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Sample records for affecting sodium hypochlorite

  1. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  2. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

  3. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... hypochlorite is found in: Chemical used to add chlorine to swimming pools Disinfectants Some bleaching solutions Water ... Short term respiratory effects of acute exposure to chlorine due to a swimming pool accident. Occup Environ ...

  4. Process for degrading hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite

    DOEpatents

    Huxtable, William P.; Griffith, William L.; Compere, Alicia L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for degrading hypochlorite waste and lithium hypochlorite solutions uses a cobalt oxide/molybdenum oxide catalyst formed from about 1-10 w/w % cobalt oxide and 1-15 w/w % molybdenum oxide disposed on a suitable substrate. The major advantage of the catalyst lies in its high degree of effectiveness and its very low cost.

  5. Process for degrading hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1990-10-16

    A process for degrading hypochlorite waste and lithium hypochlorite solutions is described. It uses a cobalt oxide/molybdenum oxide catalyst formed from about 1-10 w/w cobalt oxide and 1-15 w/w % molybdenum oxide disposed on a suitable substrate. The major advantage of the catalyst lies in its high degree of effectiveness and its very low cost.

  6. Toxicity and safety of topical sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Mary K

    2007-01-01

    The safety and toxicity of sodium hypochlorite is reviewed with particular correlation to topical use. Since sodium hypochlorite is one of the most widely used chemicals in the environment, its safety has been established by long use and toxicity profile. This chapter reviews recent toxicology testing including routine systemic LD50, topical LD50, topical toxicology, irritation and sensitization. The resulting toxicity or safety profile clarifies the safe topical use of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution (ExSept, Amuchina 10%). PMID:17099299

  7. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2014-03-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis. PMID:24626008

  8. Sodium hypochlorite accident in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ulrich; Kleier, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    A sodium hypochlorite accident is a rare event in adults, but even more so in children. The purposes of this paper were to: report the case of a one-year, 10-month-old toddler who was treated under general anesthesia for early childhood caries, incurred a sodium hypochlorite accident following attempted pulpectomy in his primary maxillary central incisors, but made a full recovery without any sequelae after a typical four to six weeks course of disease; review the pertinent literature; and give recommendations on how to minimize the potential occurrence of such incidents. PMID:24553278

  9. Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Cho, Eung Ha; Yang, Ray Y. K.

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted on the leaching of chalcopyrite with NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite). Experiments were carried out in the following two stages: (1) Chalcopyrite was converted to CuO (cupric oxide) with a sodium hypochlorite solution, and (2) cupric oxide was dissolved to cupric ions with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature. In the first-stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7, the temperature from 35 °C to 75 °C, the sodium hypochlorite concentration from 0.2 to 0.85 molar, and the chalcopyrite dosage from 1 to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3 pct) around a pH of 13.2 at 0.5 molar OCl- (hypochlorite) concentration and at 65 °C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio—defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach 1 mole of chalcopyrite—was much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 g/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 g/500 ml. The leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by a chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98 pct of the chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than 3 hours.

  10. Stereochemistry of the epoxidation of internal perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Kolenko, I.P.

    1988-07-20

    The authors studied the epoxidation of the mixture of cis and trans isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes with sodium hypochlorite. Epoxidation was realized with an alkaline aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile. The epoxidation of the geometric isomers of internal disubstituted perfluoroalkenes by sodium hypochlorite is stereospecific. The /sup 19/F NMR spectra of the cis and trans isomers of internal perfluoroolefin oxides were obtained, and the relationships are discussed.

  11. Leaching of chalcopyrite with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlapalli, Ravinder Kumar

    Chalcopyrite is the most important copper mineral source and also a refractory mineral for leaching. Several processing routes have been proposed to overcome the environmental problems related to copper extraction from chalcopyrite. In this study, the leaching of chalcopyrite has been investigated with a new reagent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Experiments were carried out in two stages: conversion of chalcopyrite to cupric oxide with NaOCl solution in the first stage, followed by dissolution of the cupric oxide to cupric ion with 1 normal sulfuric acid at room temperature in the second stage. In the first stage leaching, the initial pH varied from 12.5 to 13.7; the temperature, from 35 to 75°C; NaOCl concentration, from 0.2 to 0.85 molar; and the chalcopyrite dosage, from 1 to 10 grams/500 ml. The leaching conversion showed a maximum (68.3%) around pH 13.2 at 0.5 molar of hypochlorite concentration and 65°C in 1 hour. The reagent consumption ratio, defined as the number of moles of hypochlorite consumed to leach one mole of chalcopyrite is found to be much higher than its stoichiometric ratio of 8.5. It reached 57.6 when the solid dosage was 1 gram/500 ml and decreased to 12.9 when the solid dosage was increased to 10 grams/500 ml. It was found that the leaching rate of chalcopyrite in the first stage was controlled by chemical reaction with the activation energy of 50.2 kJ/mol (12.0 kcal/mol). A leaching scheme was identified in which 98% chalcopyrite was leached by adding hypochlorite stock solution stepwise in less than three hours.

  12. Bleaching of fluorosis stains using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Sharanesha, Rajashekhara Bhari

    2015-01-01

    Fluorosis staining is commonly considered an esthetic problem because of the psychological impact of unesthetic maxillary anterior teeth. Numerous treatment approaches have been proposed, ranging from bleaching to enamel reduction to restorative techniques. Bleaching of hypomineralized enamel lesions, using 5% sodium hypochlorite, has been useful clinically. The technique described, in this case, appears to have advantages over other methods for improving the appearance of fluorotic lesions. It is simple, low cost, noninvasive, so the enamel keeps its structure, relatively rapid, and safe; it requires no special materials, and it can be used with safety on young permanent teeth. PMID:26538964

  13. The mycoplasmacidal properties of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D. H.; Miles, R. J.; Perry, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of hypochlorite concentration on Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The experimental variables employed included chlorine-cell contact time, chlorine concentration, carrier system and organic loading. Initial populations of 10(6) c.f.u./ml were killed (no survivors in 1 ml) by hypochlorite solution containing 25 p.p.m. available chlorine in 15 s in the absence of organic load and 50 p.p.m. available chlorine in 5 min in the presence of 1% protein. Higher concentrations of hypochlorite were required to disinfect a porous carrier system in the absence or presence of protein. The results are in contrast to previous reports that M. bovis is killed only by high hypochlorite concentrations. PMID:3840822

  14. Sodium hypochlorite as a developer for heavy ion tracks in polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintberg, Lena; Lindeberg, Mikael; Thornell, Greger

    2001-12-01

    The developing and etching of heavy ion tracks in polyimide with sodium hypochlorite have been studied to gain control over the parameters that affect the etch result. The shape of the resulting pores is a function of both alkalinity and hypochlorite content of the solution. Sodium hypochlorite decomposes during etching, and the rate constant has been determined as a function of the alkalinity at 62 °C. Polished cross-sections have been examined to determine the pore shape, and this method has shown to be a straightforward way to characterise the pores. Decreasing the alkalinity gives more cylindrical pores, but increases the decomposition rate of the hypochlorite solution and decreases the etch rate.

  15. Improved pH buffering agent for sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. R.; Veeder, L. N.

    1969-01-01

    Sodium citrate/citric acid was found to be an effective buffer for pH control when used with sodium hypochlorite. The mixture does not corrode aluminum. The buffer appears to form a type of conversion coating that may provide corrosion-resistant properties to aluminum in other applications.

  16. Tissue damage after sodium hypochlorite extrusion during root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    de Sermeño, Ruth Fuentes; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Leonardo, Mário Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Sodium hypochlorite solution is toxic to vital tissues, causing severe effects if extruded during endodontic treatment. This paper presents a report on the tissue damage related to inadvertent extrusion of concentrated sodium hypochlorite solution during root canal treatment. A 65-year-old woman was referred with moderate pain, ecchymosis, and severe swelling of the right side of the face. These symptoms appeared immediately after a root canal treatment of the maxillary right canine, which had been started 21 hours earlier. It was diagnosed as air emphysema related to sodium hypochlorite solution extravasation during the endodontic treatment. To avoid this, an initial radiograph should be taken to determine the correct canal working length and confirm root canal integrity. PMID:19442541

  17. Spectrophotometric Assay of Mebendazole in Dosage Forms Using Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, N.; Prashanth, K. N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-07-01

    A simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of mebendazole (MBD) in bulk drug and dosage forms. The method is based on the reaction of MBD with hypochlorite in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to form the chloro derivative of MBD, followed by the destruction of the excess hypochlorite by nitrite ion. The color was formed by the oxidation of iodide with the chloro derivative of MBD to iodine in the presence of starch and forming the blue colored product, which was measured at 570 nm. The optimum conditions that affect the reaction were ascertained and, under these conditions, a linear relationship was obtained in the concentration range of 1.25-25.0·g/ml MBD. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values are 9.56·103 l·mol-1·cm-1 and 0.031 μg/cm2, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification are 0.11 and 0.33 μg/ml, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of MBD in bulk drug and dosage forms, and no interference was observed from excipients present in the dosage forms. The reliability of the proposed method was further checked by parallel determination by the reference method and also by recovery studies.

  18. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Rankel, L.A.

    1986-07-22

    A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

  19. A comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate products.

    PubMed

    Coates, D

    1985-03-01

    A comparison of commercial sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) products was made. Solutions of NaOCl and NaDCC containing the same levels of available chlorine (av.Cl) exhibited very similar bactericidal activities, despite significant differences in pH. A level of 12.5 ppm av. Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 min. A level of 5 ppm av.Cl achieved a greater than 5 log 10 reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 min whilst approximately 100 ppm av.Cl achieved the same reduction in the presence of 1% horse serum, and approximately 200 ppm av.Cl in the presence of 2% horse serum, indicating inactivation levels of around 95 and 97.5% respectively. Tablets of NaDCC were stable but solutions were unstable and decomposed much faster than NaOCl solutions of the same strength. Batch-to-batch variability of different NaOCl and NaDCC products was investigated; whilst NaDCC products always contained the minimum level of av.Cl specified, concentrated NaOCl products sometimes did not due to inherent instability. PMID:2859320

  20. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  1. Characterization and Oxidation of Chromium(III) by Sodium Hypochlorite in Alkaline Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huijian; Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Rai, Dhanpat

    2006-07-01

    Chromium exists in nuclear waste sludges and is a problematic element in the vitrification process of high-level nuclear wastes. It is therefore necessary to treat the waste sludges to remove chromium prior to vitrification, by caustic leaching or oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oligomerization of Cr(III) on its oxidation by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions. Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric Cr(III) species in solution were separated by ion exchange. The kinetics of the oxidation of the separated species by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions was studied by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide previously studied. Results indicate that hypochlorite can oxidize Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in alkaline solutions, but the rate of oxidation by hypochlorite is slower than that by hydrogen peroxide at the same alkalinity and concentrations of oxidants. The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) by both oxidants decreases as the concentration of sodium hydroxide is increased, but the oxidation by hypochlorite seems less affected by the degree of oligomerization of Cr(III) than that by peroxide. Compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide where the major reaction pathway has an inverse order with respect to CNaOH, the oxidation by hypochlorite has a significant reaction pathway independent of [OH?].

  2. Feasibility study of coal-fracture enhancement using aqueous sodium hypochlorite. Final report. [Aqueous sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Pelofsky, A. H.; Dittman, F. W.

    1983-01-01

    This research project was a pilot-scale simulation in the laboratory of the treatment of underground coal deposits by solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in water. Sub-bituminous coal packed tightly in a steel reactor 23'' long x 29'' I.D. was exposed to the solution pumped through at a rate of 1 gallon per hour. Flow-pressure drop measurements were made before and after each run; from these data, permeability was calculated by means of Darcy's equation. Three runs were made - 12.3 wt% NaOCl for 16 hours; 10.9 wt% NaOCl for 17.5 hours; and in the last run, 6.5 wt% NaOCl for three 15-hour periods, followed by 11 wt% NaOCl for 15 hours. These were designated, respectively, as Runs No. 1, No. 2, and Nos. 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, and 3-4. In Run No. 1, permeability of the coal bed was increased by 6% to 13%. In Run No. 2, however, the permeability increased by a factor of 5.4 to 6.85, i.e., 440 to 585%. The increase from Run No. 1 to Run No. 2 is believed to be due to a better location of the feed inlet, plus the installation of baffles to direct the solution toward the centerline of the coal bed. Run 3-1, using relatively weak solution, showed a decrease of about 60% in permeability compared to that of the coal before treatment. Runs 3-2 and 3-3 brought the permeability back up to about 70% of the original value. Run 3-4 in which 11.0 wt% NaOCl solution was used, resulted in a 13 to 29% increase in permeability over the original value. Twenty-four thermocouples were symmetrically distributed within the coal bed. The increases of temperature due to reaction, which were different for each thermocouple, permitted the tracing of the path of maximum reaction within the coal bed. 31 figures.

  3. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  4. Sodium hypochlorite (dilute chlorine bleach) oral rinse in patient self-care.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sandra K; Slots, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), commonly known as "bleach," is widely accepted as being a safe and effective antiseptic against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. For over a century, bleach has been used to control or overcome infection in homes, hospitals, and even on battlefields, and in endodontics for disinfection of root canals. This paper reviews clinical studies on the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite oral rinse to combat dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Sodium hypochlorite is readily available as inexpensive household bleach, and we suggest that oral rinsing twice weekly with dilute bleach (0.25% sodium hypochlorite) constitutes a valuable adjunct to current methods of plaque removal. PMID:26856131

  5. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi

    2006-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent cleaning action. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in the cleaning and disinfection processes depends on the concentration of available chlorine and the pH of the solution. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a weak acid and dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (-OCl) and proton (H+) depending on the solution pH. It is generally believed that HOCl is the active species in the germicidal action, whereas the concentration of -OCl is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency. This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite differs from that of its cleaning activity. This paper describes the theory and practice of the cleaning and disinfecting operations based on the use of sodium hypochlorite solution. PMID:17190269

  6. Review: the use of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics--potential complications and their management.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H R; Ike, V; Brennan, P A

    2007-05-12

    Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solution is widely used in dental practice during root canal treatment. Although it is generally regarded as being very safe, potentially severe complications can occur when it comes into contact with soft tissue. This paper discusses the use of sodium hypochlorite in dental treatment, reviews the current literature regarding hypochlorite complications, and considers the appropriate management for a dental practitioner when faced with a potentially adverse incident with this agent. PMID:17496870

  7. Biomarker responses in Solea senegalensis exposed to sodium hypochlorite used as antifouling.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Nebot, Enrique; Casanueva, José F; Rubio, Daniel; Solé, Montserrat; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2010-02-01

    The time-course stress responses (0, 1, 2, and 7 d) was assessed in plasmatic, branchial and renal parameters of juveniles Solea senegalensis exposed to different concentrations of the antifouling sodium hypochlorite (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5mgL(-1)). These stress responses were only assessed for the total length of exposure (7d) at the lowest NaClO concentration due to the high toxicity of this chemical. In addition, the xenobiotic metabolism responses were evaluated by means of enzymatic activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and carboxylesterase (CbE) in liver; as well as GST, GPX, CAT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in gill. Oxidative stress damage due to sodium hypochlorite exposure was measured by lipid peroxidation levels in liver and gill. Concentrations of 0.2 and 0.5mgL(-1) produced lethal effects after 1d and 2h of exposure, respectively. After 1d of exposure to sublethal concentration of sodium hypochlorite (0.1mgL(-1)) osmoregulatory (osmolality and chloride) and stress (cortisol, glucose and lactate) plasmatic parameters were enhanced to respect at control fish. However after 3 or 7d these parameters returned to control values. No effects were observed on plasma protein and triglyceride levels or on gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. Diverse gill pathologies such as hypertrophy, lamellar fusion and an increase in goblet cell number and size were observed after 7d of exposure. Most biochemical parameters related to xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress were also significantly affected which suggests that seawater affected by sodium hypochlorite discharges from power plants, is able to alter the fish xenobiotic metabolism and generate oxidative stress. PMID:20022624

  8. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1235 - Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1235 Sodium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  13. Inactivation of HIV-1 by chemical disinfectants: sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed Central

    Van Bueren, J.; Simpson, R. A.; Salman, H.; Farrelly, H. D.; Cookson, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite was assessed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suspended in low (8% v/v) or high (80% v/v) concentrations of serum or in a high (80%) concentration of blood. In the presence of 8% serum, 100 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture inactivated 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml within 30 s. When the test mixture contained 80% serum, 500 p.p.m. available chlorine inactivated more than 4 log TCID50 HIV/ml in 1-2 min. Lower concentrations of available chlorine were unable to inactivate the virus completely. In the presence of 80% blood, 1000 p.p.m. available chlorine in the disinfectant test mixture was unable to inactivate 3.75 log TCID50 HIV/ml, although 2500 p.p.m. available chlorine was able to inactivate at least 1.5 log TCID50 HIV/ml. In all test mixtures, the chlorine rapidly became combined and thus less active. Our results emphasise the importance of cleaning prior to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite since it may prove to be ineffective in the presence of high levels of organic matter. In cases where prior cleaning is impossible, care must be taken to use the higher recommended concentration (a minimum of 10,000 p.p.m. available chlorine). PMID:8557089

  14. San Diego G and E shows how to make sodium hypochlorite for cooling-water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Furgerson, S.

    1983-10-01

    There's a trend in power plant cooling water treatment away from gaseous chlorine toward use of a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite. Some hypochlorite users are finding that savings produced by generating the material on site from seawater instead of purchasing it can pay back the capital costs in two to three years. One of the first plants in the US to generate hypochlorite on site was San Diego Gas and Electric's Encina station. 1 figure.

  15. Guidelines for management of sodium hypochlorite extrusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Farook, S A; Shah, V; Lenouvel, D; Sheikh, O; Sadiq, Z; Cascarini, L; Webb, R

    2014-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics. It is highly effective at dissolving organic debris and disinfecting the root canal system due to the high pH. Extravasation of NaOCl into intra-oral and extra-oral tissues can lead to devastating outcomes leading to long-term functional and aesthetic deficits. Currently no clear guidelines are available which has caused confusion among the dental and oral and maxillofacial (OMFS) surgical community how best to manage these patients. Following a literature review and considering our own experience we have formulated clear and precise guidelines to manage patients with NaOCl injury. PMID:25525012

  16. A new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linfeng; Tang, Jiuyao

    2009-08-01

    This work proposes a new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface for solar cells with sodium hypochlorite. A mixed solution consisting of 5 wt% sodium hypochlorite and 10 vl% ethanol has been found that results in a homogeneous pyramidal structure, and an optimal size of pyramids on the silicon surface. The textured silicon surface exhibits a lower average reflectivity (about 10.8%) in the main range of solar spectrum (400-1000 nm).

  17. Physicochemical properties of cassava starch oxidized by sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Lúcia Helena; Schnitzler, Egon; Zortéa, Manoela Estefânea Boff; de Souza Rocha, Thaís; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, cassava starch was modified by treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations (0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 % of active chlorine) and selected physicochemical properties of the oxidized starches were investigated. The native and modified samples were evaluated considering moisture, carboxyl content, apparent viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis, mid-infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity index. The treatment with NaClO resulted in alterations in carboxyl content of the oxidized starches that increased with increasing concentration of the oxidant. Oxidized starches also showed higher susceptibility to syneresis, as assessed by the release of liquid during freezing and thawing. Apparent viscosity analysis showed decrease in peak viscosity of the oxidized starches. X-ray diffractograms showed that the oxidation influenced the extent of cassava starch relative crystallinity found to lie between 34.4 % (native) and 39.9 % (2.0 % active chlorine). The infrared spectra are sensitive to structural changes on starch macromolecules and presented characteristic peaks as C-O-C of the six carbon glucose ring absorbs at 1,150-1,085 cm(-1) and due to axial deformation these bands changed with the crystal structure of the starch samples. PMID:25328206

  18. [Case of alkaline esophagitis due to sodium hypochlorite ingestion].

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Yoshioka, Hayato; Kanemura, Takashi; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Eijyu; Kato, Hiroshi; Koido, Yuichi

    2010-12-01

    The severity of alkaline esophagitis due to sodium hypochlorite ingestion is variable and the findings of endoscope within 48 hours of ingestion are reported to be associated with its prognosis. We report a good recovery case of grade 2B of alkaline esophagitis, which was treated with close observation. The patient was 59-year old man. He was found lying on the bed by his wife, after drinking bactericidal agents (Jianok) and kitchen cleaner (Magiclean) for suicide attempt. After his trachea was intubated, he underwent upper gastrointestinal scope, which displayed circumferential ulcers at the lower esophagus. He was diagnosed as having a Grade 2B alkaline esophagitis, which was associated with a higher probability of stricture or perforation. On the 14th day of the admission, the 2nd endoscope was performed and no esophageal strictures were detected. He was extubated and started oral feeding on the 15th day. After that, his hospital course was uneventful and was discharged on the 18th day. 6 months have passed since he left hospital. No esophageal strictures were detected so far. PMID:21268820

  19. [Stability of Lactococcus lactis phages treated with sodium hypochlorite and during storage].

    PubMed

    Parada, J L; de Fabrizio, S V

    2001-01-01

    Survival of lytic bacteriophages active against Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and ssp. cremoris was determined after treatment with sodium hypochlorite and during storage at 4 degrees C. Three phages were isolated from dairy plants in Argentina (ARG) and the other phages were isolated in the United States of America (US). All of them represent phages that infected cheese manufacture industries and belong to different morphological or serological groups. These phages showed higher survival in M17 broth, buffered with sodium glycerophosphate, than in trypteine soy broth (TSB). Phage populations did not decrease significantly during 14 weeks in M17 broth, whereas in TSB the titers of phage suspensions began to decline around 9 days. In addition, the effect of sodium hypochlorite was more marked in broth than in milk. A higher surviving fraction was obtained in milk, even when tenfold higher concentrations of chlorine were used. The effect of hypochlorite on phages of the same serological group was quite similar and independent of phage morphology. However, phage 137-1, which belongs to other serological group, showed lower resistance to sodium hypochlorite. Comparing the hypochlorite inactivation for ARG and US phages, it was observed that they have their own inactivation values, independently of their origin and morphological group. Long periods of time and high concentrations of chlorine were necessary to reduce the surviving fraction in milk. This indicates that hypochlorite concentrations and times of contact can be critical for the efficiency of the operative sanitization processes. PMID:11494761

  20. Household bleaches based on sodium hypochlorite: review of acute toxicology and poison control center experience.

    PubMed

    Racioppi, F; Daskaleros, P A; Besbelli, N; Borges, A; Deraemaeker, C; Magalini, S I; Martinez Arrieta, R; Pulce, C; Ruggerone, M L; Vlachos, P

    1994-09-01

    Bleaches based on solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) are widely used in the household to disinfect and clean hard surfaces and to bleach the laundry. A review of both published and unpublished toxicological data is presented. In addition, the results of a survey of human accidents with hypochlorite bleaches by the Poison Control Centers of France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Turkey, Spain and Portugal for the period 1989-1992 are presented. The data show that acute accidental exposure to household bleach in use or in foreseeable misuse situations results, in the great majority of the cases, in minor, transient adverse effects on health, with no permanent sequelae. Ingestion is the most frequent route of exposure, followed by inhalation of gases evolved by mixing sodium hypochlorite bleach with acid or alkaline products. All evidence presented confirms the normal safety profile of hypochlorite-based bleaches to be similar to that of other 'generally recognized as safe' household products. PMID:7927083

  1. Multi-stage absorption of rendering plant odours using sodium hypochlorite and other reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D.; Davis, B. J.; Moss, R. L.

    Conditions for using sodium hypochlorite solution as the main component of a multi-stage absorption system for the treatment of malodorous process emissions were studied, together with the additional reagents needed for effective odour control. In laboratory experiments, mixtures containing vpm levels in air of trimethylamine, hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulphide, n-butanal and sometimes ammonia were passed through three bubble-plate columns containing some of the following: water, dilute sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite solutions (varying in pH and available chlorine content) sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen sulphite. Odour removal was monitored by Chromatographic and sensory methods. Conclusions from laboratory experiments were supported by field-tests at four rendering plants in the U.K., treating both ventilation and process gases. Alkaline hypochlorite with considerable excess available chlorine removes many sulphur-compounds and aldehydes but effective odour control requires an acid pre-wash to prevent the generation of odorous chlorinated compounds from ammonia and amines. Acidic hypochlorite solution followed by sodium hydrogen sulphite (to remove aldehyde) and sodium hydroxide was a most effective combination in both laboratory and field tests. Odour generated in chlorination reactions involving acidic hypochlorite solution was analysed by GC-MS and GC-MPD-odour-port and the odour key compounds identified.

  2. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. PMID:26702553

  3. Pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Ullah, M; Khan, Mz

    2008-10-01

    Fifty male Japanese quails of 40 days of age were divided into five equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, and E. Drinking water supplemented with sodium hypochlorite at dose level of 0, 25, 50, 200, and 400 mg chlorine/L, respectively was offered for 6 weeks. At the end of week 6 when no clinical signs of toxicity of sodium hypochlorite appeared, the birds in groups B and C were shifted to 100 mg chlorine/L drinking water, and this level was increased fourfold (400, 1600, 6400 mg chlorine/L drinking water) every week, till i.e., 10th week (70 day). Afterwards all the birds were killed. Depression and anorexia were prominent clinical signs observed. Reduction in feed intake, body weight, and hematological parameters appeared in a dose-dependant manner. Decreased serum total proteins and weights of liver, heart, and kidneys were recorded in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. Intoxicated birds were emaciated. Decreased weight and volume of the testes were observed in birds receiving high levels of sodium hypochlorite. However, birds receiving 400 mg chlorine (group E) had smaller but functional testes. Birds receiving higher level of chlorine (groups B and C) had decreased weight and volume of testes, atrophied seminiferous tubules, and arrested spermatogenesis. It was concluded that sodium hypochlorite at high levels, that is, 6400 mg/L in drinking water is toxic to the quails; therefore, it should be used with caution in poultry farming as drinking water disinfectant. PMID:19042964

  4. Catalytic sodium hypochlorite degradation using a Kynar stabilized catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1987-06-01

    Based on bench scale data, the Kynar-cobalt oxide catalyst developed by Pennwalt is able to treat waste hypochlorite streams. The effectiveness of the catalyst rises with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. At 55 to 70/sup 0/C, it is possible to meet discharge requirements using a single pass through an upflow 40 cm deep catalyst bed. Solution pH will be reduced somewhat. The size of a Pennwalt unit for a given flow/concentration can be estimated. Based on bench experience, construction and operation of a full scale unit appears economically feasible. Operating problems with the system include attrition, catalyst conditioning and storage. Catalyst attrition is a major problem. In bench tests, catalyst loss from a tared laboratory column across several weeks was about 0.5 gram per gallon of concentrated hypochlorite processed or, using current Pennwalt costs of $50/lb catalyst, $55 per 1000 gal. Attrition may result from explosion of the catalyst by trapped oxygen. Several operating parameters can increase the rate of catalyst breakdown: high hypochlorite concentrations, increased temperature, and decreased pH. Once attrition begins, increased catalyst movement increases breakdown due to mechanical abrasion. Operations methods can be planned to decrease catalyst breakup by limiting the rate of hypochlorite degradation. Alternatively, a lower efficiency catalyst could be formulated. However, easy catalyst reloading should be part of any equipment design. During first use, a gradual increase in hypochlorite concentrations for several hours appears necessary. In re-uses of the bed after storage, at least a half hour of use is required for consistent minimal hypochlorite output. During startup periods, provision for effluent recycle is recommended. Wet storage of catalyst is recommended by previous investigators.

  5. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs. PMID:26930773

  6. DELAYED TOOTH REPLANTATION AFTER ROOT SURFACE TREATMENT WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND SODIUM FLUORIDE: HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other. PMID:19089038

  7. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate solutions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heling, I; Rotstein, I; Dinur, T; Szwec-Levine, Y; Steinberg, D

    2001-04-01

    The antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were evaluated and compared in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NaOCl and NaDCC were tested for Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The cytotoxic effect was assessed by using human fibroblast tissue culture. Survival rate was assessed by a protein determination method. Results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of NaOCl and NaDCC for the tested bacteria were in a similar range. NaDCC in concentrations higher than 0.02%, and NaOCl in concentrations higher than 0.01% were lethal to fibroblasts. In conclusion it seems that both agents were very effective in killing bacteria, and their cytotoxicity to fibroblasts in tissue culture was similar. PMID:11485267

  8. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate disinfectants: neutralization by serum.

    PubMed

    Coates, D

    1988-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) solutions containing 0-40% and 0-70% horse serum respectively. The degree of inactivation of NaOCl and of NaDCC solutions by different concentrations of horse serum is expressed in terms of a neutralization coefficient, which demonstrates that NaDCC solutions are less prone to inactivation by serum than are NaOCl solutions, the disparity diverging as serum concentration is increased. In 30% serum an NaDCC solution containing 4000 ppm of available chlorine exhibited similar bactericidal activity to an NaOCl solution containing 17,000 ppm available chlorine. PMID:2895139

  9. Electrochemical regeneration of sodium hypochlorite in the absorption-oxidation method of desorbing waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Znamenskii, Yu.D.; Perchugov, G.Ya.

    1988-07-10

    The electrochemical synthesis of sodium hypochlorite from a solution with a reduced concentration of sodium chloride is efficiently carried out with the use of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes (ROTA). In this context they investigated the electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride with concentrations equal to 20 and 50 kg/m/sup 3/ in a single cell flow-type electrolyzer with an ROTA and, for comparison, with a graphite anode under laboratory conditions. A flow-type electrolyzer was selected in view of the fact that it most closely satisfies the purposes of gas purification. The current efficiency with respect to sodium hypochlorite was almost two times higher, and the specific consumption of electrical energy was 1.6-1.8 times lower in the case of the ROTA than in the case of the graphite electrode. The yield of sodium chlorate remained on the same level in both cases.

  10. Hydroxylation of alkanes using sodium hypochlorite catalyzed by iron porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, A.B.; Khenkin, A.M.

    1988-10-01

    This communication presents data about the oxidation of alkanes to alcohols with hypochlorite in the presence of Fe(III) phenylporphyrin derivatives in the system water-benzene. We used as catalysts the following compounds: tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride, tetramesitylporphyrin iron chloride, tetra(2-fluorophenyl)porphyrin from chloride, and tetra (2-ntrophenyl)porphyrin iron chloride. The reaction products were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The efficiency of the reaction was determined by the structure of the porphyrin used.

  11. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGIC EVALUATION OF CHLORINE-BASED DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANTS, SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND MONOCHLORAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chlorine-based disinfectants in the drinking water from weaning to 12 weeks of age, at which time they were terminated and assessed for immune competence. Chlorine-based drinking water disinfectants used were sodium hypochlorite (5, 15 and...

  12. Comparing Peracetic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite for Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effective...

  13. Sodium hypochlorite: A promising agent for reducing Botrytis cinerea infection on rose flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal pathogen that greatly reduces the postharvest quality of rose flowers. We determined the potential of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an oxidizer with antimicrobial activity, to reduce the incidence of disease on flowers. A postharvest dip in 200 µL L-1 NaOCl for 10 s at ...

  14. Rapid tissue dissolution efficiency of electrically-activated sodium hypochlorite on bovine muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ihsan Furkan; Maden, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Ozkorucuklu, Sabriye Percin; Aglarca, Ali Vasfi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common antimicrobial and tissue-dissolving irrigant. The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate and compare dissolution capacities of sodium hypochlorite solutions after electrically activation (E-NaOCl) on bovine muscle specimens at various time periods and concentrations. Materials and Methods: Three sodium hypochlorite solutions of 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% were tested at 3-min. and 5-min. with and without activation by electrically. Distilled water and NaOCl solutions without electrically activation were used as controls. Pieces of bovine muscle tissue (34 ± 2 mg) were placed in 10 mL of each solution at room temperature. In the group of E-NaOCl, electrically activation was performed through the potentiostat. The tissue specimens were weighed before and after treatment, and the percentage of weight loss was calculated. Results: Weight loss of the tissue increased with the concentration of E-NaOCl and NaOCl. Higher concentration and electrically activation considerably enhanced the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of electrically activation on tissue dissolution was much greater than that of same concentrations in the groups of NaOCl (P < 0.001). Tissue weight loss was significantly higher in 2.5% and 5% E-NaOCl at 3 min. than in 2.5% and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P < 0.05). There were not any significant differences between the 2.5% E-NaOCl and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Electrically activation can improve the tissue-dissolving effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite. PMID:25512725

  15. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L−1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L−1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L−1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L−1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  16. Control of microbiological corrosion on carbon steel with sodium hypochlorite and biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara H; Lima, Maria Alice G A; França, Francisca P; Vieira, Magda R S; Silva, Pulkra; Urtiga Filho, Severino L

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, the interaction of a mixture of a biocide, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and a biopolymer, xanthan, with carbon steel coupons exposed to seawater in a turbulent flow regime was studied. The cell concentrations, corrosion rates, biomasses, and exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced on the coupon surfaces with the various treatments were quantified. The corrosion products were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surfaces of steels were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that xanthan and the hypochlorite-xanthan mixture reduced the corrosion rate of steel. PMID:26997238

  17. Interaction of Bacillus subtilis spores with sodium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanurate and chloramine-T.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, S F; Arthur, M

    1992-02-01

    Solutions of chlorine-releasing agents (CRAs) show varying activity against Bacillus subtilis spores; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) shows higher activity than sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) which is more active than chloramine-T. Investigations with coat- and cortex-extracted spores indicate that resistance to CRAs depends not only on the spore coat but also the cortex. Whereas extraction of alkali-soluble coat protein increased sensitivity to NaOCl and NaDCC, degradation of coat and cortex material was required to achieve significant activity with chloramine-T. NaOCl (in the presence and absence of NaOH) and NaDCC (in the presence of NaOH only) produced degradation of spore coat and cortex material which may be related to their rapid sporicidal action at low concentrations under these conditions. By contrast, chloramine-T produced no degradation of cortex peptidoglycan and was only effective against normal and alkali-treated spores at high concentrations, requiring extraction of peptidoglycan with urea/dithiothreitol/sodium lauryl sulphate (UDS) or UDS/lysozyme to achieve significant activity at low concentrations. Results suggest that the sporicidal action of CRAs is associated with spore coat and cortex degradation causing rehydration of the protoplast allowing diffusion to the site of action on the underlying protoplast. PMID:1556040

  18. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  19. Ultrasound promoted reaction of Rhodamine B with sodium hypochlorite using sonochemical and dental ultrasonic instruments.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Price, Gareth J

    2012-03-01

    The sonochemical acceleration of bleaching of Rhodamine B by sodium hypochlorite has been studied using ultrasound intensities in the range 0-7 W cm(-2). Using a 20 kHz ultrasonic horn, it was shown that ultrasound could significantly shorten the treatment time and/or the concentration of hypochlorite required for the reaction. A number of intermediate species formed during the reaction have been identified. It was demonstrated that the same sonochemical reactions occur during the use of dental ultrasound instruments of the type used in endodontics where hypochlorite solutions act as disinfectants. Results showed pseudo-first order degradation kinetics for the degradation of Rhodamine B for both types of source. Both the distribution of cavitation and the resulting bleaching reactions were dependent on the design of the tips. The bleaching reaction can therefore be used to characterise the behaviour of dental instruments and aid in the optimisation of their performance. PMID:21868274

  20. The antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate as hospital disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, S F; Uso, E E

    1985-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of unbuffered sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) (pH 6.6) and of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) buffered to pH 7.2, 9.0 and 10.6 was compared. Under clean conditions, solutions of NaDCC at pH 6.6 or NaOCl at pH 7.2 and 9.0 with 100-200 mg l-1 available chlorine showed satisfactory disinfectant activity against vegetative bacteria. Sporicidal action required higher concentrations of both agents, and NaOCl at pH 7.2 showed most activity. In the presence of organic matter NaDCC offers significant advantages over NaOCl, a 3000 mg l-1 solution of NaDCC giving satisfactory activity in the presence of plasma concentrations up to 20% v/v compared with NaOCl solutions at pH 7.2, 9.0 and 10.6 which were inactivated at chlorine concentrations up to 5000 mg l-1. Although NaOCl pH 10.6 showed satisfactory disinfectant activity under clean conditions, our results indicate that formulations at this pH should not be used where sporicidal action is required or where substantial organic soiling is anticipated. PMID:2859319

  1. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  2. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  3. Determination of mutagenicity of the precipitate formed by sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine using the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pranali; Aminoshariae, Anita; Harding, Jarrod; Montagnese, Thomas A; Mickel, Andre

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the direct mutagenic potential of any precipitate formed by combining sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). The precipitates formed by NaOCl and CHX were dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide and cultured with mutant Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The cells were observed for reverse mutation. The numbers of positive/mutated wells were statistically compared with those in the background plates using the two-sample proportion independent t-test. The precipitates were not found to be significantly more mutagenic than the background plates. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the precipitates formed when sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine contact did not show mutagenic (and are therefore carcinogenic) potential. PMID:25612244

  4. Oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite under phase transfer conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, G.S.; Karoyan, I.L.; Malkhasyan, A.Ts.; Martirosyan, G.T.; Artamkina, G.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1987-11-10

    In the industrial process for the production of chloroprene from butadiene, the problem of reducing the organic impurities in the waste water to 2000 mg/liter has not yet been solved. A method has been patented for the oxidation of organic compounds by sodium hypochlorite at high temperatures and high pressure but this method is limited by the oxidation of soluble organic compounds. The oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite was studied. A sharp increase in the reaction rate was found in the presence of phase transfer catalysts and surfactants. The involvement of oxygen as a cooxiant and the effect of surfactants on the absorption of atmospheric oxygen by the reaction system were demonstrated.

  5. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endodontic Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Panse, Amey Manohar; Gawali, Pritesh Namdeo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common and effective intracanal medicament used in root canal treatments, because of its low-cost and a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. Sodium hypochlorite is an effective intracanal irrigant and is used in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.25%. At these concentrations, it is highly hypertonic and strongly alkaline with pH 11 to 13. Despite its safe properties, serious complications can result from inadvertent use due to its cytotoxic features. Most of the complications are the result of accidental extrusion of the solution from the apical foramen or accessory canals or perforations into the periapical area. Although it is an effective solution for disinfection of root canal system, fewer incidence of complications are reported, especially in primary teeth. Present article highlights one of such cases of NaOCl accident and its successful management in a 4-year-old child. How to cite this article: Chaugule VB, Panse AM, Gawali PN. Adverse Reaction of Sodium Hypochlorite during Endo-dontic Treatment of Primary Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):153-156. PMID:26379387

  6. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on Agave tequilana Weber bagasse fibers used to elaborate cyto and biocompatible hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Carrillo, Karla Lizette; Nakasone, Kazuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2014-09-01

    Waste bagasse of Agave tequilana-Weber fibers treated with sodium hydroxide was used to elaborate hydrogel films. The bagasse was offered in an alternative use for the preparation of hydrogel films by phase inversion method without crosslinking and further purification of cellulose. The effect on the properties of the obtained films was studied when the chemical treatment of the agave fibers was changed. It was found that the resultant hydrogels showed increment in tensile from 40 N/mm(2) to 56 N/mm(2) with the increase of sodium hypochlorite concentration from 1 to 10 vol.%, respectively. With regard to biocompatibility properties of the hydrogel films, platelet adhesion, clotting time and protein adsorption were investigated. Analysis of the morphology of adherent NIH3T3 fibroblast indicated that the projected cell area, aspect ratio and long axis gradually increased with the increment of sodium hypochlorite content in the agave treatment. It was presented that the chemical treatment affects cell adhesion and morphology and lignin content remains in the brown fibers. PMID:25063183

  7. Efficacy of Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts: Virkon versus Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Moslehifard, Elnaz; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Robati Anaraki, Mahmood; Shafee, Elnaz; Tamjid-shabestari, Shabnam; Ghaffari, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the disinfection efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peroxygenic acid (Virkon) solutions for dental stone casts contaminated with microbial strains. Materials and Methods: A total of 960 spherical stone beads with a diameter of 10 mm were prepared and used as carriers of bacterial inoculums. They were individually inoculated by soaking in broth culture media containing each of the four understudy microorganisms. Different concentrations of Virkon and hypochlorite solutions were prepared using distilled water and then were sprayed on the surfaces of dental casts contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The pour plate technique was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. Microbicidal effect (ME) was calculated according to the log10 of control colony counts minus the log10 of the remaining colony counts after the antimicrobial procedure. Statistical difference was assessed using the Kruskal Wallis and the Man Whitney U tests with a significance of 95%. Results: We observed different bactericidal effects of Virkon at various concentrations; 1% Virkon killed S. aureus, P aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, while 3% Virkon solution was required to kill B. subtilis. For S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, no significant difference was observed between 1% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite (P >0.05). For B. subtilis, the efficacy of 3% Virkon and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite was not significantly different (P >0.999). Conclusion: According to the obtained results for Virkon and based on its low toxicity and good environmental compatibility, it may be recommended as an antimicrobial disinfectant for dental stone casts as non-critical items. PMID:26622274

  8. Effects of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Setting Time of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement

    PubMed Central

    Frough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Shakouie, Sahar; Rahimi, Saeed; Salem Milani, Amin; Ranjbar, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adding 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement would affect its setting time (ST), or not. Methods and Materials: In this study, the setting time of CEM cement was evaluated in three groups (n=9) as follows: group 1; CEM cement, group 2; CEM cement+2% CHX and group 3; CEM cement+2.6% NaOCl. Then the mean values of ST were calculated and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the normal distribution of data. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean ST for groups 1, 2 and 3 were 105, 120 and 220 min, respectively. There was a significant increase in the duration of ST in group 3 (NaOCl) in comparison with the two other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: NaOCl significantly increased the ST of CEM cement, whereas chlorhexidine did not alter the ST. PMID:26213537

  9. Sublethal responses of the common mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to sodium hypochlorite and Mexel432 used as antifoulants.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Nebot, Enrique; Casanueva, José F; Rubio, Daniel; Mancera, Juan M; Solé, Montserrat

    2010-07-01

    The sublethal effects of two antifoulants currently used in power plant cooling systems were assessed in the common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and an alkyl amine surfactant (Mexel432) assayed, were within the range of those currently discharged by power plants into receiving waters. Enzymatic activities and oxidative stress responses were measured in digestive gland and gill of mussels after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure, as well as histopathology in gill tissue. Both antifoulants caused a pathological response in gills and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, catalase, acetylcholinesterase and the lipid peroxidation levels were also affected. Exposure to NaClO caused a greater toxicological response than Mexel432. In both treatments, gills appeared to be the most affected tissue, although Mexel432 also significantly affected digestive gland parameters. PMID:20106525

  10. [Sodium hypochlorite disinfection on effluent of MBR in municipal wastewater treatment process].

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Kui-Xiao; Zhou, Jun; Gan, Yi-Ping; Huang, Guo-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) used in wastewater disinfection was assessed by examining its performances in lab fed by the effluent from a MBR treatment plant. The influence of sodium hypochlorite initial concentrations (0.5-3.0 mg/L) on the presence of indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms), disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentrations and the acute toxicity were evaluated. Results indicate the total coliforms and the fecal coliform were 1500-2400 and 10-40 CFU/L, which is difficult to meet the present reclaimed water quality standards. A chlorine dose of 2.0 mg/L and contact for 1 h could achieve a 3 lg indicator bacteria reduction in MBR effluent samples. THMs (trihalomethanes) analysis indicated that concentrations of THMs increase with the raise of the active chlorine dose. After adding sodium hypochlorite 1 h the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) were 16.22, 7.35 microg/L respectively and chloroform (TCM) accounted for 87% of THMs, the haloacetic acids (HAAs) was involved trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) 2.01 microg/L, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) 1.58 microg/L and under the national limits. Luminescence bacteria acute toxicity analysis showed that the chlorinated effluent has higher inhibition rate (48%) in comparison to the control with a chlorine dosage of 3.0 mg/L. The results which could provide theoretical basis to production show that NaClO disinfection not only can inactivate microbe with the DBPs and acute toxicity of the effluent under the safety limits, but also meet the requirement of health and safety. PMID:22619952

  11. Biocidal Efficacy of Dissolved Ozone, Formaldehyde and Sodium Hypochlorite Against Total Planktonic Microorganisms in Produced Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyate, Y. T.; Rim-Rukeh, A.

    The performance of three biocides (dissolved ozone, formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite) in eliminating the bacteria and fungi in produced water is investigated experimentally. The analysis involves monitoring the microbial population in nine conical flasks each containing the same volume of a mixture of produced water, culture medium that sustains the growth of microorganisms and a known concentration of biocide. The concentrations of each biocide used in the study are 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. It is shown that dissolved ozone exhibits the best biocidal characteristics and a concentration of 0.5 ppm eliminated all the microorganisms in the produced water after 150 min contact time.

  12. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Halabi, Omar A; El-Hakim, Ibrahim E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41). After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc), the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient’s safety. PMID:25767406

  13. Sodium hypochlorite alterations of dentin and dentin collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, G. W.; Yücel, N.; Balooch, M.; Kinney, J. H.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, S. J.

    2001-10-01

    that preventing hybrid layer formation by deproteinization, in some cases, can give good bonding, and as shown here, alters the substrate microstructure. There are significant changes as indicated by ANOVA in the reduced elastic modulus that require further study to determine if these changes might affect clinical efficacy.

  14. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure. PMID:17099302

  15. Comparative evaluation of human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Mishra, Neha; Malik, Shubhra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Irrigation plays an indispensable role in removal of tissue remnants and debris from the complicated root canal system. This study compared the human pulp tissue dissolution by different concentrations of chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: Pulp tissue was standardized to a weight of 9 mg for each sample. In all,60 samples obtained were divided into 6 groups according to the irrigating solution used- 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, 5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), 10% Ca(OCl)2, 5%chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and 13% ClO2. Pulp tissue was placed in each test tube carrying irrigants of measured volume (5ml) according to their specified subgroup time interval: 30 minutes (Subgroup A) and 60 minutes (Subgroup B). The solution from each sample test tube was filtered and was left for drying overnight. The residual weight was calculated by filtration method. Results: Mean tissue dissolution increases with increase in time period. Results showed 5.25% NaOCl to be most effective at both time intervals followed by 2.5% NaOCl at 60 minutes, 10%Ca(OCl)2 and 13% ClO2 at 60 minutes. Least amount of tissue dissolving ability was demonstrated by 5% Ca(OCl)2 and 5% ClO2 at 30 minutes. Distilled water showed no pulp tissue dissolution. Conclusion: Withinthe limitations of the study, NaOCl most efficiently dissolved the pulp tissue at both concentrations and at both time intervals. Mean tissue dissolution by Ca(OCl)2 and ClO2 gradually increased with time and with their increase in concentration. PMID:25506141

  16. The influence of sodium hypochlorite biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in reclaimed water used as circulating cooling water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weina; Tian, Yimei; Peng, Sen

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) biocide on the corrosion of carbon steel in four different conditions during one dosing cycle. The results from the polarisation curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that NaClO could affect the activity of microorganisms, leading to corrosion inhibition. The equivalent circuits had two time constants in the presence of biocide, which suggested that an oxide layer of NaClO was formed on the carbon steel surface. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were both employed to demonstrate that NaClO produced a good antibacterial activity, thereby indirectly retarding corrosion while simultaneously inhibiting scaling.

  17. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  18. Factors determining the consumption of ruthenium during electrosynthesis of sodium hypochlorite with the use of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Klement'eva, V.S.; Kubasov, V.L.; Lambrev, V.G.; Uzbekov, A.A.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the rate of destruction of the active coating as a function of the electrolysis conditions during electrochemical production of sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion tests were carried out on specimens made by the thermochemical method, in an electrochemical cell without a diaphragm; the method used was based on neutron activation analysis. It was shown that losses of ruthenium can be lowered by conducting the electrolysis at low temperatures, higher current densities, and moderately low hypochlorite concentrations. However, the increase of current density may raise the ROTA potential above the critical value, when rapid anode failure is possible. It was also shown that under conditions such that the critical ROTA potential is not reached sodium hypochlorite solutions of fairly high concentrations can be obtained with a low comsumption of ruthenium, which is not possible with the use of many other anode materials.

  19. Impact of Ultrasonic Activation on the Effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Using ultrasonic devices in endodontics can enhance the antibacterial and tissue dissolving ability of different root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) which is the most common irrigant with excellent antibacterial and tissue dissolving abilities. However, due to its high surface tension, its penetration into the irregularities of the root canal system is a challenge. The purpose of this paper was to review the different ultrasonic devices, different types of ultrasonic irrigation, the effect(s) of ultrasonic activation on the antibacterial and biofilm-removal abilities of NaOCl as well as the effect of ultrasonic activation on the smear layer removal ability of NaOCl. PMID:26525646

  20. Impact of Ultrasonic Activation on the Effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Using ultrasonic devices in endodontics can enhance the antibacterial and tissue dissolving ability of different root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) which is the most common irrigant with excellent antibacterial and tissue dissolving abilities. However, due to its high surface tension, its penetration into the irregularities of the root canal system is a challenge. The purpose of this paper was to review the different ultrasonic devices, different types of ultrasonic irrigation, the effect(s) of ultrasonic activation on the antibacterial and biofilm-removal abilities of NaOCl as well as the effect of ultrasonic activation on the smear layer removal ability of NaOCl. PMID:26525646

  1. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes. PMID:23164136

  2. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in dairy wastewater pretreated by UV irradiation and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Shu, Qing; Wang, Zhongming; Shang, Changhua; Zhu, Shunni; Xu, Jingliang; Li, Rongqing; Zhu, Liandong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    There is potential in the utilization of microalgae for the purification of wastewater as well as recycling the resource in the wastewater to produce biodiesel. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae requires pretreatment of the wastewater to eliminate bacteria and protozoa. This procedure is costly and complex. In this study, two methods of pretreatment, UV irradiation, and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), in various doses and concentrations, were tested in the dairy wastewater. Combining the efficiency of biodiesel production, we proposed to treat the dairy wastewater with NaClO in the concentration of 30 ppm. In this condition, The highest biomass productivity and lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris reached 0.450 g L(-1) day(-1) and 51 mg L(-1) day(-1) after a 4-day cultivation in the dairy wastewater, respectively. PMID:24142385

  3. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  4. The effect of surface tension reduction on the clinical performance of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Prichard, J W; Steier, L; de Figueiredo, J A P

    2013-06-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is recommended as an endodontic irrigant in view of its broad antimicrobial and tissue dissolution capacities. To enhance its penetration into inaccessible areas of root canals and to improve its overall effect, the addition of surface-active agents has been suggested. The aim of this investigation was to review the effect of the reduction of the surface tension on the performance of NaOCl in endodontics. A search was performed in the Medline electronic database (articles published up to 28 July 2012, in English) with the search terms and combinations as follows: 'sodium hypochlorite AND surface tension or interfacial force or interfacial tension or surface-active agent or amphiphilic agent or surface active agent or surfactant or tenside or detergent'. The purpose of this search was to identify publications that compared NaOCl alone and NaOCl modified with the addition of a surface-active agent in endodontics. A hand search of articles published online ('in-press' and 'early view'), and appearing in the reference list of the articles included, was further performed, using the same search criteria as the electronic search. The search identified 302 publications, of which 11 fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the review. The evidence available suggests that surface-active agents improve the penetration of NaOCl in the main canal and have no effect on its pulp tissue dissolution ability. There are, however, insufficient data to enable a sound conclusion to be drawn regarding the effect of modifying NaOCl's surface tension on lubrication, antimicrobial and smear layer or debris removal abilities. PMID:23186034

  5. Antifungal activity of 4% chlorhexidine and 2% sodium hypochlorite against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gama, Maria Clara Maneira; de Oliveira, Denise Gusmao; da Silva, Paulo Mauricio Batista; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Hungaro; Porto, Vinicius Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antifungal efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on 24-hour Candida albicans biofilms. Candida albicans biofilms were developed on acrylic resin specimens, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups (n = 3 per group) exposed to 1 mL of 4% CHX for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes. Biofilms in contact with 1 mL of distilled water or 2% NaOCl for 10 minutes were used as positive and negative controls (n = 3 per group), respectively. Specimens were analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy and a cell viability assay technique. The biovolume of the live subpopulation of the biofilm was calculated with biofilm image analysis software. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the biovolume of surviving cells were found among the positive control group and the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-minute experimental periods. The biovolumes found after 6-10 minutes of exposure to chlorhexidine were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the biovolume after 2 minutes of exposure. The most effective decrease of the biovolume was found after the use of the negative control (sodium hypochlorite) solution. Exposure to 10 minutes of 2% NaOCl removed fungal cells more effectively than all the experimental groups (P < 0.05). The 4% CHX solution showed an antifungal activity against C albicans biofilms but failed to decrease the biovolume to the levels of 2% NaOCl, which eliminated viable cells more effectively and appeared to be more effective in disrupting the attached biofilms. PMID:26325641

  6. Penetration of Sodium Hypochlorite Modified with Surfactants into Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Palazzi, Flavio; Blasi, Andrea; Mohammadi, Zahed; Fabbro, Massimo Del; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration, exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) added with surfactants on its penetration into dentinal tubules. Sixty-five extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth with single canals were prepared by ProTaper SX hand-operated instruments. The teeth were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. The crowns and apical thirds of all the teeth were removed. The remaining roots were processed into 4-mm-long blocks and stained overnight in crystal violet. One hundred and thirty stained blocks were further split into halves and treated by nine different types of NaOCl-based solutions. Three solutions were added with surfactants (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra) and the others were regular hypochlorites at increasing concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 5.25%, <6%, 6% NaOCl) from different brands. The dentin blocks were exposed to the solutions for 2, 5, and 20 min at 20 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The depth of NaOCl penetration was determined by bleaching of the stain and measured by light microscopy at 20 and 40. Statistical comparisons were made by using a generalized linear model with Bonferroni's post-hoc correction. The shortest penetration (81±6.6 μm) was obtained after incubation in 1% NaOCl for 2 min at 20 °C; the highest penetration (376.3±3.8 μm) was obtained with Chlor-Xtra for 20 min at 45 °C. Varying NaOCl concentration produced a minimal effect while temperature and exposure time had a significant direct relationship with NaOCl penetration into dentinal tubules, especially those with lowered surface tension. The exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite as well as the addition of surfactants may influence the penetration depth of irrigants into dentinal tubules. PMID:27058386

  7. Outcomes of Endodontic Therapy Comparing Conventional Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate. A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Moritz; Sommer, Katja; Kostka, Eckehard; Imiolczyk, Sandra Maria; Ballout, Husam; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of two different standardized endodontic irrigation protocols. It was assumed that the additional use of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) would result in an increased rate of absence of symptoms and remission based on the periapical index (PAI) compared to passive irrigation using only sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Data and radiographs from 199 teeth retrieved from the institutional endodontic database were analyzed retrospectively. In 106 teeth irrigation was performed using only NaOCl (protocol 1). Ninety-three teeth were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA (protocol 2). Chlorhexidine (CHX) was additionally used in revision treatments in both groups. All irrigants in group 2 were activated by PUI. Mean follow-up periods were: protocol 1 = 9.2 ± 4.4 and protocol 2 = 6.6 ± 2.5 months (p < 0.0001 (chi-square test). The frequencies of the PAImasterpoint and PAIfollow-up scores did not differ significantly between teeth, which received either protocol 1 or 2 (p = 0.555 and 0.138). Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between treatment success (absence of clinical symptoms and PAIfollow-up = I or PAImasterpoint > PAIfollow-up > I) and the applied protocol (success rates: protocol 1 = 72.6% vs. protocol 2 = 82.8%; p = 0.203). Furthermore, the frequency of extractions did not differ significantly between the two protocols (p = 0.102). No association was found between follow-up time and treatment success (p = 0.888). The hypothesis was not confirmed. Even though the obtained success rate was higher after supplementing the irrigation protocol with EDTA and PUI, no significance was recorded. Hence, protocol 2 was not superior to protocol 1 regarding therapy success, at least within the limited follow-up period. It may be cautiously concluded that sufficient mechanical debridement combined with passive NaOCl irrigation results in comparably high

  8. Outcomes of Endodontic Therapy Comparing Conventional Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigation with Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate. A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Moritz; Sommer, Katja; Kostka, Eckehard; Imiolczyk, Sandra Maria; Ballout, Husam; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of two different standardized endodontic irrigation protocols. It was assumed that the additional use of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) would result in an increased rate of absence of symptoms and remission based on the periapical index (PAI) compared to passive irrigation using only sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Data and radiographs from 199 teeth retrieved from the institutional endodontic database were analyzed retrospectively. In 106 teeth irrigation was performed using only NaOCl (protocol 1). Ninety-three teeth were irrigated using NaOCl and EDTA (protocol 2). Chlorhexidine (CHX) was additionally used in revision treatments in both groups. All irrigants in group 2 were activated by PUI. Mean follow-up periods were: protocol 1 = 9.2 ± 4.4 and protocol 2 = 6.6 ± 2.5 months (p < 0.0001 (chi-square test). The frequencies of the PAImasterpoint and PAIfollow-up scores did not differ significantly between teeth, which received either protocol 1 or 2 (p = 0.555 and 0.138). Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between treatment success (absence of clinical symptoms and PAIfollow-up = I or PAImasterpoint > PAIfollow-up > I) and the applied protocol (success rates: protocol 1 = 72.6% vs. protocol 2 = 82.8%; p = 0.203). Furthermore, the frequency of extractions did not differ significantly between the two protocols (p = 0.102). No association was found between follow-up time and treatment success (p = 0.888). The hypothesis was not confirmed. Even though the obtained success rate was higher after supplementing the irrigation protocol with EDTA and PUI, no significance was recorded. Hence, protocol 2 was not superior to protocol 1 regarding therapy success, at least within the limited follow-up period. It may be cautiously concluded that sufficient mechanical debridement combined with passive NaOCl irrigation results in comparably high

  9. In-situ leaching of South Texas uranium ores - 2. Oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Johnson, W.F.; Fletcher, A.; Venuto, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction, by sodium hypochlorite, of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced South Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite with the concentration of ammonia in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10-15 pore volumes of the oxidant. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed. Large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the pre-saturation with ammonium bicarbonate during the oxidation stage. 28 refs.

  10. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables. PMID:24471086

  11. Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite and Acidified Sodium Chlorite in Preventing Browning and Microbial Growth on Fresh-Cut Produce

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (p<0.05) reduced microbial contamination on the fresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables. PMID:24471086

  12. Chemiluminescence behavior of CdTe-hydrogen peroxide enhanced by sodium hypochlorite and sensitized sensing of estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Bi, Jianhong; Pi, Zongxin; Dong, Huaze; Dong, Ling

    2014-05-01

    It has been found that sodium hypochlorite enhanced the chemiluminescence (CL) of the CdTe nanocrystal (NC)-hydrogen peroxide system and that estrogens inhibited these CL signals in alkaline solution. CL spectra were used to investigate the mechanism of the CL enhancement. On the basis of the inhibition, a flow-injection CL method has been established for determination of three natural estrogens.

  13. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces. PMID:23459480

  14. Effect of an alcohol-based caries detector on the surface tension of sodium hypochlorite preparations.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Guastalli, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an alcohol-based caries detector (Kurakay) on the surface tension of a conventional sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparation, and a product containing a surface-active agent (Chlor-XTRA). The surface tensions of the following solutions were tested: NaOCl, a mixture of NaOCl and Kurakay 9:1 w/w, Chlor-XTRA, a mixture of Chlor-XTRA and Kurakay 9:1 w/w. Ten measurements per test solution were made at 20°C, using an optical method called the "Pendant drop method", with a commercially available apparatus. The addition of Kurakay reduced the surface tension for NaOCl (p<0.05) whilst no significant difference was detected for Chlor-XTRA (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences between the NaOCl and Chlor-XTRA groups were found (p<0.05). The addition of an alcohol-based caries detector resulted in a reduction of the original surface tension values for NaOCl only. Taking into account the fact that mixtures of NaOCl and Kurakay have been used to assess the penetration of root canal irrigants in vitro, the related changes in surface tension are a possible source of bias. PMID:25672387

  15. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  16. The Reaction of a Food Colorant with Sodium Hypochlorite: A Student-Designed Kinetics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Josefina; Betancourt, Rosa; Rivera, Yamil; Pijem, Joan

    1998-09-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of the food colorant FD&C Blue #1 with sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) is described in a student-designed experimental format. In this format, students are guided- by means of questions- to make decisions regarding concentration of reagents, choice of equipment, and actual laboratory procedures to be followed. This format provides an opportunity for students to apply the concepts and skills learned in class and in previous laboratory sessions to a new problem. We have found that this experience helps students gain depth of understanding of all concepts involved. The reaction (with a large excess of NaOCl) is followed with a Spectronic 20 at the Blue #1 colorant lmax of 630 nm. The %T is measured over time and three graphs: A vs time, ln A vs time and 1/A vs time are plotted to find that the second one is linear and thus first order with respect to the Blue #1. When the concentration of NaOCl is reduced to one-half the original value, it is found that the rate is reduced by one-half, indicating that the reaction is first order with respect to NaOCl and second order overall. The rate constant of the reaction is determined from the slope of the curve and the mean obtained by our students is 17 M-1 min-1 at room temperature (about 28° C).

  17. DFT Study of Benzofuroxan Synthesis Mechanism from 2-Nitroaniline via Sodium Hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chun-yuan; Chen, Xiao-fang; Liu, Jian-yong; Lai, Wei-peng; Wang, Bo-zhou

    2010-08-01

    The oxidative cyclization reaction of 2-nitroaniline via sodium hypochlorite to yield benzofuroxan is investigated by the hybrid density functional theory B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Solvent effects are estimated with the polarizable continuum model to optimize structures. The title reaction is predicted to undergo two pathways, each of which is a stepwise process. Path A includes four steps, namely oxidization, H-attack, hydrolysis, and cyclization. Path B involves the nucleophilic attack of OH- to the H atom of the N-H bond and the proton transfer to the N atom of amino group leading to the cleavage of the N-H single bond in the amino group. The calculated results indicate that path A is favored mechanism for the title reaction. Furthermore, it is rational for one water molecule serving as a bridge to assist in the hydrolysis step of Path A and our calculations exhibit that this process is the rate-determining step.

  18. Spectrum of sodium hypochlorite toxicity in man-also a concern for nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Peck, Brandon; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Patel, Samir J; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the active ingredient in household bleach and is a very common chemical. It has been used in medical and commercial situations dating back to the 18th century for its disinfectant properties, including topical use in medicine as an antiseptic. For this indication, NaOCl is a proven and safe chemical. However, exposure of NaOCl beyond topical use, whether it is intentional or accidental, is associated with significant risks due to its strong oxidizing properties. Potentially damaging scenarios include ingestion, inhalation, deposition into tissue or injection into the bloodstream. All of these scenarios can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. In this review, we examine the toxicity associated with NaOCl exposure and analyze potential mechanisms of injury, placing special emphasis on the potential for renal toxicity. Due to the extreme ease of access to household bleach products and its use in medicine, it is important for the clinician to understand the potential damage that can occur in NaOCl exposures so that complications can be prevented before they arise. PMID:25949487

  19. The roles of peroxide protective regulons in protecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris from sodium hypochlorite stress.

    PubMed

    Charoenlap, Nisanart; Sornchuer, Phornphan; Piwkam, Anong; Srijaruskul, Kriangsuk; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2015-05-01

    The exposure of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris to sublethal concentrations of a sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution induced the expression of genes that encode peroxide scavenging enzymes within the OxyR and OhrR regulons. Sensitivity testing in various X. campestris mutants indicated that oxyR, katA, katG, ahpC, and ohr contributed to protection against NaOCl killing. The pretreatment of X. campestris cultures with oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), t-butyl hydroperoxide, and the superoxide generator menadione, protected the bacteria from lethal concentrations of NaOCl in an OxyR-dependent manner. Treating the bacteria with a low concentration of NaOCl resulted in the adaptive protection from NaOCl killing and also provided cross-protection from H2O2 killing. Taken together, the results suggest that the toxicity of NaOCl is partially mediated by the generation of peroxides and other reactive oxygen species that are removed by primary peroxide scavenging enzymes, such as catalases and AhpC, as a part of an overall strategy that protects the bacteria from the lethal effects of NaOCl. PMID:25825971

  20. Anaerobic tissue-dissolving abilities of calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Yang, S F; Rivera, E M; Baumgardner, K R; Walton, R E; Stanford, C

    1995-12-01

    Closed root canals likely have an oxygen-free environment; most bacteria in canals are anaerobic. These bacteria and other debris are difficult to remove. Unknown is tissue dissolution with chemicals under these anaerobic conditions. This study evaluated and compared dissolving properties of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on bovine pulp tissue in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Sixty bovine pulp specimens were dried, then randomly divided into six groups. Groups A and B were immersed in Ca(OH)2 + water solution, whereas group C and D were in 2.5% NaOCl. Groups E and F (controls) specimens were placed in distilled water. Groups A, C, and E were incubated anaerobically, and groups B, D, and F were incubated under regular atmospheric conditions, all for 7 days. Percentages of weight loss were compared between groups. Results showed the following: (a) both chemicals partially dissolved pulp tissue, (b) anaerobic environment did not alter tissue-dissolving properties of Ca(OH)2 or NaOCl, and (c) Ca(OH)2 and NaOCl were equal and more effective than water. PMID:8596083

  1. Oxidation of aniline aerofloat in flotation wastewater by sodium hypochlorite solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weixiong; Tian, Jing; Ren, Jie; Xu, Pingting; Dai, Yongkang; Sun, Shuiyu; Wu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aniline aerofloat (dianilinodithiophosphoric acid (C6H5NH)2PSSH) is a widely used phosphorodithioic organic flotation collector that contains aniline groups and dithiophosphate groups. In the present study, sodium hypochlorite solution was used to oxidize aniline aerofloat. The effect of operational parameters and optimum oxidation conditions on aniline aerofloat was studied, and the oxidation pathway of aniline aerofloat was proposed by analyzing its main oxidation intermediates. The results showed that NaOCl concentration had a significant influence on aniline aerofloat oxidation and at 100 mg/L aniline aerofloat, 84.54% was removed under the following optimal conditions: NaOCl concentration = 1.25 g/L, pH = 4, and reaction time = 60 min. The main reaction of aniline aerofloat by NaOCl included N-P bond cleavage, aniline group oxidation, aniline group chlorination, and dithiophosphate group oxidation. The initial reaction was the N-P bond cleavage and the anilines and dithiophosphate was further oxidized to other intermediates by five parallel reaction pathways. PMID:26336851

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incubated with E. faecalis suspension for two weeks. Subsequently, one specimen was selected as the positive control and the remaining samples were divided into two groups (n=8). The samples of the first group were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and the second group were treated with a 980-nm diode laser. Microbial samples were taken from the root canals and bacterial cultivation was carried out. The average value and the standard deviation of colony-forming units (CFU) of each specimen were measured using descriptive statistics. The student’s t-test was used to compare the reduction in CFU in each group. The equality of variance of CFU was measured by the Levene’s test. Results: NaOCl resulted in 99.87% removal of the bacteria and showed significantly more antibacterial effect compared to the 980-nm diode laser which led to 96.56% bacterial reduction (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although 5.25% NaOCl seems to reduce E. faecalis more effectively, the diode laser also reduced the bacterial count. Therefore a 980-nm diode laser could be considered as a complementary disinfection method in root canal treatment. PMID:26843870

  3. Detection of organochlorine compounds formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite with dentin and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Varise, Tiago Gilioli; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2014-01-01

    This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the products formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine pulp and dentin. For analysis of the products formed in the volatile phase, 11 mg of bovine pulp tissue were placed in contact with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl until complete tissue dissolution occurred. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane and immediately injected into the GC-MS system. 30 mg of the of dentin were kept in contact with NaOCl, and then the SPME fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane for adsorption of the products and injected into the GC-MS system. The same protocol was used for the aqueous phase. For analysis of the volatile compounds, the final solution was extracted using pure ethyl ether. The suspended particulate phase of the mixture was aspirated, and ether was separated from the aqueous phase of the solution. The ether containing the products that resulted from the chemical interaction of dentin and pulp with the NaOCl was filtered and then injected into the GC-MS system for analysis of the aqueous phase. The aqueous and volatile phases of both dentin and pulp showed the formation of chloroform, hexachloroethane, dichloromethylbenzene and benzaldehyde. In conclusion, organochlorine compounds are generated during the contact of dentin and pulp with NaOCl at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25%. PMID:25140714

  4. Microleakage Evaluation of Adhesive Systems Following Pulp Chamber Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddas, Mohammad Javad; Moosavi, Horieh; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of delaying composite resin restorative procedures bonded with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems on microleakage following root canal irrigation with sodium hy-pochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Materials and methods. The roofs of pulp chambers and roots (1–2 mm below furcation) of 40 human first molar teeth were cut and pulp tissues completely removed. The teeth were randomly divided into two main groups (n = 20). Group E (experimental) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group C (control) was left untreated. For the experimental group, after obturation of root canals with gutta-percha and sealing the cavity with Cavit, the specimens were stored in artificialsaliva for two weeks. Then each group was divided into two subgroups according to the total-etch or self-etch adhesive application protocol: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Clearfil SE Bond. The specimens were restored with composite resin using each bonding agent: Z250 and Clearfil Photo Core, respectively. Fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of microleakage. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA ( α= 0.05). Results. Two types of dentin adhesive systems showed no statistically significant differences in microleakage (P = 0.77). NaOCl-treated groups demonstrated significantly higher microleakage values compared to the non-NaOCl-treated groups (P= 0.001). The interaction between the two factors was not significant (P = 0.78). Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thick-ness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024835

  5. Disinfection of herbal spa pool using combined chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2015-02-01

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in public spa pools poses a serious threat to human health. The problem is particularly acute in herbal spas, in which the herbs and microorganisms may interact and produce undesirable consequences. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effectiveness of a combined disinfectant containing chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite in improving the water quality of a public herbal spa in Taiwan. Water samples were collected from the spa pool and laboratory tests were then performed to measure the variation over time of the microorganism content (total CFU and total coliforms) and residual disinfectant content given a single disinfection mode (SDM) with disinfectant concentrations of 5.2 × 10, 6.29 × 10, 7.4 × 10, and 11.4 × 10(-5) N, respectively. Utilizing the experience gained from the laboratory tests, a further series of on-site investigations was performed using three different disinfection modes, namely SDM, 3DM (once every 3 h disinfection mode), and 2DM (once every 2 h disinfection mode). The laboratory results showed that for all four disinfectant concentrations, the CFU concentration reduced for the first 6 h following SDM treatment, but then increased. Moreover, the ANOVA results showed that the sample treated with the highest disinfectant concentration (11.4 × 10(-5) N) exhibited the lowest rate of increase in the CFU concentration. In addition, the on-site test results showed that 3DM and 2DM treatments with disinfectant concentrations in excess of 9.3 × 10 and 5.5 × 10(-5) N, respectively, provided an effective reduction in the total CFU concentration. In conclusion, the experimental results presented in this study provide a useful source of reference for spa businesses seeking to improve the water quality of their spa pools. PMID:25632897

  6. Toxico-pathological effects of sodium hypochlorite administration through drinking water in female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Hamdullah; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2010-09-01

    Fifty female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) at 40 days were divided into five equal groups. Sodium hypochlorite was added in drinking water to provide 0, 25, 50, 200, 400 mg chlorine/L for 6 weeks. At week 7, the chlorine concentration of 25 and 50 mg groups was increased to 100 mg and further increased to 400, 1600 and 6400 mg at weeks 8, 9 and 10, respectively. At the end the experiment (week 10), all the birds were sacrificed. No clinical signs were observed in quail given 50 mg chlorine/L. Quail given 200-400 mg/L chlorine exhibited decreased feed intake, body weight and egg production. In addition, those given 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine also exhibited depression. Decreased hematocrit, erythrocyte, hemoglobin, leukocytes, plasma proteins and globulin were observed at 200 mg/L chlorine and higher concentration. Gross lesions were not observed in quail offered 200-400 mg/L chlorine for 6 weeks; however, those offered 1600-6400 mg/L chlorine exhibited atrophied pectoral muscles, prominently protruding keel bones, decreased weight of ovary and oviduct and a reduction in an area of the different segments of oviduct. The histopathological picture in mucosa of oviduct consisted of degenerated glandular cells. In some cases, glandular tissue was replaced by cord of cells and fibroblast. The present study suggested that sodium hypochlorite in drinking water yielding 50 mg/L chlorine was not toxic for 6 weeks. However, sodium hypochlorite providing 200 mg/L chlorine or higher concentrations in drinking water was toxic to the quail. PMID:20729259

  7. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    SALLES, Marcela Moreira; BADARÓ, Maurício Malheiros; de ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; LEITE, Vanessa Maria Fagundes; da SILVA, Cláudia Helena Lovato; WATANABE, Evandro; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50%) and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day) in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control). The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3), aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1) - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05). Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001). Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and might be used to

  8. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity test of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Y.; Takayama, S.; Konishi, Y.; Hiasa, Y.; Asahina, S.; Takahashi, M.; Maekawa, A.; Hayashi, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO/sub 3/), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chlorite (NaClO/sub 2/) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-weeks tests. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO/sub 3/ was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO/sub 3/ at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO/sub 2/-treated and control groups of rats male mice, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls. The authors concluded that KBrO/sub 2/ was carcinogenic in rats of both sexes. NaClO was not carcinogenic in either rats and or mice under the conditions of the present studies. Although NaClO/sub 2/ was shown to be noncarcinogenic in rats, the results for mice were evaluated as inconclusive. Also the results of two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis using KBrO/sub 3/, NaClO, and NaClO/sub 2/ are presented.

  9. Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of disinfectants for swimming pool water: experiences with sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate.

    PubMed

    van Klingeren, B; Pullen, W; Reijnders, H F

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate products intended for disinfection of water in swimming pools a quantitative suspension test was designed based on the principle of the Dutch standard suspension test (SST). As artifical swimming pool water a buffered bovine albumin solution (BBAS) was used. The microbicidal potency of BBAS chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOC1) for 5 min to free chlorine concentractions of 0.3, 0.5 and 1 mg/1 appeared to meet the tentative standard of 4 decimals reduction (D.R.) within 5 min against the bacterial test strains used, e.g. Staph, aureus, Str. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and Prot. mirabilis. Usually an exposure time of 30 s was sufficient to obtain this reduction. The kill C. albicans to that extent approx. 1 mg/1 free chlorine was needed. The redox potential of BBAS chlorinated as described above amounted to approx. 600 mV or higher values. When BBAS was chlorinated for 5 min with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) addition of 8 mg/1 of this substance was required to obtain about the same microbicidal potency as that of BBAS chlorinated with NaOC1 to 0.3 mg/1 free chlorine. The redox potential in the former solution was found to be above 600 mV. The microbicidal potency of BBAS chlorinated for 5 minutes with 2 mg/1 NaDCC was virtually zero and with 4 mg/1 NaDCC suboptimal. These findings correlated well with the redox potentials of 262 mV and 432 mV, respectively, measured in the latter solutions. Addition of cyanuric acid to BBAS before chlorination resulted in lower killing rates, although the free chlorine concentration, determined with the FAS-DPD method, seemed to be increased. It is concluded that in swimming pool water chlorinated with chloroisocyanurates the redox potential might be a better indicator for the microbicidal potency than the free chlorine concentration determined with the FAS-DPD method. PMID:7424284

  10. Tissue dissolution and modifications in dentin composition by different sodium hypochlorite concentrations

    PubMed Central

    TARTARI, Talita; BACHMANN, Luciano; MALIZA, Amanda Garcia Alves; ANDRADE, Flaviana Bombarda; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) remains the most used irrigation solution during root canal preparation because of characteristics such as wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity and organic tissue dissolution capacity. However, these solutions can alter dentin composition and there is no consensus on the optimal concentration of NaOCl to be used. Objectives To determine the organic matter dissolution and changes in dentin chemical composition promoted by different concentrations of NaOCl over time. Material and Methods: Fragments of bovine muscle tissue were weighed before and after 5, 10, and 15 min of immersion in the groups (n=10): G1- 0.9% saline solution; G2- 1% NaOCl; G3- 2.5% NaOCl; and G4- 5% NaOCl. Bovine dentin fragments were subjected to the same irrigants and absorption spectra were collected by Attenuated Total Reflectance of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) before and after 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 min of immersion in the solutions. The ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate absorption bands were determined. The tissue dissolution and carbonate/phosphate ratios were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple-comparison test (α<0.05) and to the one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s (α<0.05). The amide III/phosphate ratio was analyzed by Friedman test (α<0.05) and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc (α<0.05). Results The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time intensified the dissolution of organic matter and dentin collagen with reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. Significant differences between all groups (p<0.05) were observed in the dissolution of organic matter at 10 min and in the amide III/phosphate ratio between the saline solution and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased significantly in G2, G3, and G4 after 0,5 min of immersion (p<0.05), but more alterations did not occur in the subsequent periods (p>0

  11. Off-Season Flower Induction of Longan (Dimocarpus longan) with Potassium Chlorate, Sodium Chlorite and Sodium Hypochlorite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower induction of longan with potassium chlorate has improved availability of longan fruit, but potassium chlorate is potentially explosive and often difficult to purchase, transport, and store. Previous reports suggested that hypochlorite enchances natural flower induction. This study is the fi...

  12. Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium chlorite conducted in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Y; Takayama, S; Konishi, Y; Hiasa, Y; Asahina, S; Takahashi, M; Maekawa, A; Hayashi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose levels determined on the basis of preliminary 13-week tests. Control animals were given distilled water. The carcinogenic potential of KBrO3 was tested by administering doses of 500 or 250 ppm to rats for 110 weeks. Significantly elevated incidences of renal cell tumors in males and females and mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in males as compared to controls were observed. When female mice were given KBrO3 at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm for 78 weeks, no significant differences in tumor incidences between experimental and control groups were apparent. NaClO was administered to male and female rats, respectively, at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm and 2000 or 1000 ppm for 104 weeks. In mice, NaClO was given at doses of 1000 or 500 ppm to either sex for 103 weeks. The incidences of tumors in NaClO-treated and control animals of both sexes were not significantly different in both rat and mouse studies. NaClO2 was given to rats of both sexes at a dose of 600 or 300 ppm for 85 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidences of tumor formation between NaClO2-treated and control groups of both sexes. NaClO2 was administered to mice at a concentration of 500 or 250 ppm for 85 weeks. In males, the combined incidences of hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas of the liver in a low-dose group, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in a high-dose group, were marginally increased compared to controls (p less than 0.05). However, these incidences in treated males were within the range of values of historical control data in our program. We concluded that KBrO3 was carcinogenic in rats of

  13. Use of a 660-nm Laser to Aid in the Healing of Necrotic Alveolar Mucosa Caused by Extruded Sodium Hypochlorite: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Duque, Jussaro Alves; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Bramante, Alexandre Silva; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-11-01

    The extrusion of sodium hypochlorite through the apical foramen is an accident that can occur during the flushing procedure in endodontic treatment. The symptomatology is immediate and intense, and there is a long period before the tissues return to normal. Low-level laser therapy might be useful as an adjunctive treatment for damaged soft tissues because of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, which may reduce edema and prevent infection. In this clinical case, the accidental leakage of 1% sodium hypochlorite during the preparation of the root canal of a maxillary right central incisor is reported. This leakage caused immediate and intense pain and edema formation and resulted in an extensive necrotic area in the alveolar mucosa adjacent to the root of the treated tooth. The conventional treatment protocol was combined with low-level laser therapy. Clinical and radiographic examinations after 7 months revealed complete repair of the necrotic area with no paresthesia and further indicated the integrity of the apical region of the tooth where the extrusion of sodium hypochlorite occurred. The combination of low-level laser therapy with a conventional treatment protocol in this case of the extrusion of 1% sodium hypochlorite resulted in the healing of the wounds. PMID:26371982

  14. Utilization of waste cellulose. VI. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with sodium hypochlorite and enzymatic hydrolysis by Trichoderma viride

    SciTech Connect

    David, C.; Fornasier, R.; Thiry, P.

    1985-10-01

    A pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with sodium hypochlorite-hypochlorous acid at controlled pH (between 7 and 9) considerably increases the accessibility of the cellulosic part of the substrate to chemical and biochemical reactants. As a consequence, the yield and rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis to glucose is largely increased. Wheat straw and spruce sawdust have been investigated. The increase in accessibility is assigned to degradation and (or) detachment of the lignin network. The loss in cellulose and hemicellulose is not important, lignin being preferentially degraded under carefully controlled pH conditions. When applied to pure cellulose, the pretreatment decreases the yield of enzymatic hydrolysis; in the absence of lignin, oxidation of the anhydroglucose units is important and results in the inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis. 12 references.

  15. Oxidation of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choppin, G. R.; Morgenstern, A.

    2000-07-01

    The hypochlorite ion (OCl-), a major product of the radiolysis of water in solutions containing high concentrations of chloride, can be expected to influence the oxidation state distribution of plutonium in these solutions. Since plutonium has significantly different chemistry in each of its oxidation states, knowledge of the oxidation state distribution of plutonium and of the kinetics of transfer between these oxidation states is essential for modeling the behavior of plutonium in aqueous systems and for design of efficient remediation procedures for plutonium containing wastes.

  16. The effect of passive ultrasonic activation of 2% chlorhexidine or 3% sodium hypochlorite in canal wall cleaning

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Carla; Forner, Leopoldo; Mozo, Sandra; Segura, Juan-Jose

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: the purpose of this study was to compare debris removal and open tubules effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX) applied as final irrigation in different protocols Study Design: sixty extracted premolars were divided into six groups according to the final irrigation technique: A and B 3 % NaOCl or 2 % CHX with the Miraject needle and no agitation; C and D, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with Irrisafe 20 tips and 3 % NaOCl or 2 % CHX; E and F, PUI with Irrisafe 25 tips and 3 % NaOCl or 2% CHX. The remaining dentine debris and opened tubules were evaluated by SEM at three root levels by two blinded investigators. The Kruskal Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups and levels, with a significance of p<0.05. Results: Debris elimination was significantly higher in PUI groups (p<0.05). PUI groups showed a higher capability to open tubules, compared to groups A and B. In the coronal third, groups D to F eliminated more debris and opened more tubules than conventional irrigation (p<0.05). In medium third, group E eliminated significantly more debris (1.60) than group A (2.60). No differences were obtained among groups in apical third. Both NaOCl and CHX applied with PUI showed no differences in debris elimination or opened tubules. Conclusions: Final PUI with Irrisafe tips was the most effective procedure for eliminating the debris and opening up dentinal tubules, independent of the irrigant solution or Irrisafe type size. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, PUI, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine. PMID:25810845

  17. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; Edmondson, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Household water treatment using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been recognized as a cost-effective means of reducing the heavy burden of diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, especially among populations without access to improved water supplies. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), which is widely used in emergencies, is an alternative source of chlorine that may present certain advantages over NaOCl for household-based interventions in development settings. We summarize the basic chemistry and possible benefits of NaDCC, and review the available literature concerning its safety and regulatory treatment and microbiological effectiveness. We review the evidence concerning NaDCC in field studies, including microbiological performance and health outcomes. Finally, we examine studies and data to compare NaDCC with NaOCl in terms of compliance, acceptability, affordability and sustainability, and suggest areas for further research. PMID:16387550

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE GENERATION AND INACTIVATION OF PSEUDOMONAS IN RAW DRINKING WATER, CLORTEC T-12 EXCELTEC INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SEVERN TRENT SERVICES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of ExcelTec's on-site hypochlorite generation system ClorTec T-12 system was conducted for 30 days between 3/6-5/4/2000. The system is capable of producing at least one pound of chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite solution containing 0.8% +/- 0.1%) ch...

  19. Management of the sodium hypochlorite accident: a rare but significant complication of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Jonathan; Walsh, Stephen; Wilson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient presented to the accident and emergency department, 3 h following a dental appointment. Significant right-sided facial swelling, bruising and pain were present. The patient had been sent by her general dental practitioner with a covering letter explaining that a hypochlorite accident had occurred during root canal treatment of the upper right first premolar tooth. An iatrogenic perforation was suspected. The patient was admitted under the care of the maxillofacial team and intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and steroids were administered. The patient was prepared for the possibility of requiring surgical intervention under a general anaesthetic. No nerve injury was encountered and the periorbital tissues were spared. A full recovery was made by the patient with no surgical intervention required but significant bruising and swelling were present up to 4 weeks following the incident. PMID:25809429

  20. Cells with sodium hypochlorite or chlorite and anodes of magnesium or aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, A.

    1996-10-01

    A cell composed of a chlorine oxy-ion salt, acting as the battery positive, and anodes of magnesium or aluminum was found to be capable of producing potentials and currents comparable to those of conventional batteries. However, its use would have to be limited to that of a reserve type of battery with a short service-life because of the chemical interaction of the anodes with the electrolyte. This rate of reaction was considerably reduced by the presence of nitrate ion in the electrolyte. The rate of decomposition of hypochlorite solutions on aging was found not to be significant for their use in a reserve type of battery. The utilization of the reactants in the magnesium-chlorine oxy-ion cells was about 60% on a continuous discharge. Since these cells after being discharged would contain only a solution of common salt and a slurry of a metal hydroxide, they were innocuous with respect to the environment. Since this characteristic might make the battery of possible interest for a green motor vehicles, a battery was evaluated with respect to the adaptations that would be necessary for such an application.

  1. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present. PMID:20153019

  2. Efficacies of Sodium Hypochlorite and Quaternary Ammonium Sanitizers for Reduction of Norovirus and Selected Bacteria during Ware-Washing Operations

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Li, Jianrong; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with pathogens on contaminated tableware and food preparation utensils is an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. To prevent this, restaurants and food service establishments are required to achieve a minimum microbial reduction of 5 logs from these surfaces. This study evaluated the sanitization efficacies of ware-washing protocols (manual and mechanical) used in restaurants to clean tableware items. Ceramic plates, drinking glasses and stainless steel forks were used as the food contact surfaces. These were contaminated with cream cheese and reduced-fat milk inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1), Escherichia coli K-12 and Listeria innocua. The sanitizing solutions tested were sodium hypochlorite (chlorine), quaternary ammonium (QAC) and tap water (control). During the study, the survivability and response to the experimental conditions of the bacterial species was compared with that of MNV-1. The results showed that current ware-washing protocols used to remove bacteria from tableware items were not sufficient to achieve a 5 log reduction in MNV-1 titer. After washing, a maximum of 3 log reduction in the virus were obtained. It was concluded that MNV-1 appeared to be more resistant to both the washing process and the sanitizers when compared with E. coli K-12 and L. innocua. PMID:23227163

  3. The development of BCB-sealed galvanic cells. Case study: aluminum-platinum cells activated with sodium hypochlorite electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlutowski, J.; Biver, C. J.; Wang, W.; Knighton, S.; Bumgarner, J.; Langebrake, L.; Moreno, W.; Cardenas-Valencia, A. M.

    2007-08-01

    Energy on demand is an important concept in remote sensor development. The fabrication process for silicon-wafer-based, totally enclosed galvanic cells is presented herein. Benzocyclyobutene (BCB), a photo-patternable material, is used as the adhesive layer between the silicon wafers on which metal electrodes are patterned to form the cells' electrolyte cavity. As a case study, and since aluminum is an anode material with thermodynamic high energy density, this metal is evaporated onto a wafer and used as an anode. A sputtered platinum film collects the charge and provides a catalytic surface in the cell cathode. The metal film patterning process and wafer-to-wafer bonding with BCB is detailed. The difficulties encountered, and design modifications to overcome these, are presented. Cells of the mentioned design were activated with sodium hypochlorite solution electrolyte. Typical potential outputs for the cells, as a function of operational time, are also presented. With a 5 kΩ load, a potential of 1.4 V was maintained for over 240 min, until depletion of the electrolyte occurred. Average cell energy outputs under electrical loads between 100 Ω and 5 kΩ were in the range of 4-10 J with columbic densities ranging from 45 to 83 Ah L-1.

  4. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K(L)a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C(NaOCl). PMID:20633996

  5. Susceptibility of Penicillium expansum spores to sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water, and chlorine dioxide solutions modified with nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Okull, Derrick O; Demirci, Ali; Rosenberger, Dave; LaBorde, Luke F

    2006-08-01

    The use of water flotation tanks during apple packing increases the risk of contamination of apples by spores of Penicillium expansum, which may accumulate in the recirculating water. Routine addition of sanitizers to the water may prevent such contamination. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water have varied activity against spores of P. expansum, and their effectiveness could be enhanced using surfactants. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of three nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), to enhance the efficacy of NaOCl, ClO2, and EO water against spores of P. expansum in aqueous suspension at various temperatures and pH conditions. The efficacy of NaOCl solutions was enhanced by the addition of surfactants at both pH 6.3 and pH 8 (up to 5 log CFU reduction). EO water and ClO2 were effective against P. expansum spores (up to 5 log CFU and 4 log CFU reduction, respectively), but addition of surfactants was not beneficial. All solutions were less effective at 4 degrees C compared to 24 degrees C irrespective of the presence of surfactants. Nonionic surfactants could potentially be used with NaOCl to improve control of P. expansum in flotation tanks, but the efficacy of such formulations should be validated under apple packing conditions. PMID:16924921

  6. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  7. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of QMix™ 2 in 1, sodium hypochlorite, and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Elakanti, Soujanya; Cherukuri, Gayathri; Rao, Venkateswara G; Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Rao, Anitha S; Tummala, Muralidhar

    2015-01-01

    Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of QMix™ 2 in 1, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted, single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented and autoclaved. Samples were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each based on the type of microorganism used. Group I was inoculated with E. faecalis and Group II with C. albicans and incubated for 3 days. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups based on the type of irrigant used. Group IA, IIA, 5.25% NaOCl; Group IB, IIB, 2% CHX; Group IC, IIC, QMix™ 2 in 1; and Group ID, IID, 0.9% saline (the control group). Ten microliters of the sample from each canal was taken and was placed on Brain Heart Infusion agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and colony forming units (CFUs) that were grown were counted. Data was analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Games-Howell test. Results: The greatest antimicrobial effects were observed in samples treated with QMix™ 2 in 1 (P < 0.001). No statistical significant difference was found between 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX (P > 0.001) against E. faecalis and C. albicans. Conclusion: QMix™ 2 in 1 demonstrated significant antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis and C. albicans. PMID:25829691

  8. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells. PMID:26512807

  9. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro. PMID:21204702

  10. The Effect of Canal Dryness on Bond Strength of Bioceramic and Epoxy-resin Sealers after Irrigation with Sodium Hypochlorite or Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Razmi, Hasan; Bolhari, Behnam; Karamzadeh Dashti, Negar; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of canal dryness on the push-out bond strength of two resin sealers (AH-Plus and Adseal) and a bioceramic sealer (Endosequence BC sealer) after canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Methods and Materials: A total of 18 extracted human premolars were used. Canals were prepared and were divided to two groups based on irrigation solution (either NaOCl or CHX). The samples were again divided based on pre-obturation canal condition (wet, half-wet and dry). The samples were sub-divided into 3 groups based on the sealer type; the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and test sealers (Adseal, AH-Plus or BC sealer). A total number of 18 groups were available to be cut into dentine disks (12 disks in each group). The type of bond failure was also assessed in each group. Data were analyzed using the 3-way ANOVA, post hoc Tukey’s tests, t-test and the Fisher’s exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The bond strength of Adseal was not affected by the canal condition or irrigation with either NaOCl or CHX. Although the bond strength of AH-Plus was not affected by the irrigant type, the highest bond strength was seen in dry canals. For Endosequence BC sealer, the canal conditions did not affect the bond strength; however, CHX reduced the bond strength. Conclusion: Bond strength of resin sealers was not affected by irrigation solution; however, canal moisture negatively affected the bond strength of AH-Plus. CHX reduced the bond strength of BC sealer. PMID:27141222

  11. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in primary molar root canals

    PubMed Central

    Goztas, Zeynep; Onat, Halenur; Tosun, Gul; Sener, Yagmur; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, ozonated water with ultrasonication, sodium hypochloride and chlorhexidine (CHX) in human primary root canals contaminated by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight extracted human primary molar teeth were used. Crowns were cut off using a diamond saw under water-cooling. One hundred roots were obtained and mechanically prepared. The roots were then sterilized by autoclaving in water for 15 min at 121°C. All samples were contaminated with E. faecalis for 24 h and the root canals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). Group I: 25 mg/L of Ozonated water (O3aq), Group II: 25 mg/L of O3aq with ultrasonication, Group III: 2.5% Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group IV: 2% CHX and Group V: Positive control. The canal of each specimen was irrigated for 4 min and positive control was untreated. All root canals were agitated with sterile saline solution. The saline solution was collected from canals with sterile paper points. For each specimen, the paper points were transposed to eppendorf vials containing 2 ml of brain heart infusion. According to bacterial proliferation, the mean values of optical density were achieved by ELİSA (Biotek EL ×800, Absorbance Microplate Reader, ABD) and the data were analyzed. Results: NaOCI, CHX and two types of O3aq were found statistically different than positive control group. NaOCI irrigation was found significantly most effective. Conclusions: NaOCl, CHX and O3aq applications provide antibacterial effect in vitro conditions in primary root canals. PMID:25512726

  12. Antibacterial and Toxic Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Combined with Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine in Comparison with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Mirhadi, Hosein; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Ranjbar, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Geramizadeh, Bita; Torabi, Shima; Sadat Aleyasin, Zeinab; Gholami, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to be used in sequence or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX) to enhance the antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, but there is no research in the literature on the safety and effectiveness of this irrigation protocol. Purpose This study aimed to assess the cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of different concentrations of CHX combined with H2O2in comparison with the activity of 5.25 and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Method Different concentrations of H2O2 (10, 5, 3 and 1%) were exposed to the PDL cells. Then, the solution with minimal cytotoxicity was selected (3% H2O2). The cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of 0.1, 0.2, 1 and 2% CHX combined with 3% H2O2 were evaluated and compared with 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. The differences in the mean viability of PDL cells were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn's tests were adopted to compare the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis. Results The viability of PDL cells was lower when treated with 5.25 or 2.5% NaOCl than all combinations of CHX and H2O2.There was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis, except for the 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 combination, which had significantly lower efficacy than other groups. Conclusion All combinations of CHX and H2O2 (used in this study)except 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 were efficient irrigants against planktonic E.faecalis and had a better cytocompatibility with PDL cells than 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:26636124

  13. Comparison of cytotoxicity of various concentrations origanum extract solution with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Evren; Adanir, Necdet; Hakki, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cytotoxicity of 0.5–4.5 origanum extract solution (OES), 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with WST-1 test on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: About 0.5–4.5% OES, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl solutions cytotoxicity was evaluated with cell culture test using PDL fibroblasts. Viability of hPDL cells was evaluated with WST-1 (Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1 Roche) test at 1, 24 and 72nd h. hPDL cells were plated at 20 × 103 cells per well in 96-well plates. Absorbance values were read in optical density 480 nm by ELISA plate reader spectrophotometer. The statistical differences between various groups were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Duncan's Multiple Range test using SAS software. Statistically, a significant difference was considered at P < 0.001. Results: According to the 1-h cytotoxicity results, 0.5% OES showed the least cytotoxic effect in test groups. There were not found any statistical significance between 1% OES and 2% CHX. About 5.25% NaOCl showed more cytotoxic effect than 1% OES and 2% CHX. In 24 and 72 h, different concentrations of OES, 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX solutions showed similar cytotoxic effect. Conclusions: Based on these results, 1% OES and 2% CHX showed similar results and less cytotoxic effect than 5.25% NaOCl. It could be considered as a favorable solution concentration when OES was used as root canal irrigation solution. PMID:25713477

  14. Effect of Temperature, Concentration and Contact Time of Sodium Hypochlorite on the Treatment and Revitalization of Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Monteiro Bramante, Clovis; Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Bombarda de Andrade, Flaviana; Zardin Graeff, Marcia; Marciano da Silva, Marina; Cavalini Cavenago, Bruno; Lucas Fernandes, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Increasing the temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) enhances its dissolution and antibacterial properties. However, the high resistance of multi-species biofilms could restrict the effect of the solution regardless of its temperature, enabling the long-term recovery of the surviving bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate if the increase of temperature of NaOCl improves its antibacterial and dissolution ability on oral biofilms and if the post-treatment remaining bacteria were capable of growing in a nutrient-rich medium. Materials and methods. Forty dentin blocks were infected intra-orally for 48 hours. Then, the specimens were treated with 1% and 2.5% NaOCl at room temperature (22ºC) and body temperature (37ºC) for 5 and 20 min. The percentage of live cells and the biovolume were measured pre- (control) and post-treatment and after the biofilm revitalization. Four confocal ‘stacks’ were chosen from random areas of each sample. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Statistical significance was defined at P <0.05. Results. All the NaOCl groups were effective in dissolving the biofilm at any temperature, concentration and contact time without statistical differences among them (P >0.05). The 1%-NaOCl for 5min was not able to significantly kill the bacteria, regardless of its temperature and contact time (P >0.05). Conclusion. The temperature variation of the NaOCl was not relevant in killing or dissolving bacterial biofilms. Twenty-four hours of reactivation did not appear to be enough time to induce a significant bacterial growth. PMID:26889356

  15. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhuang; Xiao, Suli; Ma, Dianfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is positively correlated with its effectiveness in root canal disinfection but negatively correlated with its biocompatibility. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the bactericidal effects among ultrasonic irrigation with different concentration of NaOCl alone or together with photodynamic treatment (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. One hundred and twenty bovine root canals contaminated with E. faecalis were randomly distributed into 12 groups treated with different disinfection methods: PDT, ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 5.25%), and ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations plus PDT. Data of microorganism load were collected before and after disinfection and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Significantly enhanced antibacterial effects were noticed in groups treated by PDT plus 2.0% or 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (P < 0.05). No statistical differences existed in bactericidal efficacy among groups of PDT plus ultrasonic irrigation with 2.0%, 2.5% or 5.25% NaOCl, and ultrasonic irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl alone (P > 0.05). Our study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation. PMID:25892274

  16. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdown products identification than n-hexane. Reaction of EHMC with HOCl lead to the formation of C=C bridge cleavage products such as 2-ethylhexyl chloroacetate, 1-chloro-4-methoxybenzene, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. High reactivity of C=C bond attached to benzene ring is also characteristic for MCA, since it can be converted in the presence of HOCl to 2,4-dichlorophenole, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxybenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenole, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. Surprisingly, in case of EHMC/HOCl/UV, much less breakdown products were formed compared to non-UV radiation treatment. In order to describe the nature of EHMC and MCA degradation, local reactivity analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed. Fukui function values showed that electrophilic attack of HOCl to the C=C bridge in EHMC and MCA is highly favorable (even more preferable than phenyl ring chlorination). This suggests that HOCl electrophilic addition is probably the initial step of EHMC degradation. PMID:26408113

  17. Evaluation in white mice of the infectivity of eggs of Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae), incubated by decortication with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).

    PubMed

    Volcán, G S; Medrano, C E; Quiñones, D

    1993-01-01

    White mice were used to study the infectivity of the eggs of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 after incubation in liquid media, with or without preservative substances. Potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7) at 1% restrict hatching, while 1% formalin gave a greater larval yield. Incubation of eggs in distilled water, in Roux or Falcon flasks gave a good yield, whether the eggs were obtained from human feces or from experimentally infected cats. Treatment of eggs with Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 5.25% for 2 min prior to inoculation, produced a notable increment of the larval yield in the infections. PMID:8284605

  18. Inadvertent Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite with Evaluation by Dental Volumetric Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Başer Can, Elif Delve; Karapınar Kazandağ, Meriç; Kaptan, Rabia Figen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the tissue injury caused by inadvertently extruded NaOCl through the apical constriction. A 56-year-old female patient with complaints of pain, swelling, and ecchymosis on the left side of her face was referred to our clinic. The symptoms had emerged following root canal treatment of the maxillary left first premolar, and a soft tissue complication due to apical extrusion of NaOCl was diagnosed. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. DVT images revealed that the buccal root apex had perforated the maxillary bone. The patient was followed up every other day and became asymptomatic on the 10th day. Endodontic therapy was completed with routine procedures. Determining working length precisely and following irrigation protocols meticulously are indispensable to prevent this type of complication. 3D visualization of the affected area may reveal the cause of the incident. PMID:25883812

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ON-SITE GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE GENERATION SYSTEM USED FOR DISINFECTION IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA and NSF verified the performance of the ClorTec Model MC 100 System under the EPA's ETV program. The concentrated hypochlorite generator stream from the treatment system underwent a twice daily analysis from March 8 to April 6, 2000. The chlorine analyses were conducted o...

  20. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of super-oxidized water (Sterilox®) and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis in a bovine root canal model

    PubMed Central

    ROSSI-FEDELE, Giampiero; de FIGUEIREDO, José Antonio Poli; STEIER, Liviu; CANULLO, Luigi; STEIER, Gabriela; ROBERTS, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally root canal irrigants should have, amongst other properties, antimicrobial action associated with a lack of toxicity against periapical tissues. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a widely used root canal irrigant, however it has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on vital tissue and therefore it is prudent to investigate alternative irrigants. Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® belongs to the group of the super-oxidized waters; it consists of a mixture of oxidizing substances, and has been suggested to be used as root canal irrigant. Super-oxidized waters have been shown to provide efficient cleaning of root canal walls, and have been proposed to be used for the disinfection of medical equipment. Objective To compare the antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis of NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® when used as irrigating solutions in a bovine root canal model. Methodology Root sections were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis JH2-2. After 10 days of incubation the root canals were irrigated using one of three solutions (NaOCl, Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® and Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte®) and subsequently sampled by grinding dentin using drills. The debris was placed in BHI broth and dilutions were plated onto fresh agar plates to quantify growth. Results Sodium hypochlorite was the only irrigant to eliminate all bacteria. When the dilutions were made, although NaOCl was still statistically superior, Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® solution was superior to Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution®. Conclusion Under the conditions of this study Sterilox's Aquatine Alpha Electrolyte® appeared to have significantly more antimicrobial action compared to the Optident Sterilox Electrolyte Solution® alone, however NaOCl was the only solution able to consistently eradicate E. faecalis in the model. PMID:21085808

  1. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). Materials and Methods: The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness. PMID:25512737

  2. Trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite are more effective as antimicrobials against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck as compared to chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-06-16

    Little work has been reported on the use of commercial antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens on duck meat. We investigated the effectiveness of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) as antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter and Salmonella on duck meat under simulated commercial water chilling conditions. The results were compared to the same treatments on well-studied chicken meat. A six strain Campylobacter or Salmonella cocktail was inoculated (5 ml) at two dilution levels (10(4) and 10(8) cfu/ml) onto 25 g duck or chicken meat with skin and allowed to attach for 10 min. The meat was exposed to three concentrations of pH adjusted TSP (8, 10 and 12% (w/v), pH 11.5) or SH (40, 50 and 60 ppm, pH 5.5) in 30 ml water under simulated spin chiller conditions (4 °C, agitation) for 10 min. In a parallel experiment the meat was placed in the antimicrobial treatments before inoculation and bacterial cocktails were added to the meat after the antimicrobial solution was removed while all other parameters were maintained. Untreated controls and controls using water were included in all experiments. Bacterial numbers were determined on Campylobacter blood-free selective agar and Mueller Hinton agar or xylose deoxycholate agar and tryptone soya agar using the thin agar layer method for Campylobacter and Salmonella, respectively. All TSP concentrations significantly (p<0.05) reduced numbers of Campylobacter (~1.2-6.4 log cfu/cm(2)) and Salmonella (~0.4-6.6 log cfu/cm(2)) on both duck and chicken meat. On duck meat, numbers of Campylobacter were less than the limit of detection at higher concentrations of TSP and numbers of Salmonella were less than the limit of detection at all concentrations of TSP except one. On chicken meat, numbers of Campylobacter and Salmonella were less than the limit of detection only at the lower inoculum level and higher TSP concentrations. By contrast only some of the concentrations of SH significantly (p<0.05) reduced

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of QMiX, 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 2% Chlorhexidine, Guava Leaf Extract and Aloevera Extract Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans – An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamma, Shoba; Peedikayil, Faizal; Aman, Shibu; Tomy, Nithya; Mariodan, Jithin Pulickal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Debridement and disinfection of the root canal system is a critical step in endodontic treatment. Most of the irrigants presently used in the endodontic treatment can have an impact on the microbes surviving in the biofilm but none of them are able to do all of the required tasks. Researches are going on its full swing in order to produce an endodontic irrigant having ideal properties. Aim To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of different irrigants like QMiX, guava leaf extract, aloevera extract, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity was determined using agar diffusion test. The solutions were divided into five groups: Group I- QMiX, Group II- Guava leaf extract and Group III-Aloevera extract, Group IV–2.5% Sodium hypochlorite and Group V-2% Chlorhexidine. The zones of inhibition of growth were recorded. Results Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s HSD. Values obtained were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). QMiX showed maximum inhibitory effect against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans followed by, 2% chlorhexidine, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, guava leaf extract and aloevera extract. Results obtained were statistically significant. Conclusion Guava leaf extract showed significant inhibitory effects against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. QMiX demonstrated the best results among the tested solutions and can be considered as a potential alternative to existing root canal irrigants. PMID:27437354

  4. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite solution and Zataria multiflora essential oil as irrigants in root canals contaminated with Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sedigh-Shams, Mahdi; Badiee, Parisa; Adl, Alireza; Sarab, Milad Dadollahi; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the antifungal effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO) with that of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as an irrigant for root canals infected with Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular premolars were infected with C. albicans suspension. After 72 h of incubation, the samples were divided into four groups. Teeth in Group 1 were irrigated with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Z. multiflora EO, in Group 2 with twice the MFC of Z. multiflora, in Group 3 with MFC of NaOCl, and in Group 4 with distilled water (DW). Pre- and post-operative samples were cultured, and fungal colony count of each specimen was obtained. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05). Results: NaOCl at MFC and Z. multiflora EO at twice the MFC showed the highest antifungal efficacy, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, antifungal efficacies of these irrigants were significantly different from those of Z. multiflora EO at MFC and DW (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that Z. multiflora EO at twice the MFC had the same antifungal efficacy as NaOCl at MFC. PMID:26957804

  5. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  6. Chlorine Dioxide is a Better Disinfectant than Sodium Hypochlorite against Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Yasuda, Noritomo; Shima, Ayaka; Morino, Hirofumi; Koizumi, Tomoko; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Shibata, Takashi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) on various multidrug-resistant strains in the presence of bovine serum albumin and sheep erythrocytes to mimic the blood contamination that frequently occurs in the clinical setting. The 3 most important species that cause nosocomial infections, i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA), were evaluated, with three representative strains of each. At a 10-ppm concentration, ClO2 drastically reduced the number of bacteria of all MDRP and MDRA strains, and 2 out of 3 MRSA strains. However, 10 ppm of NaClO did not significantly kill any of the 9 strains tested in 60 seconds (s). In addition, 100 ppm of ClO2 completely killed all MRSA strains, whereas 100 ppm of NaClO failed to significantly lower the number of 2 MRSA strains and 1 MDRA strain. A time-course experiment demonstrated that, within 15 s, 100 ppm of ClO2, but not 100 ppm of NaClO, completely killed all tested strains. Taken together, these data suggest that ClO2 is more effective than NaClO against MRSA, MDRP, and MDRA, and 100 ppm is an effective concentration against these multidrug-resistant strains, which cause fatal nosocomial infections. PMID:25672403

  7. Manual sonic-air and ultrasonic instrumentation of root canal and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Koçani, Ferit; Kamberi, Blerim; Dragusha, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of manual, sonic-air and ultrasonic instrumentation with varying irrigation protocols on removal of the smear layer from root canal walls. Study Design: Sixty extracted single rooted human teeth stored in 0.5% saline were used. Periodontal soft tissues were removed followed by crown separation at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). All the teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Group I was manually instrumented and irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) alone and 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alternately, same as sonically instrumented Group II and ultrasonically instrumented Group III. The controls for all groups were irrigated with saline solution. Results: Ultrasonic over the sonic-air and manual technique, and the use of a combination of two different solutions (17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl) alternatively yielded better outcome. Conclusions: Ultrasonic, sonic-air and manual instrumentation of the root canal and irrigation with combined solutions is effective in removal of the smear layer from the instrumented walls of the root canal. PMID:22557807

  8. In-situ leaching of south Texas uranium ores--part 2: oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Fletcher, A.; Johnson, W.F.; Venuto, P.B.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced south Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% NaOCl, with the concentration of NH/sub 3/ in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10 to 15 PV NaOCl oxidant. A small fraction (5 to 10%) of NaOCl was utilized in reacting with NH/sub 3/. After the NH/sub 3/ was nearly depleted, mono-, di-, and trichloramines, the expected intermediates in NaOCl oxidation of NH/sub 3/, were observed. Chloramine decomposition studies showed that all three decomposed completely within 12 days. Since the ore was relatively highly reducing, the major part of the NaOCl was, not unexpectedly, consumed in side reactions. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed, large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the presaturation with NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ preceding the oxidation stage.

  9. In-situ leaching of south Texas uranium ores--part 2: Oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Fletcher, A.; Johnson, W.F.; Venuto, P.B.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced south Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% NaOCl, with the concentration of NH/sub 3/ in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10 to 15 PV NaOCl oxidant. A small fraction (5 to 10%) of NaOCl was utilized in reacting with NH/sub 3/. After the NH/sub 3/ was nearly depleted, mono-, di-, and trichloramines, the expected intermediates in NaOCl oxidation of NH/sub 3/, were observed. Chloramine decomposition studies showed that all three decomposed completely within 12 days. Since the ore was relatively highly reducing, the major part of the NaOCl was, not unexpectedly, consumed in side reactions. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed, large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the presaturation with NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ preceding the oxidation stage.

  10. Synergistic effects of ultrasound and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on reducing Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19118 in broth, stainless steel, and iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Young; Kim, Seok-Won; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-07-01

    This study was performed in order to determine whether a combined treatment of ultrasound and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is more effective than individual treatment on reducing Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19118 on stainless steel and iceberg lettuce. The bactericidal effect of ultrasound and NaOCl was investigated in tryptic soy broth (TSB), on stainless steel and iceberg lettuce. Various concentrations of NaOCl (50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm) were tested along with various ultrasound treatment times (5, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min). The combined treatment of ultrasound and NaOCl resulted in greater bacterial reductions than either treatment alone, without causing any significant changes in lettuce texture. The synergistic values of combined ultrasound and NaOCl treatments in TSB, on stainless steel, and on iceberg lettuce were 0.01-0.99 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, 0.01-0.62 log 10 CFU/g, and 0.12-1.66 log10 CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that the combination of ultrasound and NaOCl was more effective than each treatment against Listeria monocytogenes, and that this combination can effectively sanitize fresh products such as iceberg lettuce. PMID:24927252

  11. A novel flow-injection analysis system for evaluation of antioxidants by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate as a source of hypochlorite anion.

    PubMed

    Ichiba, H; Hanami, K; Yagasaki, K; Tanaka, M; Ito, H; Fukushima, T

    2012-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system for evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a compound capable of scavenging a hypochlorite anion (OCl⁻), one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), was developed. Aminophenyl fluorescein (APF), a fluorescence indicator of ROS, was mixed manually with the test compounds and the mixed solution was injected into the FIA system. The injected solution was reacted in-line with OCl⁻, that was produced by using sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the presence of 0.1 M CH3CO2Na in H2O. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescein generated from non-fluorescent APF was significantly attenuated in compounds that had a scavenging effect on OCl⁻. The precision obtained by the FIA system was satisfactory (relative standard deviation < 5.0%) and a rapid assay within 0.5 min per sample was achieved. The proposed FIA system was used to demonstrate that reduced glutathione, dithiothreitol, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (edaravone) showed a significant scavenging effect on OCl⁻. Therefore, the proposed FIA system can be used as a screening assay for OCl⁻-scavenging compounds. PMID:22460428

  12. Treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 by zero-valent iron/activated carbon combined with microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Li, Qing-Shan; Chen, Song; An, Shu-Qing; Zeng, Qing-Fu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of treatment of simulated wastewater containing Reactive Red 195 using zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC), microwave discharge electrodeless lamp/sodium hypochlorite (MDEL/NaClO) and the combination of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO was conducted. The preliminary results showed the two steps method of ZVI/AC-MDEL/NaClO had much higher degradation efficiency than both single steps. The final color removal percentage was nearly up to 100% and the chemical oxygen demand reduction percentage was up to approximately 82%. The effects of operational parameters, including initial pH value of simulated wastewater, ZVI/AC ratio and particle size of ZVI were also investigated. In addition, from the discussion of synergistic effect between ZVI/AC and MEDL/NaClO, we found that in the ZVI/AC-MEDL/NaClO process, ZVI/AC could break the azo bond firstly and then MEDL/NaClO degraded the aromatic amine products effectively. Reversing the order would reduce the degradation efficiency. PMID:20617726

  13. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and method The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. Result MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. Conclusions BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures. PMID:26937369

  14. Application of a proanthocyanidin agent to improve the bond strength of root dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, V Sujatha; Srinivasulu, Sakhamuri; Rajesh Ebenezar, AV; Mahalaxmi, S; Srinivasan, N

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the application of PA agent that improves the bond strength of root dentin treated with NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Group 1: root canals were irrigated using 0.9% isotonic saline as an irrigant (negative control); Group 2: root canals were irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl (positive control); Group 3: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes; Group 4: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 5% PA for 10 minutes. All the canals were then coated with self-etch dentin bonding agent, filled with resin cement, stored for one day in water, and then cross sectioned into three slabs of 2-mm thickness that were prepared and tested for microtensile bond strength. Results: The results demonstrated that 5.25% NaOCl caused significant reduction (P<0.05) in the bond strength, but this can be reversed by 5% PA significantly more than the 10% sodium ascorbate. PMID:22025839

  15. Bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser combined with sodium hypochlorite irrigation against Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules in experimentally infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Chen, B; Qiu, J; He, W; Lv, H; Qu, T; Yu, Q; Tian, Y

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser radiation combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis deep inside dentinal tubules. The Er:YAG laser was activated, respectively, at 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 W for either 20 or 30 s; 52.5 g l(-1) NaOCl and normal saline were used for the control groups. Root canals before and after treatments were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacterial reductions both on the root canal walls and at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance. SEM results showed that the Er:YAG laser combined with NaOCl disinfected the dentinal tubules from 200 to over 500 μm depth as irradiation power and time increased. This combination killed significantly more bacteria than both the negative control group at each level tested and the positive control group at 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules. It reached 100% in all experimental groups, both on the root canal walls and at 100 and 200 μm inside the dentinal tubules. However, at 300, 400 and 500 μm inside the dentinal tubules, only the groups treated with 0.5 and 1.0 W for 30s exhibited no bacterial growth. Of the two groups in which no bacteria were detected at all tested depths, Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W for 30 s combined with NaOCl irrigation was preferable because of the lower emission power and shorter irradiation time, and may serve as a new option for effective root canal disinfection. PMID:26645354

  16. Evaluation of the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and several formulations containing chlorhexidine and its effect on the radicular dentin--SEM and push-out bond strength analysis.

    PubMed

    Graziele Magro, Miriam; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Regina Victorino, Keli; Vázquez-Garcia, Fernando Antonio; Aranda-Garcia, Arturo Javier; Faria-Junior, Norberto Batista; Faria, Gisele; Luis Shinohara, André

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer after endodontic irrigation with different formulations of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and its effects on the push-out bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer on the radicular dentin. One hundred extracted human canines were prepared to F5 instrument and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Fifty teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol with different 2% CHX formulations: G1 (control, no final rinse irrigation), G2 (CHX solution), G3 (CHX gel), G4 (Concepsis), and G5 (CHX Plus). In sequence, the specimens were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, in the cervical-medium and medium-apical segments, to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer. The other 50 teeth were treated equally to a SEM study, but with the root canals filled with an epoxy-based endodontic sealer and submitted to a push-out bond strength test, in the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. G2, G3, G4, and G5 provided higher precipitation of the debris and smear layer than G1 (P < 0.05), but these groups were similar to each other (P > 0.05), in both segments. The values obtained in the push out test did not differ between groups, independent of the radicular third (P > 0.05). The CHXs formulations caused precipitation of the debris and smear layer on the radicular dentin, but these residues did not interfere in the push-out bond strength of the epoxy-based sealer. PMID:24190651

  17. Chemical analysis of nickel-titanium rotary instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Antonio; Schäfer, Edgar; Condorelli, Guglielmo Guido; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Tripi, Teresa Roberta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically analyze rotary nickel-titanium instruments with and without electropolishing after cleaning procedures with NaOCl. To evaluate the effect of 5.25% NaOCl on electropolished RaCe instruments, a total of 18 instruments were tested. A control group of 18 nonelectropolished RaCe instruments was used. The surface of each instrument was analyzed before and after cleaning in NaOCl by using energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Surface defects were recorded, and a chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. After immersion in NaOCl, the nonelectropolished and electropolished files showed a significant increase of iron deposits as a result of galvanic corrosion of the shaft (P < .05). The nonelectropolished files showed marked presence of NaCl deposits in the machining marks and microcracks. As regards the chemical nature of the surface, the electropolished files had an oxide increase compared with the low oxide concentration (mainly TiO2) before cleaning. The nonelectropolished files already possessed higher oxides concentration (TiO2 and NiO) before NaOCl cleaning. NaOCl treatment affects the chemical composition of the surface and, in particular for nonelectropolished instruments, of the bulk exposed through machining marks and fabrication microcracks. PMID:18928855

  18. The efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming and sonic-activated irrigation combined with QMiX solution or sodium hypochlorite against intracanal E. faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Balić, M; Lucić, R; Mehadžić, K; Bago, I; Anić, I; Jakovljević, S; Plečko, V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using an Er:YAG laser and sonic-activated irrigation combined with QMiX irrigant or sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis intracanal biofilm. Root canals of 91 human extracted single-canal teeth were instrumented, sterilized, contaminated with E. faecalis and incubated for 15 days. The infected teeth were then randomly distributed into six experimental groups: G1: PIPS/Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2940 nm, pulse energy 20 mJ, 15 Hz, pulse duration 50 μs, energy density 2.06 J/cm(2), 3 × 20 s) with the QMiX irrigant; G2: PIPS/Er:YAG laser-activated 2.5 % NaOCl; G3 sonic-activated irrigation (EndoActivator system) for 60 s with the QMiX irrigant; G4 sonic-activated irrigation for 60 s with 2.5 % NaOCl; G5 30-gauge needle irrigation with the QMiX irrigant; G6 30-gauge needle irrigation with 2.5 % NaOCl. The positive control group was rinsed with sterile saline solution. The root canals were sampled by flushing with saline solution at baseline and after the treatments, serially diluted and cultured. The number of bacteria in each canal was determined by plate count. The presence and the absence of E. faecalis in root canals were demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the pattern of the bacteria colonization was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. There was significant reduction in the bacterial population for all groups (p < 0.001). The best antibacterial efficacy was recorded after sonic-activated irrigation with both NaOCl (99.999 %) and QMiX (99.999 %) and after PIPS with QMiX (99.999 %), which were more effective than conventional irrigation with NaOCl (99.998 %) and the PIPS with the NaOCl (99.966 %). Also, the PIPS with QMiX solution provided the highest number of sterile samples (five). There was no difference in the bacteria reduction between the active irrigation techniques, regardless of the irrigant used

  19. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  20. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Rongrong; Deng Liezheng; Shi Wenbo; Yang Heping; Sha Guohe; Zhang Cunhao

    2011-02-28

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) was detected via the spectrum of O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl{sub 2} unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into ground-state O{sub 2} remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl{sub 2}, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities. (active media)

  1. Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Rong-rong; Deng, Lie-zheng; Shi, Wen-bo; Yang, He-ping; Sha, Guo-he; Zhang, Cun-hao

    2011-02-01

    An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O2(a1Δg) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O2(1Δ) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O2(1Δ) was detected via the spectrum of O2(1Δ) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O2(1Δ) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O2(1Δ) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl2 unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H2O2 into ground-state O2 remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O2(1Δ). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H2O2 with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl2, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H2O2 + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O2(1Δ) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ON-SITE GENERATION OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE CLORTEC, DIVISION OF CAPITAL CONTROLS, CLORTEC MODEL MC100 - NSF 00/16/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EPA and NSF verified the performance of the ClorTec Model MC100 System under the EPA's ETV program. The concentrated hypochlorite generator stream from the treatment system underwent a twice-daily analysis from 3/8-4/6/00. The chlorine analyses were conducted onsite in United...

  3. The effect of three different antioxidants on the dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE on sodium hypochlorite-treated root canal dentin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Sarah Renjelina; Mathai, Vijay; Nair, Rajesh Sasidharan; Angelo, Jeyabalaji Mano Christaine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The effect of 10% ascorbic acid, 10% tannic acid, and 10% gallic acid on the dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE on sodium hypochlorite-treated root canal dentin was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Fifty human premolars were decoronated to attain 14-mm root length and divided into five groups of 10 teeth each. Biomechanical preparation was done with rotary instruments. Group I specimens were irrigated with saline and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens from groups II, III, IV, and V were irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. Specimens from groups III, IV, and V underwent additional irrigation with antioxidants–10% ascorbic acid, 10% tannic acid, and 10% gallic acid, respectively. Following obturation with Resilon and Real Seal SE, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done to note the maximum dentinal tubular penetration at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of each specimen. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Post hoc and Dunnett's test. Results: Maximum dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE was obtained following irrigation with 10% gallic acid. Conclusion: 10% gallic acid was superior among the antioxidant irrigants that enabled the increased dentinal tubular penetration of Resilon and Real Seal SE. PMID:27099424

  4. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins. PMID:21761455

  5. Process for degrading hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1989-05-12

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

  6. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  7. Hypochlorite sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Hostynek, J J; Patrick, E; Younger, B; Maibach, H I

    1989-01-01

    Observation of an individual with immediate-type reaction following exaggerated dermal exposure to hypochlorite-containing cleaning products prompted review of similar hypersensitivity reactions attributed to hypochlorite or other highly reactive chemicals. This review confirms isolated incidences of hypochlorite sensitivity of the delayed type (allergic contact dermatitis), as well as immediate-type reactions from inhalation or topical challenge of sensitized individuals. We conclude that it is possible that excessive and prolonged exposure to hypochlorite may in some cases result in irritation and damage to the skin. This potentially gives rise to altered proteins which in rare cases may cause hypersensitivity. This reaction is common to other reactive small molecules with a strong irritant action. PMID:2536603

  8. Hypochlorite oxidation of morpholine-borane

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, I.; Kelly, H.

    1982-04-01

    Morpholine-borane reacts with sodium hypochlorite in a 1:4 mole ratio wherein three OCl/sup -/ species are utilized for hydride oxidation and a fourth is consumed in the chlorination of morpholine. The determination of kinetic parameters, based upon the stopped-flow spectrophotometric measurement of the rate of disappearance of OCl/sup -/ at 290 nm (pH9-11), is complicated by these consecutive competitive reactions of hypochlorite. At a given pH, the second-order rate constant for the reaction of OCl/sup -/ with morpholine is about 10/sup 3/ times greater than that for attack of hypochlorite on amine-borane; thus, a reliable determination of the latter constant was based upon ''initial rate'' studies under pseudo-first-order conditions involving a large stoichiometric excess of morpholine-borane. The rate of reaction of hypochlorite with amine-borane is also first order in hydrogen ion and is subject to a normal substrate isotope effect with O(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/NH.BH/sub 3/ reacting about 1.6 times more rapidly than O(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/NH.BD/sub 3/. At a given lyonium ion concentration, the reaction is enhanced by a factor of about 3.5 in D/sub 2/O. It is proposed that the rate-limiting step involves oxidative attack of hypochlorous acid at a boron-hydrogen bond in the amine-borane and that subsequent oxidation of the two remaining hydridic hydrogen atoms is rapid relative to the chlorination of morpholine. The inverse solvent isotope effect is attributed to a higher concentration of DOCl in D/sub 2/O relative to that of HOCl in normal water at a given pD (pH), but is likely that this influence is partially offset by a normal secondary isotope effect associated with attack of HOCl (DOCl) at the B-H bond.

  9. Use of buffered hypochlorite solution for disinfecting fibrescopes.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, D; Death, J E

    1982-01-01

    The possible use of sodium hypochlorite solution buffered to pH 7.6 and containing 100 ppm available chlorine (avCl) for disinfecting fibrescopes was investigated. A flexible fibrescope experimentally contaminated with Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium fortuitum, or Bacillus subtilis spores was effectively disinfected within 10 m in repeatedly and without any observable adverse effect on the instrument. The corrosive nature of buffered hypochlorite was investigated by immersing various fibrescope components and metal wires in solutions of different strength for long periods and examining them for damage. Stainless steel, platinum, glass, Teflon, polythene and epoxy resin were apparently unaffected whereas polyurethane, rubber and other metals tested were damaged to different extents. Buffered hypochlorite solutions may have many applications pertaining to the disinfection of items which are either thermolabile or require rapid effective disinfection. PMID:6802880

  10. Hypochlorite treatments are not a significant source of perchlorate exposure in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Fonseca, J M; Blount, B C; Krieger, R I

    2009-03-25

    Leafy vegetables, such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L), have been identified as a potential source of perchlorate exposure to humans. Perchlorate is of concern because excessive amounts may impair thyroid function by inhibiting iodide uptake by the sodium iodide symporter. Perchlorate has been identified as an oxidation product in sodium hypochlorite. Dilute hypochlorite solutions are widely used on lettuce as a preservative and as a treatment to reduce microbial food risks. However, the potential of hypochlorite to be a source of human perchlorate exposure from lettuce had not been evaluated. Studies were conducted with lettuce collected in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and in the lower Colorado River Valley of southwestern Arizona to represent conditions under which hypochlorite is applied to lettuce in the field and in salad processing facilities. We used spray and dipping solutions that were dilutions of concentrated sodium hypochlorite that would contain from 12000 and 120000 microg/L perchlorate. The perchlorate content of iceberg and romaine lettuce averaged 6.2 and 7.2 microg/kg fw in southern Colorado and 14.0 and 56.7 microg/kg fw in southwestern Arizona and there were no significant (P > 0.05) increases in the perchlorate content of lettuce due to hypochlorite treatments. Because of the relatively low concentrations of perchlorate present after dilution and the low volumes applied to lettuce, hypochlorite solutions do not appear to be a significant source of the perchlorate levels found in lettuce. PMID:19245207

  11. Kinetics of sodium release from wheat bread crumb as affected by sodium distribution.

    PubMed

    Konitzer, Katharina; Pflaum, Tabea; Oliveira, Pedro; Arendt, Elke; Koehler, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-13

    As a basis for sodium reduction in bread, the kinetics of sodium release from wheat bread crumb during chewing was investigated by three independent methods using two in-mouth techniques and a model mastication simulator, respectively. Complete sodium extraction in-mouth was achieved after 30 s. Using coarse-grained NaCl in breadmaking significantly accelerated sodium release and led to enhanced salt taste, allowing a sodium reduction in bread by 25% while maintaining taste quality. This salt taste enhancement by accelerated sodium delivery can be explained by the increasing contrast in sodium concentration, which is known to determine salt taste perception. For the first time, the resulting inhomogeneous salt distribution in bread prepared by using coarse-grained NaCl was visualized by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy using a sodium-selective, fluorescent dye. PMID:24134823

  12. Hypochlorite oxidation of select androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Mash, Heath; Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their synthetic analogs released from agricultural activities and wastewater discharge may be introduced into drinking water sources. The fate of androgenic steroids during drinking water treatment, specifically the use of chlorine for biological control, has not been extensively studied. As such, this study focuses on the hypochlorite oxidation of a select number of androgenic compounds that vary in their structural composition. Where a favorable reaction is observed, we also attempt to describe the product distribution. The results show compounds that possess a ketonic functional group conjugated with a double bond inhibit oxidation by hypochlorite in the absence of biological or indirect oxidative pathways. Oxidative reactivity in the presence of hypochlorite was favorably correlated with the presence of isolated unsaturated carbon bonds and resulted in various transformation products. PMID:20031185

  13. Experimental evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of four different nickel-titanium instruments after immersion in sodium hypochlorite and/or sterilization

    PubMed Central

    BULEM, Üreyen Kaya; KECECI, Ayse Diljin; GULDAS, Hilmi Egemen

    2013-01-01

    NiTi instruments have a high risk of separation due to torsional or flexural fatigue (cyclic fatigue). Chemomechanical preparation, cleaning procedures, chemical disinfection and sterilization cause the corrosion of endodontic instruments that may weaken the fracture resistance of the instruments. Objective To assess the effects of NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile, FlexMaster, Mtwo and TwistedFiles NiTi instruments (tip size 25, 0.06 taper, n=160). Material and Methods The instruments (n=10 for each subgroup) were dynamically immersed in NaOCl; immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in one autoclave cycle; 5 cycles immersed in NaOCl and sterilized in autoclave and not immersed in NaOCl and not sterilized (control group). Dynamic cyclic fatigue resistance was tested. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) were statistically analyzed (P<0.05). Results Kruskall-Wallis test indicated significant differences among the tested instruments in terms of NCF (P=0.000). The mean NCF of Mtwo (556.75) was higher than that of the Twisted File, Flexmaster and ProFile, 483.1, 376.12, 365.25, respectively. NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization have no effect on the NCF values of the tested instruments (P>.05). Conclusions Cyclic fatigue resistance of the tested NiTi instruments cannot be adversely affected by NaOCl immersion and autoclave sterilization. Production process (TwistedFiles) or design (Twisted Files, FlexMaster, Mtwo and ProFile) of the instruments can influence their cyclic fatigue resistance. PMID:24473715

  14. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa. PMID:27085371

  15. Field test of platinized titanium anodes for hypochlorite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asaki, T.; Kamegaya, Y.; Takayasu, K.

    1985-08-01

    The demand for chlorine for water and waste treatment is increasing because of the increase of water consumption, a large amount of waste water discharge, and governmental regulations. Transportation and handling of chlorine cylinders and containers are strictly controlled to avoid hazard. As a result, on-site electrolytic production of hypochlorite becomes important for disinfection of drinking water, oxidation of sewage, chlorination of cooling water in process plants, and other uses. There are now a number of publications and patents on hypochlorite cells and the electrodes to be used. A hypochlorite cell must be simple in operation with minimum maintenance for a year or more. The energy consumption is also an important factor. In an electric power station located by the sea, saline water containing some 3% NaCl is fed to the hypochlorite cell and is chlorinated prior to being sent to the heat exchangers in the plant. Because of the low salt concentration, oxygen evolution occurs, and this reduces chlorine current efficiency. Also, sea water contains Mg and Ca ions, which deposit at the cathode, resulting in high cell voltage. Periodic acid cleaning removes the scale, but affects the electrodes, especially the anode coating, and in some cases the electrode activity is not restored. Pretreatment of sea water prior to electrolysis is preferable, but it is expensive and complicated. Therefore, durable anodes having such characteristics as low chlorine overvoltage and high oxygen overvoltage in sea water must be developed to improve the operating performance of hypochlorite cells.

  16. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  17. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  18. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  19. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  20. Removing hydrogen sulfide from geothermal gases: hypochlorite process reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions to acceptable levels. NTIS tech note

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A hypochlorite process has been proposed as an alternative to other methods for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the exhaust gases of geothermal powerplants. An electrolytically-generated sodium hypochlorite solution converts the hydrogen sulfide to water, salt, and sulfur. The hypochlorite process appears to be less expensive than competing processes for most of the cases studied. ...FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Detailed information about the technology described may be obtained by ordering the NTIS report, order number: DOE/ER/1092-T7, price code: PC A03.

  1. Alcohol, Base, and Available Chlorine: Three Factors Affect the Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Trinitrobenzyl Chloride and Hexanitrobibenzyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Lu, Ming

    2011-04-01

    Trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl can be prepared by the oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with sodium hypochlorite. Alcohol, base, and available chlorine are the three key factors that affect the oxidation. The reason why base led the production of trinitrobenzyl chloride and hexanitrobibenzyl with alcohol is explained and the mechanism of reaction is also discussed. Available chlorine reflected the oxidation capacity of sodium hypochlorite. Too low available chlorine cannot make 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene oxidize completely and produces many by-products.

  2. Effect of Bromide-Hypochlorite Bactericides on Microorganisms1

    PubMed Central

    Shere, Lewis; Kelley, Maurice J.; Richardson, J. Harold

    1962-01-01

    A new principle in compounding stable, granular bactericidal products led to unique combinations of a water-soluble inorganic bromide salt with a hypochlorite-type disinfectant of either inorganic or organic type. Microbiological results are shown for an inorganic bactericide composed of chlorinated trisodium phosphate containing 3.1% “available chlorine” and 2% potassium bromide, and for an organic bactericide formulated from sodium dichloroisocyanurate so as to contain 13.4% “available chlorine” and 8% potassium bromide. Comparison of these products with their nonbromide counterparts are reported for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus lactis, Aerobacter aerogenes, and Proteus vulgaris. Test methods employed were the Chambers test, the A.O.A.C. Germicidal and Detergent Sanitizer-Official test, and the Available Chlorine Germicidal Equivalent Concentration test. The minimal killing concentrations for the bromide-hypochlorite bactericides against this variety of organisms were reduced by a factor 2 to 24 times those required for similar hypochlorite-type disinfectants not containing the bromide. PMID:13977149

  3. Decomposition of hypochlorite in the presence of copper in a homogeneous medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopchik, A. YU.; Butkyavichyus, Yu. P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrographic and chemical methods have demonstrated that yellow staining of a hypochlorite alkaline solution in the presence of sodium cuproate was determined by the formation of an unstable intermediate compound of trivalent copper of the type NaCu(OH)4 sorium cupriate.

  4. Cytogenetic and molecular localization of tipE: A gene affecting sodium channels in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Deak, P.; Hall, L.M.

    1995-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive sodium channels play a key role in nerve cells where they are responsible for the increase in sodium permeability during the rising phase of action potentials. In Drosophila melanogaster a subset of temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affect sodium channel function. One such mutation is temperature-induced paralysis locus E (tipE), which has been shown by electrophysiology and ligand binding studies to reduce sodium channel numbers. Three new {gamma}-ray-induced tipE alleles associated with either visible deletions in 64AB or a translocation breakpoint within 64B2 provide landmarks for positional cloning of tipE. Beginning with the flanking cloned gene Ras2, a 140-kb walk across the translocation breakpoint was completed. Germline transformation using a 42-kb cosmid clone and successively smaller subclones localized the tipE gene within a 7.4-kb genomic DNA segment. Although this chromosome region is rich in transcripts, only three overlapping mRNAs (5.4, 4.4, and 1.7 kb) lie completely within the smallest rescuing construct. The small sizes of the rescuing construct and transcripts suggests that tipE does not encode a standard sodium channel {alpha}-subunit with four homologous repeats. Sequencing these transcripts will elucidate the role of the tipE gene product in sodium channel functional regulation. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  6. Renibacterium salmoninarum: effect of hypochlorite treatment, and survival in water.

    PubMed

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu

    2004-04-21

    The effect of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on Renibacterium salmoninarum and the survival of the bacterium in autoclaved river water and groundwater were examined. The disinfection trial was performed using R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209. The concentrations of free chlorine were 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg 1(-1), the contact times were 5, 15, and 30 min and 24 h, and the test suspensions were subcultured both on Kidney disease medium (KDM2) agar and in 3 parallel KDM2 broths, which were then subcultured on KDM2 and selective KDM (SKDM) agar. The survival of the bacterium in river water and groundwater was studied using 4 isolates of R. salmoninarum including ATCC 33209. Treatment with sodium hypochlorite effectively reduced the number of culturable cells of R. salmoninarum, but use of the recovery broth showed that small numbers of cells remained viable at all concentrations of free chlorine. The numbers of R. salmoninarum decreased to an undetectable level after 4 wk incubation in the survival trials, but low numbers of colonies were again found in the subculture after 5 wk incubation. Viable cells of R. salmoninarum were still detected in subcultures of all strains after 20 wk of incubation in river water. PMID:15212289

  7. Metabolic Response of Escherichia coli upon Treatment with Hypochlorite at Sub-Lethal Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jeannette; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorite is a reactive oxygen species that is worldwide as an antibacterial disinfectant. Hypochlorite exposure is known to cause oxidative damage to DNA and proteins. As a response to these effects, the metabolite profiles of organisms treated with sub-lethal doses of hypochlorite are assumed to be severely modified; however, the nature of these changes is hardly understood. Therefore, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, we analyzed the time-dependent impact of hypochlorite exposure with a sub-lethal concentration (50 µM) on the metabolite profile of the Escherichia coli strain MG1655. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between the metabolite profiles of bacteria treated for 0, 5,10, 20, 40, or 60 min. Major changes in the relative amounts of fatty acids, acetic acid, and formic acid occurred within the first 5 min. Comparative gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the amounts of free methionine and alanine were significantly decreased in the treated cells, demonstrating their susceptibility to hypochlorite exposure. The concentrations of succinate, urea, orotic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, and 2-hydroxybutyric acid were also severely affected, indicating general changes in the metabolic network by hypochlorite. However, most metabolite levels relaxed to the reference values of untreated cells after 40–60 min, reflecting the capability of E. coli to rapidly adapt to environmental stress factors such as the presence of sub-lethal oxidant levels. PMID:25932918

  8. Optimization of dicarboxylic acid cellulose synthesis: reaction stoichiometry and role of hypochlorite scavengers.

    PubMed

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Visanko, Miikka; Niinimäki, Jouko

    2014-12-19

    The reaction conditions in terms of reaction time, sodium chlorite stoichiometry, and the effect of hypochlorite scavengers on the chlorite oxidation of dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) was studied. The impact of storage on the reactivity of DAC fibers was also investigated. It was found that chlorite oxidation of DAC is a rapid reaction, resulting in oxidation of 71% of the aldehyde after only 8 min when 2.5 times excess of sodium chlorite compared to aldehyde groups was used. Reactivity of DAC was observed to decrease quickly during the storage and only 68% of the aldehyde groups reacted after two weeks storage compared to the reaction performed with freshly prepared DAC. Hydrogen peroxide and sulfamic acid were observed to increase the reaction efficiency of chlorite oxidation by reducing the amount of side-reactions between chlorite and hypochlorite. A minor amount of sulfamic acid can be used to replace acetic acid as a catalyst. PMID:25263866

  9. Factors affecting lead release in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Emily; Payne, Sarah Jane O; Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions. Fractional factorial analysis revealed that alkalinity, natural organic matter and monochloramine had a significant positive effect on galvanic current. Natural organic matter and monochloramine also had a significant positive effect with respect to both total and dissolved lead release. For the treatment conditions examined, 67-98% of the lead released through galvanic currents was stored as corrosion scales and predominantly comprised of particulate lead (96.1-99.9%) for all eight treatments. The use of monochloramine and the presence of natural organic matter (7 mg L(-1)) were not favourable for corrosion control in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements, although further studies would be required to characterize optimal water quality parameters for specific water quality types. For utilities operating with sodium silicate as a corrosion inhibitor, this work offers further evidence regarding the consideration of chlorine as a secondary disinfectant instead of monochloramine, as well as the value of controlling natural organic matter in distributed water. PMID:26061205

  10. Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziany, Isabelle; André, Véronique Marie; Leclère, Nathalie; Hanon, Etienne; Ghisdal, Philippe; Wolff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Brivaracetam (BRV) is an antiepileptic drug in Phase III clinical development. BRV binds to synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein and is also suggested to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). To evaluate whether the effect of BRV on VGSCs represents a relevant mechanism participating in its antiepileptic properties, we explored the pharmacology of BRV on VGSCs in different cell systems and tested its efficacy at reducing the sustained repetitive firing (SRF). Methods Brivaracetam investigations on the voltage-gated sodium current (INa) were performed in N1E-155 neuroblastoma cells, cultured rat cortical neurons, and adult mouse CA1 neurons. SRF was measured in cultured cortical neurons and in CA1 neurons. All BRV (100–300 μM) experiments were performed in comparison with 100 μM carbamazepine (CBZ). Results Brivaracetam and CBZ reduced INa in N1E-115 cells (30% and 40%, respectively) and primary cortical neurons (21% and 47%, respectively) by modulating the fast-inactivated state of VGSCs. BRV, in contrast to CBZ, did not affect INa in CA1 neurons and SRF in cortical and CA1 neurons. CBZ consistently inhibited neuronal SRF by 75–93%. Conclusions The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID:25444522

  11. Analysis of hypochlorite process for removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Sodium hypochlorite reacts readily with hydrogen sulfide to convert the sulfide ion into free sulfur in a neutral or acid solution and to the sulfate ion in an alkaline solution. Sodium hypochlorite can be generated on site by processing geothermal brine in electrolytic cells. An investigation to determine if this reaction could be economically used to remove hydrogen sulfide from geothermal noncondensible gases is reported. Two processes, the LO-CAT Process and the Stretford Process, were selected for comparison with the hypochlorite process. Three geothermal reservoirs were considered for evaluation: Niland KGRA, Baca KGRA, and The Geysers KGRA. Because of the wide variation in the amount of hydrogen sulfide present at The Geysers, two different gas analyses were considered for treatment. Plants were designed to process the effluent noncondensible gases from a 10 MW/sub e/ geothermal power plant. The effluent gas from each plant was to contain a maximum hydrogen sulfide concentration of 35 ppb. Capital costs were estimated for each of the processes at each of the four sites selected. Operating costs were also calculated for each of the processes at each of the sites. The results of these studies are shown.

  12. Mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of sodium alginate onto modified clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yongxin; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian; Wang, Nan; Yu, Zhiming

    2013-07-01

    Algal organic materials (AOMs) are one critical factor affecting the efficiency of modified clays used for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This study was conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of AOMs onto modified clays. Sodium alginate (polysaccharide) and kaolinite modified with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used as AOMs and modified clay model substances, respectively, and the effects of modifier dosage, contact time, solution pH and ionic strength were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics revealed that the alginate adsorption rate was described well by a pseudo-second order model. PACl effectively enhanced the adsorption capacity of kaolinite and increased the adsorption rate, and the optimum additive amount of PACl was 5%. The experimental data fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations well. The adsorption thermodynamics for alginate onto modified clays suggests that alginate adsorption is a spontaneous process. The adsorption of alginate onto modified clays was highly dependent on pH, with a decrease in adsorption observed with increased pH to 9.48, but the opposite was true above pH 9.48. Finally, adsorption increased with increasing ionic strength.

  13. A comparison of hypochlorite and phenolic disinfectants for disinfection of clean and soiled surfaces and blood spillages.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, S F; Miller, E A

    1989-04-01

    Suspension test methods were used to compare phenolic and hypochlorite disinfectants under conditions as recommended for use in hospitals. Using plasma to simulate soiled conditions, Clearsol (1% v/v) and Stericol (2% v/v) produced satisfactory disinfection, (i.e. 5 log reduction in 5 mins against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of up to 50% v/v plasma (25 mg ml-1 plasma protein). Although sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) at 2500 ppm AvCl2 was effective in the presence of up to 20% plasma, compared to 10% plasma for sodium hypochlorite 2500 ppm, sensitivity of NaDCC to inactivation was greater than for phenolics. In the presence of blood, both hypochlorites and phenolics were substantially inactivated, although here the effectiveness of NaDCC at 10,000 ppm was equivalent to the phenolics. Our results indicate that hypochlorites at 10,000 ppm, Clearsol 1% and Stericol 2% may be ineffective for treatment of blood spills unless applied at v:v ratios of 9 parts disinfectant to 1 part blood. In this situation, chlorine-releasing powder formulations, which produce higher AvCl2 concentrations and contain spilled material, offer an effective alternative. PMID:2567752

  14. Sodium and water intake are not affected by GABAC receptor activation in the lateral parabrachial nucleus of sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Domingos-Souza, Gean; Meschiari, Cesar Arruda; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Callera, João Carlos; Antunes-Rodrigues, José

    2016-07-01

    The activation of GABAergic receptors, GABAA and GABAB, in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases water and sodium intake in satiated and fluid-depleted rats. The present study investigated the presence of the GABAC receptor in the LPBN, its involvement in water and sodium intake, and its effects on cardiovascular parameters during the acute fluid depletion induced by furosemide combined with captopril (Furo/Cap). One group of male Wistar rats (290-300g) with bilateral stainless steel LPBN cannulas was used to test the effects of a GABAC receptor agonist and antagonist on the fluid intake and cardiovascular parameters. We investigated the effects of bilateral LPBN injections of trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) on the intake of water and 0.3M NaCl induced by acute fluid depletion (subcutaneous injection of Furo/Cap). c-Fos expression increased (P<0.05), suggesting LPBN neuronal activation. The injection of different doses of TACA (0.5, 2.0 and 160 nmol) in the LPBN did not change the sodium or water intake in Furo/Cap-treated rats (P>0.05). Treatment with the GABAC receptor antagonist (Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid sulfate (ZAPA, 10nmol) or with ZAPA (10nmol) plus TACA (160nmol) did not change the sodium or water intake compared with that for vehicle (saline) (P>0.05). Bilateral injections of the GABAC agonist in the LPBN of Furo/Cap-treated rats did not affect the mean arterial pressure (MAP) or heart rate (HR). The GABAC receptor expression in the LPBN was confirmed by the presence of a 50kDa band. Although LPBN neurons might express GABAC receptors, their activation produced no change in water and sodium intake or in the cardiovascular parameters in the acute fluid depletion rats. Therefore, the GABAC receptors in the LPBN might not interfere with fluid and blood pressure regulation. PMID:26970564

  15. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  16. Dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate affects the toxicity of wastewater contaminated with copper, cadmium, nickel, or zinc.

    PubMed

    Oh, So-Rin; Kim, Jung-Kon; Lee, Min-Jung; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-04-01

    Sodium thiosulfate is recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for dechlorination of the effluent samples containing residual chlorines before the toxicity testing. For samples contaminated with residual chlorine and metals, e.g., Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II); however, metal toxicity as measured with Daphnia magna was reduced even at approximately half the recommended amount of sodium thiosulfate. Formation of metal-thiosulfate complexes that are less bioavailable may explain the apparent reduction of metal toxicity. In contrast, for samples spiked with Zn(II), dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate increased toxicity. The use of sodium thiosulfate for dechlorination should be cautioned when the sample under the bioassay is potentially contaminated with metals. PMID:18214916

  17. The chemistry of the hypochlorite neutralization of hydrazine fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Neutralization of hydrazine fuels with hypochlorite is a recommended procedure for the treatment of fuel spills prior to disposal. Various research workers have shown, however, that incomplete reaction of hypochlorite with the methylated hydrazine fuels monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine leads to a wide variety of byproducts, including N-nitrosoalkylamines. The known reaction products and mechanisms are reviewed and summarized. 23 refs.

  18. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  19. Modifiable variables affecting interdialytic weight gain include dialysis time, frequency, and dialysate sodium.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Benjamin K A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Huang, Shi-Han S; Leitch, Rosemary E; Suri, Rita S; Chan, Christopher T; Lindsay, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and all-cause mortality. Dialysate sodium concentration may cause diffusion gradients with plasma sodium and influence subsequent IDWG. Dialysis time and frequency may also influence the outcomes of this Na(+) gradient; these have been overlooked. Our objective was to identify modifiable factors influencing IDWG. We performed a retrospective multivariable regression analyses of data from 86 home hemodialysis patients treated by hemodialysis modalities differing in frequency and session duration to determine factors involved that predict IDWG. Age, diabetic status, and residual renal function did not correlate with IDWG in the univariable analysis. However, using a combination of backwards selection and Akaike information criterion to build our model, we created an equation that predicted IDWG on the basis of serum albumin, age, patient sex, dialysis frequency, and the diffusive balance of sodium, represented by the product of the duration of dialysis and the patient plasma to dialysate Na(+) gradient. This equation was internally validated using bootstrapping, and externally validated in a temporally distinct patient population. We have created an equation to predict IDWG on the basis of independent factors readily available before a dialysis session. The modifiable factors include dialysis time and frequency, and dialysate sodium. Patient sex, age, and serum albumin are also correlated with IDWG. Further work is required to establish how improvements in IDWG influence cardiovascular and other clinical outcomes. PMID:23782770

  20. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  1. Insulin affects the sodium affinity of the rat adipocyte (Na ,K )-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Lytton, J.

    1985-08-25

    The K0.5 for intracellular sodium of the two forms of (Na ,K )-ATPase which exist in rat adipocytes has been determined by incubating the cells in the absence of potassium in buffers of varying sodium concentration; these conditions shut off the Na pump and allow sodium to equilibrate into the cell. The activity of (Na ,K )-ATPase was then monitored with YWRb /K pumping which was initiated by adding isotope and KCl to 5 mM, followed by a 3-min uptake period. Atomic absorption and SSNa tracer equilibration were used to determine the actual intracellular (Na ) under the different conditions. The K0.5 values thus obtained were 17 mM for alpha and 52 mM for alpha(+). Insulin treatment of rat adipocytes had no effect on the intracellular (Na+) nor on the Vmax of YWRb /K pumping, but did produce a shift in the sodium ion K0.5 values to 14 mM for alpha and 33 mM for alpha(+). This change in affinity can explain the selective stimulation of alpha(+) by insulin under normal incubation conditions.

  2. Hypochlorite, oxidative modification of plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Panasenko, O M; Sergienko, V I

    2001-05-01

    Hypochlorite produced in vivo by activated neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages modifies blood lipoproteins and intensifies free radical lipid peroxidation, which probably plays a key role in the early stages of atherosclerotic vascular damages. PMID:11550040

  3. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. PMID:27297000

  4. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  5. Dietary sodium intake deleteriously affects blood pressure in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Chateau-Degat, M L; Ferland, A; Déry, S; Dewailly, E

    2012-04-01

    Western dietary pattern, and particularly high dietary sodium intake (DSI), is recognized for its detrimental impact on blood pressure (BP). This paper examined the association of DSI with BP in Nunavik Inuit (Québec), a population known to have an optimal BP on average. In a population-based study, we recruited 421 normotensive participants aged 18-74 years from 14 coastal villages, situated north of the 55th parallel. BP, biochemistry and anthropometry were obtained. DSI was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall. Mean (s.e.) DSI was higher in men than in women (2358 (101) vs. 1702 (100) mg/d, P<0.0001). Similar gender difference was found in systolic BP (118 (0.7) vs. 111 (0.6) mm Hg; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, we found a positive association between BP and DSI (all P<0.05). In a normotensive population, BP shows a linear relationship with DSI. Our results emphasize the potent deleterious impact of DSI on BP. PMID:22333870

  6. Dietary Sodium Reduction Does Not Affect Circulating Glucose Concentrations in Fasting Children or Adults: Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena M; Cobb, Paul; Saydah, Sharon; Zhang, Xuanping; de Jesus, Janet M; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although evidence shows that reduced sodium intake lowers blood pressure, some studies suggest that sodium reduction may adversely affect insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. Objectives: The objectives were to assess the effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance, evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the relevant scientific literature, and provide direction for future research. Methods: We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science through August 2014. Both randomized and nonrandomized intervention trials were included in our meta-analyses. The effects of sodium reduction on glucose tolerance were evaluated in 37 articles, but because of a lack of comparable data, 8 trials were excluded from the meta-analyses. Results: Participants were 10–79 y old, either primarily healthy or with hypertension. In meta-analyses of 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 504 participants) and 9 nonrandomized crossover trials (n = 337), circulating glucose concentrations of fasting participants were not affected by reduction in sodium intake. In contrast, in meta-analyses of 19 of the 20 randomized, crossover trials (n = 494), fasting insulin concentrations were 9.53 pmol/L higher (95% CI: 5.04, 14.02 pmol/L higher) with sodium reduction. In 9 nonrandomized trials (n = 337), fasting insulin did not differ with reduced sodium intake. Results differed little when the analyses were restricted to studies with a low risk of bias and duration of ≥7 d. Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed no evidence that, in trials with a short intervention and large reductions in sodium, circulating glucose concentrations differed between groups. Recommendations for future studies include extending intervention durations, ensuring comparability of groups at baseline through randomization, and assessing sodium intakes relevant to population sodium reduction. In addition, analyses on other metabolic variables were limited because of the number of

  7. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  8. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

    1993-05-13

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1054 - Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1054 Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Calcium hypochlorite is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used preharvest...

  10. Growth of Bacillus cereus on solid media as affected by agar, sodium chloride, and potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Stecchini, M L; Del Torre, M; Donda, S; Maltini, E

    2000-07-01

    The effect of two independent variables: microstructure, as modified by the agar content (1.0, 4.0, 7.0%), and water activity (a(w)), as modified by the NaCl content (0.5, 2.5, 4.5%), in the absence or in the presence of potassium sorbate (0.0; 2,000 ppm) on Bacillus cereus growth on solid media was studied. The time to visible growth (TVG) and the radial growth rate (RGR) of colonies were evaluated. TVG was not affected by microstructure and K-sorbate, although when a(w) was reduced, TVG tended to increase. RGR depended on linear effects of microstructure and a(w) variables and their interaction. When K-sorbate was added to cultural media, RGR was reduced significantly. However, in the presence of K-sorbate, RGR was found to change only when a(w) vas varied. PMID:10914662

  11. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples. PMID:26255668

  12. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. )

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  13. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, Elizabeth G.; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum ‘white’ light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these ‘light-intolerant’ bat species. PMID:27008274

  14. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19615738

  15. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    PubMed

    Rowse, Elizabeth G; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species. PMID:27008274

  16. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  17. Evaluation of hypochlorite-releasing disinfectants against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, S F; Smith-Burchnell, C A; Dalgleish, A G

    1990-04-01

    Using a quantitative suspension test method, the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was investigated. Viral suspensions were prepared containing 10(4)-10(5) syncitial forming units ml-1 in 0.9% saline or 0.9% saline containing 10% v/v plasma to simulate clean and dirty conditions. A syncitial inhibition assay on C8166 lymphoblastoid line was used to determine viral titre. Results indicate that satisfactory disinfection (3-4 log reduction in 2 min) can be achieved using NaDCC and NaOCl at concentrations of 50 ppm and 2500 ppm available chlorine (AvCl2) for clean and soiled conditions respectively. For treatment of blood spillages, the addition of NaDCC and NaOCl solutions (10,000 ppm) to equal volumes of contaminated blood (giving a final AvCl2 concentration of 5000 ppm of blood) was sufficient to produce total kill within 2 min. For treatment of spillage material, chlorine-releasing powder formulations--which produce higher AVCl2 concentrations and achieve containment of spillage material--offer an effective alternative. PMID:1971634

  18. Uses of inorganic hypochlorite (bleach) in health-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    1997-10-01

    Hypochlorite has been used as a disinfectant for more than 100 years. It has many of the properties of an ideal disinfectant, including a broad antimicrobial activity, rapid bactericidal action, reasonable persistence in treated potable water, ease of use, solubility in water, relative stability, relative nontoxicity at use concentrations, no poisonous residuals, no color, no staining, and low cost. The active species is undissociated hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Hypochlorites are lethal to most microbes, although viruses and vegetative bacteria are more susceptible than endospore-forming bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Activity is reduced by the presence of heavy metal ions, a biofilm, organic material, low temperature, low pH, or UV radiation. Clinical uses in health-care facilities include hyperchlorination of potable water to prevent Legionella colonization, chlorination of water distribution systems used in hemodialysis centers, cleaning of environmental surfaces, disinfection of laundry, local use to decontaminate blood spills, disinfection of equipment, decontamination of medical waste prior to disposal, and dental therapy. Despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants, hypochlorites continue to find wide use in hospitals. PMID:9336664

  19. Uses of inorganic hypochlorite (bleach) in health-care facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    1997-01-01

    Hypochlorite has been used as a disinfectant for more than 100 years. It has many of the properties of an ideal disinfectant, including a broad antimicrobial activity, rapid bactericidal action, reasonable persistence in treated potable water, ease of use, solubility in water, relative stability, relative nontoxicity at use concentrations, no poisonous residuals, no color, no staining, and low cost. The active species is undissociated hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Hypochlorites are lethal to most microbes, although viruses and vegetative bacteria are more susceptible than endospore-forming bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Activity is reduced by the presence of heavy metal ions, a biofilm, organic material, low temperature, low pH, or UV radiation. Clinical uses in health-care facilities include hyperchlorination of potable water to prevent Legionella colonization, chlorination of water distribution systems used in hemodialysis centers, cleaning of environmental surfaces, disinfection of laundry, local use to decontaminate blood spills, disinfection of equipment, decontamination of medical waste prior to disposal, and dental therapy. Despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants, hypochlorites continue to find wide use in hospitals. PMID:9336664

  20. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  1. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Biver, Carl J.; Langebrake, Larry

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg -1) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg -1) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions.

  2. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  3. Evaluation of the effects of hypochlorite solutions in the decontamination of wounds exposed to either vx or sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, D.W.; Snider, T.H.; Korte, D.W.

    1993-05-13

    The decontamination safety and efficacy of aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite Ca(OC1)2 against sulfur mustard (HD) and the organophosphonate O-ethyl S-(2-Diisopropylnmino)-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) were examined in the New Zealand White rabbit. Tests on shaved rabbit dorsa indicated moderate irritation due to either NaOC1 or Ca(OCI)2 at 5 percent but no appreciable irritation at 0.5 percent concentrations. Against VX applied topically on shaved rabbit dorsa, significant protection, as indicated by higher 24-hr median lethality doses, was afforded by 0.5 and 5.0 percent NaOC1. However, when VX was applied either directly into a dermal wound or onto a swatch of fabric sampled from battle dress uniform (BDU) and subsequently placed into a wound, only 5.0 percent NaOC1 offered significant protection. Against HD, 0.5 and 5.0 percent NaOC1 were equally effective decontaminants as indexed by dermal lesion areas resulting from 1- to 60-min exposures. Neither NaOC1 solution demonstrated sustained efficacy against HD applied on fabric and placed in wounds.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1054 - Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1054 Section 180.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... postharvest in solution on all raw agricultural commodities. (b) Calcium hypochlorite is exempted from...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1054 - Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcium hypochlorite; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1054 Section 180.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... postharvest in solution on all raw agricultural commodities. (b) Calcium hypochlorite is exempted from...

  6. Use of hypochlorite solution to decrease rates of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Kathleen M; Zack, Jeanne; Coopersmith, Craig M; Kollef, Marin; Dubberke, Erik; Warren, David K

    2007-02-01

    An increased rate of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) was noted in 2 intensive care units of a university-affiliated tertiary care facility. One unit instituted enhanced environmental cleaning with a hypochlorite solution in all rooms, whereas the other unit used hypochlorite solution only in rooms of patients with CDAD. The CDAD rates decreased in both units. PMID:17265404

  7. 40 CFR 180.1300 - Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1300 Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1300 - Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1300 Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1300 - Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1300 Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1300 - Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1300 Potassium hypochlorite; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of...

  11. Identification of a Hypochlorite-specific Transcription Factor from Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Gebendorfer, Katharina M.; Drazic, Adrian; Le, Yan; Gundlach, Jasmin; Bepperling, Alexander; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Ganzinger, Kristina A.; Braun, Nathalie; Franzmann, Titus M.; Winter, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Hypochlorite is a powerful oxidant produced by neutrophils to kill invading microorganisms. Despite this important physiological role of HOCl in fighting bacterial infections, no hypochlorite-specific stress response has been identified yet. Here, we identified a hypochlorite-responsive transcription factor, YjiE, which is conserved in proteobacteria and eukaryotes. YjiE forms unusual dodecameric ring-like structures in vitro that undergo large DNA-induced conformational changes to form dimers and tetramers as shown by transmission electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. Such smaller oligomers are predominant in hypochlorite-stressed cells and are the active species as shown by fluorescence anisotropy and analytical ultracentrifugation. YjiE regulates a large number of genes upon hypochlorite stress. Among them are genes involved in cysteine, methionine biosynthesis, and sulfur metabolism (up-regulated) and genes involved in iron acquisition and homeostasis (down-regulated), thus supposedly replenishing oxidized metabolites and decreasing the hypochlorite-mediated amplification of intracellular reactive oxygen species. As a result, YjiE specifically confers hypochlorite resistance to E. coli cells. Thus, to our knowledge, YjiE is the first described hypochlorite-specific transcription factor. PMID:22223481

  12. A mutation affecting the sodium/proton exchanger, SLC9A6, causes mental retardation with tau deposition

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Manuela; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Feldman, Gerald; Norris, Joy W.; Friez, Michael J.; Schwartz, Charles E.; Stevenson, Roger; Sima, Anders A. F.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied a family with severe mental retardation characterized by the virtual absence of speech, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, late-onset ataxia, weakness and dystonia. Post-mortem examination of two males revealed widespread neuronal loss, with the most striking finding being neuronal and glial tau deposition in a pattern reminiscent of corticobasal degeneration. Electron microscopic examination of isolated tau filaments demonstrated paired helical filaments and ribbon-like structures. Biochemical studies of tau demonstrated a preponderance of 4R tau isoforms. The phenotype was linked to Xq26.3, and further analysis identified an in-frame 9 base pair deletion in the solute carrier family 9, isoform A6 (SLC9A6 gene), which encodes sodium/hydrogen exchanger-6 localized to endosomal vesicles. Sodium/hydrogen exchanger-6 is thought to participate in the targeting of intracellular vesicles and may be involved in recycling synaptic vesicles. The striking tau deposition in our subjects reveals a probable interaction between sodium/proton exchangers and cytoskeletal elements involved in vesicular transport, and raises the possibility that abnormalities of vesicular targeting may play an important role in more common disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20395263

  13. The Selective Use of Hypochlorite to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algae-Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    Park, Sichoon; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Pradeep, Priya; Igou, Thomas; Yi, Christine; Snell, Terry; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Although algae-biofuels have many advantages including high areal productivity, algae can be preyed upon by amoebas, protozoans, ciliates, and rotifers, particularly in open pond systems. Thus, these higher organisms need to be controlled. In this study, Chlorella kessleri was used as the algal culture and Brachionus calyciflorus as the source of predation. The effect of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) was tested with the goal of totally inhibiting the rotifer while causing minor inhibition to the alga. The 24-hr LC(50) for B. calyciflorus in spring water was 0.198 mg Cl/L while the 24-hr LC(50) for C. kessleri was 0.321 mg Cl/L. However, chlorine dissipates rapidly as the algae serves as reductant. Results showed a chlorine dosage between 0.45 to 0.6 mg Cl/L and a dosing interval of two hours created the necessary chlorine concentrations to inhibit predation while letting the algae grow; thus giving algae farmers a tool to prevent pond crashes. PMID:26803029

  14. The mechanism of the hypochlorite-induced lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Panasenko, O M

    1997-01-01

    The article reviews data related to the role of exogenic hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl-) and hypochlorite produced by myeloperoxidase catalysis in initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in phospholipid membranes and human blood lipoproteins (LP). It has been shown that HOCl/OCl- promotes free radical lipid oxidation in liposomes and LP that is followed by the formation of LPO products; hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes, TBARS, and fluorescent products. Water soluble reactive substances (.O2-, H2O2, Fe2+) which can be present in the reaction mixture as a dopant are not the source of free radicals and do not participate in HOCl/OCl(-)-induced LPO at the initiation step. The main reaction of HOCl/OCl- with unsaturated lipid is probably the generation of chlorohydrins. However, this reaction is not accompanied by generation of free radicals and LPO. HOCl/OCl- reacts efficiently with TBARS of aldehydic nature. It is likely that the reaction proceeds without the participation of free radicals. Among the compounds of a peroxide nature (hydro-, dialkyl-, diacyl-, alkyl-acyl-peroxide groups and epoxides) only hydroperoxides react with HOCl/OCl-. This reaction is accompanied by the production of free radicals (but not singlet oxygen), probably alkoxyl radicals, which may play a role in the initiation of HOCl/OCl(-)-induced LPO. PMID:9260000

  15. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, C L; Pattison, D I; Davies, M J

    2003-12-01

    Activated phagocytes generate the potent oxidant hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl is known to react with a number of biological targets including proteins, DNA, lipids and cholesterol. Proteins are likely to be major targets for reaction with HOCl within a cell due to their abundance and high reactivity with HOCl. This review summarizes information on the rate of reaction of HOCl with proteins, the nature of the intermediates formed, the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and the products of these reactions. The predicted targets for reaction with HOCl from kinetic modeling studies and the consequences of HOCl-induced protein oxidation are also discussed. PMID:14661089

  16. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  17. Acidified sodium chlorite as an alternative to chlorine for elimination of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disadvantage associated with the use of chlorine for food processing and water treatment had been documented previously. This study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) could be used to replace calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] for disinfection of alfalfa seeds. Seeds co...

  18. Treatability of manganese by sodium silicate and chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.B.; Ronk, S.K. )

    1987-11-01

    Manganese sequestering by nearly simultaneous additions of sodium silicate and sodium hypochlorite was studied in laboratory-prepared waters. Under conditions of near-neutral pH and 150-250 mg/liter of alkalinity as CaCO{sub 3}, 1-2 mg manganese/liter could be sequestered for up to one day. Less effective manganese treatability was found at pH 8 than at pH 7. Additionally, at pH 7 the best results were obtained when neither silicate nor hypochlorite was added because of the slow manganese oxidation rate by oxygen alone. Aging of diluted stock silicate solutions prior to dosing also resulted in poor treatment; the presence of background silica increased the treatment effectiveness only slightly. Overall, manganese was less treatable by this method than iron under the same treatment conditions.

  19. Sodium houttuyfonate affects production of N-acyl homoserine lactone and quorum sensing-regulated genes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Daqiang; Huang, Weifeng; Duan, Qiangjun; Li, Fang; Cheng, Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa. PMID:25505457

  20. Sequential acquisition of cacophony calcium currents, sodium channels and voltage-dependent potassium currents affects spike shape and dendrite growth during postembryonic maturation of an identified Drosophila motoneuron

    PubMed Central

    Ryglewski, Stefanie; Kilo, Lukas; Duch, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    During metamorphosis the CNS undergoes profound changes to accommodate the switch from larval to adult behaviors. In Drosophila and other holometabolous insects, adult neurons differentiate either from respecified larval neurons, newly born neurons, or are born embryonically but remain developmentally arrested until differentiation during pupal life. This study addresses the latter in the identified Drosophila flight motoneuron 5. In situ patch-clamp recordings, intracellular dye fills and immunocytochemistry address the interplay between dendritic shape, excitability and ionic current development. During pupal life, changes in excitability and spike shape correspond to a stereotyped, progressive appearance of voltage-gated ion channels. High-voltage-activated calcium current is the first current to appear at pupal stage P4, prior to the onset of dendrite growth. This is followed by voltage-gated sodium as well as transient potassium channel expression, when first dendrites grow, and sodium-dependent action potentials can be evoked by somatic current injection. Sustained potassium current appears later than transient potassium current. During the early stages of rapid dendritic growth, sodium-dependent action potentials are broadened by a calcium component. Narrowing of spike shape coincides with sequential increases in transient and sustained potassium currents during stages when dendritic growth ceases. Targeted RNAi knockdown of pupal calcium current significantly reduces dendritic growth. These data indicate that the stereotyped sequential acquisition of different voltage-gated ion channels affects spike shape and excitability such that activity-dependent calcium influx serves as a partner of genetic programs during critical stages of motoneuron dendrite growth. PMID:24620836

  1. Dietary inulin affects the morphology but not the sodium-dependent glucose and glutamine transport in the jejunum of broilers.

    PubMed

    Rehman, H; Rosenkranz, C; Böhm, J; Zentek, J

    2007-01-01

    Inulin, a prebiotic, is a fermentable oligosaccharide that may affect the intestinal mucosal architecture and the electrophysiological parameters. The effects of a diet with added inulin were tested on the jejunal morphology and electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln from the jejunal mucosa in broilers. Short-circuit current and transmucosal tissue resistance of jejunal flaps were measured in Ussing chambers. The feeding experiment was carried out in broilers (n = 40) using 1% inulin with an application period of 5 wk. The inulin-containing diet resulted in longer jejunal villi (P < 0.05) and deeper crypts (P < 0.01) than in control birds without affecting villus:crypt depth. Basal short-circuit current value remained unaffected by dietary treatment. Inulin supplementation did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and Gln in the jejunal mucosa. The basal value of transmucosal tissue resistance was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the inulin-fed group compared with the control group. In conclusion, inulin supplementation affected the jejunal mucosal architecture but did not modify the electrogenic transport of Glc and amino acid under present experimental condition. PMID:17179425

  2. Ratiometric Signaling of Hypochlorite by the Oxidative Cleavage of Sulfonhydrazide-Based Rhodamine-Dansyl Dyad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    A reaction-based probe 1 for hypochlorite signaling was designed by the conjugation of two fluorophores, rhodamine and dansyl moieties, by the reaction of rhodamine B base with dansylhydrazine. Probe 1 exhibited pronounced hypochlorite-selective chromogenic and fluorescent signaling behavior over other oxidants used in practical applications, such as hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and ammonium persulfate, as well as commonly encountered metal ions and anions. Signaling was attributed to the hypochlorite-induced oxidative cleavage of the sulfonhydrazide linkage of the probe. In particular, favorable ratiometric fluorescence signaling was possible by utilizing the emissions of the two fluorophores. A detection limit of 1.13 × 10(-6) M (0.058 ppm) was estimated for the determination of hypochlorite. A paper-based test strip was prepared and was used as a semiquantitative indicator for the presence of hypochlorite in aqueous solutions. The probe was also successfully applied for the determination of hypochlorite in practical tap water samples. PMID:26313428

  3. Zinc-Dithizone Complex Engineered Upconverting Nanosensors for the Detection of Hypochlorite in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Deng, Wei; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Jing, Huarong; Du, Guoqing; Wu, Ming; Li, Bing Nan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-09-16

    Current chemo/biosensors for hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite detections are usually limited to the submicromolar level because of their insufficient sensitivity, which is a problem because the concentrations in biological matrices is generally on the nanomolar scale or even lower. Developing a probe with a high enough sensitivity remains a challenge. Using the minimal background fluorescence of upconversion nanocrystals to our advantage, we herein report on an energy-transfer mechanism-based upconversion luminescent nanosensor for the sensitive and selective detection of hypochlorite in aqueous solution. In this nanosensor water-dispersible upconversion nanoparticles act as the energy donor and a novel hypochlorite-responsive coordination complex Zn(DZ)3 is employed as the energy acceptor. The quenched upconversion luminescence, induced by the Zn(DZ)3 complex, can be efficiently recovered after addition of hypochlorite through the selective oxidative breakage of the Zn-S-C bonds in the Zn(DZ)3 complex, which was verified by mass spectrometry. The detection limit for hypochlorite of this sensing system is as low as 3 nM. Furthermore, this newly coordination-complex engineered upconversion nanosensor is successfully applied to image different amounts of exogenous hypochlorite in living HeLa cells. PMID:26150405

  4. Dietary sodium selenite affects host intestinal and systemic immune response and disease susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Z; Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Bravo, D

    2015-01-01

    1. This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary dietary selenium (Se) given as sodium selenite on host immune response against necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broiler chickens. 2. Chicks were fed from hatching on a non-supplemented diet or diets supplemented with different levels of Se (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 Se mg/kg). To induce NE, broiler chickens were orally infected with Eimeria maxima at 14 d of age and then with Clostridium perfringens 4 d later using our previously established NE disease model. 3. NE-associated clinical signs and host protective immunity were determined by body weight changes, intestinal lesion scores, and serum antibodies against α-toxin and necrotic enteritis B (NetB) toxin. The effects of dietary Se on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8LITAF (lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα-factor), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) SF15, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7), and avian β-defensins (AvBD) 6, 8, and 13 (following NE infection) were analysed in the intestine and spleen. 4. The results showed that dietary supplementation of newly hatched broiler chicks with 0.25 Se mg/kg from hatch significantly reduced NE-induced gut lesions compared with infected birds given a non-supplemented diet. The levels of serum antibody against the NetB toxin in the chicks fed with 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg Se were significantly higher than the non-supplemented control group. The transcripts for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, LITAF, and GPx7, as well as AvBD6, 8, and 13 were increased in the intestine and spleen of Se-supplemented groups, whereas transcript for TNFSF15 was decreased in the intestine. 5. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with optimum levels of Se exerted beneficial effects on host immune response to NE and reduced negative consequence of NE-induced immunopathology. PMID:25387235

  5. Inactivation of Ichthyophonus spores using sodium hypochlorite and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Pacheco, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorine and iodine solutions were effective at inactivating Ichthyophonus spores in vitro. Inactivation in sea water increased directly with halogen concentration and exposure duration, with significant differences (P < 0.05) from controls occurring at all chlorine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.5-13.3 ppm for 1-60 min) and at most iodine concentrations and exposure durations tested (1.2 ppm for 60 min and 5.9-10.7 ppm for 1-60 min). However, 10-fold reductions in spore viability occurred only after exposure to halogen solutions at higher concentrations and/or longer durations (13 ppm total chlorine for 1-60 min, 5.9 ppm total iodine for 60 min, and 10.7 ppm total iodine for 1-60 min). Inactivation efficacy was greater when halogen solutions were prepared in fresh water, presumably because of combined effects of halogen-induced inactivation and general spore instability in fresh water. The results have practical implications for disinfection and biocontainment in research laboratories and other facilities that handle live Ichthyophonus cultures and/or infected fish.

  6. IN VIVO FORMATION OF HALOGENATED REACTION PRODUCTS FOLLOWING PERORAL SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date the principal concern of the disinfection of potable water has centered on the formation of halogenated organic reaction products and the adverse health effects that these products may have. However, an additional area for concern relating to water disinfection is the pot...

  7. Anodic behavior of platinized titanium electrodes during the production of sodium hypochlorite solutions from natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, L.A.; Khodkevich, S.D.; Yakimenko, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained radiometrically are presented which relate to the influence of current density, temperature, and salinity of the electrolyte on the anodic dissolution rate of platinum sheet and of the platinum coating of platinized titanium electrodes in natural waters of different composition. The influence of current interruptions on the wear of the platinum coatings is estimated. The anodic dissolution rates of two forms of platinum coatings are compared, viz., freshly deposited and after prolonged prior polarization.

  8. Storage time influences salmonella sensitivity to irradiation and sodium hypochlorite on leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of leafy green vegetables with human pathogens is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Bacteria in mature microbial communities such as biofilms are relatively resistant to chemical treatments, but little is known about the response of leaf surface biofilms to irradiation. Lea...

  9. Nitrite attenuated peroxynitrite and hypochlorite generation in activated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoming; Ding, Yun; Lu, Naihao

    2016-03-15

    Oxidative stress is usually considered as an important factor to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorite (OCl(-)) are formed in immune cells as a part of the innate host defense system, but excessive reactive oxygen species generation can cause progressive inflammation and tissue damage. It has been proven that through mediating nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis, inorganic nitrite (NO2(-)) shows organ-protective effects on oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the effects of NO2(-) on the function of immune cells were still not clear. The potential role of NO2(-) in modulating ONOO(-) and OCl(-) generation in neutrophil cells was investigated in this study. As an immune cell activator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased both ONOO(-) and OCl(-) production in neutrophils, which was significantly attenuated by NO2(-). NO2(-) reduced superoxide (O2(·-)) generation via a NO-dependent mechanism and increased NO formation in activated neutrophils, suggesting a crucial role of O2(·-) in NO2(-)-mediated reduction of ONOO(-). Moreover, the reduced effect of NO2(-) on OCl(-) production was attributed to that NO2(-) reduced H2O2 production in activated neutrophils without influencing the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), thus limiting OCl(-) production by MPO/H2O2 system. Therefore, NO2(-) attenuates ONOO(-) and OCl(-) formation in activated neutrophils, opening a new direction to modulate the inflammatory response. PMID:26854590

  10. Comparative toxicity of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions to mosquitofish

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.

    1981-07-01

    We examined the relative toxicity of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the hypochlorite ion (OCl/sup -/) by exposing mosquitofish Gambusia affinis for 1 hour to predominantly free residual chlorine (FRC) at six levels of pH following a 7-day acclimation to the test pH. Median lethal concentrations (LC50), in terms of total residual chlorine (TRC), increased with increasing pH. Because of the influence of hydrogen ion concentration on dissociation of HOCl, the percent of FRC present as HOCl is about 97% and 13%, respectively, at the low and high pH. Cursory examination of toxicity of monochloramine (NH/sub 2/Cl) and mixtures of NH/sub 2/Cl and dichloramine (NHCl/sub 2/) suggested that their contributions to toxicity were negligible at any test pH. Free residual chlorine concentrations at the LC50 for each pH were fitted to a theoretical model derived from an assumption that toxicities of HOCl and OCl/sup -/ were additive.

  11. High dietary intake of sodium selenite does not affect gene mutation frequency in rat colon and liver.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Uthus, Eric O; Ross, Sharon A; Davis, Cindy D

    2009-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is protective against dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions, and protection against DNA damage has been hypothesized to be one mechanism for the anticancer effect of Se. The present study was designed to determine whether dietary selenite affects somatic mutation frequency in vivo. We used the Big Blue transgenic model to evaluate the in vivo mutation frequency of the cII gene in rats fed either a Se-deficient (0 microg Se/g diet) or Se-supplemented diet (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet; n = 3 rats/diet in experiment 1 and n = 5 rats/group in experiment 2) and injected with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). There were no significant differences in body weight between the Se-deficient and Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) rats, but the activities of liver glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase and concentration of liver Se were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in Se-deficient rats compared to rats supplemented with Se. We found no effect of dietary Se on liver 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Gene mutation frequency was significantly lower in liver (p < 0.001) than that of colon regardless of dietary Se. However, there were no differences in gene mutation frequency in DNA from colon mucosa or liver from rats fed the Se-deficient diet compared to those fed the Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) diet. Although gene mutations have been implicated in the etiology of cancer, our data suggest that decreasing gene mutation is not likely a key mechanism through which dietary selenite exerts its anticancer action against DMH-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions in a Big Blue transgenic rat model. PMID:19263001

  12. Use of pyrogallol red and pyranine as probes to evaluate antioxidant capacities towards hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, Fernanda; Cortés, Contanza; Atala, Elias; Bohle, Pamela; Valenzuela, Francisco; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Speisky, Hernán; Aspée, Alexis; Lissi, Eduardo; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Bridi, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Hypochlorite is a strong oxidant able to induce deleterious effects in biological systems. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of PGR and PYR as probes in assays aimed at evaluating antioxidant activities towards hypochorite and apply it to plant extracts employed in Chilean folk medicine. The consumption of PGR and PYR was evaluated from the decrease in the visible absorbance and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin Ciocalteau assay. PGR and PYR react with hypochlorite with different kinetics, being considerably faster the consumption of PGR. Different stoichiometric values were also determined: 0.7 molecules of PGR and 0.33 molecules of PYR were bleached per each molecule of added hypochlorite. Both probes were protected by antioxidants, but the rate of PGR bleaching was too fast to perform a kinetic analysis. For PYR, the protection took place without changes in its initial consumption rate, suggesting a competition between the dye and the antioxidant for hypochlorite. Plant extracts protected PYR giving a PYR-HOCl index that follows the order: Fuchsia magellanica ≈ Marrubium vulgare ≈ Tagetes minuta > Chenopodium ambrosoides ≈ Satureja montana > Thymus praecox. Based on both the kinetic data and the protection afforded by pure antioxidants, we selected PYR as the best probe. The proposed methodology allows evaluating an antioxidant capacity index of plant extracts related to the reactivity of the samples towards hypochlorite. PMID:23358322

  13. [Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

    1989-01-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form

  14. Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

  15. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Induction to Characterize and Map Sodium-Affected Soils in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Heilig, J.; Kempenich, J.; Doolittle, J.; Ulmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sodium-affected soils (SAS) cover over 4 million hectares in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Improving the classification, interpretation, and mapping of SAS is a major goal of the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) as Northern Great Plains soil surveys are updated. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as measured with ground conductivity meters has shown promise for mapping SAS, however, this use of this geophysical tool needs additional evaluation. This study used an EM-38 MK2-2 meter (Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario), a Trimble AgGPS 114 L-band DGPS (Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA) and the RTmap38MK2 program (Geomar Software, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario) on an Allegro CX field computer (Juniper Systems, North Logan, UT) to collect, observe, and interpret ECa data in the field. The ECa map generated on-site was then used to guide collection of soil samples for soil characterization and to evaluate the influence of soil properties in SAS on ECa as measured with the EM-38MK2-2. Stochastic models contained in the ESAP software package were used to estimate the SAR and salinity levels from the measured ECa data in 30 cm depth intervals to a depth of 90 cm and for the bulk soil (0 to 90 cm). This technique showed promise, with meaningful spatial patterns apparent in the ECa data. However, many of the stochastic models used for salinity and SAR for individual depth intervals and for the bulk soil had low R-squared values. At both sites, significant variability in soil clay and water contents along with a small number of soil samples taken to calibrate the ECa values to soil properties likely contributed to these low R-squared values.

  16. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. Antimicrobial Efficacy and Cytocompatibility of Calcium Hypochlorite Solution as a Root Canal Irrigant: An in Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sedigh-Shams, Mahdi; Gholami, Ahmad; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Yazdanparast, Roohollah; Saberi Nejad, Milad; Safari, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (SH) and calcium hypochlorite (CH) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis and also to compare their cytocompatibility on L929 murine fibroblasts using Mossman’s tetrazolium toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: A broth micro-dilution susceptibility test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each irrigant against E. faecalis. Then, the root canals of 50 mature extracted human mandibular premolars were contaminated with E. faecalis and were randomly divided into three groups according to the irrigant used (n=20). Canals were irrigated with SH in group I (n=20) and CH in group II (n=20) at their obtained MIC. In group III (n=10), sterile saline was used. Microbial sampling was performed before and after biomechanical preparation. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify E. faecalis in the root canal samples. For cytocompatibility assessment, L929 murine fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations of the irrigants. Results: Irrigation with test materials resulted in significant reduction in colony forming units (CFU) in post-instrumentation samples (with the MIC values of SH and CH against E. faecalis being 0.5% and 5%, respectively). However, the reduction in the normal saline group was not significant (P=0.203). In addition, 5% CH was more effective than 0.5% SH (P=0.006) in eliminating E. faecalis. Among the different concentrations of tested irrigants, 0.5% CH and 5% SH showed the least and the most cytotoxicity, respectively (P<0.001). The cytotoxicity of 5% CH and 0.5% SH was similar (P=0.99), and lower than 2.5% SH (P<0.001). Conclusion: CH at an MIC of 5% was effective in eliminating E. faecalis in planktonic state and also its biofilm and exhibited comparable cytocompatibility to that of 0.5% SH. PMID:27471525

  18. REACTION PATHWAY OF THE DIKETONITRILE DEGRADATE OF ISOXAFLUTOLE (BALANCE(TM)) WITH HYPOCHLORITE IN WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoxaflutole (IXF; Balance(TM)) belongs to the new class of isoxazole herbicides. Isoxaflutole has a very short half-life in soil and rapidly degrades to a stable and phytotoxic degradate, diketonitrile (DKN). DKN was previously discovered to rapidly react with hypochlorite (OCl-) in tap water, yie...

  19. 78 FR 77712 - Calcium Hypochlorite From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... of the Commission's rules. Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the... COMMISSION Calcium Hypochlorite From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  20. Kinetics of the oxidative degradation of formaldehyde with electrogenerated hypochlorite ion

    SciTech Connect

    Do, J.S.; Yeh, W.C.; Chao, I.Y.

    1997-02-01

    Aldehydes pose a potential problem in waste waters coming from a variety of process industry sources and must be treated before industrial waste waters can be discharged. The mechanisms and kinetics of the anodic oxidation of chloride ion on SnO{sub 2}-PdO-RuO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}/Ti (SPR) anode and the oxidation of formaldehyde with hypochlorite ion were studied, and the new kinetic data based on theoretical analysis were evaluated in this investigation. The reaction order of the anodic oxidation of chloride ion on SPR was unity. Also, the oxidation of formaldehyde with hypochlorite ion was second order in formaldehyde and first order in hypochlorite ion. Furthermore, the activation energy was evaluated as 37.9 kJ/mol. Formaldehyde was degraded from 3,000 to 279 ppm, and the degradation fraction was 90.7% when the electrolysis time was 111 min. A model calculation of the in situ oxidative degradation of formaldehyde with electrogenerated hypochlorite ion correlated well with experimental results.

  1. Transiently Produced Hypochlorite Is Responsible for the Irreversible Inhibition of Chlorite Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b-containing prokaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the reduction of chlorite to chloride with the concomitant release of molecular oxygen. Over time, they are irreversibly inactivated. To elucidate the mechanism of inactivation and investigate the role of the postulated intermediate hypochlorite, the pentameric chlorite dismutase of “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii” (NdCld) and two variants (having the conserved distal arginine 173 exchanged with alanine and lysine) were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli. Exchange of the distal arginine boosts the extent of irreversible inactivation. In the presence of the hypochlorite traps methionine, monochlorodimedone, and 2-[6-(4-aminophenoxy)-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl]benzoic acid, the extent of chlorite degradation and release of molecular oxygen is significantly increased, whereas heme bleaching and oxidative modifications of the protein are suppressed. Among other modifications, hypochlorite-mediated formation of chlorinated tyrosines is demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The data obtained were analyzed with respect to the proposed reaction mechanism for chlorite degradation and its dependence on pH. We discuss the role of distal Arg173 by keeping hypochlorite in the reaction sphere for O–O bond formation. PMID:24754261

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of the formation of hypochlorite, radiolysis by-product in 5 M NaCI featuring high-energy proton beam line experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, T.; Wetteland, C. J.; Marczak, Stanislaw; Walthall, M.; Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2002-01-01

    Because geological salt formations are considered possible sites for radioactive waste disposal, plausible inundation scenario of salt repository will allow chloride brines to be formed, which consequently will be exposed to radiation from the waste. Key radioelements in Intermediate Level Waste (ILW),H igh Level Waste (HLW) or TRU waste have been found to be plutonium, americium, neptunium, uranium, and technetium. Therefore, the effect of radiolysis on high-saline brine under simulated repository conditions are of particular importance because it results in oxidizing chlorine-containing species, such as hypochlorite (OC1-), and hypochlorous acid (HOCI), which may oxidize actinide species to higher oxidation states. Meaningful predictions of long-term redox conditions in a nuclear repository strongly rely on estimations of G-values of the irradiation-induced formation of the oxidizers OC1- and HOCI. G-values not only depend on the total absorbed doses over the relevant timeframe, but also on the kind of irradiation involved. In fact, the G-values of hypochlorite produced by {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, or neutron irradiation differ by an order of magnitude, depending on different LET cross-sections. To overcome the serious constrains and obstacles of conventional radiochemical work within GBq/L activity levels, we are going to simulate {alpha}-irradiation of chloride brines by the adaptation of beam-line experiments. Our long-term goal is to demonstrate how the main oxidizing chloride species such as hypochlorite caused by radiolysis may affect the overall behavior of actinides under salt repository conditions. This paper describes our first steps towards the production, the identification and the determination of these oxidizing species by beam line experiments.

  3. Cluster ion beam profiling of organics by secondary ion mass spectrometry--does sodium affect the molecular ion intensity at interfaces?

    PubMed

    Green, Felicia M; Gilmore, Ian S; Seah, Martin P

    2008-12-01

    The use of cluster ion beam sputtering for depth profiling organic materials is of growing technological importance and is a very active area of research. At the 44th IUVSTA Workshop on "Sputtering and Ion Emission by Cluster Ion Beams", recent results were presented of a cluster ion beam depth profile of a thin organic molecular layer on a silicon wafer substrate. Those data showed that the intensity of molecular secondary ions is observed to increase at the interface and this was explained in terms of the higher stopping power in the substrate and a consequently higher sputtering yield and even higher secondary ion molecular sputtering yield. An alternative hypothesis was postulated in the workshop discussion which may be paraphrased as: "under primary ion bombardment of an organic layer, mobile ions such as sodium may migrate to the interface with the inorganic substrate and this enhancement of the sodium concentration increases the ionisation probability, so increasing the molecular ion yield observed at the interface". It is important to understand if measurement artefacts occur at interfaces for quantification as these are of great technological relevance - for example, the concentration of drug in a drug delivery system. Here, we evaluate the above hypothesis using a sample that exhibits regions of high and low sodium concentration at both the organic surface and the interface with the silicon wafer substrate. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that the probability of molecular secondary ion ionisation is related to the sodium concentration at these levels. PMID:19039819

  4. Thermal inactivation and post-treatment growth during storage of multiple Salmonella serotypes in ground beef as affected by sodium lactate and oregano oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the heat resistance of Salmonella in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of sodium lactate or oregano oil, and with combinations of these two GRAS-listed ingredients, and determined their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activities during post-thermal treatment storage at 15C....

  5. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  6. Optimization of Lead and Silver Extraction from Zinc Plant Residues in the Presence of Calcium Hypochlorite Using Statistical Design of Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a chloride/hypochlorite leaching process was performed for zinc plant residues. Sodium chloride and calcium hypochlorite were used as leaching and oxidizing agents, respectively. Fractional factorial method has been used to test main effects, and interactions among factors were investigated. The statistical software named Design-Expert 7 has been utilized to design experiments and subsequent analysis. Parameters and their levels were reaction time ( t = 16 and 120 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 303 K and 343 K (30 °C and 70 °C)], solid-to-liquid ratio ( S/ L = 1/6 and 1/38), pH (pH = 0.5 and 2), and Ca(OCl)2 concentration ( C = 0.6 and 3 g/L). Analysis of variance was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. Results showed that reaction temperature and pH were significant parameters for both lead and silver extractions but solid-to-liquid ratio had significant effect only on lead extraction. Increasing pH reduced leaching efficiency of lead and silver. However, increasing reaction temperature promoted the extraction of lead and silver. Ultimate optimum conditions from this study were t 1: 16 min, T 2: 343 K (70 °C), ( S/ L)2: 1/38, pH1: 0.5, and C 1: 0.6 g/L. Under these conditions, extractions of lead and silver were 93.60 and 49.21 pct, respectively.

  7. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you use or have ever used street drugs, or if you have overused prescription medications. Sodium oxybate may be harmful when taken by people other than the person for whom it was prescribed. Do not sell or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ...

  8. Hypochlorite killing of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Randall G; Chain, Rebecca L; Hair, Pamela S; Cunnion, Kenji M

    2008-10-01

    We tested in vitro hypochlorite (bleach) killing of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates to determine optimal concentration and duration. For all isolates maximal killing, >3-log decrease in colony forming units (CFU), was found after 5 minutes in 2.5 microL/mL bleach. We estimate that 2.5 microL/mL bleach is approximately one-half cup of bleach in one-quarter tub of water. PMID:18756186

  9. Silica Gel for Enhanced Activity and Hypochlorite Protection of Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase in Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Radian, Adi; Aukema, Kelly G.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlorinated isocyanuric acids are widely used water disinfectants that generate hypochlorite, but with repeated application, they build up cyanuric acid (CYA) that must be removed to maintain disinfection. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-treated Escherichia coli cells expressing cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH) from Moorella thermoacetica exhibited significantly high CYA degradation rates and provided protection against enzyme inactivation by hypochlorite (chlorine). APTES coating or encapsulation of cells had two benefits: (i) overcoming diffusion limitations imposed by the cell wall and (ii) protecting against hypochlorite inactivation of CAH activity. Cells encapsulated in APTES gels degraded CYA three times faster than nonfunctionalized tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) gels, and cells coated with APTES degraded CYA at a rate of 29 µmol/min per mg of CAH protein, similar to the rate with purified enzyme. UV spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the higher rates were due to APTES increasing membrane permeability and enhancing cyanuric acid diffusion into the cytoplasm to reach the CAH enzyme. Purified CAH enzyme was shown to be rapidly inactivated by hypochlorite. APTES aggregates surrounding cells protected via the amine groups reacting with hypochlorite as shown by pH changes, zeta potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. APTES-encapsulated E. coli cells expressing CAH degraded cyanuric acid at high rates in the presence of 1 to 10 ppm hypochlorite, showing effectiveness under swimming pool conditions. In contrast, CAH activity in TEOS gels or free cells was completely inactivated by hypochlorite. These studies show that commercially available silica materials can selectively enhance, protect, and immobilize whole-cell biocatalysts for specialized applications. PMID:26530383

  10. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  12. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  13. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  15. The effect of repeated sodium hypochlorite exposure on chlorine resistance development in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence and spread of microorganisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents is a major public health problem. Chlorine water has been widely used to reduce attached bacteria on the surface of food or for sanitizing the processing facilities. However, there are limited reports conc...

  16. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation versus 1% sodium hypochlorite irrigation for root canal disinfection.

    PubMed

    Perin, Fernanda M; França, Suzelei C; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Alfredo, Edson; Saquy, Paulo C; Estrela, Carlos; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2004-04-01

    This laboratory study evaluated Er:YAG laser antibacterial action in infected root canals. Forty-eight maxillary central incisors were used. After canal preparation, the teeth were autoclaved and divided into four groups: (1) non-treated teeth (control group); (2) teeth treated with NaOCl; (3) teeth irradiated with Er:YAG laser (7 Hz, 100 mJ, 80 pulses/canal, 11 sec) to the working length; (4) teeth irradiated similarly to, but 3 mm short, of the apex. The root canals from Groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with 4 bacteria: Bacillus subtillus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, together with Candida albicans, and maintained for 24 h at 37 degrees C. All suspensions were adjusted to tube 2 of the MacFarland scale. The intracanal material was then collected with sterile paper points, which were placed in the canals for 5 min and then immersed in 5 ml of BHI medium. This was then seeded onto agar and stained by Gram's method. The NaOCl solutions and the Er:YAG laser irradiation to working length were effective against all five micro-organisms; however, 70% of the specimens irradiated 3 mm short of the apex remained infected. PMID:15116905

  17. Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

  18. The Antibacterial Efficacy of Photo-Activated Disinfection, Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite in Infected Root Canals: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Negahdari, Ramin; Pakseresht, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the efficacy of light-activated low-power laser, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.5% NaOCl in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from the root canal system. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 maxillary central incisors were contaminated with E. faecalis and then the bacteria were incubated for 24 h. All the root canals were instrumented in a crown-down manner with #4 and 3 Gates-Glidden drills, followed by RaCe rotary files (40/0.10, 35/0.08, and 30/0.06). The samples were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group (n=15). In the control group no intervention was made. In the photo-activated disinfection (PAD) group, laser therapy was undertaken with diode laser beams (with an output power of 100 mW/cm2) for 120 sec. For the other two experimental groups, root canals were irrigated either with 5 mL of 2% CHX or 2.5% NaOCl solutions, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the CFU values of the bacteria and post-hoc Bonferroni test was used for pairwise comparisons. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The inhibition of bacterial growth in all the experimental groups was significantly superior to the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the effect of PAD and 2% CHX (P=0.05). The effect of 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than that of the PAD technique (P<0.001). In addition, 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than 2% CHX (P=0.007). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy was effective in reducing the E. faecalis counts in comparison with the control group, but 2.5% NaOCl solution was the most effective protocol. PMID:27471527

  19. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  20. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  1. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  2. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  3. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  4. An environmental friendly method for the automatic determination of hypochlorite in commercial products using multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Soto, N Ornelas; Horstkotte, B; March, J G; López de Alba, P L; López Martínez, L; Cerdá Martín, V

    2008-03-24

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system was used for the determination of hypochlorite in cleaning agents, by measurement of the native absorbance of hypochlorite at 292 nm. The methodology was based on the selective decomposition of hypochlorite by a cobalt oxide catalyst giving chloride and oxygen. The difference of the absorbance of the sample before and after its pass through a cobalt oxide column was selected as analytical signal. As no further reagent was required this work can be considered as a contribution to environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The entire analytical procedure, including in-line sample dilution in three steps was automated by first, dilution in a stirred miniature vessel, second by dispersion and third by in-line addition of water using multisyringe flow injection technique. The dynamic concentration range was 0.04-0.78 gL(-1) (relative standard deviation lower than 3%), where the extension of the hypochlorite decomposition was of 90+/-4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial cleaning products. The accuracy of the method was established by iodometric titration. PMID:18328319

  5. Rapid and ratiometric detection of hypochlorite with real application in tap water: molecules to low cost devices (TLC sticks).

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Manna, Abhishek; Paul, Sima; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2013-12-25

    We have designed a chemodosimeter DPNO (weak fluorescence) which can be oxidized to HPNO (strong blue fluorescence) by OCl(-) with high selectivity and sensitivity in a ratiometric approach with a noticeably lower detection limit. The sensor could be useful for the detection of hypochlorites in tap water. PMID:24185489

  6. Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts to Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Prieto, Katia Roberta; Carvalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Carvalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt

    2005-01-01

    The use of crude flower extracts to the principle of analytical chemistry automation, with the flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure developed to determine hypochlorite in household bleaching products was performed. The FIA comprises a group of techniques based on injection of a liquid sample into a moving, nonsegmented carrier stream of a…

  7. Treatment of discarded blood units: disinfection with hypochlorite / formalin versus steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, V; Chitnis, S; Patil, S; Chitnis, D

    2003-01-01

    Blood bank regulations and bio medical waste rules of India advocate disinfection of contaminated blood units. Incineration is not recommended due to poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) content of blood bags. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of chemical disinfection of blood units deliberately contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli with 1 and 6 % hypochlorite, 10% formalin and 33% formaldehyde and autoclaving of blood units contaminated with the above mentioned vegetative forms and B. stearothermophilus spores. Only 33 % formaldehyde could bring about 5 log reduction of bacteria but it is highly irritating and toxic. Autoclaving at 15 lbs pressure for 2 hours uniformly inactivated the vegetative forms and B. stearothermophilus spores. Thus, autoclaving of PVC blood bags is a safer and reliable method compared to chemical disinfection. PMID:17643040

  8. DNA-encapsulated silver nanodots as ratiometric luminescent probes for hypochlorite detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soonyoung; Choi, Sungmoon; Yu, Junhua

    2014-03-01

    DNA-encapsulated silver nanodots are noteworthy candidates for bio-imaging probes, thanks to their excellent photophysical properties. The spectral shift of silver nanodot emitters from red to blue shows excellent correlations with the concentration of reactive oxygen species, which makes it possible to develop new types of probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl), given the outstanding stability of the blue in oxidizing environments. HOCl plays a role as a microbicide in immune systems but, on the other hand, is regarded as a disease contributor. Moreover, it is a common ingredient in household cleaners. There are still great demands to detect HOCl fluxes and their physiological pathways. We introduce a new ratiometric luminescence imaging method based on silver nanodots to sensitively detect hypochlorite. The factors that influence the accuracy of the detection are investigated. Its availability has also been demonstrated by detecting the active component in cleaners.

  9. Comments on "thermal degradation behavior of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nanocrystals under different oxidized levels".

    PubMed

    Trache, Djalal

    2016-10-20

    This paper intends to discuss the employment of the Coats-Redfern equation to compute the kinetic parameters of the thermal degradation of hypochlorite-oxidized starch nancrystals by Wei et al. [Carbohydrate Polymers 124 (2015) 124-130]. The original paper has shown some fundamental errors when presenting the Coats-Redfern (CR) integral kinetic model. This CR equation is commonly used to calculate the activation energy of the thermal degradation from a single non isothermal thermogravimetric curve. However, the use of a set of experiments recorded under different heating rates is often required to obtain accurate results, as recommended by the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC) Kinetics Committee. The present comments are focused on these statements giving some arguments and elucidations concerning the Coats-Redfern equation. PMID:27474597

  10. Protein S-Mycothiolation Functions as Redox-Switch and Thiol Protection Mechanism in Corynebacterium glutamicum Under Hypochlorite Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Bui Khanh; Busche, Tobias; Van Laer, Koen; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Clermont, Lina; Seibold, Gerd M.; Persicke, Marcus; Kalinowski, Jörn; Messens, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein S-bacillithiolation was recently discovered as important thiol protection and redox-switch mechanism in response to hypochlorite stress in Firmicutes bacteria. Here we used transcriptomics to analyze the NaOCl stress response in the mycothiol (MSH)-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum. We further applied thiol-redox proteomics and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify protein S-mycothiolation. Results: Transcriptomics revealed the strong upregulation of the disulfide stress σH regulon by NaOCl stress in C. glutamicum, including genes for the anti sigma factor (rshA), the thioredoxin and MSH pathways (trxB1, trxC, cg1375, trxB, mshC, mca, mtr) that maintain the redox balance. We identified 25 S-mycothiolated proteins in NaOCl-treated cells by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), including 16 proteins that are reversibly oxidized by NaOCl in the thiol-redox proteome. The S-mycothiolome includes the methionine synthase (MetE), the maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP), the myoinositol-1-phosphate synthase (Ino1), enzymes for the biosynthesis of nucleotides (GuaB1, GuaB2, PurL, NadC), and thiamine (ThiD), translation proteins (TufA, PheT, RpsF, RplM, RpsM, RpsC), and antioxidant enzymes (Tpx, Gpx, MsrA). We further show that S-mycothiolation of the thiol peroxidase (Tpx) affects its peroxiredoxin activity in vitro that can be restored by mycoredoxin1. LC-MS/MS analysis further identified 8 proteins with S-cysteinylations in the mshC mutant suggesting that cysteine can be used for S-thiolations in the absence of MSH. Innovation and Conclusion: We identified widespread protein S-mycothiolations in the MSH-producing C. glutamicum and demonstrate that S-mycothiolation reversibly affects the peroxidase activity of Tpx. Interestingly, many targets are conserved S-thiolated across bacillithiol- and MSH-producing bacteria, which could become future drug targets in related pathogenic Gram-positives. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 589–605

  11. Assessment of post-contamination treatments affecting different bonding stages to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of cleansing treatments following saliva and blood contamination at different bonding stages to dentin. Materials and Methods: Labial surfaces of 168 permanent maxillary central incisors were ground flat exposing superficial dentin. Specimens were divided into: uncontaminated control (A), contamination after etching (B), contamination after adhesive application (C), contamination after adhesive polymerization (D). Groups were further subdivided according to cleansing treatments into: rinsing (B1, C1, D1), re-etching (B2, D3), sodium hypochlorite application (B3), ethyl alcohol application (C2), acetone application (C3), rinsing and rebonding (D2), re-etching and rebonding (D4). Composite microcylinders were bonded to treated substrates and shear loaded micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) until failure and treated surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscope. Debonded surfaces were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed failure. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The μSBS values were ranked as follow; Group B: A > B3 > B2 > B1 > B, Group C: A > C3 > C2 > C1 > C, Group D: A > D4 > D1 = D2 ≥ D3. Debonded surfaces showed adhesive failure in Group B while cohesive failure in Groups C and D. Conclusions: Cleansing treatments differ according to bonding step; re-etching then rebonding suggested if etched substrate or polymerized adhesive were contaminated while acetone application decontaminated affected unpolymerized adhesive. PMID:27403048

  12. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  13. Hypochlorite radioiodination of parathyroid peptides (hPTH1-34, (Tyr43)hPTH44-68)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwoll, E.; Kopel, A.; Opsahl, Z.; Roberts, L.; Endres, D.; McClung, M.

    1985-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) radioimmunoassays have conventionally utilized (/sup 125/I)bPTH1-84 as a radioligand, but more region-specific PTH assays are now possible with the use of recently available synthetic PTH peptides as standards and radioligands. A radioiodination procedure has been developed that utilizes hypochlorite as an oxidant and that is capable of producing PTH tracers of high specific activity (200 to 250 microCi/micrograms), prolonged stability, and excellent immunologic potency. Radioiodinated hPTH1-34 and (Tyr43)hPTH44-68 produced by hypochlorite iodination techniques can be used to develop sensitive and region-specific PTH assays of use in clinical and research situations.

  14. Quantitation and identification of organic N-chloramines formed in stomach fluid on ingestion of aqueous hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, F.E. Jr.; Mazina, K.; Sonenshine, D.; Kopfler, F.

    1986-11-01

    The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. At least part of the chlorine demand is associated with amino acids present in the stomach fluid. Amino acids were identified and quantified in the stomach fluid by precolumn derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When stomach fluid is chlorinated to concentrations of chlorine between 200 and 1000 mg/L, organic N-chloramines are formed. After derivatization of chlorinated stomach fluid with dansyl sulfinic acid, fluorescent derivatives of chloramines were separated by HPLC. Three chloramino acid derivatives, N-chloroalanine, N-chloroglycine, and N-chlorophenylalanine, were identified by cochromatography with known standards using two chromatographic methods. The yield of a chloramine that would form in stomach fluid on administration of hypochlorite to animals as determined using tritiated piperidine and doses of 200 and 1000 mg/L chlorine. Yields of tritiated N-chloropiperidine in recovered stomach fluid were 70% and 42%, respectively, of the theoretical amount expected.

  15. Degradation of a stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agent with hypochlorite: identification of the degradation products by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Jiménez, L; Valverde, I

    2001-10-01

    The E,E-(4,4'-bis[2-sulfostyryl]biphenyl) (DSBP) is a fluorescent whitening agent widely used by the textile and detergent industries to whiten fabrics. Hypochlorite used to bleach fabrics oxidizes DSBP slowly at room temperature and in a higher rate at 60 degrees C. The ions of metals such as Fe, Cu, and Mn accelerate the process considerably. At ambient temperature, the oxidation results from cleavage of the stilbene bonds and involves the formation of various intermediates that evolve to end products. The intermediates form within minutes to hours and the end products within months. At 60 degrees C or in presence of the previously mentioned transition metals, intermediates form within minutes and the end products within days. The end products of the oxidation are 4-sulfobenzaldehyde and 4,4'-bisaldehyde biphenyl; in the presence of excess of hypochlorite, however, the process yields their corresponding oxidized derivatives 4-sulfobenzoic acid and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid. Despite the chlorinating ability of hypochlorite, the major degradation products formed contain no chlorine. PMID:11596750

  16. The Speciation of Silver Nanoparticles in Antimicrobial Fabric Before and After Exposure to a Hypochlorite/Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; EPA

    2009-07-14

    Because of their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are often used in consumer products. To assess environmental and/or human health risks from these nanoparticles, there is a need to identify the chemical transformations that silver nanoparticles undergo in different environments. Thus an antimicrobial sock material containing Ag nanoparticles was examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to identify the speciation of Ag. The material was exposed to a hypochlorite/detergent solution and subjected to agitation. An elemental Ag nanopowder was also exposed to the hypochlorite/detergent solution or to a 1 mol L{sup -1} NaCl solution. Results showed that the sock material nanoparticles consisted of elemental Ag. After exposure to the hypochlorite/detergent solution, a significant portion (more than 50%) of the sock nanoparticles were converted, in situ, to AgCl. Results from exposures to elemental Ag nanopowder suggest that an oxidation step is necessary for the elemental Ag nanoparticles to transform into AgCl as there was no evidence of AgCl formation in the presence of chloride alone. As a result, if Ag ions leach from consumer products, any chloride present may quickly scavenge the ions. In addition, the efficacy of Ag, as an antimicrobial agent in fabrics, may be limited, or even negated, after washing in solutions containing oxidizers as AgCl is much less reactive than Ag ion.

  17. Diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  18. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  19. Responses of the murine esophageal microcirculation to acute exposure to alkali, acid, or hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M.; Russell, J.; Shukla, D.; Moghadamfalahi, M.; Granger, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose Although ingestion of alkali- and/or hypochlorite-based household cleaners as well as strong acids remain a major cause of esophageal wall injury, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the injury response to these toxic agents. This study examined the roles of vascular dysfunction and inflammation to the esophageal injury response to different caustic substances in mice. Methods The esophageal responses to NaOH (10%, 5% & 2.5%), KOH (10%, 5%, & 2.5%), NaOCl (5.25%), and HCl (10%, pH=2) were evaluated by intravital videomicroscopy, and histopathology. Intravital microscopy was used to monitor changes in the diameter of arterioles and venules, the adhesion and movement of leukocytes in venules, and time of cessation of arteriolar blood flow in mouse esophagus. The esophageal mucosa was exposed to caustic substances for 0–60 minutes prior to evaluation. Results The higher concentrations of NaOH and KOH elicited rapid stasis in both arterioles and venules, which was accompanied by arteriolar constriction and thrombosis. An accumulation of adherent leukocytes in venules was not observed with any agent. Histopathologic evaluation revealed marked cellular and interstitial edema in the mucosa with alkali, while HCl and NaOCl decreased the thickness epithelial layer. Conclusion These findings suggest that ischemia and thrombosis are dominant processes, while inflammation is less important, in the pathogenesis of acute corrosive injury to the esophageal mucosa. PMID:18779005

  20. Reaction pathways of the diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole with hypochlorite in water.

    PubMed

    Lerch, R N; Lin, C H; Leigh, N D

    2007-03-01

    Isoxaflutole (IXF; Balance) belongs to a new class of isoxazole herbicides. Isoxaflutole has a very short half-life in soil and rapidly degrades to a stable and phytotoxic degradate, diketonitrile (DKN). DKN was previously discovered to rapidly react with hypochlorite (OCl-) in tap water, yielding the benzoic acid (BA) degradate as a major product, but the complete reaction pathway and mechanism have not been elucidated. Thus, the objectives of this work were to (1) determine the stoichiometry of the reaction between DKN and OCl-; (2) identify products in addition to BA; and (3) propose a complete pathway and reaction mechanism for oxidation of DKN by OCl-. Stoichiometry of the reaction showed a molar ratio of OCl-/DKN of 2. In addition, two previously uncharacterized chlorinated intermediates were identified under conditions in which OCl- was the limiting reactant. The proposed chemical structure of a chlorinated benzoyl intermediate was inferred from a series of HPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS experiments and the use of mass spectral simulation software. A chlorinated ketone intermediate was also identified using ion trap GC/MS. Two additional end products were also identified: cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (CPCA) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN). On the basis of the reaction stoichiometry, the structure of the chlorinated intermediates, and the identification of the products, two reaction pathways are proposed. Both pathways involve a two-step nucleophilic attack and oxidation of the diketone structure of DKN, leading to formation of BA, DCAN, and CPCA. PMID:17284050

  1. Topical hypochlorite ameliorates NF-κB–mediated skin diseases in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Thomas H.; Zhang, Lillian F.; Wang, Jing; Ning, Shoucheng; Knox, Susan J.; Kim, Seung K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) regulates cellular responses to inflammation and aging, and alterations in NF-κB signaling underlie the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases. Effective clinical therapeutics targeting this pathway remain unavailable. In primary human keratinocytes, we found that hypochlorite (HOCl) reversibly inhibited the expression of CCL2 and SOD2, two NF-κB–dependent genes. In cultured cells, HOCl inhibited the activity of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK), a key regulator of NF-κB activation, by oxidizing cysteine residues Cys114 and Cys115. In NF-κB reporter mice, topical HOCl reduced LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in skin. We further evaluated topical HOCl use in two mouse models of NF-κB–driven epidermal disease. For mice with acute radiation dermatitis, topical HOCl inhibited the expression of NF-κB–dependent genes, decreased disease severity, and prevented skin ulceration. In aged mice, topical HOCl attenuated age-dependent production of p16INK4a and expression of the DNA repair gene Rad50. Additionally, skin of aged HOCl-treated mice acquired enhanced epidermal thickness and proliferation, comparable to skin in juvenile animals. These data suggest that topical HOCl reduces NF-κB–mediated epidermal pathology in radiation dermatitis and skin aging through IKK modulation and motivate the exploration of HOCl use for clinical aims. PMID:24231355

  2. Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by highly reactive absorbent containing calcium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, P.Y.; Wang, L.D.

    2008-12-15

    Fly ash, industrial lime, and an additive (calcium hypochlorite )) were used to prepare a highly reactive absorbent. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors on the removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2} and NO were also investigated. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO{sub 2} and 65.5% for NO were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen than sulfur species appeared in the spent absorbent. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the microproperties of the samples, including fly ash, highly reactive absorbent, and spent absorbent. The removal products of spent absorbent were analyzed using ion chromatography and chemical analysis. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO{sub 2} and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  3. Bcl-2 maintains the mitochondrial membrane potential, but fails to affect production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in sodium palmitate-induced β-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodium palmitate causes apoptosis of β-cells, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 has been shown to counteract this event. However, the exact mechanisms that underlie palmitate-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and through which pathway Bcl-2 executes the protective effect are still unclear. Methods A stable Bcl-2-overexpressing RINm5F cell clone (BMG) and its negative control (B45) were exposed to palmitate for up to 8 h, and cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and NF-κB activation were studied in time course experiments. Results Palmitate exposure for 8 h resulted in increased cell death rates, and this event was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. Bcl-2 overexpression promoted in parallel also a delayed induction of GADD153/CHOP and a weaker phosphorylation of BimEL in palmitate-exposed cells. At earlier time points (2–4 h) palmitate exposure resulted in increased generation of ROS, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and a modest increase in the phosphorylation of eIF2α and IRE1α. BMG cells produced similar amounts of ROS and displayed the same eIF2α and IRE1α phosphorylation rates as B45 cells. However, the palmitate-induced dissipation of Δψm was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. In addition, basal NF-κB activity was increased in BMG cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that Bcl-2 counteracts palmitate-induced β-cell death by maintaining mitochondrial membrane integrity and augmenting NF-κB activity, but not by affecting ROS production and ER stress. PMID:25266628

  4. Aspartic Acid 397 in Subunit B of the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae Forms Part of a Sodium-binding Site, Is Involved in Cation Selectivity, and Affects Cation-binding Site Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Michael E.; Juárez, Oscar; Cho, Jonathan; Barquera, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    The Na+-pumping NADH:quinone complex is found in Vibrio cholerae and other marine and pathogenic bacteria. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase oxidizes NADH and reduces ubiquinone, using the free energy released by this reaction to pump sodium ions across the cell membrane. In a previous report, a conserved aspartic acid residue in the NqrB subunit at position 397, located in the cytosolic face of this protein, was proposed to be involved in the capture of sodium. Here, we studied the role of this residue through the characterization of mutant enzymes in which this aspartic acid was substituted by other residues that change charge and size, such as arginine, serine, lysine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. Our results indicate that NqrB-Asp-397 forms part of one of the at least two sodium-binding sites and that both size and charge at this position are critical for the function of the enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that this residue is involved in cation selectivity, has a critical role in the communication between sodium-binding sites, by promoting cooperativity, and controls the electron transfer step involved in sodium uptake (2Fe-2S → FMNC). PMID:24030824

  5. Novel Mechanism for Scavenging of Hypochlorite Involving a Periplasmic Methionine-Rich Peptide and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and a putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. PMID:25968643

  6. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  7. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  8. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  9. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  10. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  11. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  12. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  13. Rechargeable sodium alloy anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.

    1988-06-28

    A secondary battery is described comprising: (a) an anode which comprises an alloy of sodium and one or metals selected from the group consisting of tin, lead antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellerium, (b) an electrolyte comprising one or more organic solvents and one or more sodium salts dissolved therein forming dissolved sodium cations in solution; and (c) a cathode; the sodium cations from the electrolyte alloying with the one or more metals of the alloy in the anode during the charging of the battery and sodium in the alloy disoloving in the electrolyte during the discharging of the battery.

  14. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  15. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  16. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  17. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and amore » putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often stressed in the environment by reactive chlorine species (RCS) of

  18. Novel mechanism for scavenging of hypochlorite involving a periplasmic methionine-rich peptide and methionine sulfoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Melnyk, Ryan A.; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Lavarone, Anthony T.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Coates, John D.

    2015-05-12

    Reactive chlorine species (RCS) defense mechanisms are important for bacterial fitness in diverse environments. In addition to the anthropogenic use of RCS in the form of bleach, these compounds are also produced naturally through photochemical reactions of natural organic matter and in vivo by the mammalian immune system in response to invading microorganisms. To gain insight into bacterial RCS defense mechanisms, we investigated Azospira suillum strain PS, which produces periplasmic RCS as an intermediate of perchlorate respiration. Our studies identified an RCS response involving an RCS stress-sensing sigma/anti-sigma factor system (SigF/NrsF), a soluble hypochlorite-scavenging methionine-rich periplasmic protein (MrpX), and a putative periplasmic methionine sulfoxide reductase (YedY1). We investigated the underlying mechanism by phenotypic characterization of appropriate gene deletions, chemogenomic profiling of barcoded transposon pools, transcriptome sequencing, and biochemical assessment of methionine oxidation. Our results demonstrated that SigF was specifically activated by RCS and initiated the transcription of a small regulon centering around yedY1 and mrpX. A yedY1 paralog (yedY2) was found to have a similar fitness to yedY1 despite not being regulated by SigF. Markerless deletions of yedY2 confirmed its synergy with the SigF regulon. MrpX was strongly induced and rapidly oxidized by RCS, especially hypochlorite. Our results suggest a mechanism involving hypochlorite scavenging by sacrificial oxidation of the MrpX in the periplasm. Reduced MrpX is regenerated by the YedY methionine sulfoxide reductase activity. The phylogenomic distribution of this system revealed conservation in several Proteobacteria of clinical importance, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Brucella spp., implying a putative role in immune response evasion in vivo. In addition, bacteria are often

  19. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  20. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  1. Water and Sodium Regulation in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure is the pathophysiological state characterized by ventricular dysfunction and associated clinical symptoms. Decreased cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance lead to arterial underfilling. That is an important signal which triggers multiple neurohormonal systems to maintain adequate arterial pressure and peripheral perfusion of the vital organs. The kidney is the principal organ affected when cardiac output declines. Alterations of hemodynamics and neurohormonal systems in heart failure result in renal sodium and water retention. Activation of sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic vasopressin release stimulate the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. Dysregulation of aquaporin-2 and sodium transporters also play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention. PMID:21468184

  2. Assessment of the working range and effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and planktonic cells.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Ari; Nicolae, Alexandru M; Laursen, Andrew E; Foucher, Daniel A; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Hausner, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is a chemical agent that acts against microorganisms in a manner similar to that of sodium hypochlorite by releasing free available chlorine. NaDCC has been approved by the WHO for the emergency treatment of water and by the US EPA for routine treatment of water. Previous studies assessing the effectiveness of NaDCC for the treatment of water implied that NaDCC should have a wide array of disinfecting effects beyond the treatment of planktonic cells in potable water. In this study the biocidal effects of NaDCC against Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in different growth modes including planktonic cells and biofilms were explored. The data showed that a 60% dilution of the standard NaDCC solution was effective in the treatment of both P. aeruginosa planktonic cells and biofilms. PMID:22263660

  3. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. PMID:27424306

  4. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  5. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  6. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  7. The effect of 5% sodium hypochlorite, 17% EDTA and triphala on two different rotary Ni-Ti instruments: An AFM and EDS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pramod Siva; Sam, Jonathan Emi; Kumar, Arvind; Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To use Atomic Force Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of 5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and triphala on ProTaper and iRaCe rotary Ni-Ti instruments. Methodology: A total of eight Ni-Ti rotary files, four files each of ProTaper - S2 (Dentsply) and iRaCe - R3 (FKG DENTAIRE) were used. Three out of four files each from ProTaper and iRaCe were immersed in 5% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and Triphala separately for five minutes. The Roughness average (Ra), Root Mean Square (RMS) and Mean Height of Roughness Profile Elements (Rc) of the scanned profiles were then recorded using AFM and the elemental composition was evaluated with EDS. Data were analyzed by Student's t test, One Way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results: Topographic irregularities at the nanometric scale were observed for all files. Files immersed in EDTA and NaOCl showed highly significant surface roughness than untreated files. Conclusion: Short-term contact with 17% EDTA and 5% NaOCl can cause significant surface deterioration of ProTaper and iRaCe rotary NiTi files. AFM proves to be a suitable method for evaluating the instrument surface. PMID:25298649

  8. Impact of organic load on Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce with acidified sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of three chlorine treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on surfaces of a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and held for 24 h at 4°C before processing. Lettuce was shredded using a Urschel TransSlicer, step conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using water alone or one of three different sanitizing treatments (50 ppm of total chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid or T-128) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Next, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were processed identically. Various product (25 g), water (50 ml), and equipment surface swab (100 cm(2)) samples were homogenized in neutralizing buffer, diluted appropriately, and plated on tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% (wt/vol) yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration to quantify E. coli O157:H7. Organic load negatively impacted the efficacy of all three chlorine treatments (P < 0.05) at the end of processing, with typical E. coli O157:H7 reductions of >5 and 0.9 to 3.7 log CFU/ml for organic loads of 0 and 10%, respectively. Organic load rarely had a significant impact (P < 0.05) on the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine plus citric acid, or chlorine plus T-128 against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce. Reduced sanitizer efficacy generally corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and maximum filterable volume, indicating that these tests may be effective alternatives to the industry standard of oxygen/reduction potential. PMID:25285483

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Internalized in Romaine Lettuce and Baby Spinach Leaves:Sodium Hypochlorite Wash vs. Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria which are internalized in leaf tissues are protected from the antimicrobial effects of surface treatments. Ionizing radiation is known to penetrate foods, but the efficacy of the process against internalized bacteria is unknown. Leaves of romaine lettuce and baby spinach were cut...

  10. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  11. LC/MS study of the UV filter hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate (DHHB) aquatic chlorination with sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Grbović, G; Trebše, P; Dolenc, D; Lebedev, A T; Sarakha, M

    2013-11-01

    The fate of modern personal care products in the environment is becoming a matter of increasing concern because of the growing production and assortment of these compounds. More and more chemicals of this class are treated as emerging contaminants. Transformation of commercially available products in the environment may result in the formation of a wide array of their metabolites. Personal care products in swimming pools and in drinking water reservoirs may undergo oxidation or chlorination. There is much data on the formation of more toxic metabolites from original low toxicity commercial products. Therefore, reliable identification of all possible transformation products and a thorough study of their physicochemical and biological properties are of high priority. The present study deals with the identification of the products of the aquatic chlorination of the hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate ultraviolet filter. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and HPLC/MS/MS with accurate mass measurements were used for this purpose. As a result, three chlorinated transformation products were identified. PMID:24259212

  12. Mixture of Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen Peroxide on Adhered Aeromonas hydrophila to Solid Substrate in Water: Impact of Concentration and Assessment of the Synergistic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lontsi Djimeli, Chrétien; Tamsa Arfao, Antoine; Noah Ewoti, Olive V.; Nougang, Mireille Ebiane; Moungang, Marlyse L.; Nola, Moïse; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    The synergistic effects of the combined treatments of NaOCl and H2O2 on the elimination of A. hydrophila adhered to polythene under static and dynamic conditions were evaluated. The concentrations 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3‰ NaOCl and 0.5, 1, and 1.5‰ H2O2 were used. The contact periods were 180, 360, 540, and 720 minutes. The abundance of cells adhered reached 2.47 and 2.27 units (log (CFU/cm²)), respectively, under static and dynamic conditions after action of the mixture of disinfectants, whereas it reached 2.41 and 3.39 units (log (CFU/cm²)) after action of NaOCl and H2O2 alone, respectively. Increase in the incubation period resulted in a significant decrease in the abundance of cells adhered when the mixture of 0.3‰ NaOCl and 1.5‰ H2O2 was used (P < 0.01). For each cell growth phase, there was a significant difference amongst the mean densities of cells adhered after action of the mixture of disinfectants (P < 0.05). Although the Freundlich isotherm parameters relatively varied from one experimental condition to another, the Kf value registered in the exponential growth phase was relatively higher in static state than in dynamic regime; cells adhered under dynamic condition seem more sensitive to the synergistic action than those adhered under static condition. PMID:26904729

  13. Relative Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite Wash Versus Irradiation to Inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 Internalized in Leaves of Romaine Lettuce and Baby Spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria which are internalized in leaf tissues are protected from the antimicrobial effects of surface treatments. Ionizing radiation is known to penetrate foods, but the efficacy of the process against internalized bacteria is unknown. Leaves of romaine lettuce and baby spinach were cut...

  14. Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and internalization on lettuce and spinach leaf surfaces reduces efficacy of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite washes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy green vegetables is an ongoing concern for consumers. Biofilm-associated and internalized pathogens are relatively resistant to chemical treatments, but little is known about the response of these protected pathogens to irradiation. Leaves of Romaine l...

  15. Refrigerated storage of Escherichia coli O157:H7-inoculated Romaine lettuce and baby spinach reduces efficacy of irradiation and sodium hypochlorite washes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of leafy green vegetables with Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Bacteria in biofilms are relatively resistant to chemical treatments, but little is known about the response of leaf surface biofilms to irradiation. Leaves of Romaine lettuce and baby...

  16. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  17. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  18. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  19. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  20. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  1. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  2. HYPOCHLORITE-SERUM REACTION PRODUCTS INHIBIT PORCINE VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL GROWTH IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro toxicity studies were initiated in order to determine if chlorination affects vascular endothelial cells. Twelfth to twentieth passage porcine aortic vascular endothelial cells (PAE) were grown to confluency and replated in the presence of complete media (Eagle's minimum...

  3. Plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, lipoxygenase and peroxyl radicals and its inhibition by antioxidants as assessed by diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-08-01

    Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was measured using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a probe. DPPP itself is not fluorescent, but it reacts with lipid hydroperoxides stochiometrically to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide and lipid hydroxides. The production of lipid hydroperoxides could be followed continuously in the oxidation of plasma induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and peroxyl radicals with a microplate reader. A clear lag phase was observed in the plasma oxidation mediated by aqueous peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, but not in the oxidation induced by hypochlorite and lipoxygenase. The effects of several antioxidants against lipid oxidation induced by the above oxidants were assessed. The efficacy of antioxidants was dependent markedly on the type of oxidants. α-Tocopherol exerted potent antioxidant effects against peroxyl radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, but it did not inhibit lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, and 15-lipoxygenase efficiently, suggesting that multiple antioxidants with different selectivities are required for the inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation in vivo. This is a novel, simple and most high throughput method to follow plasma lipid oxidation induced by different oxidants and also to assess the antioxidant effects in biologically relevant settings. PMID:26774081

  4. Plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, lipoxygenase and peroxyl radicals and its inhibition by antioxidants as assessed by diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was measured using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a probe. DPPP itself is not fluorescent, but it reacts with lipid hydroperoxides stochiometrically to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide and lipid hydroxides. The production of lipid hydroperoxides could be followed continuously in the oxidation of plasma induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and peroxyl radicals with a microplate reader. A clear lag phase was observed in the plasma oxidation mediated by aqueous peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, but not in the oxidation induced by hypochlorite and lipoxygenase. The effects of several antioxidants against lipid oxidation induced by the above oxidants were assessed. The efficacy of antioxidants was dependent markedly on the type of oxidants. α-Tocopherol exerted potent antioxidant effects against peroxyl radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, but it did not inhibit lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, and 15-lipoxygenase efficiently, suggesting that multiple antioxidants with different selectivities are required for the inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation in vivo. This is a novel, simple and most high throughput method to follow plasma lipid oxidation induced by different oxidants and also to assess the antioxidant effects in biologically relevant settings. PMID:26774081

  5. [Inhibition of growth of E. coli cells by anolites of sodium and potassium chloride after processing solutions in a diaphragmatic electrolyzer].

    PubMed

    Miroshnikov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride and potassium anolites, obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser, and the physicochemical parameters of solutions was compared with that between the inhibitory effect and physicochemical properties of hypochlorites obtained after treating the solutions in an electrolyser having no diaphragm was compared. The biological activity of solutions containing molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ions was determined by their effect on the growth of E. coli cells. After a 5-min incubation of cells with each of the oxidizers, the bacterial growth stopped and was not restored during one day. The conclusion is made that the oxidizers irreversibly disturb the barrier properties of cell membranes and, in some cases, destroy cells. In model solutions, as well as in solutions treated after heating on a water bath or after the addition of sodium thiosulfate, a delay in the start of E. coli growth occurs. After the lag-phase, the repair of cells sets on, and after a day the optical density of cells increases and approaches the control. PMID:10079921

  6. 76 FR 11340 - Potassium Hypochlorite; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... (76 FR 2110) (FRL-8860-9), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3) of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a... Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been exempted from review under... Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001)...

  7. Water and sodium balance in space.

    PubMed

    Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

    2001-09-01

    We have previously shown that fluid balances and body fluid regulation in microgravity (microG) differ from those on Earth (Drummer et al, Eur J Physiol 441:R66-R72, 2000). Arriving in microG leads to a redistribution of body fluid-composed of a shift of fluid to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid balance adaptation in weightlessness. PMID:11532707

  8. The differential susceptibility of spores from virulent and attenuated Bacillus anthracis strains to aldehyde- and hypochlorite-based disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    March, Jordon K; Cohen, Marissa N; Lindsey, James M; Millar, D A; Lowe, Chinn-Woan; Bunnell, Annette J; O'Neill, Kim L; Bruce Schaalje, G; Robison, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of spores from virulent and attenuated Bacillus anthracis strains in suspension to inactivation by various chemical disinfectants. Spore suspensions from two virulent strains (A0256 and A0372) and two attenuated strains (Sterne and A0141) of B. anthracis were tested against two aldehyde-based disinfectants and one hypochlorite-based disinfectant. A novel statistical model was used to estimate 4-log10 reduction times for each disinfectant/strain combination. Reduction times were compared statistically using approximate Z and χ2 tests. Although there was no consistent correlation between virulence and increased sporicidal resistance across all three disinfectants, spores from the two virulent and two attenuated strains did display significantly different susceptibilities to different disinfectants. Significant disinfectant–strain interactions were observed for two of the three disinfectants evaluated. The comparative results suggest that the use of surrogate organisms to model the inactivation kinetics of virulent B. anthracis spores may be misleading. The accuracy of such extrapolations is disinfectant dependent and must be used with caution. PMID:23233190

  9. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

  10. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

    2013-05-01

    Addition of sodium borohydride to a lignocellulose hydrolysate of Norway spruce affected the fermentability when cellulosic ethanol was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Treatment of the hydrolysate with borohydride improved the ethanol yield on consumed sugar from 0.09 to 0.31 g/g, the balanced ethanol yield from 0.02 to 0.30 g/g, and the ethanol productivity from 0.05 to 0.57 g/(L×h). Treatment of a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate gave similar results, and the experiments indicate that sodium borohydride is suitable for chemical in situ detoxification. The model inhibitors coniferyl aldehyde, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, and furfural were efficiently reduced by treatment with sodium borohydride, even under mild reaction conditions (20 °C and pH 6.0). While addition of sodium dithionite to pretreatment liquid from spruce improved enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, addition of sodium borohydride did not. This result indicates that the strong hydrophilicity resulting from sulfonation of inhibitors by dithionite treatment was particularly important for alleviating enzyme inhibition. PMID:23567704

  11. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  12. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  13. Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

    Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

  14. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  15. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  17. Generation of hypochlorite-modified proteins by neutrophils during ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat liver: attenuation by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tadashi; Malle, Ernst; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2005-10-01

    Although it is well documented that neutrophils are critical for the delayed phase of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, there is no direct evidence for a specific neutrophil-derived oxidant stress in vivo. Therefore, we used a model of 60 min of partial hepatic ischemia and 0-24 h of reperfusion to investigate neutrophil accumulation and to analyze biomarkers for a general oxidant stress [glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] and for a neutrophil-specific oxidant stress [hypochlorite (HOCl)-modified epitopes] in rats. Plasma alanine transaminase activities and histology showed progressively increasing liver injury during reperfusion, when hepatic GSSG and soluble MDA levels were elevated. At that time, few neutrophils were present in sinusoids. However, the number of hepatocytes positively stained for HOCl-modified epitopes increased from 6 to 24 h of reperfusion, which correlated with the bulk of hepatic neutrophil accumulation and extravasation into the parenchyma. Consistent with a higher oxidant stress at later times, hepatic GSSG and protein-bound MDA levels further increased. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride attenuated postischemic oxidant stress (GSSG, protein-bound MDA, and hepatocytes positively stained for HOCl-modified epitopes) and liver injury at 24 h of reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning suppressed all oxidant stress biomarkers, liver injury, and extravasation of neutrophils. In conclusion, extravasated neutrophils generate HOCl, which diffuses into hepatocytes and causes oxidative modifications of intracellular proteins during the neutrophil-mediated reperfusion injury phase. Ischemic preconditioning is an effective intervention for reduction of the overall inflammatory response and, in particular, for limitation of the cytotoxic activity of neutrophils during the later reperfusion period. PMID:15994427

  18. Anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies in myeloperoxidase–positive vasculitis patients preferentially recognize hypochlorite-modified low density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Slot, M C; Theunissen, R; van Paassen, P; Damoiseaux, J G M C; Cohen Tervaert, J W

    2007-01-01

    Many patients surviving vasculitis are prone to accelerated atherosclerosis and often have enhanced levels of antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). To measure anti-oxLDL antibodies, oxidation of LDL is achieved with copper (Cu) or malondialdehyde (MDA). Because, in vivo, LDL may be oxidized with myeloperoxidase (MPO) or its product hypochlorite, we measured anti-hypochlorite LDL antibodies in patients with vasculitis, haemodialysis patients and healthy controls. A newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies to oxLDL as modified by hypochlorite. Results are compared with data obtained by standard LDL oxidation using MDA–LDL or Cu–LDL as substrate. Results were compared between anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients (n = 93), haemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 59) and healthy controls (HC; n = 43). Furthermore, patients with MPO–ANCA-associated vasculitis (n = 47) were compared with patients with proteinase 3 (PR3)–ANCA associated vasculitis (n = 46). Optimal cut-off points were determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Anti-oxLDL antibodies are enhanced in AAV patients (MDA–LDL and hypochlorite–LDL) and in HD patients (hypochlorite–LDL), when compared to HC. Furthermore, patients with MPO–ANCA-associated vasculitis had higher levels of antibodies to hypochlorite–LDL than patients with PR3–ANCA-associated vasculitis. Our newly developed assay, in which hypochlorite–LDL is used as substrate, seems a more sensitive assay than traditional assays to measure oxLDL antibodies. Furthermore, our results suggest that enhanced MPO-mediated LDL oxidation occurs in patients with MPO–ANCA. PMID:17521320

  19. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein with hypochlorite causes transformation of the lipoprotein into a high-uptake form for macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hazell, L J; Stocker, R

    1993-02-15

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid is thought to represent the initial step in a series of oxidative modification reactions that ultimately transform this lipoprotein into an atherogenic high-uptake form that can cause lipid accumulation in cells. We have studied the effects of hypochlorite, a powerful oxidant released by activated monocytes and neutrophils, on isolated LDL. Exposure of LDL to reagent hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 4 degrees C resulted in immediate and preferential oxidation of amino acid residues of apoprotein B-100, the single protein associated with LDL. Neither lipoprotein lipid nor LDL-associated antioxidants, except ubiquinol-10, represented major targets for this oxidant. Even when high concentrations of NaOCl were used, only low levels of lipid hydroperoxides could be detected with the highly sensitive h.p.l.c. post-column chemiluminescence detection method. Lysine residues of apoprotein B-100 quantitatively represented the major target, scavenging some 68% of the NaOCl added, with tryptophan and cysteine together accounting for an additional 10% of the oxidant. Concomitant with the loss of LDL's amino groups, chloramines were formed and the anionic surface charge of the lipoprotein particle increased, indicated by a 3-4-fold increase in electrophoretic mobility above that of native LDL on agarose gels. While both these changes could be initially reversed by physiological reductants such as ascorbic acid and methionine, incubation of the NaOCl-modified LDL at 37 degrees C resulted in increasing resistance of the modified lysine residues against reductive reversal. Exposure of mouse peritoneal macrophages to NaOCl-oxidized LDL resulted in increased intracellular concentrations of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These findings suggest that lipid-soluble antioxidants associated with LDL do not efficiently protect the lipoprotein against oxidative damage mediated by hypochlorite, and that extensive lipid oxidation is not a necessary

  20. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite on mitochondrial membrane potential in permeabilized rat heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, N.; Kako, K.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The chemiosmotic theory states that the proton electrochemical potential gradient across the membrane drives mitochondrial energy transduction. Mitochondria can take up Ca accumulated in the cytosol. Therefore, oxidant-induced ATP depletion and Ca overload in the cell may be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, the authors measured membrane potential of mitochondria in situ in isolated rat heart myocytes with {sup 3}H-triphenylmethylphosphonium. This was followed by permeabilization using digitonin and rapid centrifugation using density gradient of bromododecane. They found that the membrane potentials, 118 mV with isolated and 161 mV with in situ mitochondria, were relatively well maintained under oxidant stress. High concentrations of oxidants reduced also the cellular ATP level, whereas the matrix volume was not significantly changed. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential was more pronounced when the extra-mitochondrial free Ca concentration was increased in permeabilized myocytes. These results support the view that heart mitochondria are equipped with well developed defense mechanisms against oxidants and thus the electrochemical gradient of inner membrane is affected only by a relatively large concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HOCl.

  1. Peroxidase-induced degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes: hypochlorite is a major oxidant capable of in vivo degradation of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, I. I.; Vakhrusheva, T. V.; Sokolov, A. V.; Kostevich, V. A.; Ragimov, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    Due to their extraordinary properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have a tremendous potential for medical applications such as clinical diagnostics, targeted drug (or gene) delivery and cancer therapy. Hence, effects of SWNTs on living systems as well as mechanisms for biodegradation of SWTNs are of great importance and must be studied before starting to explore SWNTs for medical use. This study was undertaken to compare the potential of different peroxidases in degrading carboxylated SWNT (c-SWNT) and to elucidate the role of peroxidase-generated reactive products in this process. A detailed study showed that neither reactive intermediate products nor free radicals generated via peroxidase cycle can considerably oxidize c-SWNT. Biodegradation of c-SWNT in model system can be induced by free radicals generated as a result of heme degradation. The latter explains why hemoglobin, which is a pseudo-peroxidase possessing low peroxidase activity, is able to oxidize carbon nanotubes with a higher efficiency than horseradish peroxidase. However, c-SWNT in the presence of blood plasma (15 vol %) demonstrated no degradation even at high concentrations of hemoglobin and H2O2. The comparison of the ability of various peroxidases to degrade SWNTs in vitro revealed that MPO, due to its ability to produce hypochlorite, and lactoperoxidase, due to its ability to produce hypobromite, are extremely efficient in degrading carbon nanotubes. Since neutrophils are a main source of human MPO, we tested the effect of SWNTs on these cells. SWNTs were unable to stimulate neutrophils. On the other hand, they dose-dependently enhanced opsonized zymosan-induced cell stimulation as detected by measuring the amount of hypochlorite produced. This finding may be relevant to the in vivo situation, for example, at inflammatory sites. In order to imitate conditions characteristic of phagosomes and inflammatory sites, we titrated the suspension of c-SWNT in the presence of diluted blood

  2. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

  3. Sodium disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Tareen, Naureen; Martins, David; Nagami, Glenn; Levine, Barton; Norris, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of sodium imbalance are commonly encountered in clinical practice and can have a substantial impact on the prognosis of the patient. These disorders are more common in the elderly. Sodium disorders can cause serious neurologic symptoms and even death, particularly among hospitalized patients. The identification of sodium abnormalities and appropriate clinical intervention are critical for improving patient outcomes. Early recognition of hyponatremia and hypernatremia can provide a clue to an underlying disorder. In this update, we have summarized age-related homeostatic changes that impair sodium balance, medications that alter salt and water handling, and the recognition and management of sodium disorders in elderly patients. PMID:15712785

  4. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  10. IMPROVED METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR CHLORATE, CHLORITE, AND HYPOCHLORITE IONS AT THE SUB-MG/L LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modified iodometric method is reported to measure chlorate ion at the sub-mg/L level with high precision and accuracy. Hexane and nitrogen are used as shielding agents. Chlorate ion is reduced by iodide ion in 6M hydrochloric acid. Saturated sodium phosphate solution is used to...

  11. Sodium channel Nax is a regulator in epithelial sodium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zhong, Aimei; Xie, Ping; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Zhong; Zeitchek, Michael; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Zhao, Jingling; Porterfield, D Marshall; Surmeier, D James; Leung, Kai P; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms by which the epidermis responds to disturbances in barrier function and restores homeostasis are unknown. With a perturbation of the epidermal barrier, water is lost, resulting in an increase in extracellular sodium concentration. We demonstrate that the sodium channel Nax functions as a sodium sensor. With increased extracellular sodium, Nax up-regulates prostasin, which results in activation of the sodium channel ENaC, resulting in increased sodium flux and increased downstream mRNA synthesis of inflammatory mediators. Nax is present in multiple epithelial tissues, and up-regulation of its downstream genes is found in hypertrophic scars. In animal models, blocking Nax expression results in improvement in scarring and atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, both of which are pathological conditions characterized by perturbations in barrier function. These findings support an important role for Nax in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26537257

  12. S-bacillithiolation protects against hypochlorite stress in Bacillus subtilis as revealed by transcriptomics and redox proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chi, Bui Khanh; Gronau, Katrin; Mäder, Ulrike; Hessling, Bernd; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike

    2011-11-01

    Protein S-thiolation is a post-translational thiol-modification that controls redox-sensing transcription factors and protects active site cysteine residues against irreversible oxidation. In Bacillus subtilis the MarR-type repressor OhrR was shown to sense organic hydroperoxides via formation of mixed disulfides with the redox buffer bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-Malate, BSH), termed as S-bacillithiolation. Here we have studied changes in the transcriptome and redox proteome caused by the strong oxidant hypochloric acid in B. subtilis. The expression profile of NaOCl stress is indicative of disulfide stress as shown by the induction of the thiol- and oxidative stress-specific Spx, CtsR, and PerR regulons. Thiol redox proteomics identified only few cytoplasmic proteins with reversible thiol-oxidations in response to NaOCl stress that include GapA and MetE. Shotgun-liquid chromatography-tandem MS analyses revealed that GapA, Spx, and PerR are oxidized to intramolecular disulfides by NaOCl stress. Furthermore, we identified six S-bacillithiolated proteins in NaOCl-treated cells, including the OhrR repressor, two methionine synthases MetE and YxjG, the inorganic pyrophosphatase PpaC, the 3-D-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase SerA, and the putative bacilliredoxin YphP. S-bacillithiolation of the OhrR repressor leads to up-regulation of the OhrA peroxiredoxin that confers together with BSH specific protection against NaOCl. S-bacillithiolation of MetE, YxjG, PpaC and SerA causes hypochlorite-induced methionine starvation as supported by the induction of the S-box regulon. The mechanism of S-glutathionylation of MetE has been described in Escherichia coli also leading to enzyme inactivation and methionine auxotrophy. In summary, our studies discover an important role of the bacillithiol redox buffer in protection against hypochloric acid by S-bacillithiolation of the redox-sensing regulator OhrR and of four enzymes of the methionine biosynthesis pathway. PMID:21749987

  13. S-Bacillithiolation Protects Against Hypochlorite Stress in Bacillus subtilis as Revealed by Transcriptomics and Redox Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Bui Khanh; Gronau, Katrin; Mäder, Ulrike; Hessling, Bernd; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike

    2011-01-01

    Protein S-thiolation is a post-translational thiol-modification that controls redox-sensing transcription factors and protects active site cysteine residues against irreversible oxidation. In Bacillus subtilis the MarR-type repressor OhrR was shown to sense organic hydroperoxides via formation of mixed disulfides with the redox buffer bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-Malate, BSH), termed as S-bacillithiolation. Here we have studied changes in the transcriptome and redox proteome caused by the strong oxidant hypochloric acid in B. subtilis. The expression profile of NaOCl stress is indicative of disulfide stress as shown by the induction of the thiol- and oxidative stress-specific Spx, CtsR, and PerR regulons. Thiol redox proteomics identified only few cytoplasmic proteins with reversible thiol-oxidations in response to NaOCl stress that include GapA and MetE. Shotgun-liquid chromatography-tandem MS analyses revealed that GapA, Spx, and PerR are oxidized to intramolecular disulfides by NaOCl stress. Furthermore, we identified six S-bacillithiolated proteins in NaOCl-treated cells, including the OhrR repressor, two methionine synthases MetE and YxjG, the inorganic pyrophosphatase PpaC, the 3-d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase SerA, and the putative bacilliredoxin YphP. S-bacillithiolation of the OhrR repressor leads to up-regulation of the OhrA peroxiredoxin that confers together with BSH specific protection against NaOCl. S-bacillithiolation of MetE, YxjG, PpaC and SerA causes hypochlorite-induced methionine starvation as supported by the induction of the S-box regulon. The mechanism of S-glutathionylation of MetE has been described in Escherichia coli also leading to enzyme inactivation and methionine auxotrophy. In summary, our studies discover an important role of the bacillithiol redox buffer in protection against hypochloric acid by S-bacillithiolation of the redox-sensing regulator OhrR and of four enzymes of the methionine biosynthesis pathway. PMID:21749987

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Na-Hypochlorite and Heating on the Mycobiota Associated with Fruits or Juice of Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly. PMID:24039477

  15. Pyrene Derivative Emitting Red or near-Infrared Light with Monomer/Excimer Conversion and Its Application to Ratiometric Detection of Hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinglong; Wang, Jun; Zeng, Fang; Huang, Shuailing; Huang, Jing; Xie, Huiting; Yu, Changmin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-01-20

    Fluorescent sensors are attractive and versatile tools for both chemical sensing and biological imaging. Herein, a novel pyrene derivative fluorophore, Py-Cy, possessing the monomer/excimer conversion feature, was synthesized; and the design rationale for this fluorophore is combination of extending conjugation length and incorporating donor-π-acceptor structure. The positively charged Py-Cy shows quite good water solubility and exhibits absorption in the visible-light range, and its monomer and excimer emit red light and near-infrared light respectively, which is extremely beneficial for biosensing or bioimaging. To explore the potential utilization of this new fluorophore, we choose hypochlorite as a model analyte, which can break the double bond in the molecular structure, thereby generating the water-insoluble pyrenecarboxaldehyde; this process correspondingly leads to fluorescence changes and thus affords the ratiometric fluorescent detection of hypochlorite in real samples and cell imaging. The approach offers new insights for designing other fluorophores which emit red or near-infrared light and for devising technically simple ratiometric fluorescent sensors. PMID:26701212

  16. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  17. Sodium homeostasis with chronic sodium loading in preascitic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F; Liu, P; Blendis, L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preascitic cirrhotic patients receiving 200 mmol of sodium daily for seven days remain in positive sodium balance. Thereafter, sodium handling is unknown.
AIM—To assess renal sodium handling in preascitic cirrhosis on a high sodium diet for five weeks.
METHODS—Sixteen biopsy proven preascitic cirrhotics were assessed at weekly intervals for five weeks on a diet of 200 mmol sodium/day using a daily weight diary and weekly 24 hour urinary sodium estimations. Fasting supine neurohormone levels were measured at baseline and weekly for five weeks while haemodynamics were measured at baseline and at five weeks.
RESULTS—The daily diet of 200 mmol of sodium resulted in weight gain and a positive sodium balance for three weeks, associated with significant suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and a significant rise in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.05). Patients' weights plateaued during week 4, associated with complete sodium balance and significant suppression of plasma noradrenaline levels (p<0.05). This was followed by a negative sodium balance and weight loss, and finally complete sodium balance, again despite a mean net gain of 2.3 (0.3) kg, associated with a return of plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels to within normal ranges. The lack of increase in central blood volume in addition to the persistent increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels indicated that residual volume expansion, consequent to persistent weight gain, was distributed on the venous side of the circulation. No free fluid was seen on repeat abdominal ultrasound after five weeks.
CONCLUSION—Preascitic cirrhotics have a natriuretic "escape" after three weeks on high sodium dietary intake, associated with elevated plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels and suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. With continued suppressed sympathetic activity, preascitics re-establish complete sodium balance

  18. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.

    In this dissertation I examine the properties and origins of the most energetic component of Mercury's atmosphere and how it couples to the planet's magnetosphere and space environment. Mercury' s atmosphere consists of particles liberated from its surface that follow ballistic, collisionless trajectories under the influence of gravity and solar radiation pressure. This tenuous atmosphere can be classified as an exosphere where the exobase boundary is the planet's surface. To explain how this exosphere is sustained, a number of theories have been presented: (1) thermal evaporation from the hot surface; (2) photo-desorption of surface materials by UV solar radiation; (3) sputtering by plasma surface interactions; and (4) vaporization of the surface by micro-meteorite impacts. Using a 3-dimensional numerical model, I determine the role each source has in populating the exosphere. New observations of Mercury's escaping atmosphere are presented using novel imaging techniques in which sodium acts as a tracer to identify atmospheric sources. I discuss the implications of these measurements for our understanding of the physical processes at work in the exosphere, and provide a foundation for modeling such processes. For the first time, this work quantifies the variability in the loss of Mercury's sodium as a seasonal effect. My observations show that atmospheric escape can, at times, exceed 1024 Na atoms/s, nearly twice the highest rate previously reported. By forward modeling Mercury' s atmospheric escape, I place new constraints on the source properties and eliminate the prevailing theory that the escaping tail is sputtered from the surface by solar wind ions. The MESSENGER spacecraft has recently discovered that sodium is distributed unevenly over the surface and that the magnetosphere is offset from the planet's center. Using the first model to include these effects, I demonstrate the magnetosphere's influence upon exospheric sources by simulating asymmetries observed

  19. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  20. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium.

    PubMed

    Higbie, James M; Rochester, Simon M; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  1. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:26999998

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods. PMID:25865459

  4. THE ACTION OF SODIUM 4-HYDROXYBUTYRATE ON SPINAL REFLEXES.

    PubMed

    BASIL, B; BLAIR, A M; HOLMES, S W

    1964-04-01

    The actions of sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid and meprobamate have been studied in unanaesthetized animals, in local anaesthetic tests, on isolated organ preparations, on convulsions induced by picrotoxin and strychnine, and on monosynaptic (patellar) and polysynaptic (plantar) reflexes of the spinal cord. Sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate induced a sleep-like state with three unusual features: the righting reflex was remarkably persistent, respiration was good throughout and recovery was abrupt. gamma-Aminobutyric acid was inactive and meprobamate caused flaccid paralysis with loss of the righting reflex. None of the agents affected the responses of the rat diaphragm either to direct stimulation of the muscle or to indirect stimulation through the phrenic nerve. Only meprobamate reduced the responses of theguinea-pig isolated ileum preparation, showed local anaesthetic action and had an anticonvulsant action. All three compounds were capable, after intravenous or topical application, of blocking plantar reflexes in doses which did not affect the patellar reflex. The spinal animal responded in the same way, to the same dose of sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate, as the decerebrate preparation. Topical application to the motor cortex had no effect on spinal reflexes. We conclude that sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate acts preferentially on the internuncial neurones in the spinal cord but differs from meprobamate in its other actions. The similarity between the actions of sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate and of gamma-aminobutyric acid provides furtherevidence in support of the hypothesis that sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate is involved in the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathways. PMID:14190466

  5. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  6. Monte Carlo Model Insights into the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Dana M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium in the lunar exosphere is released from the lunar regolith by several mechanisms. These mechanisms include photon stimulated desorption (PSD), impact vaporization, electron stimulated desorption, and ion sputtering. Usually, PSD dominates; however, transient events can temporarily enhance other release mechanisms so that they are dominant. Examples of transient events include meteor showers and coronal mass ejections. The interaction between sodium and the regolith is important in determining the density and spatial distribution of sodium in the lunar exosphere. The temperature at which sodium sticks to the surface is one factor. In addition, the amount of thermal accommodation during the encounter between the sodium atom and the surface affects the exospheric distribution. Finally, the fraction of particles that are stuck when the surface is cold that are rereleased when the surface warms up also affects the exospheric density. In [1], we showed the "ambient" sodium exosphere from Monte Carlo modeling with a fixed source rate and fixed surface interaction parameters. We compared the enhancement when a CME passes the Moon to the ambient conditions. Here, we compare model results to data in order to determine the source rates and surface interaction parameters that provide the best fit of the model to the data.

  7. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  8. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  9. Slow sodium: an oral slowly released sodium chloride preparation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, E M; Curtis, J R; Jewkes, R J; Jones, B E; Luck, V A; de Wardener, H E; Phillips, N

    1971-09-11

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  10. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  11. Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  17. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  19. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  3. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  7. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  8. ID-69 Sodium drain experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.C.

    1996-09-19

    This paper describes experiments to determine the sodium retention and drainage from the two key areas of an ID-69. This information is then used as the initiation point for guidelines of how to proceed with washing an ID-69 in the IEM Cell Sodium Removal System.

  9. Clustering and mobility of voltage-dependent sodium channels during myelination.

    PubMed

    Joe, E H; Angelides, K J

    1993-07-01

    In myelinated axons, voltage-dependent sodium channels are segregated at high density at nodes of Ranvier (Rosenbluth, 1976; Waxman and Quick, 1978; Black et al., 1990; Elmer et al., 1990), a distribution that is critical for the saltatory conduction of action potentials (Huxley and Stampfli, 1949). The factors that specifically control the organization and immobilization of sodium channels at nodes are unknown. Recently we have reported that segregation of sodium channels on axons is highly dependent on interactions with active Schwann cells and that continuing axon-glial interactions are necessary to maintain sodium channel distribution during differentiation of myelinated nerve (Joe and Angelides, 1992). The specific recruitment of sodium channels at these early stages of myelination and the conspicuous absence of other axon membrane components suggest that the factors governing sodium channel cluster formation show molecular specificity. However, it is not clear whether these clustered sodium channels originate from a redistribution of preexisting diffusely distributed sodium channels. To determine how Schwann cells might regulate sodium channel distribution during myelination we have examined the lateral mobility of fluorescently labeled sodium channels at defined stages of myelination by fluorescence photobleach recovery using tetramethylrhodamine (TmRhd)-labeled Tityus gamma, a sodium channel-specific fluorescent toxin. First, to test whether Schwann cells, in addition to modulating sodium channel distribution, affect the mobility of sodium channels, we cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons in the presence or absence of Schwann cells and monitored sodium channel mobility on cell bodies, axon hillocks, and axons. Even in the absence of Schwann cells, approximately 80% of the sodium channels were immobile on the time scale of the fluorescence photobleach recovery measurement (DL < or equal to 10(-12) cm2/sec), although the remaining fraction of channels are

  10. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Galperin, Michael Y; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2008-01-01

    Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts) and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles) ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section. PMID:18380897

  11. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  12. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  13. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  14. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and....1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic.... Commercially, sodium oleate is made by mixing and heating flaked sodium hydroxide and oleic acid. (b)...

  15. Effect of hypochlorite oxidation on cholinesterase-inhibition assay of acetonitrile extracts from fruits and vegetables for monitoring traces of organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kentaro; Maruyama, Kaori; Hamano, Sachiko; Kishi, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Onodera, Sukeo

    2014-02-01

    A reproducible method for monitoring traces of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors in acetonitrile extracts from fruits and vegetables is described. The method is based on hypochlorite oxidation and ChE inhibition assay. Four common representative samples of produce were selected from a supermarket to investigate the effect of different matrices on pesticides recoveries and assay precision. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile to prepare them for ChE inhibition assays: if necessary, clean-up was performed using dispersive solid-phase extraction for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Chlorine was tested as an oxidising reagent for the conversion of thiophosphorus pesticides (P=S compounds) into their P=O analogues, which have high ChE-inhibiting activity. Chlorine consumption of individual acetonitrile extracts was determined and was strongly dependent on the individual types of fruits and vegetables. After treating the acetonitrile extracts with an excess hypochlorite at 25°C for 15 min, the ChE-inhibiting activities and detection limits for each chlorine-treated pesticide solution were determined. Matrix composition did not interfere significantly with the determination of the pesticides. Enhanced anti-ChE activities leading to low detection limits (ppb levels) were observed for the chlorine-treated extracts that were spiked with chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fenitrothion, and isoxathion. This combination of oxidative derivatisation and ChE inhibition assays was used successfully to monitor and perform semi-quantitative determination of ChE inhibitors in apple, tomato, cucumber, and strawberry samples. PMID:24418711

  16. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  17. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  18. The sodium/sulphur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    1984-02-01

    Problems encountered in the design and development of a practical sodium/sulphur battery are reviewed and several solutions are offered. Consideration is given to the degradation of the solid electrolyte, beta alumina; problems with the sodium electrode associated with the sodium/beta alumina interface; and the loss of capacity identified with the sulphur electrode. Attention is also given to the search for corrosion-resistant materials for use as the current collector and to the geometry of the cell design. Criteria for a successful road vehicle battery are discussed.

  19. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  20. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  1. Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel by accessory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Kelly; Dong, Yanbin; Sagnella, Giuseppe A

    2003-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of fundamental importance in the control of sodium fluxes in epithelial cells. Modulation of sodium reabsorption through the distal nephron ENaC is an important component in the overall control of sodium balance, blood volume and thereby of blood pressure. This is clearly demonstrated by rare genetic disorders of sodium-channel activity (Liddle's syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1), associated with contrasting effects on blood pressure. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a well-established modulator of sodium-channel activity. Considerable insight has now been gained into the intracellular signalling pathways linking aldosterone-mediated changes in gene transcription with changes in ion transport. Activating pathways include aldosterone-induced proteins and especially the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) and the small G-protein, K-Ras 2A. Targeting of the ENaC for endocytosis and degradation is now emerging as a major mechanism for the down-regulation of channel activity. Several proteins acting in concert are an intrinsic part of this process but Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4) is of central importance. Other mechanisms known to interact with ENaC and affect sodium transport include channel-activating protease 1 (CAP-1), a membrane-anchored protein, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. The implications of research on accessory factors controlling ENaC activity are wide-ranging. Understanding cellular mechanisms controlling ENaC activity may provide a more detailed insight not only of ion-channel abnormalities in cystic fibrosis but also of the link between abnormal renal sodium transport and essential hypertension. PMID:12460120

  2. Control of pathogens in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel by levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove or inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel coupons was evaluated. Five- or six-strain mixtures (ca. 9.0 log CFU/ml) of the three pathogens were separately inoculated on stainless steel coupons. After incubation at 21 °C for 72 h, the coupons were treated for 10 min by different concentrations of LVA plus SDS (0.5% LVA+0.05% SDS, 1% LVA+0.1% SDS, and 3% LVA+2% SDS) and other commonly used sanitizers, including a commercial quaternary ammonium-based sanitizer (150 ppm), lactic acid (3%), sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), and hydrogen peroxide (2%). The pathogens grew in the biofilms to ca. 8.6 to 9.3 log CFU/coupon after 72 h of incubation. The combined activity of LVA with SDS was bactericidal in biofilms for cells of the three pathogens evaluated, with the highest concentrations (3% LVA+2% SDS) providing the greatest log reduction. Microscopic images indicated that the cells were detached from the biofilm matrix and the integrity of cell envelopes were decreased after the treatment of LVA plus SDS. This study is conducive to better understanding the antimicrobial behavior of LVA plus SDS to the foodborne pathogens within biofilms. PMID:25950851

  3. Disinfection By-Product Formation and Mitigation Strategies in Point-of-Use Chlorination with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lantagne, Daniele S.; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C.

    2010-01-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6–888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  4. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination with sodium dichloroisocyanurate in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lantagne, Daniele S; Cardinali, Fred; Blount, Ben C

    2010-07-01

    Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6-888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines. PMID:20595492

  5. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  6. [Hypolactatemic effect of sodium difluoroacetate].

    PubMed

    Dalstein, J M; Ribes, G; Campo, P; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1980-01-01

    In the anesthetized rat, the intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg sodium difluoroacetate (DFA), an activator of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, counteracted the hyperlactatemia induced by a high dose of phenformin (40 mg/kg) injected concomitantly. In the normal conscious dog, the administration of 150 mg/kg by gastric intubation decreased the blood lactate and pyruvate levels; however, this effect was less marked than that produced by the same dose of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA). PMID:6449260

  7. EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF SODIUM NITRITE IN LONG-EVANS RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sodium nitrite administered in the drinking water to Long-Evans rats during pregnancy and lactation severely affected arythropoietic development, growth and mortality in their offspring. There were no significant differences between treated and control litters at birth. Thereafte...

  8. Sodium and water: an overview.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1976-01-01

    The renal regulation of sodium is intertwined with the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). Most adjustments in sodium elimination in man are accomplished via alterations in tubular reabsorption. The latter is sensitive to change in ECFV. An expanded ECFV results in less reabsorption and more excretion of sodium, and a contracted ECFV has the converse effect. There are direct and indirect mechanisms whereby ECFV influences sodium reabsorption. Patients with nephrotic syndrome, heart failure, and cirrhosis "behave" physiologically as normal individuals with a contracted ECFV. Water balance is normally determined by intake and losses in sweat which is always hypoosmotic to plasma, by evaporation from skin and lungs, and through renal excretion. The major factors that determine the ability to concentrate the urine are (1) the establishment of a concentrated environment around the collecting ducts, and (2) the elaboration and effects on the kidney of antidiuretic hormone. The evaluation of a patient with abnormalities of sodium and water rests initially and largely on clinical information. The clinical setting provides clues to anticipating, preventing, and interpreting distortions of body sodium and water. The laboratory can detect an abnormality, confirm or refute clinical assessment, and assist in the quantitative aspects of treatment and its efficacy. PMID:961714

  9. An octopus toxin, maculotoxin, selectively blocks sodium current in squid axons.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, P W; Moore, J W; Westerfield, M

    1976-01-01

    1. A low molecular weight, stable, cationic neurotoxin (maculotoxin, MTX) extracted from the posterior salivary glands of the octopus Hapalochlaena maculosa, blocked sodium current in voltage-clamped squid axons without affecting potassium current. 2. The effectiveness of MTX was increased by repetitive, brief, depolarizing pulses but not by a single prolonged depolarization. 3. The potency of MTX decreased at pHs from 8 to 9. Effectiveness could be restored be restored by lowering the pH to 7-1 again. It was concluded that MTX is active in its cationic form. 4. MTX affected sodium conductance kinetics, slowing the turn-on of sodium current. This effect was most noticeable with small deploarizations but became progressively less with larger depolarizations. Neither the turn-off of sodium current nor sodium inactivation kinetics were affected by the toxin. 5. MTX inhibited sodium current without inhibiting sodium gating current. 6. The effectiveness of MTX was not detectably changed when calcium concentration was varied from 50 to 10 mM, or sodium concentration was varied from 225 to 750 mM. PMID:957253

  10. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  13. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  14. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  15. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  17. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  18. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  1. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  2. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  6. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  13. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and... byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure safe...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium sesquicarbonate (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O, CAS Reg. No..., centrifugation, and drying; (2) double refining of trona ore, a naturally occurring impure sodium...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  19. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS Reg. No. 9003-04-7) may be... aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled “Determination of Weight Average...

  20. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  3. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a color fixative in smoked cured tunafish products so that the level of sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  9. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method entitled...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists as... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  12. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  15. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium... the polyacrylic acid with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. As determined by a method...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sesquicarbonate. 184.1792 Section 184.1792... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Sodium... naturally occurring impure sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  1. Radiolysis and photolysis of sodium sulfate crystalline hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenchurina, A. R.; Sal'keeva, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal treatment of sodium sulfate was found to affect its optical and luminescent properties when activated with trivalent rare-earth ions. The influence of crystal water molecules on radiation processes in sodium sulfate was studied. The interactions of atomic hydrogen with ions and radicals were calculated by the semiempirical MNDO quantum-chemical method. The hydrogen atom was found to form stable complexes with all ions and radicals. The ions and radicals of the sulfate subsystem play the role of traps for hydrogen atoms and escape recombination, giving rise to recombination luminescence at 150 K during UV excitation of the crystalline hydrate.

  2. Inhibition of mitotic-specific histone phophorylation by sodium arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo, J.M.; Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    Synchronized cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) were used to measure the effects of 10{mu}M sodium arsenite on histone phosphorylation. This treatment caused cell proliferation to be temporarily arrested, after which the cells spontaneously resumed cell proliferation in a radiomimetric manner. Immediately following treatment, it was found that sodium arsenite affected only mitotic-specific HI and H3 phosphorylations. Neither interphase, nor mitotic, H2A and H4 phosphorylations were affected, nor was interphase HI Phosphorylation affected. The phosphorylation of HI was inhibited only in mitosis, reducing HI phosphorylation to 38.1% of control levels, which was the level of interphase HI phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of both H3 variants was inhibited in mitosis, the less hydrophobic H3 to 19% and the more hydrophobic H3 to 24% of control levels. These results suggest that sodium arsenite may inhibite cell proliferation by interfering with the cyclin B/p34{sup cdc2} histone kinase activity which is thought to play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. It has been proposed by our laboratory that HI and H3 phosphorylations play a role in restructuring interphase chromatin into metaphase chromosomes. Interference of this process by sodium arsenite may lead to structurally damaged chromosomes resulting in the increased cancer risks known to be produced by arsenic exposure from the environment.

  3. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  4. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    PubMed

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  5. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  10. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  11. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  12. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  17. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  18. Transient Studies of a Sodium Sulfur Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Sarah

    Modern grids will include input from fossil-fueled power generation facilities as well as renewable energy sources, and these are expected to work together actively. One major problem with this integrated power production is that most renewable energy sources are intermittent and variable, and thus introduce a very challenging situation with regard to grid stability and reliability. Also, fossil-fueled power generation facilities have load cycles based on expected usage. A non-reliable power source cannot feasibly be used to supply the grid with proper amounts of energy needed in peak times. A solution to this dilemma is power storage. The sodium-sulfur battery has high potential for electrical storage at the grid level due to its high energy density, low cost of the reactants, and high open-circuit voltage. However, the use of sodium-sulfur batteries at the grid level requires high current density operation that can cause cell deterioration, leading to lower sulfur utilization and lower energy efficiency. In addition, it can result in undesired thermal runaway leading to potentially hazardous situations. A rigorous, dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur battery can be used to study these phenomena, design the battery for optimal transient performance, and develop mitigation strategies. Most literature on sodium-sulfur batteries is concerned the dynamics of the sulfur electrode (a sodium-polysulfide melt). There is limited data in the open literature for dynamics of an entire cell. With this motivation, a first-principles dynamic model of a sodium-sulfur cell (with beta"-alumina electrolyte) has been developed. The state of discharge (SOD) of a sodium-sulfur cell significantly affects the heat generation rate, rates of electrochemical reactions, and internal resistance. To capture these phenomena correctly, a fully coupled thermal-electrochemical model has been developed. The thermal model considers heat generation due to Ohmic loss, Peltier heat, and heat due to the

  19. Stability of octreotide acetate decreases in a sodium bisulfate concentration-dependent manner: compatibility study with morphine and metoclopramide injections

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Junko; Ohkubo, Jun; Nitta, Atsumi; Ikezaki, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Miyako; Handa, Aya; Tanaka, Mai; Murakami, Nozomu; Kashii, Tatsuhiko; Kitazawa, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sodium bisulfate is known to affect the stability of octreotide. However, the critical concentration of sodium bisulfate is not known. Therefore, we assessed the critical concentration of sodium bisulfate needed to preserve the stability of octreotide using actual drugs containing sodium bisulfate. Methods Although morphine and metoclopramide preparations are considered to be compatible with octreotide, some of their products are known to contain sodium bisulfate. Thus, octreotide was mixed with preparations of sodium bisulfate solutions at serial concentrations and morphine and metoclopramide preparations containing sodium bisulfate, and octreotide stability was then evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Octreotide concentrations decreased significantly at a sodium bisulfate concentration of 0.1 mg/mL or higher after 10 days when octreotide was mixed with sodium bisulfate solutions at various concentrations. A significant decrease in octreotide concentrations also occurred when it was mixed with morphine and metoclopramide preparations containing sodium bisulfate and stored for 10 days; however, slight decreases were observed in the mixture with both preparations and were within the clinically acceptable range for morphine preparations. Conclusions These results indicate that the residual rate of octreotide decreases with time in a sodium bisulfate concentration-dependent manner when octreotide was mixed with morphine or metoclopramide. However, this incompatibility may be clinically acceptable when the final sodium bisulfate concentration is lower than 0.1 mg/mL and the mixed solution is used within 7 days. PMID:25984298

  20. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in full- and low-sodium frankfurters at 4, 7, or 10°C using spray-dried mixtures of organic acid salts.

    PubMed

    Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon

    2013-09-01

    In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats. PMID:23992500