SciTech Connect

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

185

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases.

Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

2011-06-01

186

Model predictive control, the economy, and the issue of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is motivated by the evidence of global warming, which is caused by human activity but affects the efficiency of\\u000a the economy. We employ the integrated assessment Nordhaus DICE-2007 model (Nordhaus, A question of balance: economic modeling\\u000a of global warming, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008). Generally speaking, the framework is that of dynamic optimization of the discounted inter-temporal

Thierry Bréchet; Carmen Camacho; Vladimir M. Veliov

2010-01-01

187

Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections.  

PubMed

Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases. PMID:21257353

Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

2011-01-14

188

Report nixes Geritol fix for global warming  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea ignited a firestorm of controversy that rages on today. While the idea quickly won supporters - including some prominent members of the National Academy of Sciences - much of the oceanographic community was incensed, arguing that you don't tinker with a perfectly health ecosystem to clean up humanity's mess. Now the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) has a report that represents the views of much of the oceanographic community. In the report, released in late summer, ASLO trounces the idea of fertilizing the oceans with iron as a greenhouse fix, as expected. But in an unexpected twist, the society endorses a small-scale experiment in which iron would be added to the open ocean. The idea isn't to engineer the oceans, but to test the hypothesis that might answer one of the longstanding puzzles in biological oceanography: why do the phytoplankton of the Southern Ocean, as well as those in parts of the subarctic and equatorial Pacific, grow so poorly, even though the waters are rich in nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen The answer could shed light not only on how the food web operates, but on the global carbon cycle as well.

Roberts, L.

1991-09-27

189

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

PubMed

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller, Charles F

2007-03-09

190

Global warming, energy use, and economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by country group and also in response to the levels of factor use. It is found that classifying countries according to the GDP growth rate yields statistically different slope coefficients. Using the estimated translog production function, the capital and labour requirements of reductions in energy use are approximated. Analytical expressions for the elasticity of energy intensity with respect to factor inputs and also autonomous energy efficiency improvements are provided.

Khanna, Neha

191

Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it

Greene

1999-01-01

192

The Political Economy of Global Warming. From Data to Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the process from data acquisition to policy decision in relation to an optimum policy on global warming. Policymakers must be reasonably skeptical before proposing remedies to curb warming, but policymakers cannot await the final proof of any proposal's merit. Balancing evidence with doubt requires an informed approach, in which information is converted to knowledge and used to

Erling Røed Larsen

2002-01-01

193

Future harm and current obligations: the case of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a time during which aggregate benefits from greenhouse gas emissions dominate costs, but less comfort should be drawn from this situation than current emphasis on double CO2 scenarios suggests. The intertemporal asymmetry of impacts means initial benefits to most regions, from slight global warming, turn into very large economic costs, as warming continues. Economic decisions over what action,

Clive L. Spash

1993-01-01

194

Future wildfire in circumboreal forests in relation to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increasing temperatures since the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850), wildfire frequency has decreased as shown in many field studies from North America and Europe. We believe that global warming since 1850 may have trig- gered decreases in fire frequency in some regions and future warming may even lead to further decreases in fire frequency. Simulations of

Fotest Selvzce; Sault Ste Ma

195

Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms that determine the tropical precipitation anomalies under global warming are examined in an intermediate atmospheric model coupled with a simple land surface and a mixed layer ocean. To compensate for the warm tropospheric temperature, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) moisture must increase to maintain positive convective available potential energy (CAPE) in convective regions. In nonconvective regions, ABL moisture is controlled

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin

2004-01-01

196

Climatic Fluctuations in Lithuania Against a Background of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the climatic fluctuations recorded in Lithuania over the 19–20 centuries suggests that, against a background of global warming, trends of climatic elements changeability have been varying with different seasons of the year: winters and springs have warmed up, precipitation in the cold period of the year has increased, whereas summer and autumn temperatures have changed just insignificantly.

Ar?nas Bukantis

2001-01-01

197

[Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].  

PubMed

Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18033654

Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Gürtler, L; Reisinger, E C

2007-11-01

198

Possible human health impacts of a global warming  

SciTech Connect

Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

1995-03-01

199

Overestimated global warming over the past 20 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observed global warming is significantly less than that simulated by climate models. This difference might be explained by some combination of errors in external forcing, model response and internal climate variability.

Fyfe, John C.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Zwiers, Francis W.

2013-09-01

200

Can Iron-Enriched Oceans Thwart Global Warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from National Geographic News addresses the possibility of adding iron to ocean systems in order to improve phytoplankton growth, which would remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and decrease global warming via increased photosynthesis.

Roach, John; News, National G.

201

Circular inter-dependencies and system of systems: an inter-disciplinary approach for modeling global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of Global Warming is at the forefront of scientific investigation and socio-political discussion. Research has shown human activities are directly related to Global Warming, and its affects do not discriminate as to region or population---every citizen of the world is touched either directly or indirectly by this phenomenon. Much research has been conducted to measure climate change in

Catherine M. Banks; John A. Sokolowski

2009-01-01

202

Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

Greene, P.E.

1999-05-20

203

Situational influences upon children's beliefs about global warming and energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self?efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of self?efficacy amongst both adults and children to effectively respond to this large?scale environmental

Paul Fleming

2004-01-01

204

Clean Air Kids: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource for younger students about the greenhouse effect and global warming is part of a series of information sheets about the atmosphere, climate, and the environment. It begins with an explanation of the natural greenhouse effect of our atmosphere and the enhancement of the effect by the addition of greenhouse gases. The effects of this global warming on the weather, sea level, farming, and water usage along with the dangers to living organisms are also discussed.

205

Waiting to Exhale?: Global Warming and Tax Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the links between energy policy, tax policy and global warming. This article focuses on tax policy, because the emerging consensus among legal scholars favors economic incentives rather than command-and-control regulations for reaching environmental goals, and the Federal income tax has proved an effective delivery system for economic incentives.\\u000aAfter briefly discussing of the science of global warming

Roberta F. Mann

2002-01-01

206

Critical Literacy in Action: Multimodal Texts on Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides a way to combine scientific topics into an English lesson. Students apply specific comprehension strategies to multimodal texts as they investigate and interrogate the effects and possible causes of global warming. Students explore global warming through a variety of photographs, diagrams, and websites. As they look at each type of media, students catalog the strengths and weaknesses of these representations before identifying comprehension strategies that can be applied across various media.

Wilson, Amy A.

2012-01-01

207

Plasma etching processes for the reduction of global warming emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant issue facing the semiconductor industry is the emissions of long lived global warming gases such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) like CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 which are used for dielectric etch. In 1998, the Kyoto Protocol set quantitative targets on the reduction of global warming gases in the developed countries. Within the semiconductor industry, the World Semiconductor Council, representing the

R. Reif; R. Chatterjee; S. Karecki; L. Pruette

2000-01-01

208

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

PubMed Central

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour?1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41–52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37–41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2–3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming.

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.; Peck, Lloyd S.

2011-01-01

209

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A Historical Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is concern over the future of the tropical rainforest (TRF) in the face of global warming. Will TRFs collapse? The fossil record can inform us about that. Our compilation of 5,998 empirical estimates of temperature over the past 120 Ma indicates that tropics have warmed as much as 7°C during both the mid-Cretaceous and the Paleogene. We analyzed the paleobotanical record of South America during the Paleogene and found that the TRF did not expand toward temperate latitudes during global warm events, even though temperatures were appropriate for doing so, suggesting that solar insolation can be a constraint on the distribution of the tropical biome. Rather, a novel biome, adapted to temperate latitudes with warm winters, developed south of the tropical zone. The TRF did not collapse during past warmings; on the contrary, its diversity increased. The increase in temperature seems to be a major driver in promoting diversity.

Jaramillo, Carlos; Cárdenas, Andrés

2013-05-01

210

Is a global warming signature emerging in the tropical Pacific?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical pacific experienced a hitherto-unseen anomalous basinwide warming from May 2009 through April 2010 with the maximum warming to the east of the dateline, but for a weak anomalous cooling west of 140°E after early boreal fall. Our observed analysis and model experiments isolate the potential teleconnections from TP during the summer of 2009. Further, we show through an empirical orthogonal function analysis of the tropical Pacific SSTA that the anomalous conditions in TP during this period could have manifested as a canonical El Niño, but for a slowly intensifying background west-east gradient. This zonal SST gradient is subject to an increasing trend associated with global warming. A possible implication is that any further increase in global warming may result in more basinwide warm events in place of canonical El Niños, along with the occurrence of more intense La Niñas and El Niño Modokis.

Ashok, K.; Sabin, T. P.; Swapna, P.; Murtugudde, R. G.

2012-01-01

211

Physical aspects of the greenhouse effect and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the simplest model of the earth's radiative balance, global warming will occur with certainty as humankind increases its production and consumption of nonsolar energy. This prediction is revisited, using a broader model that allows the greenhouse effect to be considered. The new model predicts a global warming of ?TE=(114 K)?, where V is the rate of surface energy release in units of the average incident solar radiation, 342 W m-2, and ?TE is the average temperature rise at the earth's surface. Present values of these quantities, excluding geothermal sources, are V=0.69×10-4 and ?TE=7.9 mK. The model assigns a small number of optical parameters to the atmosphere and surface and qualifies the simple warming prediction: It is rigorous only if parameters other than V are unchanged. The model is not complex and should serve as an aid to an elementary understanding of global warming.

Knox, Robert S.

1999-12-01

212

Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.  

PubMed

Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular. PMID:18304110

Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

2008-02-01

213

Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.  

PubMed

Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

Pimentel, D

214

Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information…

Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

2010-01-01

215

An investigation of middle school students' alternative conceptions of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because global warming presents a serious potential threat to our biosphere, it is receiving considerable attention by scientists, policy makers, and educators. This article presents alternative conceptions about global warming held by a sample of 24 grade 6 to 8 students. Students completed interviews on globalwarming approximately two weeks after instruction from a Science?Technology?Society (STS) global warming unit. The

James A. Rye; Peter A. Rubba; Randall L. Wiesenmayer

1997-01-01

216

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here, we use stable carbon

Larisa R. G. DeSantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden

2009-01-01

217

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCurrent global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3\\/C4 transitions and relative seasonality.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

Larisa R. G. Desantis; Robert S. Feranec; Bruce J. MacFadden; Jon Moen

2009-01-01

218

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation

J. D. Neelin; M. Münnich; H. Su; J. E. Meyerson; C. E. Holloway

2006-01-01

219

Modification of Cirrus Clouds to Reduce Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as we know, no studies have addressed the possibility of modifying cirrus clouds to reduce global warming. Here we explore this possibility and associated feasibility issues. To introduce this concept, some background information is needed. The effect of cirrus on climate can be quantified through their predicted impact on climate sensitivity, S (i.e. the equilibrium response of global-

D. L. Mitchell; P. J. Rasch

2008-01-01

220

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting

M. C. MacCracken

2005-01-01

221

Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate change in the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) was characterized by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming of ?6 °C, anoxic conditions in the oceans, and extinction of marine species. The triggering mechanisms for the perturbation and environmental change are however strongly debated. Here, we present

Henrik Svensen; Sverre Planke; Luc Chevallier; Anders Malthe-Sørenssen; Fernando Corfu; Bjørn Jamtveit

2007-01-01

222

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from

Terry L. Root; Jeff T. Price; Kimberly R. Hall; Stephen H. Schneider; Cynthia Rosenzweig; J. Alan Pounds

2003-01-01

223

Volcanic Forcing of Global Warming during the Pleistocene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic forcing hypothesis is a new model of global climatic change that may have significance for the history of the Earth and palaeoclimate. The rapid injection of CO2 into the atmosphere during volcanic eruption through underlying massive carbonate appears to trigger global warming through the emission of this greenhouse gas. The record of eruptions (10-20 Kya) of 6 volcanoes

J. E. Ericson

2002-01-01

224

Slowing global warming: benefits for patients and the planet.  

PubMed

Global warming will cause significant harm to the health of persons and their communities by compromising food and water supplies; increasing risks of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases and heat stress; changing social determinants of health resulting from extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and expanding flood plains; and worsening air quality, resulting in additional morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations such as children, older persons, persons living at or below the poverty level, and minorities will be affected earliest and greatest, but everyone likely will be affected at some point. Family physicians can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, stabilize the climate, and reduce the risks of climate change while also directly improving the health of their patients. Health interventions that have a beneficial effect on climate change include encouraging patients to reduce the amount of red meat in their diets and to replace some vehicular transportation with walking or bicycling. Patients are more likely to make such lifestyle changes if their physician asks them to and leads by example. Medical offices and hospitals can become more energy efficient by recycling, purchasing wind-generated electricity, and turning off appliances, computers, and lights when not in use. Moreover, physicians can play an important role in improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by advocating for enforcement of existing air quality regulations and working with local and national policy makers to further improve air quality standards, thereby improving the health of their patients and slowing global climate change. PMID:21842773

Parker, Cindy L

2011-08-01

225

Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5-5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ˜1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels.

Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Ostberg, Sebastian; Heinke, Jens; Kowarsch, Martin; Kreft, Holger; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Rastgooy, Johann; Warren, Rachel; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-09-01

226

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated. This implies that recent global warming is not statistically significantly related to anthropogenic forcing. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcing might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

2012-07-01

227

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing\\u000a long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have\\u000a a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated\\u000a the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

228

Health and Amenity Effects of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that climate change would probably reduce mortality in the United States by about 40,000 per year, assuming a 4.5 degree warmer climate--the IPCC best estimate of temperature change with a doubling of carbon dioxide. Benefits would extend to lower medical costs nationwide. Measuring willingness to pay by wage rates shows that people prefer warm climates and would

Thomas Gale Moore

1998-01-01

229

Lay Perceptions of Global RiskPublic Views of Global Warming in Cross-National Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results from a 1992 Gallup survey conducted in six nations (Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Portugal and Russia) that explored public perceptions of global warming in some detail. Overall the results tend to support those of the small-scale but in-depth studies on which the present study built: Lay publics in these six nations see global warming as a

Riley E. Dunlap

1998-01-01

230

A Simple Calorimetric Experiment That Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines a simple calorimetric experiment for the general chemistry laboratory that illustrates a classic prin- ciple of chemical thermodynamics and, in a somewhat novel way, gives students an introduction to some broad features associated with global heat retention and global warming. The earth has had a robust greenhouse warming effect for mil- lions of years; otherwise the planet

Joel D. Burley; Harold S. Johnston

2007-01-01

231

Global warming and amphibian extinctions in eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pounds et al. recently argued that the dramatic, fungal pathogen-linked extinctions of numerous harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.) in upland rainforests of South America mostly occurred immediately following exceptionally warm years,implicating global warming as a likely trigger for these extinctions.I tested this hypothesis using temperature data for eastern Australia, where at least 14 upland-rainforest frog species have also experienced extinctions or

WILLIAM F. LAURANCE

2008-01-01

232

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

Stone, G. T.

2006-12-01

233

Concept of planetary thermal balance and global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of Earth's thermal balance is used to suggest that solar energy absorbed by a planet is equal to the heat radiated from that planet. Such an approach substantially simplifies estimating the anthropogenic warming of the planet. We compare the solar irradiance with the current heat production caused by burning different kinds of fuel. We show that anthropogenic heating is able to cause global warming of 1°C in a century.

Nickolaenko, Alexander P.

2009-04-01

234

MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED TEMPORAL SCALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleontological information was used to evaluate and compare how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized by different durations (350, ;10,000-20,000, and 4 million years) and different per-100-year warming rates (1.08C, 0.18C, 0.06-0.088C, 0.0002-0.00038C per 100 years). Our goals were to de- termine whether biotic changes observed today are characteristic of or accelerated relative to

Anthony D. Barnosky; Elizabeth A. Hadly; Christopher J. Bell

2003-01-01

235

The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.  

PubMed

Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb. PMID:20039819

Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

2009-01-01

236

Seven steps to curb global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some

John Mathews

2007-01-01

237

Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing

Dorweiler

1998-01-01

238

Potential effects on health of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability

A. Haines; M. Parry

1993-01-01

239

Large-scale dynamics and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of future climate change raise a variety of issues in large-scale atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Several of these are reviewed in this essay, including the sensitivity of the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean to increasing freshwater input at high latitudes; the possibility of greenhouse cooling in the southern oceans; the sensitivity of monsoonal circulations to differential warming of the two hemispheres; the response of midlatitude storms to changing temperature gradients and increasing water vapor in the atmosphere; and the possible importance of positive feedback between the mean winds and eddy-induced heating in the polar stratosphere.

Held, I.M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1993-02-01

240

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

241

Utilizing E-Commerce and M-Commerce Applications to Address the Effect of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global warming is particularly signif icant to African countries with growing economies. The process of reducing carbon emissions has the potential to negatively impact emerging economies. However the use of web technologies and mobile technologies may be a way of reducing carbon emission without adversely affecting the economy. Unlike developed countries, developing nations are less reliant on

Keshnee Padayachee

242

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: A stochastic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are subjected to environmental actions affecting their performance, serviceability and safety. Among these actions, chloride ingress leads to corrosion and has been recognized as a critical factor reducing service life of RC structures. This paper presents a stochastic approach to study the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment

E. Bastidas-Arteaga; A. Chateauneuf; M. Sánchez-Silva; Ph. Bressolette; F. Schoefs

2010-01-01

243

Global Warming Policy and the Pennsylvania Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the impacts of global warming policy have been performed at the national level. However, national averages obscure the fact that some regions may be affected much more than others. We formulated a regional computable general equilibrium model to analyze the impact of a carbon tax on the Pennsylvania economy. The model incorporates special features relating to labor

Ping-Cheng Li; Adam Rose

1995-01-01

244

Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have

R. POULIN

2005-01-01

245

Paper No: 693 Engaging Architects and Architectural Students in Global Warming Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Global warming is a major dilemma facing our globe that has changed the world concerns to reconsider the pollution sources affecting planet earth. This along with the tremendous increase in carbon dioxide emissions all over the world in the last decade has simulated the EDRG (Environmental Design Research Group, at the Architectural Engineering and Environmental Design Department) at the

Amira ELNOKALY; Ahmed ELSERAGY; Ingy ELGEBALY

246

Bog breath: Sleeper factor in global warming?  

SciTech Connect

This artical examines the emission of gases from northern peatlands as plants grow and decay and its implication in the global increase in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide and methane. Bogs do extract carbon dioxide from the air, incorporating it into green plants which become buried for a long time. However, the cold, wet conditions are ideal for microbes which emit methane. Global climate change models indicate that Minnesota, for example will be 5 degrees warmer and somewhat wetter in future years. As a result bacterial metabolism and methane generation may increase considerably. This paper discusses current research and speculation and looks at possible solutions, both man-created and natural.

Benyus, J.M.

1995-04-01

247

Global warming: Perspectives from the Late Quaternary paleomammal record  

SciTech Connect

Global warming at the end of the Pleistocene caused significant environmental changes that directly and indirectly effected biotic communities. The biotic response to this global warming event can provide insights into the processes that might be anticipated for future climatic changes. The megafauna extinction may have been the most dramatic alteration of mammalian communities at the end of the Pleistocene. Late Quaternary warming also altered regional diversity patterns for some small mammal guilds without extinction. Reductions in body size for both small and large mammal species were also consequences of these environmental fluctuations. Geographic shifts in the distributions of individual mammal species resulted in changes in species composition of mammalian communities. The individualistic response of biota to environmental fluctuations define some boundary conditions for modeling communities. Understanding these boundary conditions is mandatory in planning for the preservation of biodiversity in the future. Finally, it is essential to determine how global warming will alter seasonal patterns because it is apparent from the paleobiological record that not all Quaternary warming events have been the same.

Graham, R.W. (Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States))

1993-03-01

248

Global Warming and the World Trading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, a team led by the English economist Sir Nicholas Stern issued a striking report that analyzed the economic dimensions of global climate change and called for immediate collective action to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This seminal report poses the critical question of how much emissions should be reduced within specific timeframes. * To answer the challenge of

Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Steve Charnovitz; Jisun Kim

249

Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration,

R. L. Peters; T. E. Lovejoy

1992-01-01

250

REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING - THE ROLE OF RICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Activities to provide energy for an expanding population are increasingly disrupting and changing the concentration of atmospheric gases that increase global temperature. ncreased CO2 and temperature have a clear effect on growth and production of rice as they are key factors in ...

251

Studying Global Warming in Biosphere 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, two students discuss the greenhouse effect and visit with research scientists at Biosphere 2 in Arizona, who research the effects of global climate change on organisms in a controlled facility. Their current research (as of 2002) focuses on the response to increased quantities of CO2 in a number of different model ecosystems.

Thirteen; Wnet; Domain, Teachers'

252

Global warming: is weight loss a solution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), and estimated the reduction in the CO2 emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet

A Gryka; J Broom; C Rolland

2012-01-01

253

Fossil fuels and responses to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main point of this paper is that we, with or without climate change as a driving force, should expect to see major surprises both in energy and energy technologies in the decades to year 2050. If antropogenic climate change emerge as a major and global driving force, the likelihood for CO2-sequestration (for electricity and hydrogen production) to take a

Olav Kaarstad

1995-01-01

254

Global Warming, Endogenous Risk, and Irreversibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two-period analytical and numerical models to study the question: given a stock of greenhouse gases that poses a risk of future damages of unknown magnitude, and the possibility of learning about damages, how do sunk abatement capital and a nondegradable stock of greenhouse gases affect optimal first-period investment? We show that both affect investment, the former negatively

Anthony C. Fisher; Urvashi Narain

2003-01-01

255

OIL vs. WARMING FOSSIL FUEL SCARCITY WILL NOT SAVE US FROM GLOBAL WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of global warming which will be experienced on the Earth in the next centuries will be constrained by the trajectories of the anthropic fossil fuel consumption as well as by geological fuel availability. An important paper by W. P. Nel and C. J. Cooper (Nel and Cooper, 2009) will appear in Energy Policy (already available online) attempting to

Antonio Zecca; Luca Chiari

256

Effects of global warming on wind energy availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wind energy reduces our greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a generic power-law relationship between global warming and the usable wind energy (Betz’s law). The power law index (?4, region dependent) is then determined using simulated atmospheric parameters from eight global coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models (CGCMs). It is found that the power-law

Diandong Ren

2010-01-01

257

Gas emissions from landfills and their contributions to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of methane from UK landfills is described in relation to total gas emissions to the atmosphere and how these have been shown to contribute to global warming. The known effects that methane has on the atmosphere are reviewed and the relationship to those effects caused by other greenhouse gases is described. A methodology utilized in assessing the quantity

N. Gardner; B. J. W. Manley; J. M. Pearson

1993-01-01

258

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

259

Population and global warming with and without CO 2 targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of future global warming to variable population growth rates is reexamined as part of an ongoing debate over the extent to which climate change should be added to the list of concerns surrounding population growth. The UN 1992 low, medium and high population projections out to the year 2150 are run through an integrated climate-economics model which allows

Stuart R. Gaffin; Brian C. O'Neill

1997-01-01

260

Subpolar glaciers network as natural sensors of global warming evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the expeditions carried out both to temperate and subpolar glaciers in both hemispheres, we have observed the existence of endoglacier and subglacier flows and drainages also in subpolar glaciers. Our main work hypothesis is centred on investigating the role played by subpolar glacier discharge in global warming, as we consider this discharge may represent that unknown third of sea

Adolfo Eraso

261

Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost–benefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and

Eric Neumayer

1999-01-01

262

CONTRIBUTIONS REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains analyses about the effects of global warming and climate change. The impacts of climate change may be physical,ecological, social or economic. Evidence of observed climate change includes the increasing temperature, CO2 emissions, droughts, floods, etc. Human activities have contributed to a number of the observed changes in climate. This contribution has principally been through the burning of

Gabriela PRELIPCEAN; Angela Cozorici; Mariana LUPAN

2011-01-01

263

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

264

Turkish prospective teachers’ understanding and misunderstanding on global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers’ opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers’ views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true–false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies education and primary school education departments of three universities in Turkey.

A. Ocal; M. Kisoglu; A. Alas; H. Gurbuz

2011-01-01

265

Simulated response of North Pacific Mode Waters to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the response of the Mode Waters in the North Pacific to global warming based on a set of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models. Solutions between a present-day climate and a future, warmer climate are compared. Under the warmer climate scenario, the Mode Waters are produced on lighter isopycnal surfaces and are

Yiyong Luo; Qinyu Liu; Lewis M. Rothstein

2009-01-01

266

Shifts in ENSO coupling processes under global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming may shift the properties and dynamics of El Niño. We study the shifts in ENSO couplings in IPCC-AR4 coupled general circulation climate models. First, we compare period, pattern, amplitude and mean state of the Pacific Ocean between the current climate and a high CO2 climate. Next, shifts in ENSO couplings between sea surface temperature (SST), thermocline depth and

Sjoukje Philip; Geert Jan van Oldenborgh

2006-01-01

267

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's \\\\State of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out that for 1940-1970, temperatures were de- creasing while atmospheric carbon dioxide was increasing. A reason for this contradiction was given at Interface 2003 (12) where the temperature time series was well modelled by a

Bert W. Rust

268

Global Warming: If You Can't Stand the Heat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Global warming is the progressive, gradual rise of the earth's average surface temperature, thought to be caused in part by increased concentrations of "greenhouse" gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's temperature has risen by about one degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated…

Baird, Stephen L.

2005-01-01

269

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2011-01-01

270

Brazil's Amazon forest in mitigating global warming: unresolved controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil's Amazon rainforest provides an important environmental service with its storage of carbon, thereby reducing global warming. A growing number of projects and proposals intend to reward carbon storage services. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is currently a key issue for negotiations on an international agreement that is to take effect in 2013. Various issues require decisions that

Philip M. Fearnside

2012-01-01

271

From Global Warming to Sustainable Transport 1989–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with a review of a 1990 article on the impact of global warming on the transportation infrastructure, this article summarizes the changes in our knowledge of climate change and its impact on transport over the past sixteen years. Although most of the basic scientific knowledge has not changed there has been an increase in our understanding of the potential

William R. Black; Noriyuki Sato

2007-01-01

272

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

273

Seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was administered to students. These data were

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat

2009-01-01

274

Radiative forcings and global warming potentials of 39 greenhouse gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative forcings and global warming potentials for 39 greenhouse gases are evaluated using narrowband and broadband radiative transfer models. Unlike many previous studies, latitudinal and seasonal variations are considered explicitly, using distributions of major greenhouse gases from a combination of chemical-transport model results and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements and cloud statistics from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology

Atul K. Jain; Bruce P. Briegleb; K. Minschwaner; Donald J. Wuebbles

2000-01-01

275

Global warming potential for CF[sub 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sufficient emissions, fluorinated gases such as CF[sub 4] could contribute significantly to the concerns about global warming because they are greenhouse gases, are chemically very inert, and have long accumulation lifetimes in the atmosphere. At this time, the only significant known source of CF[sub 4] is primary aluminum smelting (Abrahamson, 1992). While current emissions are small, additional sources could

D. J. Wuebbles; A. S. Grossman

1992-01-01

276

Global Warming on the International Agenda. Teaching Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a lesson plan that teaches students the links between industrialization and global warming, and analyzes the conflicting values and priorities involved in the debate between economic development and environmental concerns. Students role play delegates from countries attending an environmental conference. Handouts provide background…

Keenan-Byrne, Patricia; Malkasian, Mark

1997-01-01

277

Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

2010-01-01

278

Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

2009-01-01

279

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potentia...

J. Longstreth

1993-01-01

280

Examining the Tropical Pacific's Response to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the tropical Pacific to increasing greenhouse gases represents an exciting intersection of theory, modeling, and observations. In this article, we contrast competing theories for the response of the tropical Pacific to global warming, illustrate the utility of models for understanding and reconciling these theories, and highlight the need for improved instrumental and paleoclimatic reconstructions to better evaluate

Gabriel A. Vecchi; Amy Clement; Brian J. Soden

2008-01-01

281

Preventing Global Warming: The United States, China, and Intellectual Property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns of intellectual property infringement in China slow the dissemination of clean technology (Cleantech) innovation that could help bring the pace of global warming under control. We use the U.S. post?World War 2 policy decisions with respect to Japan and Europe (the Marshall Plan) to show how this problem can be addressed. To help Japan become a western style democracy

CHRIS K. AJEMIAN; DAVID MCHARDY REID

2010-01-01

282

Preventing Global Warming: The United States, China, and Intellectual Property  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTConcerns of intellectual property infringement in China slow the dissemination of clean technology (Cleantech) innovation that could help bring the pace of global warming under control. We use the U.S. post?World War 2 policy decisions with respect to Japan and Europe (the Marshall Plan) to show how this problem can be addressed. To help Japan become a western style democracy

CHRIS K. AJEMIAN; DAVID MCHARDY REID

283

Global warming: Efficient policies in the case of multiple pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates efficient policies against global warming in the case of multiple greenhouse gases. In a dynamic optimization model conditions for an efficient combination of abatement activities are derived. It is shown how this solution can be decentralised by a system of emission charges. Since the determination of the charge rates should be based on a long time horizon,

Peter Michaelis

1992-01-01

284

Economic Analysis of Global Warming: FEEM's WITCH Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a complex phenomenon. Human activities, such as energy consumption, industrial processes, land use, are re sponsible for emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs) that concentrate in the atmosphere. Complex exchanges with the biosphere contribute to an absor ption of GHGs and thus to a natural reduction of concentrations. The rapid incr ease in GHGs emissions into the atmosphere

Valentina Bosetti; Emanuele Massetti; Massimo Tavoni

285

Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest -

Jeanne Stevens

2007-01-01

286

Sensitivity of Building Zones to Potential Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As global warming entails new conditions for the built environment, the thermal and energy performance of existing buildings, which are designed based on current weather data, may become unclear and remain a great concern. Through building computer simulation and qualitative analysis of the weighted factor for the outdoor temperature impact on building energy and thermal performance, this paper investigates the

Lisa Guan

2009-01-01

287

Global warming and the running average sunspot number.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been reported in your pages that the Bush administration's views and actions regarding how or whether to react to possible global warming due to greenhouse gases have been influenced by the so-called Marshall report. This unrefereed report, release...

M. E. Fernau

1994-01-01

288

8th Global warming international conference and exposition  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

289

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of

Longstreth

1993-01-01

290

Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical species with narrow elevational ranges may be thermally specialized and vulnerable to global warming. Local studies of distributions along elevational gradients reveal small-scale patterns but do not allow generalizations among geographic regions or taxa. We critically assessed data from 249 studies of species elevational distributions in the American, African, and Asia-Pacific tropics. Of these, 150 had sufficient data quality,

William F. Laurance; D. Carolina Useche; Luke P. Shoo; Sebastian K. Herzog; Michael Kessler; Federico Escobar; Gunnar Brehm; Jan C. Axmacher; I-Ching Chen; Lucrecia Arellano Gámez; Peter Hietz; Konrad Fiedler; Tomasz Pyrcz; Jan Wolf; Christopher L. Merkord; Catherine Cardelus; Andrew R. Marshall; Claudine Ah-Peng; Gregory H. Aplet; M. del Coro Arizmendi; William J. Baker; John Barone; Carsten A. Brühl; Rainer W. Bussmann; Daniele Cicuzza; Gerald Eilu; Mario E. Favila; Andreas Hemp; Claudia Hemp; Jürgen Homeier; Johanna Hurtado; Jill Jankowski; Gustavo Kattán; Jürgen Kluge; Thorsten Krömer; David C. Lees; Marcus Lehnert; John T. Longino; Jon Lovett; Patrick H. Martin; Bruce D. Patterson; Richard G. Pearson; Kelvin S.-H. Peh; Barbara Richardson; Michael Richardson; Michael J. Samways; Feyera Senbeta; Thomas B. Smith; Timothy M. A. Utteridge; James E. Watkins; Rohan Wilson; Stephen E. Williams; Chris D. Thomas

2011-01-01

291

Compilation of Ozone Depletion Potentials and Global Warming Potentials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The ozone depletion potentials database (1) contains experimental Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) compiled from the open literature. It is searchable by CAS Registry number, and a lookup table for CAS numbers is provided.

292

Public policies against global warming: a supply side approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have pledged to limit global warming by reducing the demand for fossil fuels. But what about supply? If suppliers do not react, demand reductions by a subset of countries are ineffective. They simply depress the world price of carbon and induce the environmental sinners to consume what the Kyoto countries have economized

Hans-Werner Sinn

2008-01-01

293

The Response of the Extratropical Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in the hydrological cycle in the extratropics under global warming is studied using the climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Re- port. The changes in hydrological quantities are analyzed with respect to the increases expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) equation, which describes the rate of increase of a hydrological quantity per

David J. Lorenz; Eric T. DeWeaver

2007-01-01

294

Urban Sprawl, Global Warming and the Limits of Ecological Modernisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion of urban development results in higher emissions of global warming gases, especially carbon dioxide, because urban sprawl results in higher energy use in transportation and the heating and cooling of spacious homes on the urban periphery. The techniques and politics underlying the diffuse urban form were pioneered in the United States in the late nineteenth century, where landowners

George A Gonzalez

2005-01-01

295

Potential Effects of Global Warming on Calving Caribou.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calving grounds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are often in the portion of their range that remains covered by snow late into spring. We propose that global warming would alter the duration of snow cover on the calving grounds and the rate o...

W. G. Eastland R. G. White

1992-01-01

296

A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

297

Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will

Michael Hoel; Snorre Kverndokk

1996-01-01

298

Surface Measurements of Global Warming Causing Atmospheric Constituents in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the industrial economy and the increase of population in Northeast Asian countries have caused much interestin climate monitoring related to global warming. However, new techniques and better platforms for the measurement of globalwarming and regional databases are still old-fashioned and arenot being developed sufficiently. With respect to this agenda,since 1993, at the request of the World Meteorological

Sung-Nam Oh; Yong-Hoon Youn; Ki-Jun Park; Hee-Kyoung Min; Russell C. Schnell

2001-01-01

299

A Consideration on Dangerous Level of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prevent global warming, as stated in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and limitation of temperature increases to certain levels are required. Identification of the critical level of temperature increase (i.e., the level where danger occurs) in order to allow ecosystems to adapt, food to

Hideo HARASAWA

2006-01-01

300

Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

2011-01-01

301

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific knowledge and research capabilities are advancing our understanding of global climate change resulting from rising atmospheric levels of radiatively important (mostly heat-trapping) gases and particles. The effects of climate change can be assessed with climate models, which account for complex physical, chemical and biological processes, and interactions of these processes with human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels along with land use changes. This presentation begins with a discussion of the current understanding of the concerns about climate change, and then discusses the role climate models in scientific projections of climate change as well as their current strengths and weaknesses.

Jain, Atul

2008-03-01

302

Global Warming: Risk Perception and Risk-Mitigating Behavior in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is a major concern for the Japanese public. However, because the influence of global environmental risks, particularly global warming, is long-term and widespread, it seems difficult for the public to recognize it as a familiar and important problem that necessitates firm action. This study attempts to determine the causal structure promoting risk-mitigating behavior with regard to global warming,

Mizue Ohe; Saburo Ikeda

2005-01-01

303

Forecasting Voluntary Investments for Mitigations in Global Warming: A Public Choice Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse discussions are taking place over what the next international effort against global warming should be. The cornerstone in global efforts to cope with global warming has been the Kyoto Protocol. Its establishment was a milestone in the field of global warming for enjoining international coordinated efforts. That being said, the Kyoto Protocol has much room for improvement. Two major

Yutaka ITO

304

Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

1992-12-31

305

A dynamic analysis of the global timber market under global warming: an integrated modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a dynamic integrated modeling approach to identify the effect of global warming on the global timber market. The Timber Supply Model 2000, BIOME 3, and Hamburg were used as a suitable economic and ecological model. The TSM 2000 was adopted to model dynamic economic behavior in the global timber market. BIOME 3 was utilized as our steady state

Dug Lee; Kenneth Lyon

2001-01-01

306

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robustness of the atmospheric circulation response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures that is extracted from a multi-model ensemble of coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model greenhouse warming simulations. The robustness of the warming response is evaluated by a

Michael Sigmond; Paul J. Kushner; John F. Scinocca

2007-01-01

307

I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow: Using Procrastination Management to Combat Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the provocatively titled "I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow," Dick Malott says that although we all want to do the right thing to help the environment, whether it's buying and installing compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) or replacing an energy-guzzling appliance with a more efficient one, we put it off because there's no…

Malott, Richard W.

2010-01-01

308

Runoff sensitivities of major global river basins in a warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff is a key index of renewable water resources which affect almost all human and natural systems. Any substantial change in runoff therefore has the potential to impact food and freshwater security. We analyze the runoff response to global warming as predicted by climate change experiments generated for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In contrast to previous work, we estimate the sensitivity of runoff per degree of global mean temperature change, with the rationale that the global average temperature change is indexed to cumulative global emissions, and therefore removes most of the dependence on emissions scenarios. Our results show that the predicted fractional change in runoff per degree warming is relatively stable across emissions scenarios and global mean temperature increments, but varies substantially across models with the exception of the high-latitudes and currently arid or semi-arid areas. Among the 194 large global river basins studied, the number of basins with decreasing runoff increases by about 12% per degree global temperature increase, and the associated fraction of global land area, effected population, and effected Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increases by about 6, 5, and 8%, respectively. The areas, where the projected runoff decreases more than 10% of the runoff in the period of 1970-1999, cover 13% of the global land area and 20% of the global GDP at a 2 degree C global warming, suggesting substantial expansion of drought area in a warming climate. The estimated runoff elasticity to precipitation ranges from about one to three. The predicted runoff decreases between 2 to 6% per degree local temperature increase over most basins in North America and the middle and high latitudes of Eurasia.

Tang, Q.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2011-12-01

309

Volcanoes may warm locally while cooling globally  

SciTech Connect

The debris thrown into the stratosphere by the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was supposed to give the world a break from the record-shattering global warmth of the 1980s. But throughout North America and much of northern Eurasia those expectations were confounded as the following winter proved unusually mild. Normally frigid Minneapolis, for example, had its third warmest winter ever, with temperatures averaging a relatively sultry 4.3[degree]C above normal. So the obvious question is, what might have temporarily counteracted Pinatubo's chilling effects on the northern continents The stratospheric haze created by Mt. Pinatubo did, as expected, screen out some sunlight and cool the globe as a whole. But recent evidence also suggests that it may have had the counter-intuitive effect of raising winter temperatures in large regions of North America and northern Eurasia by altering the weather patterns in those areas.

Kerr, R.A.

1993-05-28

310

Global warming solutions and the path to recovery.  

PubMed

We will look back on the last year as a period when extraordinary economic events marked the unraveling of one economic model and placed in front of the global community a set of choices. Either we restructure the architecture of the global economy and replace it with something else, or we face a future of devastating economic consequences. The Blue Green Alliance has become one of America's leading advocates for global warming solutions and we believe that the benefits and economic opportunities will far outweigh the costs. We have popularized the terms "green economy" and "green jobs" and we believe that every job in America should turn into a green job. PMID:19608497

Foster, David

2009-01-01

311

Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers  

SciTech Connect

Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

1994-04-08

312

First tropical warm rain estimates could improve global climate models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study breaks down the type of rainfall in the tropical zones. Microwave images and radar data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were examined. It was found that approximately 72 percent of the total rain area and 31 percent of the total rain amount in the tropics comes from warm rain. The relationship between liquid water in a cloud and the rain rate was also measured. Results can be used in climate models to represent convection cycles and their role in global warming.

Lau, William; Wu, H. T.; Agu

313

Are outbreaks of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) associated with global warming?  

PubMed

Outbreaks of the Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), have occurred frequently in China during the past few years, resulting in a broad and significant reduction in rice yield. N. lugens immigrate into China each spring from Southeast Asia, and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the first area affected. Light trap catches for the early season period (March-June) in Guangxi for the past 30 yr have been analyzed, and the catch sequences for five observation stations (Longzhou, Hepu, Yongning Yongfu, and Quanzhou) were studied in detail. It was found that during the past 10 yr the first appearance of N. lugens at light traps occurs earlier, there is a higher frequency of days with large light-trap catches, and catches in southern Guangxi are larger. Recently light-trap catches have also increased in northern Guangxi. It is concluded that the increasing number of immigrants from overseas is one of the primary reasons for the increase in N. lugens outbreaks in the past 10 yr. Global warming, and specifically winter temperature increases, appears to be for a factor accelerating outbreaks of N. lugens in Asia. PMID:22182533

Hu, Gao; Xie, Mao-Chang; Lin, Zuo-Xiao; Xin, De-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhai, Bao-Ping

2010-12-01

314

Is the basin-wide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basin-wide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean has occurred since the mid-1990s; however, the cause of this basin-wide warming is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular increase of the atmospheric greenhouse gas of carbon dioxide (CO2), while others suggested that it is caused by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Chunzai Wang; Shenfu Dong

2010-01-01

315

Trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus.  

PubMed

The global warming is an important factor affecting the biological evolution, and the influenza is an important disease that threatens humans with possible epidemics or pandemics. In this study, we attempted to analyze the trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus, because this protein is a target of anti-flu drug, and its mutation would have significant effect on the resistance to anti-flu drugs. The evolution of matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus from 1959 to 2008 was defined using the unpredictable portion of amino-acid pair predictability. Then the trend in this evolution was compared with the trend in the global temperature, the temperature in north and south hemispheres, and the temperature in influenza A virus sampling site, and species carrying influenza A virus. The results showed the similar trends in global warming and in evolution of M2 proteins although we could not correlate them at this stage of study. The study suggested the potential impact of global warming on the evolution of proteins from influenza A virus. PMID:20640805

Yan, Shao-Min; Wu, Guang

2009-11-14

316

Global warming and the insurance industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

Berz, G. A.

1992-06-01

317

Global warming effects on the Arctic and SubArctic Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a rather hydrostatic approach to global warming (mean earth temperature increasing, ice melting, sea level raising)\\u000a one came to realize that the effects of global warming were more of a hydrodynamic nature and that the ocean dynamics and\\u000a its modifications in response to global warming constituted an essential factor. Taking into account the effect of global\\u000a warming on ocean

Jacques C. J. Nihoul

318

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880-2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

2012-11-01

319

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

SciTech Connect

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01

320

Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

Caplan, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Economics

1999-05-01

321

The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming  

SciTech Connect

To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

Hall, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program; Manabe, Syukuro [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1999-08-01

322

Robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the robustness of the atmospheric circulation response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). The AGCMs are forced by a single global pattern of warm sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) extracted from the CMIP coupled models. This setting, in which coupled atmosphere-ocean feedbacks are eliminated from the response to global warming, allows us to quantify

M. Sigmond; P. J. Kushner

2006-01-01

323

American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'.

D. M. Reiner; T. E. Curry; M. A. de Figueiredo; H. J. Herzog; S. D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

2006-01-01

324

Support for global warming mitigation and the use of CCS: A survey of the Malaysian public  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007 Nobel Peace prize was awarded to individuals and groups that had worked hard to address the impending threat of global warming. The award partly serves to highlight to the world the urgency and importance of the global warming issue to humanity. However, questions still remain on the actual public awareness level on global warming and the available technology

Nai Yeen Gavin Lai; Keng Hoi Aw; Lee Chan Wai; Eng Hwa Yap

2011-01-01

325

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98âGlobal Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

2010-07-01

326

The Power of One: Citizen Suits in the Fight Against Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaintiffs seeking compensation from the effects of global warming have encountered challenging legal barriers. Until 2009, courts consistently dismissed global warming suits as political questions or for lack of standing. In Comer v. Murphy Oil USA, property owners along the Mississippi Gulf coast sued oil and energy companies in nuisance for emitting greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming and

Katherine A Guarino

2011-01-01

327

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of...A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98âGlobal Warming Potentials Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time Horizon]...

2013-07-01

328

Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (?1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (?1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (?28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems.

DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

2009-01-01

329

Mechanisms driving change: altered species interactions and ecosystem function through global warming.  

PubMed

1. We review the mechanisms behind ecosystem functions, the processes that facilitate energy transfer along food webs, and the major processes that allow the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, and use case studies to show how these have already been, and will continue to be, altered by global warming. 2. Increased temperatures will affect the interactions between heterotrophs and autotrophs (e.g. pollination and seed dispersal), and between heterotrophs (e.g. predators-prey, parasites/pathogens-hosts), with generally negative ramifications for important ecosystem services (functions that provide direct benefit to human society such as pollination) and potential for heightened species co-extinction rates. 3. Mitigation of likely impacts of warming will require, in particular, the maintenance of species diversity as insurance for the provision of basic ecosystem services. Key to this will be long-term monitoring and focused research that seek to maintain ecosystem resilience in the face of global warming. 4. We provide guidelines for pursuing research that quantifies the nexus between ecosystem function and global warming. These include documentation of key functional species groups within systems, and understanding the principal outcomes arising from direct and indirect effects of a rapidly warming environment. Localized and targeted research and monitoring, complemented with laboratory work, will determine outcomes for resilience and guide adaptive conservation responses and long-term planning. PMID:20487086

Traill, Lochran W; Lim, Matthew L M; Sodhi, Navjot S; Bradshaw, Corey J A

2010-05-11

330

Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium.  

PubMed

We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global warming. In stark contrast to the amplified warming observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense warming, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense warming in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The environmental repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529

Rühland, K M; Paterson, A M; Keller, W; Michelutti, N; Smol, J P

2013-10-09

331

CFC Destruction of Ozone - Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a lot of discussion about global warming. Some say anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused the earth to warm. Others say there is no abnormality at all, that it is just natural warming. As you will see from the data presented and analyzed, a greater than normal warming did occur in recent times but no measurements confirm an increase in CO2, whether anthropogenic or natural, had any effect on global temperatures. There is however, strong evidence that anthropogenic emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the major cause of the recent abnormal warming. CFCs have created both unnatural atmospheric cooling and warming based on these facts: CFCs have destroyed ozone in the lower stratosphere/ upper troposphere causing these zones in the atmosphere to cool 1.37°C from 1966 to 1998. This time span was selected to eliminate the effect of the natural solar irradiance (cooling-warming) cycle effect on the earth's temperature. The loss of ozone allowed more UV light to pass through the stratosphere at a sufficient rate to warm the lower troposphere plus 8-3/4" of the earth by 0.48°C (1966 to 1998). Mass and energy balances show that the energy that was absorbed in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere hit the lower troposphere/earth at a sustainable level of 1.69 × 10 18 Btu more in 1998 than it did in 1966. Greater ozone depletion in the Polar Regions has caused these areas to warm some two and one-half (2 1/2) times that of the average earth temperature -1.2°C versus 0.48°C. This has caused permafrost to melt, which is releasing copious quantities of methane, estimated at 100 times that of manmade CO2 release, to the atmosphere. Methane in the atmosphere slowly converts to CO2 and water vapor and its release has contributed to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. There is a temperature anomaly in Antarctica. The Signey Island landmass further north, warmed like the rest of the Polar Regions; but south at Vostok, there has been a cooling effect. Although the cooling at Vostok needs to be analyzed in more detail, because of the large ozone hole there, black body radiation from Vostok, some 11,400 feet above sea level, to outer space is most likely the cause. Especially, since this phenomenon occurred over the same period that stratospheric ozone destruction took place. Chlorofluorocarbon destruction of stratospheric ozone can be correlated nicely with both the cooling and warming temperature anomalies seen over the time span from 1966 to 1998 and compared to actual temperature measurements, the ozone signature for global warming is the closest of the five signature impacts developed by the IPCC. Further,the "greenhouse signature" is not seen at all. One can account for most, if not all, of the 0.48°C rise in earth's temperature from 1966 to 1998 with the additional UV light that hit the earth due to ozone destruction in the upper atmosphere.

Ashworth, R. A.

2008-12-01

332

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

SciTech Connect

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

Longstreth, J.

1993-06-01

333

Regional climate change under high-end global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global emissions of greenhouse gases have continued to rise throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. If no steps are taken to reduce these emissions, it is likely that global temperatures will exceed the limit of 2 deg.C by 2100 (relative to the preindustrial period) desired by the EU. The climate projections from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) suggest that global temperatures will increase between 1.6 and 6.9 deg.C by 2100, relative to the preindustrial period. Global mean temperature increases of 4 deg.C or more (referred to as 'high-end' projections) are therefore entirely possible. Here, we examine changes in temperature and precipitation from several ensembles of climate models, focusing on those projections where global mean temperatures increase by 4 deg.C or more by the 2090s. We have examined projections from the AR4 models, and the Hadley Centre's perturbed physics ensembles (Qump; based on the HadCM3 climate model). One of the Qump ensembles included an interactive carbon cycle. Previous work has shown that feedbacks between climate and the carbon cycle can result in enhanced global warming. These ensembles used greenhouse gas concentrations from a subset of the SRES emission scenarios B1, A1B, A2 and A1FI. The results show that high-end climate change would be avoided if emissions follow the B1 trajectory. However, high-end changes become increasingly frequent under the A1B, A2 and A1FI scenarios (in that order). Overall, 52 of the 131 projections analysed were classed as high-end. The high-end projections suggest that 4 deg.C global warming could be reached by the 2080s, or by the 2070s if emissions are high. If feedbacks from the carbon cycle are strong, 4 deg.C could be reached as early as the 2060s, although our current understanding suggests that such strong feedbacks are unlikely. We also compared global maps of temperature and precipitation changes from the high-end and the remaining members of each ensemble. We found that, using multi-model means, high-end projections generally have similar patterns of change to non high-end projections. This result indicates that high-end models do not behave very differently to non high-end models. Enhanced warming, of up to 15.2 C, is projected over the Arctic in the high-end projections. The projected warming in northern hemisphere winter is much greater than that seen in the summer period. Other areas which are projected to experience a large degree of warming are west and southern Africa, where temperatures may increase between 6 and 10 deg.C. Temperatures in parts of South America could increase between 6 and 13 deg.C; in the Qump ensembles, the warming is concentrated over Amazonia, but in the AR4 ensembles the warming lies to the north and south of this region. The AR4 ensembles project an area of cool water to form in the North Atlantic, between the UK, Greenland and Newfoundland; this feature is not seen in the Qump ensembles. Significant reductions in precipitation are projected by all models in the tropical and subtropical regions between 45 N and 45 S. Areas common to all ensembles are the Mediterranean, west and South Africa, and central America. However, the Qump ensembles suggest a drying in Indonesia whereas the AR4 ensembles project increasing precipitation in this area. There is also little agreement in the location of wetter and drier areas over South America between the AR4 and Qump ensembles. Some of the enhanced warming over Africa is likely to be caused by drier soils resulting from the reduced precipitation.

Sanderson, Michael; Hemming, Deborah; Betts, Richard

2010-05-01

334

Climate and conflicts: the security risks of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007, the securitization\\u000a of global warming has reached a new level. Numerous public statements and a growing research literature have discussed the\\u000a potential security risks and conflicts associated with climate change. This article provides an overview of this debate and\\u000a introduces an assessment framework

Jürgen Scheffran; Antonella Battaglini

2011-01-01

335

The rising tide: Global warming and world sea levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a broad-based and well-written approach to the impacts of sea level rise. Besides chapters on global warming, sources of sea level variability and the future, the effects on coastal nations, the book contains an important action-oriented discussion of proposed legislation and guidelines for planning and management aimed at reducing loss and damage produced by sea-level rise. The

1991-01-01

336

Snow: a reliable indicator for global warming in the future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryosphere consists of water in the solid form at the Earth’s surface and includes, among others, snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Since the 1990s the cryosphere and its components have often been considered as indicators of global warming because rising temperatures can enhance the melting of solid water (e.g. Barry et al 1993, Goodison and Walker 1993,

H-W Jacobi

2012-01-01

337

Defining Risk, Motivating Responsibility and Rethinking Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper breaks with the sociological notion of ‘risk society’ and argues in favour of a philosophical view that sees the\\u000a two planetary threats of late modernity, nuclear weapons and global warming, as ultimate challenges to morality and politics\\u000a rather than risks that we can take and manage. The paper also raises the question of why we should feel responsible

Furio Cerutti

2010-01-01

338

Relationship between global warming and species richness of vascular plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed climatological and geographical variables in 90 countries from the Northern Hemisphere to determine the significant\\u000a variability of plant species richness as it relates to broad-scale levels of global warming. This variability was quantified\\u000a by the parameters of temperature and precipitation. Of the 27 temperature variables and 13 precipitation variables, 6 variables\\u000a had negative influences on species richness while

Byung-Sun Ihm; Jeom-Sook Lee; Jong-Wook Kim; Joon-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

339

The World Watcher Project: The Global Warming Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn about the scientific factors contributing to the global warming debate. Students act as advisors to the heads of state of several nations and explore the issues as they respond to the various questions and concerns of these leaders. Activities include a combination of physical labs and investigations using World Watcher software, a geographic data visualization tool developed by Northwestern University.

2001-01-01

340

Global warming: a review of this mostly settled issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its\\u000a societal implications since the science is largely straightforward. With the recent publication of the Fourth Assessment Report\\u000a of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Working Group 1) there has been renewed interest and controversy\\u000a about how certain the

Charles F. Keller

2009-01-01

341

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the focus of many scientific, engineering, economic, social, cultural, and global nuisances, and these effects awaits cost-effective remedial solutions. Extreme events such as floods and droughts and modified groundwater recharge may be influenced by climate change.

?en, Zekai

2009-03-01

342

Global warming trend of mean tropospheric temperature observed by satellites.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the global tropospheric temperature for 1978 to 2002 with the use of passive microwave sounding data from the NOAA series of polar orbiters and the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite. To accurately retrieve the climatic trend, we combined the satellite data with an analytic model of temperature that contains three different time scales: a linear trend and functions that define the seasonal and diurnal cycles. Our analysis shows a trend of +0.22 degrees to 0.26 degrees C per 10 years, consistent with the global warming trend derived from surface meteorological stations. PMID:12970572

Vinnikov, Konstantin Y; Grody, Norman C

2003-09-11

343

Defining risk, motivating responsibility and rethinking global warming.  

PubMed

This paper breaks with the sociological notion of 'risk society' and argues in favour of a philosophical view that sees the two planetary threats of late modernity, nuclear weapons and global warming, as ultimate challenges to morality and politics rather than risks that we can take and manage. The paper also raises the question of why we should feel responsible for the effects of these two global challenges on future generations and in this sense elaborates on the transgenerational chain of parenthood rather than on considerations of justice. PMID:19798589

Cerutti, Furio

2010-09-01

344

Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests.  

PubMed

African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per °C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P

2013-07-22

345

GLOBAL WARMING OR GLOBAL WARNING? THE PROBLEMS OF TESTING FOR A TREND IN ENVIROMENTAL TIME SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays there is a contentious debate about the causes of the observed inc rease in the global temperature as well as the predictions about its future evolution. Some researches have found evidence of a determinist increasing trend using well-known temperature databases. In this work some of the techniques used to study the global warming debate are revised using sea level

SOFIA S. VILLAR

2007-01-01

346

Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels  

SciTech Connect

State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

Purdie, J. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Washington Center for Real Estate Research

1995-09-01

347

Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.  

PubMed

Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands. PMID:23504838

Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Binet, Philippe; Buttler, Alexandre; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Delarue, Frédéric; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Francez, André-Jean; Gilbert, Daniel

2012-12-15

348

Public understanding of the politics of global warming in the news media: the hostile media approach.  

PubMed

This study uses the politics of global warming in the US to investigate an affective mechanism of hostile media perception and the democratic consequences of such perception, in an effort to delineate audience and journalistic barriers to stimulating urgent concern about climate change. The study confirms that partisanship played a significant role in perceptual differences with regard to media bias in an important area of science journalism--climate change. News consumers' anger perception was tested as a mediator in seeking an affective mechanism of hostile media perception. Hostile media perception has important democratic consequences in that it is positively associated with individuals' trust in news coverage of global warming and with selective media use. PMID:22164707

Kim, Kyun Soo

2011-09-01

349

El Ni?o/Southern Oscillation response to global warming  

PubMed Central

The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, originating in the Tropical Pacific, is the strongest natural interannual climate signal and has widespread effects on the global climate system and the ecology of the Tropical Pacific. Any strong change in ENSO statistics will therefore have serious climatic and ecological consequences. Most global climate models do simulate ENSO, although large biases exist with respect to its characteristics. The ENSO response to global warming differs strongly from model to model and is thus highly uncertain. Some models simulate an increase in ENSO amplitude, others a decrease, and others virtually no change. Extremely strong changes constituting tipping point behavior are not simulated by any of the models. Nevertheless, some interesting changes in ENSO dynamics can be inferred from observations and model integrations. Although no tipping point behavior is envisaged in the physical climate system, smooth transitions in it may give rise to tipping point behavior in the biological, chemical, and even socioeconomic systems. For example, the simulated weakening of the Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient in the Hadley Centre model (with dynamic vegetation included) caused rapid Amazon forest die-back in the mid-twenty-first century, which in turn drove a nonlinear increase in atmospheric CO2, accelerating global warming.

Latif, M.; Keenlyside, N. S.

2009-01-01

350

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

SciTech Connect

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (US)

2005-08-15

351

Influence of the Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Climatology: An Experiment with the JMA Global Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the global warming on tropical cyclones has been examined using a high resolution AGCM. Two ten-year integrations were performed with the JMA global model at T106 horizontal resolu- tion. For the control experiment, the observed SST for the period 1979-1988 is prescribed, while for the doubling CO2 (2 ? CO2) experiment, SST anomaly due to the global

Masato SUGI; Akira NODA; Nobuo SATO

2002-01-01

352

Modification of Cirrus Clouds to Reduce Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As far as we know, no studies have addressed the possibility of modifying cirrus clouds to reduce global warming. Here we explore this possibility and associated feasibility issues. To introduce this concept, some background information is needed. The effect of cirrus on climate can be quantified through their predicted impact on climate sensitivity, S (i.e. the equilibrium response of global- mean surface temperature to CO2 doubling) in global climate model (GCM) simulations. A recent study using an ensemble of thousands of "perturbed physics" GCM simulations found that S was most strongly influenced by the entrainment coefficient and the ice fall speed, indicating that S depends more on changes in cirrus clouds than on low-level boundary layer clouds. It may be possible to modify the ice fall speed in cirrus clouds which controls ice removal rates and affects the cirrus ice content, life cycle and coverage, as well as the upper troposphere relative humidity. The main impact of reducing the ice fall speed was an increase in longwave cloud forcing. In a different recent GCM study, we have used the mean size of the ice particle size distribution to change the representative ice fall speed, V. By decreasing V, the cirrus coverage was increased 5.5%, strongly affecting annual zonal means of cloud forcing, heating rates and temperatures in the upper troposphere. This led us to speculate that the introduction of aerosol particles into the upper troposphere (T < -40 C) that efficiently form ice crystals through heterogeneous nucleation may result in larger ice particles with higher fall speeds since the heterogeneous nuclei would outcompete the natural homogeneous freezing ice nuclei for water vapor. This would reduce longwave cloud forcing and lower surface temperatures, as described above. A third recent GCM study supports our speculation, showing that heterogeneous ice nucleation for these conditions produces larger ice crystals with higher fall velocities (relative to ice crystals formed by homogeneous nucleation). These studies and others beg the question of whether the introduction of efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei in regions of the upper troposphere normally dominated by homogeneous nucleation would reduce cirrus cloud coverage through higher ice fall speeds or would increase cirrus coverage by allowing nucleation in otherwise clear-sky regions supersaturated with respect to ice. The introduction of efficient ice nuclei might initially increase cirrus coverage in these regions, but once a new equilibrium of cirrus coverage is established, it is unclear whether cirrus coverage would be more or less than present day conditions. This question could be explored in climate simulations using microphysically advanced GCMs. Should the method appear promising, it could be applied by introducing efficient ice nuclei into the upper troposphere using commercial airliners. Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The strategy is to build-up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei in the -40 to -60 C zone so that cirrus forming by natural processes will experience these nuclei and grow larger crystals. High level winds would disperse the nucleant aerosol from the flight corridors. While there are risks of affecting the climate system in unforeseen ways, time scales in the atmosphere are relatively short, and this geoengineering experiment could be terminated at any time.

Mitchell, D. L.; Rasch, P. J.

2008-12-01

353

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally increasing temperatures are likely to have impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems that are difficult to manage. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is fundamental to substantiating the discussion on climate mitigation targets and adaptation planning. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL) to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits global warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, our simulations for most climate models agree that up to one-fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate ecosystem change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfil their current emissions reduction pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change, the area potentially at risk of major ecosystem change considering all climate models is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single model.

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-10-01

354

A new perspective on warming of the global oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in ocean circulation associated with internal climate variability have a major influence on upper ocean temperatures, particularly in regions such as the North Atlantic, which are relatively well-observed and therefore over-represented in the observational record. As a result, global estimates of upper ocean heat content can give misleading estimates of the roles of natural and anthropogenic factors in causing oceanic warming. We present a method to quantify ocean warming that filters out the natural internal variability from both observations and climate simulations and better isolates externally forced air-sea heat flux changes. We obtain a much clearer picture of the drivers of oceanic temperature changes, being able to detect the effects of both anthropogenic and volcanic influences simultaneously in the observed record. Our results show that climate models are capable of capturing in remarkable detail the externally forced component of ocean temperature evolution over the last five decades.

Palmer, M. D.; Good, S. A.; Haines, K.; Rayner, N. A.; Stott, P. A.

2009-10-01

355

Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the “clean development mechanism”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested.

Philip M. Fearnside

1999-01-01

356

Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites  

PubMed Central

Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Gunthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

2012-01-01

357

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan

2003-01-01

358

Global warming: Energy efficiency is key to reduce dangerous threat  

SciTech Connect

A consensus is growing among scientists, policymakers and citizens that human activity is altering the Earth's climate. Humans are loading carbon dioxide, methane and other pollutants into the atmosphere through deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. The result, scientists say: pollutants are accelerating the greenhouse effect which is raising the average global temperature. A few degree temperature increase is projected to make major changes in agriculture and many other things. A growing number of scientists believe if these pollutants are not reduced, global warming could destroy the Earth's climatic balance on which our civilization rests, causing disruptions such as heat waves, droughts, coastal flooding and a rise in sea level. Clearly, all the facts about global warming, its exact causes and repercussions on the earth's climate, are not yet in. However, one thing is certain: We are not helpless and we can act now to reduce greenhouse gases through energy efficiency and halting deforestation. While energy efficiency, itself, is not a panacea, it is both an economic opportunity and environmental necessity for out nation, and for our earth.

Not Available

1989-09-01

359

The rising tide: Global warming and world sea levels  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a broad-based and well-written approach to the impacts of sea level rise. Besides chapters on global warming, sources of sea level variability and the future, the effects on coastal nations, the book contains an important action-oriented discussion of proposed legislation and guidelines for planning and management aimed at reducing loss and damage produced by sea-level rise. The list of acknowledgements includes all the leading practitioners in the field. The references and information are current; reports and information from 1989 and 1990 meetings are included.

Edgerton, L.T.

1991-01-01

360

Atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of HFC245fa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the method used to compute the global warming potential of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 245fa (CHF2CH2CF3). The Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) two-dimensional (latitude-height) chemistry-transport model was used to calculate the atmospheric lifetime and atmospheric scale height of HFC-245fa. Assuming that reaction with OH is the only removal mechanism, the recommended rate constant from Jet Propulsion Laboratory [1997] (6.1×10-13exp(-1330\\/T)cm-3s-1) implies

Malcolm Ko; Run-Lie Shia; Nien-Dak Sze; Hillel Magid; Robert G. Bray

1999-01-01

361

Scientists studying the greenhouse effect challenge fears of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the controversy in the scientific community about the significance of the increased gases causing the greenhouse effect to be detrimental to the earth's ecosystems. He states that the most important aspect of the controversy is the fact that governments are embarking on foolish activities in order to prevent global warming. The fact that scientists offer research with contradicting results furthers the confusion as to what the best course of action is. The government agencies that control policy need to appropriate funds to study specific climatic changes and what effect carbon dioxide and other gases have on the atmosphere.

Wheeler, D.L.

1990-07-01

362

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

363

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

2007-12-01

364

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.  

PubMed

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-07-15

365

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming  

PubMed Central

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C?1 and 1.2 m °C?1 of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C?1 within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales.

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U.; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A.; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-01-01

366

The impact of global warming on the energy system  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important impacts of global warming may be the changes in the energy system which result not from warming per se but from societal reactions to the prospect of warming. Changing the energy system from being 80% dependent on fossil fuels will be difficult at best and expensive. In fact, none of the nonfossil energy sources are yet ready to substitute for fossil fuels at the massive scale required or at reasonable costs. So, for the near to mid-term the best strategy for moderating the rate of increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is by much more efficient use and conversion of energy. Nevertheless, sustained reduction of emissions requires better nonfossil sources and expanded RD D efforts necessary to provide the insurance we need. It is evidenced that a combined public and private sector investment of $1 {times} 10{sup 6}/year is needed. This compares to the current level of energy R D which is estimated to cost in the range of $3 to 6 billion/year. Thus, our insurance is about a 16-33% increase. The investment is likely to yield good returns in the form of improved technologies which will be useful whether or not the changing greenhouse effect is as serious as many fear.

Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

367

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Part 1, Progress report  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ``Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature``. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01

368

Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming without the Use of Station Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confidence in estimates of 20th century land warming is limited by known issues with near-surface air temperature observations from land stations. Station siting, site moves, instrument changes, changing observing practices, urban effects, land cover, land use variations, and statistical processing have all been hypothesized as affecting the trends presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others. Confidence in the observed rise of global land temperatures since the 1950s is important in assessments of anthropogenic effects on climate, so any artifacts in the observed decadal and centennial variations associated with these issues could have important consequences for scientific understanding and climate policy. Here we test the station temperature observations using a completely different approach to investigate global 20th century land warming. Specifically, we ignore all land temperature observations and instead infer the temperatures from global observations of subdaily barometric pressure, monthly HadISST1.1 sea surface temperature and sea-ice concentration, and of CO2, solar and volcanic radiative forcing agents using a physically-based data assimilation system called the 20th Century Reanalysis. This independent dataset reproduces both annual variations and centennial trends found in the observational near-surface air temperature datasets, thus demonstrating the robustness of previous conclusions based on them regarding global warming.

Compo, Gilbert; Sardeshmukh, Prashant; Whitaker, Jeffrey; Brohan, Philip; Jones, Philip; McColl, Chesley

2013-04-01

369

Warm upwelling regions during a period of global warmth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Pliocene represents the most recent period in Earth's history when long-term equilibrium temperatures exceeded those of today. While it is not a direct analog for an anthropogenically warmed climate, it can serve as a useful test case for understanding warm climates, particularly since many of the boundary conditions (including position of continents, major ocean currents, small northern hemisphere ice sheets, and atmospheric pCO2) were similar to today. Upwelling regions are key features of the modern climate that participate in air-sea interactions, regulate regional climate, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle through the biological pump. The Pliocene warm period gives us insight into how global climate change may be influenced by and have an impact on upwelling systems. We generated Uk'37 SST records through the last 5 million years in three important upwelling locations: ODP site 847 in the eastern equatorial Pacific, ODP Site 1014 on the California margin, and ODP Site 1237 on the Peru margin. All sites indicate significantly warmer sea surface temperature (SST) during the early Pliocene (3 - 4.6 Ma), ranging from 3.3°C to 9.6°C warmer than late Pleistocene (0 - 0.5 Ma) SST and from 2.9°C to 8.8°C warmer than the modern mean annual SST, indicating that the warm Pliocene represents a fundamentally different climate regime in which cold upwelling regions did not exist. Our Uk'37 SST record in the eastern equatorial Pacific is consistent with previous work demonstrating permanent El Niño like conditions in the tropical Pacific. Assuming teleconnections in the modern climate system can be used as analogs, warmer upwelling regions along the California and Peru margins are consistent with a permanent El Niño-like pattern. Taken together with other Pliocene data, our data indicate that while the average SST of low latitudes may not have been substantially warmer, the spatial distribution of SST across the low latitudes was different in the early Pliocene compared to today. In order to further understand the role of low latitude climate on Pliocene warmth, the global impacts of alterations in the spatial pattern of low latitude SST should be investigated.

Dekens, P.; Ravelo, A. C.; McCarthy, M.

2005-12-01

370

Effects of global warming on fish reproductive endocrine axis, with special emphasis in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis.  

PubMed

The ongoing of global warming trend has led to an increase in temperature of several water bodies. Reproduction in fish, compared with other physiological processes, only occurs in a bounded temperature range; therefore, small changes in water temperature could significantly affect this process. This review provides evidence that fish reproduction may be directly affected by further global warming and that abnormal high water temperature impairs the expression of important genes throughout the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. In all fishes studied, gonads seem to be the organ more readily damaged by heat treatments through the inhibition of the gene expression and subsequent synthesis of different gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. In view of the feedback role of sex steroids upon the synthesis and release of GnRH and GtHs in fish, it is possible that the inhibition observed at brain and pituitary levels in treated fish is consequence of the sharp decrease in plasma steroids levels. Results of in vitro studies on the inhibition of pejerrey gonad aromatase expression by high temperature corroborate that ovary functions are directly disrupted by high temperature independently of the brain-pituitary axis. For the reproductive responses obtained in laboratory fish studies, it is plausible to predict changes in the timing and magnitude of reproductive activity or even the total failure of spawning season may occur in warm years, reducing annual reproductive output and affecting future populations. PMID:23500677

Miranda, Leandro Andrés; Chalde, Tomás; Elisio, Mariano; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto

2013-03-13

371

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in the proportion of small-sized species and young age classes and a decrease in size-at-age. These results are in accordance with the ecological rules dealing with the temperature–size relationships (i.e., Bergmann's rule, James' rule and Temperature–Size Rule). Our study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events.

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-01-01

372

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in the proportion of small-sized species and young age classes and a decrease in size-at-age. These results are in accordance with the ecological rules dealing with the temperature-size relationships (i.e., Bergmann's rule, James' rule and Temperature-Size Rule). Our study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events. PMID:19620720

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-07-20

373

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation anomalies). Models agree on the overall amplitude of the precipitation decreases that occur at the margins of the convective zones, with percent error bars of magnitude similar to those for the tropical warming. Similar agreement is found on a precipitation climate sensitivity defined here and on differential moisture increase inside and outside convection zones, a step in a hypothesized causal path leading to precipitation changes. A measure of local intermodel agreement on significant trends indicates consistent predictions for particular regions. Observed rainfall trends in several data sets show a significant summer drying trend in a main region of intermodel agreement: the Caribbean/Central-American region. climate change | tropical precipitation | drought

Neelin, J. D.; Münnich, M.; Su, H.; Meyerson, J. E.; Holloway, C. E.

2006-04-01

374

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

375

Impact of Global Warming on the Antarctic Mass Balance and Global Sea Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The onset of global warming from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can have a number of important different impacts on the Antarctic ice sheet. These include increasing basal melt of ice shelves, faster flow of the grounded ice, increased surf...

W. F. Budd I. Simmonds

1992-01-01

376

The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it

Olivier Boucher; Pierre Friedlingstein; Bill Collins; Keith P. Shine

2009-01-01

377

Response to Comment on ``Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura''  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodríguez-Trelles and Rodríguez advocate standardizing old and new collections by climate rather than by calendar and also propose that some of our samples were biased by inappropriate timing. Their first suggestion applies to few species, and its implementation alters photoperiodic cues. Their second point is valid, but our conclusions are robust: Observed genetic changes reflect global warming, not sampling artifacts.

Joan Balanyà; Josep M. Oller; Raymond B. Huey; George W. Gilchrist; Luis Serra

2007-01-01

378

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives: The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods: We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented

Gowri Koneswaran; Danielle Nierenberg

2008-01-01

379

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

380

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)|

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

381

The publics’ concern for global warming: A cross-national study of 47 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relies on data from the 2005–09 World Values Survey to examine individual and cross-national variation in perception of the seriousness of global warming. The data show that a large majority of the public in all countries are concerned about the problem of global warming and that this assessment is part of a broader concern for global environmental issues.

Berit Kvaløy; Henning Finseraas; Ola Listhaug

2012-01-01

382

Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions and makes a 1.5 deg C target far more difficult to achieve than a 2 deg C target. For example, one credible 1.5 deg C scenario requires average total emission reductions of ~15% per year, well above the rate that is considered feasible. Limiting warming to 2 deg C requires an immediate start to mitigation, with emissions peaking in c. 2020 and absolute emission reduction rates of ~3% per year. Such a reduction is considered economically feasible, although historical absolute emission reduction rates from 1990 - 2010, which reflect the net of carbon intensity decline and economic growth, have only reached ~1% per year in a few EU countries such as Denmark and Germany. Delaying the start of mitigation rapidly increases the required absolute emission reduction rates and moves the 2 deg C goal beyond the realm of economic feasibility. A later start of mitigation or lower absolute emission reduction rates would lead to warming of 3 to 4 deg C. For example, a 3 deg goal could be achieved with emission reductions of 0.7% per year and emissions peaking in c. 2030. Current national pledges, as analyzed by both UNEP and IEA, still allow for growth in emissions of >1% per year and therefore do not meet the requirements of any of the temperature targets.

Lea, D. W.

2011-12-01

383

The Effects of Global Warming on the Mining Industry: Issues, Tradeoffs & Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global warming has become one of the primary topics of environmental concern in recent years. The source of this concern arises\\u000a from confusion and uncertainty over exactly what global warming entails, where and to what degree it will occur, what the\\u000a implications of global warming are in terms of physical effect, climate change, weather patterns, and the resultant economic\\u000a and

H. Stuart Burness; Wade E. Martin

384

Snow: a reliable indicator for global warming in the future?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryosphere consists of water in the solid form at the Earth's surface and includes, among others, snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Since the 1990s the cryosphere and its components have often been considered as indicators of global warming because rising temperatures can enhance the melting of solid water (e.g. Barry et al 1993, Goodison and Walker 1993, Armstrong and Brun 2008). Changes in the cryosphere are often easier to recognize than a global temperature rise of a couple of degrees: many locals and tourists have hands-on experience in changes in the extent of glaciers or the duration of winter snow cover on the Eurasian and North American continents. On a more scientific basis, the last IPCC report left no doubt: the amount of snow and ice on Earth is decreasing (Lemke et al 2007). Available data showed clearly decreasing trends in the sea ice and frozen ground extent of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the global glacier mass balance. However, the trend in the snow cover extent (SCE) of the NH was much more ambiguous; a result that has since been confirmed by the online available up-to-date analysis of the SCE performed by the Rutgers University Global Snow Lab (climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover/). The behavior of snow is not the result of a simple cause-and-effect relationship between air temperature and snow. It is instead related to a rather complex interplay between external meteorological parameters and internal processes in the snowpack. While air temperature is of course a crucial parameter for snow and its melting, precipitation and radiation are also important. Further physical properties like snow grain size and the amount of absorbing impurities in the snow determine the fraction of absorbed radiation. While all these parameters affect the energy budget of the snowpack, each of these variables can dominate depending on the season or, more generally, on environmental conditions. As a result, the reduction in SCE in spring and summer in the NH was attributed to faster melting because of higher air temperatures, while the winter months (December to February) saw an increase in the SCE due to increased precipitation (Lemke et al >2007). Cohen et al (2012) confirmed these opposing effects in the SCE and showed that on the Eurasian continent the average SCE in October has increased by approximately 3 × 106 km2 in the last two decades; a growth of almost 40%, corresponding to roughly 1.5 times the area of Greenland. For the same period, Cohen et al (2012) found a negligible trend in the average temperatures above the continents of the NH for the winter months despite a significant increase in the annual mean temperature for the same regions. Cohen et al (2012) propose the following link between temperatures and snow: the reduced sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and the enhanced air temperatures in fall cause higher evaporation from the Arctic Ocean, leading to increased tropospheric moisture in the Arctic. More moisture results in more snowfall over the Eurasian continent, increasing the SCE. The increased snow cover strengthens the Siberian High, a strong anticyclonic system generally persistent between October and April. This system is strong enough to affect weather patterns in large parts of the NH, resulting in changes in the large-scale circulation of the NH (Panagiotopoulos et al 2005). As a result, outbreaks of cold Arctic air masses into the mid-latitudes are more frequent, leading to low temperatures over the eastern part of North America and Northern Eurasia. According to Cohen et al (2012), these are exactly the same regions that have experienced a cooling trend in the winter temperature over the past twenty years. While this chain of events is plausible (and some are confirmed by observations), existing climate models are not yet capable of reproducing these processes. On the contrary, Cohen et al (2012) showed that they predict a slightly decreasing SCE in October for Eurasia and an increase in winter temperatures over the continents in the NH. This is not surprising because the simu

Jacobi, H.-W.

2012-03-01

385

Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 ?m wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 ?m band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document major sub-glacial eruptions that occurred during DO 0, A, and 1 (11.6, 13.1, and 14.6 ka) and similar but less well dated activity at least over the past million years. Massive melting of a thick ice sheet by volcanoes would decrease overburden pressure on the magma chambers, potentially increasing volcanism. Continued basaltic eruptions over decades enhanced by such a feedback c8ould explain why the intervals between DO events (1300 to 8800 years) are more random than cyclic and the evidence for sudden influxes of fresh water into the North Atlantic documented during DO events. Concentrations of sulfate in Greenland were as high from 1928 to 1985 as during the largest DO event. Trace element analysis shows this sulfate came from smoke stacks in northern Russia, Europe, and central North America. Observed levels of SO2, NO_{x}, tropospheric O$_{3} and black carbon are more than sufficient to have been the primary cause of 20th century global warming. Efforts to reduce acid rain by reducing emissions of these pollutants "accidentally" slowed global warming by 1998. Mean global surface temperatures have remained high but have not increased since then.

Ward, P. L.

2011-12-01

386

The relationship between global warming, local warming in the Netherlands and changes in circulation in the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature in De Bilt in the Netherlands has risen by 1K over the 20th century. This rise parallels the rise in global temperature quite closely, albeit with a slightly higher amplitude. A linear relationship between the two, with a regression coefficient close to one, is an obvious first-order approximation. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming

G. J. van Oldenborgh; A. van Ulden

2003-01-01

387

The observed global warming record: what does it tell us?  

PubMed

Global, near-surface temperature data sets and their derivations are discussed, and differences between the Jones and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change data sets are explained. Global-mean temperature changes are then interpreted in terms of anthropogenic forcing influences and natural variability. The inclusion of aerosol forcing improves the fit between modeled and observed changes but does not improve the agreement between the implied climate sensitivity value and the standard model-based range of 1.5-4.5 degrees C equilibrium warming for a CO2 doubling. The implied sensitivity goes from below the model-based range of estimates to substantially above this range. The addition of a solar forcing effect further improves the fit and brings the best-fit sensitivity into the middle of the model-based range. Consistency is further improved when internally generated changes are considered. This consistency, however, hides many uncertainties that surround observed data/model comparisons. These uncertainties make it impossible currently to use observed global-scale temperature changes to narrow the uncertainty range in the climate sensitivity below that estimated directly from climate models. PMID:11607739

Wigley, T M; Jones, P D; Raper, S C

1997-08-01

388

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

389

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe.  

PubMed

The global warming factor (GWF; CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials production, especially in Denmark and Germany. The study showed that, despite strong regulation of waste management at European level, there are major differences in GWF performance among the member states, due to the relative differences of waste composition, type of waste management technologies available nationally, and the average performance of these technologies. It has been demonstrated through a number of sensitivity analyses that, within the national framework, key waste management technology parameters can influence drastically the national GWF performance of waste management. PMID:19808730

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas H

2009-10-06

390

Good enough tools for global warming policy making.  

PubMed

We present a simple analysis of the global warming problem caused by the emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas) into the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. We provide quantitative tools which enable policymakers and interested citizens to explore the following issues central to the global warming problem. (i) At what rate are we permitted to continue to emit CO2 after the global average atmospheric concentration has 'stabilized' at some chosen target level? The answer here provides the magnitude of the effort, measured by the necessary total reduction of today's global (annual) emissions rate to achieve stabilization. We shall see that stabilized emissions rates for all interesting stabilized concentration levels are much lower than the current emissions rate, but these small finite values are very important. (ii) Across how many years can we spread the total effort to reduce the annual CO2 emissions rate from its current high value to the above-mentioned low and stabilized target value? The answer here provides the time-scale of the total mitigation effort for any chosen atmospheric concentration target level. We confirm the common understanding that targets below a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration create great pressure to produce action immediately, while targets above double the pre-industrial level can tolerate longer periods of inaction. (iii) How much harder is the future mitigation effort, if we do not do our share of the job now? Is it a good idea to overshoot a stabilization target? The quantitative answers here provide the penalty of procrastination. For example, the mitigation task to avoid doubling the pre-industrial level is a problem that can be addressed gradually, over a period extending more than a century, if started immediately, but procrastination can turn the effort into a much more urgent task that extends over only a few decades. We also find that overshooting target levels is a bad idea. The quality of public discourse on this subject could be much enhanced if ball-park quantitative answers to these questions were more widely known. PMID:17272240

Socolow, R H; Lam, S H

2007-04-15

391

Potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conser...

E. A. Aronson M. W. Edenburn

1989-01-01

392

Tropopause height and zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in the extratropical circulation under global warming is studied using the climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report. The IPCC models predict a strengthening and a poleward shift of the tropospheric zonal jets in response to global warming. The change in zonal jets is also accompanied by a strengthening and a

David J. Lorenz; Eric T. DeWeaver

2007-01-01

393

Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma), during which large amounts of carbon were released. More recently, another distinct period of global warming

H. L. Stap

2010-01-01

394

Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called Global Warming: Virtual Earth. In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw conclusions about how individual variables effect changes in the Earth's temperature.

Keisha Varma; Marcia C. Linn

2011-01-01

395

Phase speed spectra and the latitude of surface westerlies: interannual variability and global warming trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extratropical annular mode like atmospheric responses to ENSO and global warming, and the internal variability of annular modes are each associated with similar, yet distinct, dynamical characteristics. In particular, La Nina, global warming, and the positive phase of annular modes are all associated with a poleward shift of midlatitude jet streams and surface westerlies. In order to improve understanding

Gang Chen; Jian Lu; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2008-01-01

396

Solar-magnetic-cycle Modulation Of Global Warming And Sea Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two recent discoveries that appear to remove the most fundamental doubts regarding the reality of global warming. They do this by correcting certain errors in the scenario to be expected in global warming, as derived from the General Circulation Model. Both of these discoveries arose as predictions of a theory that: (1) requires modification of the existing canonical

John T. A. Ely

1991-01-01

397

The Page95 model: Integrating the science and economics of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAGE is a computer simulation model developed in 1992 for policy analysis of the global warming problem. This paper surveys key developments in understanding the global warming problem that have occurred since 1992. For example, anthropogenic sulphates have been found to have a significant cooling effect. Halocarbons, once thought to be the most potent greenhouse gases, are now believed to

Erica L. Plambeck; Chris Hope; John Anderson

1997-01-01

398

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date

P. D. Fairchild; S. K. Fischer

1991-01-01

399

CO2 [Carbon Dioxide] Diet for a Greenhouse Planet: A Citizen's Guide for Slowing Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide discusses the global warming issue and offers a plan to facilitate a decrease in the emissions of the major greenhouse gases in the United States, including those under the control of individual citizens. A letter from the organization's president describes its involvement with the global warming issue. A brief overview presented in…

DeCicco, John; And Others

400

Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

2012-01-01

401

Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

2009-01-01

402

The Understandings of Global Warming and Learning Styles: A Phenomenographic Analysis of Prospective Primary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, statements by prospective primary school teachers such as "I think the word global warming ..." or "I think the term global warming means ..." were analyzed by using qualitative phenomenographic research methods. 142 female (48.3%) and 152 male (51.7%) primary school teacher candidates (n = 294) participated in the study. Moreover,…

Demirkaya, Hilmi

2008-01-01

403

Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions.…

Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

2009-01-01

404

A New Type of Debate for Global Warming and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Expanding on some ideas introduced in the paper by Albe and Gombert (2012) "Students' communication, argumentation and knowledge in a citizen' conference on global warming", I explore two issues relevant to their work: global warming (GW) as a socioscientific controversy and scientific literacy in regards to climate change science. For the first…

Gautier, Catherine

2012-01-01

405

Importance of genetic diversity in eelgrass Zostera marina for its resilience to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of global warming on marine ecosystems are far less understood than they are in terrestrial environments. Macrophyte-based coastal ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to global warming, because they often lack species redun- dancy. We tested whether summer heat waves have negative effects on an ecologically important eco- system engineer, the eelgrass Zostera marina L., and whether high genotypic diversity may

Anneli Ehlers; Boris Worm; Thorsten B. H. Reusch

2008-01-01

406

Silicon Oxide Selective Etching and Chamber Cleaning Processes for Preventing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorocarbon gases and SF6 gas are used in dry etching processes for the thin film patterning and chamber cleaning after film depositions. The use of these gases, however, will be restricted because of environmental problem, namely global warming. In this study, we have developed a novel fluorocarbon gas source without using fluorocarbon feed gases for preventing global warming, where polytetrafluoroethylene

Kazushi Fujita; Shigeto Kobayashi; Masafumi Ito; Masaru Hori; Toshio Goto

1998-01-01

407

Diadromous fish conservation plans need to consider global warming issues: An approach using biogeographical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the European diadromous fish species are endangered and listed in the habitats fauna and flora directive, the bern convention and the IUCN Red List. Current conservation plans do not address global warming issues and consider the 1900 distribution range as the reference without taking into account the potential re-distribution of these species under global warming. However, for other

Géraldine Lassalle; Mélanie Béguer; Laurent Beaulaton; Eric Rochard

2008-01-01

408

Global warming and the regional persistence of a temperate-zone insect (Tenodera sinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal

T. P. Rooney; A. T. Smith; L. E. Hurd

1996-01-01

409

Global Warming and Potential Changes in Fish Habitat in U.S. Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

To project potential habitat changes of 57 fish species under global warming, their suitable thermal habitat at 764 stream gaging stations in the contiguous United States was studied. Global warming was specified by air temperature increases projected by the Canadian Centre of Climate Modelling General Circulation Model for a doubling of atmospheric CO2. The aquatic thermal regime at each gaging

Omid Mohseni; Heinz G. Stefan; John G. Eaton

2003-01-01

410

Global warming responses at the primary secondary interface: 2 Potential effectiveness of education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students’ beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between

Keith R Skamp; Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

2009-01-01

411

Global warming responses at the primary secondary interface: 1 Students' beliefs and willingness to act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey methodology, students’ beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between students’ beliefs and their actions and explanations are

Keith R Skamp; Edward Boyes; Martin Stanisstreet

2009-01-01

412

Global warming responses at the primary secondary interface 2. Potential effectiveness of education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between

Keith Skamp; Eddie Boyes; Martin Stannistreet

2009-01-01

413

Some Coolness on Martian Global Warming and Reflections on the Role of Surface Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent comparisons of global snap-shots of Mars' surface taken by the Viking and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) cameras have been used to suggest that Mars has darkened, and hence has warmed, between the 1970's and 1990's. While this conclusion is not supported by more quantitative analysis of albedo data, the idea of Martian darkening and warming has found its way

M. I. Richardson; A. R. Vasavada

2007-01-01

414

The intensification and shift of the annual North Atlantic Oscillation in a global warming scenario simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global warming on the annual North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated with a global warming scenario simulation of the ECHAM4\\/OPYC3 coupled general circulation model. It is shown that the annual meridional pressure gradient over the North Atlantic is significantly strengthened, and the two centers of action of the NAO, the Icelandic low and the Azores high, are

Zeng-Zhen Hu; Zhaohua Wu

2004-01-01

415

Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.  

PubMed

In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver behind all three stressors, the primary mitigation strategy is to reduce these emissions. PMID:21502171

Gruber, Nicolas

2011-05-28

416

Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra ...  

Treesearch

Source: Ecology Letters 15: 164–175 ... In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. ... The response of plant groups to warming often differed with ambient summer ...

417

Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs.  

PubMed

Though scientific evidence for the existence of global warming continues to mount, in the United States and other countries belief in global warming has stagnated or even decreased in recent years. One possible explanation for this pattern is that information about the potentially dire consequences of global warming threatens deeply held beliefs that the world is just, orderly, and stable. Individuals overcome this threat by denying or discounting the existence of global warming, and this process ultimately results in decreased willingness to counteract climate change. Two experiments provide support for this explanation of the dynamics of belief in global warming, suggesting that less dire messaging could be more effective for promoting public understanding of climate-change research. PMID:21148457

Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

2010-12-09

418

Nonlinear Dependence of Global Warming Prediction on Ocean State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global temperature has increased by 0.8 C since the pre-industrial era, and is likely to increase further if greenhouse gas emission continues unchecked. Various mitigation efforts are being negotiated among nations to keep the increase under 2 C, beyond which the outcome is believed to be catastrophic. Such policy efforts are currently based on predictions by the state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere ocean models (AOGCM). Caution is advised for their use for the purpose of short-term (less than a century) climate prediction as the predicted warming and spatial patterns vary depending on the initial state of the ocean, even in an ensemble mean. The range of uncertainty in such predictions by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) models may be underreported when models were run with their oceans at various stages of adjustment with their atmospheres. By comparing a very long run (> 1000 years) of the coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model with what was reported to IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), we show that the fully adjusted model transient climate sensitivity should be 30% higher for the same model, and the 2 C warming should occur sooner than previously predicted. Using model archives we further argue that this may be a common problem for the IPCC AR4 models, since few, if any, of the models has a fully adjusted ocean. For all models, multi-decadal climate predictions to 2050 are highly dependent on the initial ocean state (and so are unreliable). Such dependence cannot be removed simply by subtracting the climate drift from control runs.

Liang, M.; Lin, L.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.; Sun, S.

2010-12-01

419

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming.  

PubMed

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH(4) emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60°N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO(2) by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO(2) fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH(4)/y to 41-70 Tg CH(4)/y, with increases due to CO(2) fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH(4) flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

Koven, Charles D; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-08-18

420

Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

Warner, L.; Henson, R.

2004-05-01

421

Is Global Warming Melting the Greenland Ice Sheet?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerted observational and modelling programmes are underway to determine the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and therefore help predict its response to future climatic change. We present results of meteorological modelling based on ERA-40 reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Our novel surface-mass-balance history of the ice sheet for 1958-2003, is based on accumulation (snowfall minus evaporation/sublimation) modelling and a new monthly melt-water runoff model by Janssens & Huybrechts (Huybrechts 2002). These techniques combined yield valuable insights into the past and present state and variability of the Greenland ice mass and links with climate. Aspects of the validation of the new accumulation, runoff and SMB series are discussed. There was considerable interannual variability in snow accumulation, runoff and mass balance over the last 46 years. By comparing with long-term temperature, precipitation and accumulation records from the meteorological stations and ice cores, we discuss possible climatic factors forcing the ice in this period. There are distinct signals in runoff and SMB following three major volcanic eruptions. Runoff losses from the ice sheet were 280(±28) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 and 391(+-39) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Significantly rising runoff since the 1990s has been partly offset by more precipitation. However, our best estimate of overall mass balance declined from -3(±53) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 to -65(±61) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Additional dynamical factors that cause an acceleration of ice flow near the margins, and possible enhanced iceberg calving, may have led to a more negative mass balance in the past few years than suggested here. The implication is a significant and accelerating recent contribution from the ice sheet, about 0.22 mm yr^-1 over the last six years, to global sea-level rise. Runoff and thinning of the ice-sheet margins increased substantially since the 1990s. However, massive snow accumulation over south-east Greenland during winter 2002/03, well shown in our analysis, led to unprecedented thickening in recent NASA aircraft LIDAR surveys. Do these recent changes indicate more extreme weather conditions including warming over the Ice Sheet, more storminess and higher accumulation events, due to global warming?

Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Janssens, I.; McConnell, J.; Das, S.; Cappelen, J.; Steffen, K.; Krabill, W.; Thomas, R.; Stephens, A.

2004-12-01

422

Albedo enhancement of marine clouds to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that changes in solar radiation affect the hydrological cycle more strongly than equivalent CO2 changes for the same change in global mean surface temperature. Thus, solar radiation management "geoengineering" proposals to completely offset global mean temperature increases by reducing the amount of absorbed sunlight might be expected to slow the global water cycle and reduce runoff over land. However, proposed countering of global warming by increasing the albedo of marine clouds would reduce surface solar radiation only over the oceans. Here, for an idealized scenario, we analyze the response of temperature and the hydrological cycle to increased reflection by clouds over the ocean using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. When cloud droplets are reduced in size over all oceans uniformly to offset the temperature increase from a doubling of atmospheric CO2, the global-mean precipitation and evaporation decreases by about 1.3% but runoff over land increases by 7.5% primarily due to increases over tropical land. In the model, more reflective marine clouds cool the atmospheric column over ocean. The result is a sinking motion over oceans and upward motion over land. We attribute the increased runoff over land to this increased upward motion over land when marine clouds are made more reflective. Our results suggest that, in contrast to other proposals to increase planetary albedo, offsetting mean global warming by reducing marine cloud droplet size does not necessarily lead to a drying, on average, of the continents. However, we note that the changes in precipitation, evaporation and P-E are dominated by small but significant areas, and given the highly idealized nature of this study, a more thorough and broader assessment would be required for proposals of altering marine cloud properties on a large scale.

Bala, G.; Caldeira, Ken; Nemani, Rama; Cao, Long; Ban-Weiss, George; Shin, Ho-Jeong

2011-09-01

423

The proportionality of global warming to cumulative carbon emissions.  

PubMed

The global temperature response to increasing atmospheric CO(2) is often quantified by metrics such as equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response. These approaches, however, do not account for carbon cycle feedbacks and therefore do not fully represent the net response of the Earth system to anthropogenic CO(2) emissions. Climate-carbon modelling experiments have shown that: (1) the warming per unit CO(2) emitted does not depend on the background CO(2) concentration; (2) the total allowable emissions for climate stabilization do not depend on the timing of those emissions; and (3) the temperature response to a pulse of CO(2) is approximately constant on timescales of decades to centuries. Here we generalize these results and show that the carbon-climate response (CCR), defined as the ratio of temperature change to cumulative carbon emissions, is approximately independent of both the atmospheric CO(2) concentration and its rate of change on these timescales. From observational constraints, we estimate CCR to be in the range 1.0-2.1 degrees C per trillion tonnes of carbon (Tt C) emitted (5th to 95th percentiles), consistent with twenty-first-century CCR values simulated by climate-carbon models. Uncertainty in land-use CO(2) emissions and aerosol forcing, however, means that higher observationally constrained values cannot be excluded. The CCR, when evaluated from climate-carbon models under idealized conditions, represents a simple yet robust metric for comparing models, which aggregates both climate feedbacks and carbon cycle feedbacks. CCR is also likely to be a useful concept for climate change mitigation and policy; by combining the uncertainties associated with climate sensitivity, carbon sinks and climate-carbon feedbacks into a single quantity, the CCR allows CO(2)-induced global mean temperature change to be inferred directly from cumulative carbon emissions. PMID:19516338

Matthews, H Damon; Gillett, Nathan P; Stott, Peter A; Zickfeld, Kirsten

2009-06-11

424

Global warming and effects on the Arctic fox.  

PubMed

We predict the effect of global warming on the arctic fox, the only endemic terrestrial predatory mammals in the arctic region. We emphasize the difference between coastal and inland arctic fox populations. Inland foxes rely on peak abundance of lemming prey to sustain viable populations. In the short-term, warmer winters result in missed lemming peak years and reduced opportunities for successful arctic fox breeding. In the long-term, however, warmer climate will increase plant productivity and more herbivore prey for competitive dominant predators moving in from the south. The red fox has already intruded the arctic region and caused a retreat of the southern limit of arctic fox distribution range. Coastal arctic foxes, which rely on the richer and temporally stable marine subsidies, will be less prone to climate-induced resource limitations. Indeed, arctic islands, becoming protected from southern species invasions as the extent of sea ice is decreasing, may become the last refuges for coastal populations of Arctic foxes. PMID:18717368

Fuglei, Eva; Ims, Rolf Anker

2008-01-01

425

Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

Stevens, Jeanne

2007-05-01

426

Can global warming make Indian monsoon weather less predictable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable medium range prediction of monsoon weather is crucial for disaster preparedness. Weather in tropics, controlled by fast growing convective instabilities is, however, intrinsically less predictable than that in extra-tropics. Increased frequency and intensity of extreme rain events in the tropics in the backdrop of global warming has a potential for further decreasing the potential predictability of the tropical weather. Using nonlinear dynamical techniques on gridded daily rainfall data over India for 104 years (1901-2004), here we show that the deterministic predictability of monsoon weather over central India in the latest quarter of the period has indeed decreased significantly compared to that in the earlier three quarters. The decrease of initial error doubling time from approximately 3.0 days to 1.5 days is consistent with higher frequency of extreme events and increased potential instability of the atmosphere in the recent quarter. To overcome the increased difficulty in predicting monsoon weather, significant increase in efforts to improve models, observations and enhancement of computing power would be required.

Mani, Neena Joseph; Suhas, E.; Goswami, B. N.

2009-04-01

427

40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis...I to Subpart A of Part 82âGlobal Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced...chemical) Chemical formula Global warming potential (time horizon)...

2009-07-01

428

40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis...I to Subpart A of Part 82âGlobal Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced...chemical) Chemical formula Global warming potential (time horizon)...

2010-07-01

429

40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis...I to Subpart A of Part 82âGlobal Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced...chemical) Chemical formula Global warming potential (time horizon)...

2013-07-01

430

High-resolution peatland photos show change with global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As global average temperatures rise, vast tracks of peatland currently encased in permafrost will be affected. As the ground thaws, peatlands will evolve in either of two directions. Along one path, land that was previously propped up by supportive permafrost subsides, forming a shallow basin that fills with water—a thermokarst lake. In the new lake, peat undergoes anaerobic bacterial decay, releasing methane to the environment. Alternatively, permafrost thawing can result in lake drainage. In the drained lake beds, fen vegetation and mosses can grow, drawing down atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The prevalence of these two processes, and their relationship to changing temperatures, remains an important question in understanding the consequences of permafrost thaw on the global carbon cycle.

Schultz, Colin

2011-11-01

431

Understanding the ocean temperature change in global warming: the tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response mechanisms of the tropical Pacific Ocean temperature to increased atmospheric CO2 are investigated in a coupled climate model. Ensemble simulations are performed under both the transient and stable CO2 forcing. It is found that the dominant mechanism for temperature change differs in different stages of global warming. During the transient stage, the surface heat flux is a major driving factor for the tropical surface warming. During the equilibrium stage, the dominant mechanism to maintain the surface warming is the meridional advection. The heat flux forcing becomes a damping factor instead, particularly for the western tropical Pacific. Different from the surface warming, the subsurface warming results from the oceanic mixings during the entire period of global warming, whereas the advection terms generally play a cooling role, consistent with the slowdown of the shallow meridional overturning circulation. This paper emphasizes the deterministic role of the dynamic adjustment of the ocean circulation in the long-term change of ocean climate.

Yang, Haijun; Wang, Fuyao; Sun, Aidong

2009-05-01

432

Global Warming’s Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation Analysis (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the first rules of effective communication is to “know thy audience.” People have different psychological, cultural and political reasons for acting - or not acting - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change educators can increase their impact by taking these differences into account. In this presentation we will describe six unique audience segments within the American public that each responds to the issue in its own distinct way, and we will discuss methods of engaging each. The six audiences were identified using a nationally representative survey of American adults conducted in the fall of 2008 (N=2,164). In two waves of online data collection, the public’s climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, values, policy preferences, conservation, and energy-efficiency behaviors were assessed. The data were subjected to latent class analysis, yielding six groups distinguishable on all the above dimensions. The Alarmed (18%) are fully convinced of the reality and seriousness of climate change and are already taking individual, consumer, and political action to address it. The Concerned (33%) - the largest of the Six Americas - are also convinced that global warming is happening and a serious problem, but have not yet engaged with the issue personally. Three other Americas - the Cautious (19%), the Disengaged (12%) and the Doubtful (11%) - represent different stages of understanding and acceptance of the problem, and none are actively involved. The final America - the Dismissive (7%) - are very sure it is not happening and are actively involved as opponents of a national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigating climate change will require a diversity of messages, messengers and methods that take into account these differences within the American public. The findings from this research can serve as guideposts for educators on the optimal choices for reaching and influencing target groups with varied informational needs, values and beliefs.

Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

2009-12-01

433

Optimal Detection of Global Warming Using Temperature Profiles: A Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal fingerprinting is applied to estimate the amount of time it would take to detect warming by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in monthly averages of temperature profiles over the Indian Ocean. A simple radiative-convective model is used to define the pattern of the warming signal, and the first 100 yr of the 1000-yr control run of the Geophysical Fluid

Stephen S. Leroy

1999-01-01

434

Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene\\/Eocene thermal maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeocene\\/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming ~55million years ago, superimposed on an already warm world. This warming is associated with a severe shoaling of the ocean calcite compensation depth and a >2.5 per mil negative carbon isotope excursion in marine and soil carbonates. Together these observations indicate a massive release of 13C-depleted carbon and

Mark Pagani; Nikolai Pedentchouk; Matthew Huber; Appy Sluijs; Stefan Schouten; Henk Brinkhuis; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Gerald R. Dickens; Jan Backman; Steve Clemens; Thomas Cronin; Frédérique Eynaud; Jérôme Gattacceca; Martin Jakobsson; Ric Jordan; Michael Kaminski; John King; Nalân Koc; Nahysa C. Martinez; David McInroy; Theodore C. Moore Jr.; Matthew O'Regan; Jonaotaro Onodera; Heiko Pälike; Brice Rea; Domenico Rio; Tatsuhiko Sakamoto; David C. Smith; Kristen E. K. St John; Itsuki Suto; Noritoshi Suzuki; Kozo Takahashi; Mahito Watanabe; Masanobu Yamamoto

2006-01-01

435

Satellite-Based Assessment of the Aerosol Effect on Global Warm Cloud Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present characteristics of global warm cloud properties and warm-rain process in conjunction with the aerosol index (AI) and the lower-tropospheric stability (LTS). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Visible\\/Infrared Radiance Imager (VIRS) simultaneously derive cloud-top droplet effect radius, column droplet radius, cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, cloud optical depth, and a warm rain index.

T. Matsui; H. Masunaga; R. A. Pielke; S. M. Kreidenweis; W. Tao; M. Chin; Y. J. Kaufman

2004-01-01

436

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948-2008 and climate model simulations for 1948-2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st~century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands (under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario) are projected to be 5.8 × 106 km2 (or 10%) larger than in the 1961-1990 climatology. The major expansion of arid regions will occur over southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa, and Australia, while major expansions of semiarid regions will occur over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and North and South America. The global dryland expansions will increase the population affected by water scarcity and land degradations.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.

2013-10-01

437

Probabilistic Modelling of Russian Permafrost Response to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost plays a crucial role in determining the response of natural ecosystems at northern high latitudes, and yet it remains poorly represented in the land surface schemes of many climate models. A widespread thawing of the permafrost potentially releases large amounts of carbon currently stored as organic material in frozen soils, providing a potentially large positive feedback to global warming. Previous studies have projected dramatic reductions in permafrost extent due to climate change, but these studies have been criticised as being overly simplistic and ignoring some of the key processes that determine the response of the permafrost. Here we present the first results of a joint UK-Russian study that aims at identifying and quantifying the main sources of uncertainty in the simulation of the permafrost response to climate change. To this end, we use a stochastic model of the permafrost in Russia that accounts for the parameter uncertainty and spatial variability in large-scale models of climate-permafrost interactions. This model is driven by probabilistic climate scenarios from the Hadley Centre climate model (HadCM3), consisting of several ensembles of perturbed-physics simulations for different scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions.. The large number of ensemble members allows for an estimation of the probability density function of key climatic parameters over the region. By using this approach we can compare the level of parameter uncertainty in the permafrost model to uncertainty in the climate model simulations. We furthermore present results from the Hadley Centre coupled climate-carbon cycle model, investigating the transient climate, vegetation and land surface response to emission stabilisation scenarios.

Dankers, R.; Anisimov, O. A.; Falloon, P.; Gornall, J.; Reneva, S.; Wiltshire, A.

2009-12-01

438

Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion: STS Issues for Social Studies Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the inclusion of science-technology-society (STS) education in social studies. Provides background information on global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer. Focuses on reasons for teaching global climate change in the social studies classroom and includes teaching suggestions. Offers a list of Web sites about global climate…

Rye, James A.; Strong, Donna D.; Rubba, Peter A.

2001-01-01

439

Analysis of Energy Conversion Systems, Including Material and Global Warming Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a method for the overall evaluation of energy conversion systems, including material and global environmental aspects. To limit the scope of the work reported here, the global environmental aspects have been limited to global warming aspects.A method is presented that uses exergy as an overall evaluation measure of energy conversion systems for their lifetime. The method takes

Mingyuan Zhang; Gordon M. Reistad

1998-01-01

440

Global Warming, Earthly Disasters, the Moon and Mars: Transfers of Knowledge (TOK) The American Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract) Global warming, disasters in increasingly more populated and infrastructure'd regions of the world, the decline side of oil, and the space endeavor are part of the overarching problem of the expansion of the human ecology. The onset of the Anthropocene Epoch and the axial shifts of a highly globalized world and global economy are challenging the United States at

Marilyn Dudley-Flores

441

Mechanism of Radiative Forcing of Greenhouse Gas and its Implication to the Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of how the greenhouse gas (GHG) perturbs climate in the first place would help to fight the global warming. It is generally acknowledged that the warming is due to the absorption by the GHG of the infrared radiation emitted from the surface (IPCC AR4, 2007). However, the molecules of GHG not only absorb the infrared radiation they

R. Shia

2010-01-01

442

From Data to Decision: The Three Elements of Policymaking Illustrated by The Case of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the process from data acquisition to policy decisions exemplified by studying an optimum policy on global warming. Policymakers must be reasonably skeptical before proposing remedies to curb warming, but policymakers cannot await the final proof of any proposal’s merit. Balancing evidence with doubt requires an informed approach, in which information is converted to knowledge and used to

Erling Røed Larsen

2003-01-01

443

Global Warming and Our Changing Climate: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A warming trend has been recorded since the late 19th century, with the most rapid warming occurring over the past two decades. If emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, scientists say we may change global temperature and our planets climate at ...

2000-01-01

444

Potential Effects of Global Climate Warming on the Growth and Prey Consumption of Great Lakes Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used fish bioenergetics models to assess the effect ofglobal climate warming on the growth and prey consumption of warm-, cool-, and coldwater fishes at three sites spanning the range of thermal environments in the Great Lakes. Historical air and water temperature data and projected air temperature changes from three global climate models were used as input to regression models,

David K. Hill; John J. Magnuson

1990-01-01

445

Impacts of global warming on Nezara viridula and its native congeneric species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and biological invasion are two of the most important ecological issues. Nezara viridula (SGS) is a good example of an alien species that increased in response to recent land use changes and global warming. The range limit of SGS coincided with the 5°C isotherm of the mean monthly temperature for January. Since 2000, it has been warm enough

Keizi Kiritani

2011-01-01

446

The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO2-induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO2-induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

Boucher, Olivier; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Collins, Bill; Shine, Keith P.

2009-10-01

447

Teaching Energy Balance Using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming is often confusing for students, primarily because the standard quantitative analysis uses many constants and units. A \\

Brian S. Blais

2003-01-01

448

American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

2006-04-01

449

Greenhouse Effect: DOE's Programs and Activities Relevant to the Global Warming Phenomenon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background information is given on the global warming issue as well as the Department of Energy's (DOE's) objectives, scope, and methodology in relation to the problem. Details are given on DOE's policies and research efforts. Examples of energy policy an...

1990-01-01

450

Relative Effects on Global Warming of Halogenated Methanes and Ethanes of Social and Industrial Interest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative potential global warming effects for several halocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)-11, 12, 113, 114, and 115; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) 22, 123, 124, 141b, and 142b; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) 125, 134a, 143a, and 152a; carbon ...

D. A. Fisher C. H. Hales W. Wang M. K. W. Ko N. D. Sze

1990-01-01

451

Impact of global warming on seasonal variations of net precipitation in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the impact of global warming on seasonal variations of net precipitation in polar regions, comparing IPCC simulations with ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA40). IPCC simulations from 5 models (MRI, MIROC-hires, MIROC-medres, GISS and ECHAM) are used. To assess the impact of global warming, the difference between climate of the 20th Century experiment (20C3M) and 720 ppm stabilization experiment (SRES

K. Oshima; K. Yamazaki

2006-01-01

452

Where are Germany’s gains from Kyoto? Estimating the effects of global warming on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the high abatement costs of the Kyoto Protocol for Germany, this paper is estimating the economic impact of global\\u000a warming on agriculture in that country. The hedonic approach is used as theoretical background. Stating that land prices are\\u000a – among others – determined by climatic factors, this approach can consequently be used to value global warming. To avoid

Günter Lang

2007-01-01

453

Probability Distributions of CO2-induced Global Warming as Inferred Directly from Multimodel Ensemble Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical, purely model-based probability distributions are derived for the instantaneous global mean warming resulting from a gradual doubling of CO2 (TCR = transient climate response) and for the equilibrium global mean warming caused by a doubling of CO2 (CS = climate sensitivity). For TCR, the estimated 5-95% uncertainty range based on the results of 20 models is 1.0-2.4 °C when

Jouni Räisänen

2005-01-01

454

A mapping of global warming research based on IPCC AR4  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is easy to get lost in the vast amount of knowledge that is currently produced. In this study, to get a comprehensive picture\\u000a of current scientific knowledge about global warming issues, we developed a mapping framework for global warming research\\u000a based on the relationships between nature and human society. The mapping includes seven phases: (1) socioeconomic activity\\u000a and greenhouse

Ai Hiramatsu; Nobuo Mimura; Akimasa Sumi

2008-01-01

455

Scenario analysis of global warming using the Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) is a large-scale model for scenario analyses of green-house gas (GHG) emissions and the impacts of global warming in the Asian Pacific region. The AIM comprises two main models — the AIM\\/emission model for predicting GHG emissions and the AIM\\/impact model for estimating the impacts of global warming — which are linked by the

Mikiko Kainuma; Tsuneyuki Morita

1995-01-01

456

Methane emissions from a freshwater marsh in response to experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined methane (CH4) emissions in a field enclosure experiment in a littoral freshwater marsh under the influence of experimentally simulated warming and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Methane emissions by ebullition from the marsh composed of Phragmites australis were measured with funnel traps deployed in a series of enclosures for two 3 week periods. Diffusive fluxes were estimated on the basis of measured CH4 concentrations and application of Fick's law. Neither diffusive nor ebullitive fluxes of methane were significantly affected by warming or nitrate enrichment, possibly because variability both within and among replicate experimental enclosures was high. Average emission rates resulted primarily from ebullition (0.2-30.3 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1), which were 4 orders of magnitude higher than estimated diffusive fluxes and were of similar importance as the coarsely estimated advective methane transport through plants. Significant correlations between dissolved oxygen and dissolved methane and ebullition flux suggest that methane release from the sediment might feed back positively on methane production by reducing dissolved oxygen in the water column and oxygen flux into the sediment. Nitrate may have a similar effect. Extrapolation of our limited data indicates that total methane fluxes from vegetated littoral zones of temperate lakes may contribute 0.5%-7% of the global natural CH4 emissions. These results emphasize the importance of freshwater marshes as sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere, even when they occupy only relatively small littoral areas. More detailed investigations are clearly needed to assess whether global warming and nitrogen deposition can have climate feedbacks by altering methane fluxes from these wetlands.

Flury, Sabine; McGinnis, Daniel F.; Gessner, Mark O.

2010-03-01

457

Response of Vegetation in Northern China to Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 30 years, the warmth index (WI) (Kira, 1945) has increased by 10 to 20 points in northern China and the humid index (HI) (Xu,1985) correspondingly decreased by 1 to 2 points. Accordingly, the green leaf stage of plants and herbs around Beijing prolonged from late Nov. to mid-Dec. The phenophase has also been changed, e.g., the most enjoyable period of red leaves such as common smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) and maple (Acer mono and A.truncatum) has postponed for 10 days and the blooming period of flowering plants has also advanced for the same span. Some plants, e.g. japanese pagodatree (Sophora japonica) and hispid locust (Robinia hispida) even blossom again in fall. Some evergreen and thermophilic plants have also been planted to further north. Rice (Oryza sativa) have extended to around 49 degree N and, as an extreme case, to 52 degree N (Huma County, Heilongjiang Province), and tea (Camellia sinensis) from around 35 to 36.5 degree N. River basins of Songhuajiang and Nenjiang in Heilongjiang Province become important rice production bases. Rizhao and Qingdao in Shandong province become famous tea production bases. Before 1970s, evergreen broadleaf woody plants were rarely cultivated in Beijing. But now such plants as privet (Lygustrum lucidum), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), evergreen euonymus (Euonymus japonicus), and boxwood (Buxus sinica var. margaritacea) all live there through the winter. Many thermophilic garden plants, such as fig (Ficus carica), Chinese tulip tree (Liliodendron chinense), Chinese photinia (Photinia serrulata), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), and plum blossom (Prunus mume) are also successively cultivated outdoors in Beijing. Common papermulberry (Broussonetia papirifera) gradually increases and even becomes subdominant species of deciduous forest during last 30 years in the piedmont around Beijing. The cultivation boundary of some thermophilic trees, e.g., Chinese catalpa (Catalpa ovata), japanese pagodatree (Sophora japonica), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), yellow locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), and gingko (Ginkgo biloba) have also been pushing northward to Huhhot, (41 degree N)Chifeng (42 degree N) and Tongliao (43 degree N), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Alpine timberline has also been moved to higher altitude in Wutai Mt., Shanxi Province and Changbaishan Mt., Jilin Province. Although global warming seems to benefit agriculture in some cases, considering the decrease of wetness, the perspective is still uncertain. Drought and frost hazard are stress factors for the vegetation introduced to the northern areas. Chinese scholars are carefully watching the trend.

Cui, H.; Huang, R.

2009-05-01

458

Natural gas and efficient technologies: A response to global warming  

SciTech Connect

It has become recognized by the international scientific community that global warming due to fossil fuel energy buildup of greenhouse CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is a real environmental problem. Worldwide agreement has also been reached to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. A leading approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions is to utilize hydrogen-rich fuels and improve the efficiency of conversion in the power generation, transportation and heating sectors of the economy. In this report, natural gas, having the highest hydrogen content of all the fossil fuels, can have an important impact in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper explores natural gas and improved conversion systems for supplying energy to all three sectors of the economy. The improved technologies include combined cycle for power generation, the Carnol system for methanol production for the transportation sector and fuel cells for both power generation and transportation use. The reduction in CO{sub 2} from current emissions range from 13% when natural gas is substituted for gasoline in the transportation sector to 45% when substituting methanol produced by the Carnol systems (hydrogen from thermal decomposition of methane reacting with CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants) used in the transportation sector. CO{sub 2} reductions exceeding 60% can be achieved by using natural gas in combined cycle for power generation and Carnol methanol in the transportation sector and would, thus, stabilize CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere predicted to avoid undue climate change effects. It is estimated that the total fossil fuel energy bill in the US can be reduced by over 40% from the current fuel bill. This also allows a doubling in the unit cost for natural gas if the current energy bill is maintained. Estimates of the total net incremental replacement capital cost for completing the new improved equipment is not more than that which will have to be spent to replace the existing equipment conducting business as usual.

Steinberg, M.

1998-02-01

459

Surface thermohaline forcing conditions and the response of the present-day global ocean climate to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigate the response of the present-day thermohaline circulation to a greenhouse gas induced global warming under different surface thermohaline conditions in a global Bryan\\/Cox [Bryan, 1969; Cox, 1989] ocean general circulation model with realistic bathymetry and geometry. Initially the model is spun up with surface temperature and salinity relaxed to Levitus [1982] climatologies. The forcing condition for salinity is

Wenju Cai

1996-01-01

460

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Conclusions Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.

Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

2008-01-01

461

Potential impacts of global warming on water resources in southern California.  

PubMed

Global warming will have a significant impact on water resources within the 20 to 90-year planning period of many water projects. Arid and semi-arid regions such as Southern California are especially vulnerable to anticipated negative impacts of global warming on water resources. Long-range water facility planning must consider global climate change in the recommended mix of new facilities needed to meet future water requirements. The generally accepted impacts of global warming include temperature, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe floods and droughts, and a shift from snowfall to rain. Precipitation changes are more difficult to predict. For Southern California, these impacts will be especially severe on surface water supplies. Additionally, rising sea levels will exacerbate salt-water intrusion into freshwater and impact the quality of surface water supplies. Integrated water resources planning is emerging as a tool to develop water supplies and demand management strategies that are less vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. These tools include water conservation, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and desalination of brackish water and possibly seawater. Additionally, planning for future water needs should include explicit consideration of the potential range of global warming impacts through techniques such as scenario planning. PMID:12793676

Beuhler, M

2003-01-01

462

Chapter 11: Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events.

Valerie J Paul

463

Hypoxia, Global Warming, and Terrestrial Late Permian Extinctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea

Raymond B. Huey; Peter D. Ward

2005-01-01

464

River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. The analysis of the data shows that in the past 25 years, the largest contribution to the annual river runoff increase in the lower

A. G. Georgiadi; I. P. Milyukova; E. Kashutina

2008-01-01

465

NASA Study Projects Warming-Driven Changes in Global Rainfall  

NASA Video Gallery

Model simulations spanning 140 years show that warming from carbon dioxide will change the frequency that regions around the planet receive no rain (brown), moderate rain (tan), and very heavy rain (blue). The occurrence of no rain and heavy rain will increase, while moderate rainfall will decrease. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

Lynn Jenner

2013-05-03

466

Evidence for global runoff increase related to climate warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing global climatic change initiated by the anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide is a matter of intense debate. We focus both on the impact of these climatic changes on the global hydrological cycle and on the amplitude of the increase of global and continental runoff over the last century, in relation to measured temperature increases. In this contribution, we propose

David Labat; Yves Goddéris; Jean Luc Probst; Jean Loup Guyot

2004-01-01

467

Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4) are higher now than they have ever been during the past 420,000 years. However, concentrations have remained stable since 1999. Emissions associated with livestock husbandry are unlikely to have changed, so some combination of reduced production in wetlands, more efficient capture by landfills, or increased consumption by biological CH4 oxidation in upland soils may be responsible. Methane oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in upland soils and little is known about how these bacteria respond to anthropogenic global change, and how they will influence - or already are influencing - the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Might ongoing and future global changes increase biological CH4 oxidation? Soils were sampled from two field experiments to assess changes in rates of CH4 oxidation in response to global change simulations. Potential activities of CH4 oxidizing bacterial communities were measured through laboratory incubations under optimal temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CH4 concentrations (~18 ppm, or 10x ambient). The ongoing 6-year multifactorial Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated atmospheric N deposition, and increased wildfire frequency in an annual grassland in a Mediterranean-type climate in central California. The ongoing 1-year multifactorial Merriam Climate Change Experiment (MCCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, and reduced precipitation in four different types of ecosystems along an elevational gradient in a semi-arid climate in northern Arizona. The high desert grassland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, and mixed conifer forest ecosystems range in annual precipitation from 100 to 1000 mm yr-1, and from productivity being strongly water limited to strongly temperature limited. Among JRGCE soils, elevated atmospheric CO2 increased potential CH4 oxidation rates (p=0.052) and wildfire decreased rates (p=0.014). These responses may be explained by improved soil aggregate stability in the first case, and reduced aggregate stability in the latter case. No effects of warming, elevated precipitation, elevated N deposition, or multifactor interactions were found. Among MCCE soils, similarly, no effects of elevated or reduced precipitation were found. While warming did not affect low elevation ecosystems, it did significantly decrease rates in the highest elevation mixed conifer forest (p=0.004). This suggests a vulnerability of cold-adapted CH4 oxidizing bacteria to elevated temperature. However, bacterial communities in all sampled ecosystems appear to be resistant to drier conditions and unaffected by wetter conditions. If biological oxidation is responsible for the current stability in atmospheric CH4 concentrations, then the improved function of this global CH4 sink is likely driven by indirect plant effects under elevated atmospheric CO2. Improved function, however, may be absent or reversed in future ecosystems that experience increased wildfire frequency and in high altitude and latitude ecosystems that experience rapid warming.

Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

2004-12-01

468

Oceanic Climate Change: Contributions of Heat Content, Temperature, and Salinity Trends to Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Ocean is the largest component of the global climate system, and changes to its heat content, temperature, and salinity have an enormous impact on the current global warming trend. In this paper, these physical changes are discussed in detail, including potential sources of change and spatial and temporal variability, as the observed trends are influenced by location as

Christopher M. Mirabito

469

Ecoefficiency approach for global warming in the context of Kyoto Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses an approach to measuring and improving the economic and ecological efficiency of Kyoto Mechanism projects. The approach consists of Global Warming Eco-Efficiency (GWEE), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) & Joint Implementation (JI) Environmental-Efficiency (EE) and CDM & JI Economic-Productivity (EP). The GWEE indicator is based on the ratio of the value added of a system to its global

Kyounghoon Cha; Songtak Lim; Tak Hur

2008-01-01

470

To Tax or Not to Tax: Alternative Approaches to Slowing Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

How cancountries best coordinate their policies toslow globalwarming? This studyreviews different approaches to the political and economic control of global public goods such as global warming. It compares quantity-oriented mechanisms like the Kyoto Protocol with price-type control mechanisms such as internationally harmonized carbon taxes. The analysis focuses on such issues as the relationship to ultimate targets, performance under conditions of

William D. Nordhaus

2007-01-01

471

Chikyu ondanka mondai ni kakawaru keizaiteki bunseki. (Economical analysis relating to the global warming issue).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis using global macro economic models is conducted on how to think and cope with the global warming issue from political and economic aspects. As viewpoints of evaluation, cited are cost estimation for the CO2 emission control, damage caused by t...

1994-01-01

472

Shin energy no tenbo. Chikyu ondanka hen (1988). (Prospect of new energy. Global warming (1988)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New energy has been developed mainly as substitutes for oil. The issue on global warming by carbon dioxide is considered as one of new energy development strategy. Carbon ranges over the atmosphere, the ocean, and woodlands, and there is the great global-...

1988-01-01