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Sample records for affects female sexual

  1. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

  2. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  4. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  5. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  6. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376

  7. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment. PMID:25650731

  8. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female's sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  9. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female’s sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  10. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours. PMID:22237501

  11. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem, Depression, and Negative Behaviors in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, K. Brent; Sorell, Gwendolyn T.

    1989-01-01

    Used symbolic interaction theoretical framework to predict association of seven variables with self-esteem, depression level, and negative behaviors of female adolescent incest victims (N=101). Found type of sexual act single most powerful distress predictor. Found age and race had unexpected associations with victim outcomes. (Author/CM)

  12. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor

    PubMed Central

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours. PMID:22237501

  13. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  14. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  15. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  16. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  17. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  18. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  20. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  1. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  2. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  3. Female sexual function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sipski, Marca L; Arenas, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, studies of the impact of spinal cord injuries on female sexuality have expanded from questionnaire studies in small populations with unknown levels and degrees of injury to laboratory-based analyses of women with known injury patterns. These studies have provided detailed information on how specific injury patterns affect specific aspects of the female sexual response. Research findings have supported the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system is regulatory for psychogenic genital vasocongestion and that orgasm is a reflex response of the autonomic nervous system. Based on these results, a new system for the classification of sexual function in women with spinal cord injury (SCI) is proposed. Moreover, studies related to the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with cord injury are reviewed. PMID:16198719

  4. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  5. Attention bias for sexual words in female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention. PMID:20432123

  6. Neurologic Factors in Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Siroky, Mike B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women. PMID:20664775

  7. Sexual dysfunction in female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, Michael; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Gass, Jennifer S; Carson, Sandra A; Krychman, Michael L; Dizon, Don S

    2014-02-01

    Cancer survivors face a myriad of long-term effects of their disease, diagnosis, and treatment, and chief among many are problems associated with sexual dysfunction. Yet despite their frequency and the degree of distress they cause patients, sexual dysfunction is not effectively screened for or treated, and this is particularly true in female survivors. Inconsistently performed general sexual health screening at all facets of cancer care and survivorship ultimately translates into missed attempts to identify and treat dysfunction when it does arise. In this paper, we will review the current research and clinical practices addressing sexual dysfunction in female cancer survivors and propose questions in need of future research attention. This article will review the phases of sexual response and how each may be affected by the physical and emotional stress of cancer diagnosis and treatment. We will then discuss existing tools for assessment of sexual function and approaches to their treatment. Finally, we will conclude with advice to health care professionals based on current research and suggest questions for future study. PMID:22643563

  8. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females. PMID:17615431

  9. Intrasexual competition in females: evidence for sexual selection?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent interest in sexual selection in females, debate exists over whether traits that influence female–female competition are sexually selected. This review uses female–female aggressive behavior as a model behavioral trait for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms promoting intrasexual competition, focusing especially on sexual selection. I employ a broad definition of sexual selection, whereby traits that influence competition for mates are sexually selected, whereas those that directly influence fecundity or offspring survival are naturally selected. Drawing examples from across animal taxa, including humans, I examine 4 predictions about female intrasexual competition based on the abundance of resources, the availability of males, and the direct or indirect benefits those males provide. These patterns reveal a key sex difference in sexual selection: Although females may compete for the number of mates, they appear to compete more so for access to high-quality mates that provide direct and indirect (genetic) benefits. As is the case in males, intrasexual selection in females also includes competition for essential resources required for access to mates. If mate quality affects the magnitude of mating success, then restricting sexual selection to competition for quantity of mates may ignore important components of fitness in females and underestimate the role of sexual selection in shaping female phenotype. In the future, understanding sex differences in sexual selection will require further exploration of the extent of mutual intrasexual competition and the incorporation of quality of mating success into the study of sexual selection in both sexes. PMID:22479137

  10. [Female sexuality in middle and advanced adulthood].

    PubMed

    von Sydow, K

    1992-01-01

    A study of female sexuality based on 91 interviews with women aged 50 to 91 years (birth-cohorts: 1895 to 1936) is presented. 53% of the interview-partners in this study are sexually active (intercourse: 34%; masturbation: 30%; lesbian sexuality: 1%). 65% report sexual interest. During the past year 58% of the women experienced sexual dreams, 43% sexual fantasies. 26% of the interview-partners had never experienced orgasm. Several age- and cohort-differences are reported. Quotations illustrate the variability of female sexual experiences. PMID:1609538

  11. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  12. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  13. Arginine vasotocin induces calling behavior with a female social stimulus and interacts with gonadotropins to affect sexual behaviors in male Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robert A; Searcy, Brian T; Propper, Catherine R

    2015-11-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and the mammalian homologue, arginine vasopressin (AVP), modulate vertebrate social behaviors, including vocalizations in male anurans. To study the impact of AVT and social stimuli on calling in male Xenopus tropicalis, we injected males with vehicle, 1 μg, or 10 μg AVT and recorded vocalizations under four social contexts (no stimulus, with male call playback, with a female, and with call playback and a female). More males called when injected with 10 μg AVT. Furthermore, calling males called only when paired with a female. We identified four call types: long fast trill; short fast trill; slow trill; or click. Next, we injected males with vehicle, 10 μg, or 20 μg AVT and recorded vocalizations with or without a female. AVT treatment did not affect calling in this experiment, but we confirmed that more males, regardless of AVT treatment, called when a female was present. Then we evaluated the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on male sexual behavior. 20 IU hCG elevated behavior compared to controls while the 10 IU hCG treatment group was not different from either treatment. Last, we examined the effect of AVT on hCG-induced reproductive behavior. Males were injected with 10 IU hCG or with 10 IU hCG and 20 μg AVT. Males receiving hCG and AVT clasped and called significantly more than males receiving hCG only. Our results suggest that AVT and a female stimulus induce vocalizations in a male pipid anuran, X. tropicalis, and the interaction between gonadotropins and neurohormones influences reproductive behaviors in this anuran amphibian. PMID:26129685

  14. Female Adolescents of Alcohol Misusers: Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)

  15. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know. PMID:26611132

  16. Antidepressant-Induced Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Tierney; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Because 1 in 6 women in the United States takes antidepressants and a substantial proportion of patients report some disturbance of sexual function while taking these medications, it is a near certainty that the practicing clinician will need to know how to assess and manage antidepressant-related female sexual dysfunction. Adverse sexual effects can be complex because there are several potentially overlapping etiologies, including sexual dysfunction associated with the underlying mood disorder. As such, careful assessment of sexual function at the premedication visit followed by monitoring at subsequent visits is critical. Treatment of adverse sexual effects can be pharmacological (dose reduction, drug discontinuation or switching, augmentation, or using medications with lower adverse effect profiles), behavioral (exercising before sexual activity, scheduling sexual activity, vibratory stimulation, psychotherapy), complementary and integrative (acupuncture, nutraceuticals), or some combination of these modalities. PMID:27594188

  17. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  18. Sexual reflexes in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, S K; McVary, K T; McKenna, K E

    1988-12-01

    A novel preparation for the study of male and female sexual function in anesthetized, acutely spinalized rats is reported. In both sexes, the coitus reflex (the neuromuscular concomitants of sexual climax) could be elicited by mechanical stimulation of the distal urethra. It is concluded that the spinal sexual circuitry is essentially similar in both sexes and that the coitus reflex is generated by a hormone-insensitive spinal pattern generator and is triggered by a simple peripheral stimulus. PMID:3205410

  19. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  20. Psychotherapeutic interventions for treating female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Leiblum, Sandra R; Wiegel, Markus

    2002-06-01

    A review of the current approach to the assessment and treatment of female sexual disorders from a sex therapy perspective is described. The importance of a comprehensive evaluation of both the woman and her partner, prior to formalizing a treatment plan, is stressed. Certain interventions are common in the treatment of all female sexual difficulties, for example, education and information about female sexuality generally, communication training, non-demand pleasuring, and permission to engage in self-pleasuring. Specific interventions are also described for such issues as past sexual or physical trauma. The overall goal of treatment is increased pleasure and satisfaction, rather than perfect genital response. Finally, the factors associated with treatment success are noted along with the observation that these factors are the same factors that contribute to a successful outcome in any psychotherapeutic endeavor. PMID:12107544

  1. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran . Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey which included 400 women aged 18–50 years old, married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The subjects were randomly selected from 4 primary health centres. Results: According to the findings, 185 (46.2%) women reported FSD. Prevalence of FSD increased with age, from 22% in women aged <20 years to 75.7% in women aged 40-50 years. FSD was detected as a desire problem in 45.3% of women, an arousal problem in 37.5%, a lubrication problem in 41.2%, an orgasm problem in 42.0%, a satisfaction problem in 44.5% and a pain problem in 42.5%. The educational level was inversely correlated with the risk of FSD (OR: 1.54 ,95% CI: 1.09-2.13). Patients with FSD were significantly more likely to be older than 40 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.12-2.68), who had sexual intercourse fewer than 3 times a week (OR:1.85, 95% CI: 1.23-1.99), who had been married for 10 years or more (OR:1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97), who had 3 children or more (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24), who had husbands aged 40 years or more (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.35-2.37) and who were unemployed (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63). No significant differences were detected in smoking history, residences and contraception methods used (p>0.05). Conclusion: FSD needs to be recognized as a significant public health problem in Kurd women. Further research, particularly studies on awareness and competency of physicians in the management of FSD, is required. PMID:24551663

  2. Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

  3. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  4. The historical response to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John; Schwenkhagen, Anneliese

    2009-06-20

    In the past, medical attitudes to female sexuality were grotesque, reflecting the anxiety and hypocrisy of the times. In the medieval world, the population feared hunger, the devil, and women, being particularly outraged and threatened by normal female sexuality. The 19th century attitude was no better as academics confirmed the lower intellectual status of women, particularly if they ventured into education. The medical contribution to this prejudice was shocking, with gynaecologists and psychiatrists leading the way designing operations for the cure of the apparently serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynaecologist, Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873), and the distinguished endocrinologist, Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-1867, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with "a past" survives to the end. The wheel has turned full circle and in the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided a greater understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment. PMID:19487089

  5. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.

    PubMed

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P

    2009-12-01

    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  6. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors. PMID:22686394

  7. Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C.; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Pfaus, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected. PMID:24760835

  8. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697

  9. Sex parties: female teen sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a sex party as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved sex acts without vaginal intercourse. Data were collected through 22 semistructured interviews with female adolescents, ages 15-18. All the participants knew of sex parties, however, only a subgroup of these adolescents actually participated in activities loosely defined by teens as sex parties. Alcohol was common at these parties, but female teens asserted that they consumed alcohol willingly to relax, as opposed to being coerced to do so. Some teens expressed regret following participation in a sex party, although none reported sexual coercion or abuse. PMID:17172201

  10. Sexual trauma and the female brain.

    PubMed

    Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M

    2016-04-01

    Sexual aggression and violence against women (VAM) are not only social problems; they are mental health problems. Women who experience sexual trauma often express disruptions in emotional and cognitive processes, some of which lead to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Animal models of neurogenesis and learning suggest that social yet aggressive interactions between a pubescent female and an adult male can disrupt processes of learning related to maternal care, which in turn reduce survival of new neurons in the female hippocampus. Mental and Physical (MAP) Training is a novel clinical intervention that was translated from neurogenesis research. The intervention, which combines meditation and aerobic exercise, is currently being used to help women learn to recover from traumatic life experiences, especially those related to sexual violence and abuse. PMID:27085856

  11. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement. PMID:26168010

  12. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF) during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF) during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited number of female escapers

  13. Juvenile play conditions sexual partner preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-10-24

    Rats can display a conditioned partner preference for individuals that bear an odor previously associated with sexual reward. Herein we tested the possibility that odors associated with the reward induced by social play in prepubescent rats would induce a conditioned partner preference in adulthood. Two groups of 31-day-old, single-housed female rats were formed, and were given daily 30-min periods of social play with scented females. In one group, almond scent was paired with juvenile play during conditioning trials, whereas lemon scent functioned as a novel odor in the final test. The counterbalanced group received the opposite association. At age 42, females were tested for play partner preference with two males, one almond-scented and one lemon-scented. In both groups females displayed a play partner preference only for males scented with the paired odor. They were ovariectomized, hormone-primed, and at age 55 were tested for sexual partner preference with two scented stud males. Females displayed a sexual preference towards males scented with the paired odor as observed with more visits, solicitations, hops and darts, intromissions and ejaculations. These results indicate that olfactory stimuli paired with juvenile play affects later partner choice for play as well as for sex in female rats. PMID:21777597

  14. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  15. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  16. Sexual responsiveness is condition-dependent in female guppies, but preference functions are not

    PubMed Central

    Syriatowicz, Alexandra; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection. PMID:15117410

  17. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention.

    PubMed

    Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K

    2012-05-01

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience. PMID:22158959

  18. Sexual and social competition: broadening perspectives by defining female roles.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2012-08-19

    Males figured more prominently than females in Darwin's view of sexual selection. He considered female choice of secondary importance to male-male competition as a mechanism to explain the evolution of male ornaments and armaments. Fisher later demonstrated the importance of female choice in driving male trait evolution, but his ideas were largely ignored for decades. As sexual selection came to embrace the notions of parent-offspring and sexual conflict, and experimental tests of female choice showed promise, females began to feature more prominently in the framework of sexual selection theory. Recent debate over this theory has centred around the role of females, not only over the question of choice, but also over female-female competition. Whereas some have called for expanding the sexual selection framework to encompass all forms of female-female competition, others have called for subsuming sexual selection within a broader framework of social selection, or replacing it altogether. Still others have argued for linking sexual selection more clearly to other evolutionary theories such as kin selection. Rather than simply debating terminology, we must take a broader view of the general processes that lead to trait evolution in both sexes by clearly defining the roles that females play in the process, and by focusing on intra- and inter-sexual interactions in males and females. PMID:22777013

  19. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

  20. Assessment of the Effects of Perineoplasty on Female Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Cihan; Ağır, Meriç Çağrı; Sağır, Fulya Gökdağlı; Özer, Atınç; Özbek, Özlem; Dayanır, Hakan; Uysal, Gökçe Saygı; Uysal, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005). However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184). The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005). Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia. PMID:26185713

  1. Nonsteroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Female Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B.; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. PMID:20444881

  2. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware." PMID:23118235

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction Among the Wives of Opioid-Dependent Males in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Anvar Abnavi, Marjan; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Hamidian, Sajedeh; Ghaffarpour, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males’ opioid dependency in their female partners’ sexual function. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males’ opioid dependency on their wives’ sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent. Patients and Methods This study included 340 women who were selected through convenience sampling and divided into a control (females whose husbands were not opioid dependent) and a case group (women whose husbands were opioid dependent). The data were collected through an interview according to the DSM-IV-R criteria for female sexual dysfunctions by a senior female medical student who was one of the researchers. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 15) and analyzed using the t-test and chi-square test. Results According to the results, the frequency of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that having an addicted husband could strongly affect some sexual domains in women. It could change the pattern of desire and motivation for sexual contact in females and alter their attitude toward the sexual relationship, thereby causing disturbances in the females’ normal sexual function. PMID:27218067

  4. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    PubMed

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery. PMID:27328304

  5. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  7. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug? PMID:27287350

  8. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Female), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

  9. Impact of rape on female sexuality: review of selected literature.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri L

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the medical and psychologic literature on the impact of rape on female sexuality. Studies documented moderately high rates of genital injuries and moderate rates of sexually transmitted infections postrape and significantly greater difficulties with aspects of reproductive/sexual functioning, including dyspareunia, endometriosis, menstrual irregularities, and chronic pelvic pain for raped compared with nonraped women. Raped women also engaged in significantly more high-risk sexual behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder emerged as an important mediator of sexual victimization and sexual health. An integrative model outlining interrelated physical, psychologic, biologic, and behavioral factors postrape was presented to assimilate review findings. PMID:20393422

  10. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H; Choe, Jae C

    2007-01-01

    Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates. PMID:17487270

  11. A Preference for a Sexual Signal Keeps Females Safe

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Won; Christy, John H.; Choe, Jae C.

    2007-01-01

    Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates. PMID:17487270

  12. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in female patients with OSA. The effect of CPAP on life satisfaction was also investigated. Methods Fifty-four therapy-compliant, female patients (age 22–71) received a survey before and after 1 year of nocturnal CPAP treatment. The questions on this survey were drawn from three self-administered questionnaires: two on sexuality and one on life satisfaction. The results were compared with a population sample. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used for assessment of daytime sleepiness. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction, four questions from Life Satisfaction 11, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were all used to measure outcome. Results In total, 44 patients responded to the survey (81% response rate). The results were a significant, positive change in manifest female sexual dysfunction, but no significant changes in isolated sexual difficulties or sexual distress. Daytime sleepiness significantly decreased after 1 year. The results from the Life Satisfaction 11 questionnaire remained unchanged after 1 year. Conclusions After 1 year of CPAP treatment, female patients with OSA reported reduced manifest sexual dysfunction. However, it cannot be concluded if this result is due to CPAP treatment alone. Furthermore, reduced daytime tiredness was found in the surveyed population. CPAP treatment, per se, does not seem to affect partner relationships. Petersen M, Kristensen E, Berg S, and Midgren B. Long

  13. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The massively disproportionate impact of America’s prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man’s release from prison. Methods We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Results Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners’ influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. Conclusion The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration. PMID:25642396

  14. Penis size: Survey of female perceptions of sexual satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, Russell

    2001-01-01

    Background Does the size of the male penis, in terms of length or width, make a difference in female sexual satisfaction? Method To study the effect of penis width vs. length on female sexual satisfaction, 50 sexually active female undergraduate students were asked which felt better, i. e., was penis width or length more important for their sexual satisfaction. Results None reported they did not know, or that width and length were equally satisfying. A large majority, 45 of 50, reported width was more important (p < .001). Conclusion Implications are discussed, including the fact that the data seem to contradict Masters and Johnson about penis size having no physiological effect on female sexual satisfaction. PMID:11415468

  15. Military sexual trauma among U.S. female veterans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Irene; Bernstein, Kunsook

    2011-04-01

    Sexual abuse among female veterans reportedly occurs in significant numbers in the U.S. military and has been recognized to cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD, which stems from sexual abuse, has been called military sexual trauma (MST), which has only recently been recognized by the Department of Defense. Consequently, there has been scant research on the prevalence, impact, and treatment of MST. This article explores the phenomenon of sexual aggression against female veterans in the U.S. military, risk factors for MST, PTSD as a result of MST, a conceptual framework for treating PTSD stress, and treatment strategies for PTSD. PMID:21421165

  16. The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Snoeren, Eelke M S

    2015-04-15

    Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of α2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that α2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior. PMID:25218984

  17. Relational and sexual fluidity in females partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Aramburu Alegría, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a study examining sexuality in females who remain partnered with male-to-female transsexual persons. Participants' self-view and sexual fluidity following their partners' transition from man to woman is examined. Sixteen females participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews. An inductive process of data analysis was conducted, using the constant comparative method, an iterative process by which data are compared within and across subjects. Data were collected until thematic saturation was achieved. Four themes related to sexuality emerged: (1) questioning of sexual orientation; (2) sexual orientation categorization; (3) relational fluidity without sexual relations; and (4) relational fluidity with sexual relations. Participants maintained a heterosexual identity, yet modified their self-view to include an identity that reflected their reformed relationship. The majority of the respondents reported sexual lives that were active or evolving. Others remained in relationships that no longer included sexual activity. The study findings highlight the potential fluidity within the sexual and relational lives of females, and can enhance healthcare providers' preparedness and efficacy with diverse populations. Providers are in a unique position to offer resources to patients who identify as sexually or gender-diverse, or who are in relationships with sexually or gender-diverse persons. PMID:22295885

  18. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently. PMID:24269964

  19. Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, A. J.; Gowaty, P. A.; Wallin, W. G.; Moore, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Conflicts between the sexes over control of reproduction are thought to lead to a cost of sexual selection through the evolution of male traits that manipulate female reproductive physiology and behaviour, and female traits that resist this manipulation. Although studies have begun to document negative fitness effects of sexual conflict, studies showing the expected association between sexual conflict and the specific behavioural mechanisms of sexual selection are lacking. Here we experimentally manipulated the opportunity for sexual conflict in the cockroach. Nauphoeta cinerea and showed that, for this species, odour cues in the social environment influence the behavioural strategies and fitness of males and females during sexual selection. Females provided with the opportunity for discriminating between males but not necessarily mating with preferred males produced fewer male offspring than females mated at random. The number of female offspring produced was not affected, nor was the viability of the offspring. Experimental modification of the composition of the males' pheromone showed that the fecundity effects were caused by exposure to the pheromone component that makes males attractive to females but also makes males less likely to be dominant. Female mate choice therefore carries a demographic cost but functions to avoid male manipulation and aggression. Male-male competition appears to function to circumvent mate choice rather than directly manipulating females, as the mate choice can be cryptic. The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N. cinerea therefore reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection. PMID:11296864

  20. Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance.

    PubMed

    Moore, A J; Gowaty, P A; Wallin, W G; Moore, P J

    2001-03-01

    Conflicts between the sexes over control of reproduction are thought to lead to a cost of sexual selection through the evolution of male traits that manipulate female reproductive physiology and behaviour, and female traits that resist this manipulation. Although studies have begun to document negative fitness effects of sexual conflict, studies showing the expected association between sexual conflict and the specific behavioural mechanisms of sexual selection are lacking. Here we experimentally manipulated the opportunity for sexual conflict in the cockroach. Nauphoeta cinerea and showed that, for this species, odour cues in the social environment influence the behavioural strategies and fitness of males and females during sexual selection. Females provided with the opportunity for discriminating between males but not necessarily mating with preferred males produced fewer male offspring than females mated at random. The number of female offspring produced was not affected, nor was the viability of the offspring. Experimental modification of the composition of the males' pheromone showed that the fecundity effects were caused by exposure to the pheromone component that makes males attractive to females but also makes males less likely to be dominant. Female mate choice therefore carries a demographic cost but functions to avoid male manipulation and aggression. Male-male competition appears to function to circumvent mate choice rather than directly manipulating females, as the mate choice can be cryptic. The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N. cinerea therefore reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection. PMID:11296864

  1. 1 in 3 Female Doctors Faces Sexual Harassment, Survey Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158882.html 1 in 3 Female Doctors Faces Sexual Harassment, Survey ... For the study, the researchers surveyed just over 1,000 men and women who earned a career ...

  2. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  3. Sexuality of Deviant Females: Adolescent and Adult Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests an association between negative sexual experiences in adolescents, low self-image, and subsequent deviant adult life styles. Results of a survey of prostitutes and a corresponding sample of female offenders showed that the prostitutes reported significantly more negative sexual experiences in adolescence. (Author/JAC)

  4. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  5. Female Sexuality Groups: Growth Workshops for College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Linda J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a group counseling program with four basic goals: (1) to provide a comfortable atmosphere for college women to discuss sexual issues and concerns; (2) to provide understanding of the physical aspects of female sexual functioning; (3) to confront attitudes and myths; and (4) to encourage a positive self-concept. (Author/RC)

  6. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  7. Ethnicity and Child Sexual Abuse Experiences of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…

  8. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health. PMID:23835845

  9. Family Dynamics and Female Sexual Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Otto; Friedman, Alfred S.

    Papers included are marriage as the cornerstone of the family system, developmental difficulties and the family system, mental health implications of family structure, delinquency and the family system, sexual delinquency among middle class girls, developing standards of sexual conduct among deprived girls, families out of wedlock, and a community…

  10. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  11. The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dominic; Kerje, Susanne; Brändström, Helena; Schütz, Karin; Kindmark, Andreas; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sexual ornaments, and particularly that of female sexual ornaments, is an enduring challenge in evolutionary biology. Key to this challenge are establishing the relationship between ornament expression and female reproductive investment, and determining the genetic basis underpinning such relationship. Advances in genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to study the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments in model species. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a female sexual ornament, the comb of the fowl, Gallus gallus, using a large-scale intercross between red junglefowl and a domestic line, selected for egg production. First, we demonstrate that female somatic investment in comb reflects female reproductive investment. Despite a trade-off between reproductive and skeletal investment mediated by the mobilization of skeletal minerals for egg production, females with proportionally large combs also had relatively high skeletal investment. Second, we identify a major QTL for bisexual expression of comb mass and several QTL specific to female comb mass. Importantly, QTL for comb mass were nonrandomly clustered with QTL for female reproductive and skeletal investment on chromosomes one and three. Together, these results shed light onto the physiological and genetic architecture of a female ornament. PMID:18053076

  12. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, S.; Arnqvist, G.; Friberg, U.

    2001-01-01

    Although empirical evidence has shown that many male traits have evolved via sexual selection by female mate choice, our understanding of the adaptive value of female mating preferences is still very incomplete. It has recently been suggested that female mate choice may result from females evolving resistance rather than attraction to males, but this has been disputed. Here, we develop a quantitative genetic model showing that sexual conflict over mating indeed results in the joint evolution of costly female mate choice and exaggerated male traits under a wide range of circumstances. In contrast to tradition explanations of costly female mate choice, which rely on indirect genetic benefits, our model shows that mate choice can be generated as a side-effect of females evolving to reduce the direct costs of mating. PMID:11296866

  13. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  14. Sexual reward induces Fos in the cerebellum of female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Pfaus, James G; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-02-01

    The cerebellum is generally considered a neural structure specialized in motor control and recent imaging data suggest its role in sexual behavior. Herein, we analyzed the pattern of Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the cerebellum of female rats allowed to pace copulation as a model of sexual reward in rodents. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed, sexually naïve females formed three groups: Pacing, Nonpacing and Control. Pacing occurred in arenas bisected by a middle divider that allowed only females to control sexual interaction with stud males. For nonpaced copulation the divider was removed, and control females were allowed to pace in chambers without a male. Fos-IR was analyzed in granule and Purkinje layers of the 10 cerebellar lobules, and in the fastigial deep nucleus (FDN). Results indicated that Pacing females expressed more Fos-IR in the granule layer compared to Nonpacing and Controls, and more Fos-IR in Purkinje compared to Nonpacing. No differences were observed in FDN. Such response cannot be explained with motor activity because Pacing females moved less in general. We discuss the role of the cerebellum and its connections in the sexual reward induced by pacing. PMID:21059365

  15. Anatomy of the Vulva and the Female Sexual Response.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jennifer; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-03-01

    The female vulva is an intricate structure comprising several components. Each structure has been described separately, but the interplay among them and physiologic significance remain controversial. The structures extend inferiorly from the pubic arch and include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris. The clitoris is widely accepted as the most critical anatomic structure to female sexual arousal and orgasm. The female sexual response cycle is also very complex, requiring emotional and mental stimulation in addition to end organ stimulation. PMID:26880506

  16. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  17. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  18. Female sexual dysfunction: focus on low desire.

    PubMed

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Woodard, Terri

    2015-02-01

    Low or absent sexual desire is the most common sexual dysfunction in women, and its prevalence peaks during midlife. Its etiology is complex and may include biologic, psychologic, and social elements. Major risk factors for its development include poor health status, depression, certain medications, dissatisfaction with partner relationship, and history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or both. Diagnosis is based on criteria set by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) and requires that a woman experience personal distress. Clinical evaluation should include medical history, sexual history, and, sometimes, a physical examination. Laboratory data are of limited value, except when warranted by history or physical examination. Treatment options include nonpharmacologic interventions such as education, office-based counseling, and psychotherapy. Although there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for low desire, pharmacologic agents have been used off-label for this purpose. Bupropion is an antidepressant that has been shown to improve desire in some women with and without depression. Systemic estrogen therapy is not recommended in the absence of vasomotor symptoms and is not directly associated with desire. However, vaginal estrogen is useful in patients presenting with concomitant vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia. Ospemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can be used as an alternative to vaginal estrogen. Exogenous testosterone has demonstrated efficacy in treating loss of desire in postmenopausal women. However, patients should be counseled that it is not FDA-approved for this purpose and there are limited published long-term safety data. Several agents for the treatment of low desire are currently in development. Gynecologists are in a unique position to address concerns about sexual desire in women. PMID:25569014

  19. Teen Birth Rates in Sexually Abused and Neglected Females

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173

  20. Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734

  1. Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sarah W

    2008-07-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there was one kind of female orgasm and it was clitoral; there was also only one kind of healthy sexual instinct for a woman and it was for penetrative sex with her husband. When a woman behaved outside of this normality-by masturbating or by not responding to her husband's affections-her sexual instinct was seen as disordered. If healthy women, then, were believed only to be sexual within the marital embrace, what better way to explain these errant behaviors than by blaming the clitoris, an organ seen as key to female sexual instinct? Doctors corrected a clitoris in an unhealthy state using one of four surgeries-removing smegma or adhesions between the clitoris and its hood, removing the hood (circumcision), or removing the clitoris (clitoridectomy)-in order to correct a woman's sexual instinct in an unhealthy state. Their approach to clitoral surgery, at least as revealed in published medical works, was a cautious one that respected the importance of clitoral stimulation for healthy sexuality while simultaneously recognizing its role as cause and symptom in cases of insanity that were tied to masturbation. PMID:18065832

  2. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved. PMID:17615910

  3. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  4. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  5. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

  6. Looking for sexual selection in the female brain

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Female mate choice behaviour has significant evolutionary consequences, yet its mechanistic origins are not fully understood. Recent studies of female sensory systems have made great strides in identifying internal mechanisms governing female preferences. Only recently, however, have we begun to identify the dynamic genomic response associated with mate choice behaviour. Poeciliids provide a powerful comparative system to examine genomic responses governing mate choice and female preference behaviour, given the great range of mating systems: from female mate choice taxa with ornamental courting males to species lacking male ornamentation and exhibiting only male coercion. Furthermore, they exhibit laboratory-tractable preference responses without sexual contact that are decoupled from reproductive state, allowing investigators to isolate mechanisms in the brain without physiological confounds. Early investigations with poeciliid species (Xiphophorus nigrensis and Gambusia affinis) have identified putative candidate genes associated with female preference response and highlight a possible genomic pathway underlying female social interactions with males linked functionally with synaptic plasticity and learning processes. This network is positively correlated with female preference behaviour in the female mate choice species, but appears inhibited in the male coercive species. This behavioural genomics approach provides opportunity to elucidate the fundamental building blocks, and evolutionary dynamics, of sexual selection. PMID:22777022

  7. Female sexual compulsivity: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martha

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses women who have sexual compulsivity, a disorder that is intensely shame-based and difficult to treat. The case studies presented show the family preconditioning of abandonment in childhood through inadequate care, abuse, neglect, and the presence of other addictions. As children, these women searched for something to soothe their distress when they could not rely on their caregivers. Maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as masturbation, food, romantic or violent fantasies, and any behavior to would gain attention, maintained their sanity in childhood. However, these behaviors also advanced to autonomy, eliminating the option of choices. In adulthood, the numbing of psychic pain by these found solutions became a preoccupation around which life was organized. Consequences developed and as the disease progressed, large amounts of time were regularly lost in fantasy and ritualistic behaviors, causing life to become unmanageable. The fear of being discovered, loneliness, and sexually transmitted diseases typically escalates to spiritual bankruptcy and eventual spiritual, psychological, and possibly physical death. The dilemma is too deep and powerful for women to heal themselves over time, partly because of her impaired thinking, unresolved trauma, and desperation-driven repeat of the behaviors. Proper intervention and treatment can make a difference. Restoration to full health takes years, requiring diligence, motivation, and a therapist who is knowledgeable, committed, patient, and willing to use all available modalities. Trust is a huge issue for these women, and even when taking a positive risk in therapy, trauma responses from early childhood may be evoked. These women are exquisitely sensitive to criticism, but if feeling safe most can learn to trust and will respond to help, because they long to be restored to their values, be self-sufficient, and have a voice that is respected. Uncovering sexual secrets from previous generations, still

  8. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes-high (low) densities for small (large) adults-and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  9. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes–high (low) densities for small (large) adults–and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  10. Initiation of Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata T.; Heaton, Tim B.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, reveals that a stable, structured environment decreased the occurrence of first intercourse for females between the age of 12 and 19. Such an environment is characterized by family stability, Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church…

  11. Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on 'honest' female ornamentation.

    PubMed

    LeBas, Natasha R; Hockham, Leon R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2003-10-22

    Female ornamentation has long been overlooked because of the greater prevalence of elaborate displays in males. However, the circumstances under which females would benefit from honestly signalling their quality are limited. Females are not expected to invest in ornamentation unless the fitness benefits of the ornament exceed those derived from investing the resources directly into offspring. It has been proposed that when females gain direct benefits from mating, females may instead be selected for ornamentation that deceives males about their reproductive state. In the empidid dance flies, males frequently provide nuptial gifts and it is usually only the female that is ornamented. Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been proposed to 'deceive' males into matings by disguising egg maturity. We quantified sexual selection in the dance fly Rhamphomyia tarsata and found escalating, quadratic selection on pinnate scales and that pinnate scales honestly reflect female fecundity. Mated females had a larger total number and more mature eggs than unmated females, highlighting a potential benefit rather than a cost of male mate choice. We also show correlational selection on female pinnate scales and fecundity. Correlational selection, equivalent investment patterns or increased nutrition from nuptial gifts may all maintain honesty in female ornamentation. PMID:14561280

  12. Sexual signalling by females: do unmated females increase their signalling effort?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-06-01

    Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. PMID:26109613

  13. Sexual Abuse among Female High School Students in Istanbul, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Erginoz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Uysal, Omer; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in female adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey from data collected as part of a school-based population study on health and health behaviors. Method: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 1,955…

  14. The Sexually Assaulted Female: Innocent Victim or Temptress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Sheldon H.

    The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…

  15. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  16. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

  17. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  18. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  19. An inkblot for sexual preference: a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F; Bernhardt, Johanna; Dierksmeier, Andreas; Banse, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    A newly developed Semantic Misattribution Procedure (SMP), a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), was used in three studies as an indirect measure of sexual interest. Using a known-group approach, homosexual men (Studies 1 and 2), heterosexual men (Studies 1 to 3) and heterosexual women (Study 3) were asked to guess the meaning of briefly presented Chinese ideographs as "sexual" or "not sexual". The ideographs were preceded by briefly presented primes depicting male and female individuals of varying sexual maturity. As hypothesised, the frequency of "sexual" responses increased after priming with pictures of individuals of the preferred sex and increasing sexual maturation. The SMP showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity as indicated by correlations with direct and two indirect measures of sexual interest. In two further studies, the hypothesised pattern was replicated whereas a standard AMP with the identical prime stimuli did not produce this result. The potential usefulness of semantic variants of the AMP is discussed. PMID:21547768

  20. Androgen induction of male sexual behaviors in female goldfish.

    PubMed

    Stacey, N; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The effectiveness of testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (K) in inducing male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish was examined by implanting intact adult females with one empty (blank) Silastic implant (B females), one implant containing T or K, or one T and one K implant (T + K females). Behavior of the four female groups was compared to that of untreated males and males containing a blank implant. Male-typical behaviors (coutship, spawning) and associated behavioral changes (increased activity, reduced spontaneous feeding) were assessed 3.5 and 4.5 months after implant in 30-min tests in which the test female or male was allowed to interact with a stimulus female in which sexual receptivity and attractivity had been induced by acute prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Prostaglandin-induced female-typical spawning behavior in the test females and males was also assessed 4.5 months after implant in a 60-min test for female-typical behavior in which the test fish was injected with prostaglandin and placed immediately with a sexually active male. Blood samples 5 months postimplant showed that implants generated physiological levels of T and K. In both tests for male-typical behaviors, K and T + K females exhibited the full suite of behaviors shown by spawning males, e.g., male-typical courtship and spawning, increased swimming activity, and reduced spontaneous feeding. Although behaviors of K and T + K females did not differ, those of T + K females were more often equivalent to those of males and significantly different from those of B females. T females exhibited marginal male-typical behaviors which never differed significantly from those of B females. Androgen-treated females exhibited female-typical; spawning behaviors equivalent to that of males and B females. The results show that adult female goldfish can be behaviorally masculinzed without behavioral defeminization, and suggest that male-typical sex behaviors in goldfish are dependent on K, although other

  1. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. METHODS A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. RESULT The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach’s alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001), but the sexual domain scored lower than expected (r = 0.65). The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication. PMID:25574149

  2. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. PMID:25991735

  3. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270

  4. Female sexual subjectivity and verbal consent to receiving oral sex.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2015-01-01

    Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p <.01) in the fourth step, while entitlement to pleasure dropped out of the model (p >.05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors. PMID:24794174

  5. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Lindholm, Anna K; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Demographic parameters including operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density may influence the opportunity for, and strength of sexual selection. Traditionally, male-biased OSRs and high population densities have been thought to increase the opportunity for sexual selection on male sexual traits due to increased male competition for mates. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that male-biased OSRs might reduce the opportunity for sexual selection due to increased sexual coercion experienced by females. How OSR, density, and any resultant changes in the opportunity for sexual selection actually affect selection on male sexual traits is unclear. In this study, we independently manipulated OSR and density in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) without altering the number of males present. We recorded male and female behavior and used DNA microsatellite data to assign paternity to offspring and estimate male reproductive success. We then used linear selection analyses to examine the effects of OSR and density on directional sexual selection on male behavioral and morphological traits. We found that females were pursued more by males in male-biased treatments, despite no change in individual male behavior. There were no differences in sexual behavior experienced by females or performed by males in relation to density. Neither OSR nor density significantly altered the opportunity for sexual selection. Also, Although there was significant multivariate linear selection operating on males, neither OSR nor density altered the pattern of sexual selection on male traits. Our results suggest that differences in either OSR or density (independent of the number of males present) are unlikely to alter directional evolutionary change in male sexual traits. PMID:18067568

  6. Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction. PMID:26081002

  7. Cell-Type Specific Increases in Female Hamster Nucleus Accumbens Spine Density following Female Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Staffend, Nancy A.; Hedges, Valerie L.; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Watts, Val J.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Female sexual behavior is an established model of a naturally motivated behavior which is regulated by activity within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated activation of the mesolimbic circuit by female sexual behavior elevates dopamine release and produces persistent postsynaptic alterations to dopamine D1 receptor signaling within the nucleus accumbens. Here we demonstrate that sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters significantly increases spine density and alters morphology selectively in D1 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens core, with no corresponding change in dopamine receptor binding or protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that previous life experience with a naturally motivated behavior has the capacity to induce persistent structural alterations to the mesolimbic circuit that can increase reproductive success and are analogous to the persistent structural changes following repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse. PMID:23934655

  8. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with substance-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Alessandra; da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. METHODS: This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65) and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%), single (47.6%), Caucasian (50.5%), catholic (36.2%), and educated only to the level of primary education (40%), with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%). In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs), 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency), 47.6% exhibited Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1]), and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use. PMID:23525317

  9. Female Sexual Health Training for Oncology Providers: New Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lynn Y; Pierdomenico, Annette; Lefkowitz, Abbe; Brandt, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health care remains an unmet need for women with cancer. Many barriers are described, such as provider discomfort and lack of training; however, there is little evidence-based guidance regarding how to effectively address these obstacles. Aim This pilot study was performed to determine whether brief, targeted sexual health training for oncology providers results in improved provider comfort level and frequency of addressing female cancer-related sexual issues. Methods A brief (30–45 minute), targeted sexual health training program focused on improving comfort level, knowledge and communication skills when addressing breast cancer–related sexual issues was developed by the primary author. Using a pretest-posttest format, this educational program was provided to oncology providers (physicians and nurses/other allied health) from a suburban health-care system. Surveys based on 5-point Likert scales were provided before and 3–6 month post training. Main Outcome Measures Primary endpoints were changes in mean Likert scores for provider comfort level and self-reported frequency of addressing sexual issues. A secondary endpoint was change in mean Likert scores for perception of access to sexual health resources/referrals. Results Eligible respondents included 8 oncologists, 4 surgeons, and 62 nurses/other allied health. For total respondents, comparison of mean Likert scores for survey 1 (n = 71) and survey 2 (n = 36) demonstrated statistically significant increases for all parameters queried, including provider comfort level with bringing up (Pre mean Likert score = 3.4, Post = 4.3, P < 0.0001) and coordinating care (Pre = 3.5, Post = 4.6, P < 0.0001), and frequency of addressing sexual issues for both diagnosis/treatment and surveillance phase (Pre = 2.4, Post = 3.3, P ≤ 0.0052). Conclusion Brief, targeted sexual health training for oncology providers positively correlated with improved provider

  10. Female stickleback prefer shallow males: Sexual selection on nest microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Shim, Kum Chuan; Brock, Chad D

    2015-06-01

    Sexual selection is most often thought of as acting on organismal traits, such as size or color. However, individuals' habitat use may also affect mating success. Here, we show that, in threespine stickleback, nest depth can be a target of sexual selection. In postglacial lakes in British Columbia, male threespine stickleback nest in a narrow range of depths. Prior studies revealed heritable variation in males' preferred nest microhabitat. We surveyed four natural populations, finding that male stickleback with shallower nests were more successful at breeding. Indeed, nest depth was a much stronger predictor of male mating success than more commonly studied targets of sexual selection in stickleback (size, condition, shape, color, infection status). This selection on nest depth means that variance in fitness changed predictably across microhabitats, altering the opportunity for sexual selection to act on other traits. Accordingly, we show that sexual selection on other male traits is strongest where variance in nesting success is highest (at intermediate nest depths in some lakes). We conclude that males' choice of nesting microhabitat is an especially important target of sexual selection, resulting in fine-scale spatial variation in sexual selection on other traits. PMID:25958935

  11. Effects of Mindfulness Training on Body Awareness to Sexual Stimuli: Implications for Female Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, R. Gina; Brown, Anne-Catharine H.; Roth, Harold D.; Britton, Willoughby B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Treatments of female sexual dysfunction have been largely unsuccessful because they do not address the psychological factors that underlie female sexuality. Negative self-evaluative processes interfere with the ability to attend and register physiological changes (interoceptive awareness). This study explores the effect of mindfulness meditation training on interoceptive awareness and the three categories of known barriers to healthy sexual functioning: attention, self-judgment, and clinical symptoms. Methods Forty-four college students (30 women) participated in either a 12-week course containing a “meditation laboratory” or an active control course with similar content or laboratory format. Interoceptive awareness was measured by reaction time in rating physiological response to sexual stimuli. Psychological barriers were assessed with self-reported measures of mindfulness and psychological well-being. Results Women who participated in the meditation training became significantly faster at registering their physiological responses (interoceptive awareness) to sexual stimuli compared with active controls (F(1,28) = 5.45, p = .03, ηp2 = 0.15). Female meditators also improved their scores on attention (t = 4.42, df = 11, p = .001), self-judgment, (t = 3.1, df = 11, p = .01), and symptoms of anxiety (t = −3.17, df = 11, p = .009) and depression (t = −2.13, df = 11, p < .05). Improvements in interoceptive awareness were correlated with improvements in the psychological barriers to healthy sexual functioning (r = −0.44 for attention, r = −0.42 for self-judgment, and r = 0.49 for anxiety; all p < .05). Conclusions Mindfulness-based improvements in interoceptive awareness highlight the potential of mindfulness training as a treatment of female sexual dysfunction. PMID:22048839

  12. African American Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety, Familial Strategies, and Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Choby, Alexandra A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Catania, Joseph A.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual debut represents a developmental transition that holds possibility for growth and for risk. Family and neighborhood may impact timing of debut. This qualitative study examined family strategies (e.g., moving, parental monitoring), perceptions of neighborhood, and attitudes about sex and sexual debut among sexually experienced and inexperienced African American adolescent females living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Findings show that more familial strategies were reported by sexually inexperienced females, suggesting that strategies may delay sexual debut. Furthermore, experiences with neighborhood violence related to attitudes about sex and sexual debut, suggesting a linkage between death anxiety and sexual debut among female youth. PMID:22523481

  13. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Mizgier, Małgorzata; Andrzejak, Karolina; Kędzia, Witold; Sajdak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) form. Material and methods Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI), i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter. PMID:26327896

  14. The Ontogeny of Sexual Size Dimorphism of a Moth: When Do Males and Females Grow Apart?

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Daws, Andrew; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism) is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high). We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger) increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults. PMID:25184664

  15. FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION (FSD) IN WOMEN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Margariti, Maria; Nousi, Eftichia; Mistrioti, Dimitra; Lacroix, Richard; Saridi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence and severity of FSD in women working in tertiary hospitals. Material and methods: The study sample was drawn from health care women between the ages of 20 and 65 years, working in two hospitals in Greece. This descriptive study used a structured Greek questionnaire and sexual function screener and quality of life sectors were consisted of rated scale questions. Eighty eight questionnaires were returned properly completed. The statistical analysis used the SPSS statistical program. Results: Female sexual dysfunction is a highly prevalent health issue whose exact incidence is not well defined. Factors that can contribute to female sexual dysfunction may be psychogenic, physical, mixed or unknown. Each of these factors consists of individual components that influence the sexual response; however their precise impact in FSD development and progression is unknown. Moreover, the role of circadian rhythm disorders (especially that of shift work sleep disorder) to the development and progression of FSD has been poorly investigated. Conclusion: Working environment and patterns of work schedules may play a role in FSD however it has been difficult to specify in what extent they contribute to FSD development. PMID:27482157

  16. African women struggling against female circumcision and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Tell, K

    1999-04-01

    In France, Mariatou Koita, a woman born of Malian parents, endured female genital mutilation as a child at the hands of another Malian immigrant. When the mutilator returned years later to perform genital mutilation on Koita's younger sister, Koita took action that resulted in the first case of female genital mutilation tried in France upon the complaint of a victim. The mutilator was sentenced to 8 years in jail for mutilating 48 young girls in the period 1983-94, and 23 mothers and 3 fathers received prison or suspended prison sentences. Women are struggling against another form of sexual violence in South Africa, where Johannesburg is gaining the reputation as the "rape capital" of the world. Surveys by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) have revealed that a third of 4000 women interviewed were raped in the past year and that 25% of the boys in a sample of 1500 school children considered gang rape a recreational activity. In response, the NGO is creating recommendations to address the problem in schools and to raise the role model profile of men who oppose sexual violence. Also, in Wynberg, Western Cape, a special Sexual Offenses Court has been created to mitigate some of the difficulties rape victims have encountered with the legal system. Global studies indicate that most victims of sexual assaults are adolescent girls. PMID:12349047

  17. Female mate preference and sexual conflict: females prefer males that have had fewer consorts.

    PubMed

    Harris, W Edwin; Moore, Patricia J

    2005-05-01

    Different aspects of male quality as a mate can vary independently. When this is the case, females may need to use multiple cues to accurately assess overall mate quality. We examined the pattern of mating preference in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Sexual conflict occurs in this species because male manipulation of female mating receptivity can result in reduced female fitness. We predicted that since females cannot remate within a single reproductive bout because of male manipulation, females should assess male mating history to avoid mating with males with low fertility caused by sperm exhaustion. In a mate-preference experiment, we found that females discriminated against males who had mated multiple times. Females also discriminated against males who had consorted with several females but had been prevented from mating with those females. Thus, females appeared to be able to detect cues on males that were derived from previous mates and to use this information to avoid mating with sperm-exhausted males. We suggest that females may commonly use multiple cues to assess different aspects of mate quality, especially when male quality changes over time. This is an under-studied phenomenon that could help explain individual variation in female mating preferences. PMID:15795863

  18. Female Same-Sex Sexuality from a Dynamical Systems Perspective: Sexual Desire, Motivation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  19. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  20. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sheri R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women’s and men’s level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use. PMID:24482555

  1. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs. PMID:19526700

  2. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

  3. Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-03-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

  4. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    PubMed

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health. PMID:9080290

  5. Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

  6. Select interneuron clusters determine female sexual receptivity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Akira; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yasunaga, Kei-ichiro; Emoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Female Drosophila with the spinster mutation repel courting males and rarely mate. Here we show that the non-copulating phenotype can be recapitulated by the elimination of spinster functions from either spin-A or spin-D neuronal clusters, in the otherwise wild-type (spinster heterozygous) female brain. Spin-D corresponds to the olfactory projection neurons with dendrites in the antennal lobe VA1v glomerulus that is fruitless-positive, sexually dimorphic and responsive to fly odour. Spin-A is a novel local neuron cluster in the suboesophageal ganglion, which is known to process contact chemical pheromone information and copulation-related signals. A slight reduction in spinster expression to a level with a minimal effect is sufficient to shut off female sexual receptivity if the dominant-negative mechanistic target of rapamycin is simultaneously expressed, although the latter manipulation alone has only a marginal effect. We propose that spin-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin signal transduction in these neurons is essential for females to accept the courting male. PMID:23652013

  7. Sexual Motivation in the Female and Its Opposition by Stress.

    PubMed

    Magariños, Ana Maria; Pfaff, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A well worked-out motivational system in laboratory animals produces estrogen-dependent female sex behavior. Here, we review (a) the logical definition of sexual motivation and (b) the basic neuronal and molecular mechanisms that allow the behavior to occur. Importantly, reproductive mechanisms in the female can be inhibited by stress. This is interesting because, in terms of the specificity of neuroendocrine dynamics in space and time, the two families of phenomena, sex and stress, are the opposite of each other. We cover papers that document stress effects on the underlying processes of reproductive endocrinology in the female. Not all of the mechanisms for such inhibition have been clearly laid out. Finally, as a current topic of investigation, this system offers several avenues for new investigation which we briefly characterize. PMID:26650839

  8. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749

  9. The recidivism rates of female sexual offenders are low: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders. PMID:21098822

  10. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking Among Female Adolescent Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488

  11. Sexual Victimization among African American Adolescent Females: Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…

  12. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  13. Condom use among Hispanic men with secondary female sexual partners.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, B V; Gomez, C A; Tschann, J M

    1993-01-01

    Greater understanding of psychosocial predictors of the use of condoms among Hispanics is needed in prevention efforts related to the human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted disease epidemics among Hispanics in the United States. A telephone survey was carried out in nine States that have large populations of Hispanics, using a stratified clustered random digit dialing sampling strategy. The survey yielded interviews with 968 Hispanic men ages 18-49 years. Of them, 361 (37.8 percent) reported at least one secondary female sexual partner in the 12 months prior to the interview. Predictors were identified of condom use by those men with their secondary sex partners. Key predictors of the subjects' condom use with secondary partners included carrying condoms; self-efficacy, or a measure of the subject's perceived ability to use condoms under difficult circumstances; positive attitude toward condom use; having friends who used condoms; and lack of symptoms of depression in the week before the interview (R2 = 0.35). Significant predictors of condom carrying were being comfortable in sexual situations, positive attitude toward condom use, and self-efficacy to use condoms. Less acculturated men had more positive attitudes toward condom use and carried them more than did more acculturated men. The researchers found encouraging levels of condom use with secondary sexual partners among Hispanic men with multiple partners.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265759

  14. Methamphetamine facilitates female sexual behavior and enhances neuronal activation in the medial amygdala and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Holder, Mary K; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Zup, Susan L; Blutstein, Tamara; Benham, Rebecca S; McCarthy, Margaret M; Mong, Jessica A

    2010-02-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) abuse has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Users of MA report dramatic increases in sexual drive that have been associated with increased engagement in risky sexual behavior leading to higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies. The ability of MA to enhance sexual drive in females is enigmatic since related psychostimulants like amphetamine and cocaine appear not to affect sexual drive in women, and in rodents models, amphetamine has been reported to be inhibitory to female sexual behavior. Examination of MA's effects on female sexual behavior in an animal model is lacking. Here, using a rodent model, we have demonstrated that MA enhanced female sexual behavior. MA (5mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered once daily for 3 days to adult ovariectomized rats primed with ovarian steroids. MA treatment significantly increased the number of proceptive events and the lordosis response compared to hormonally primed, saline controls. The effect of MA on the neural circuitry underlying the motivation for sexual behavior was examined using Fos immunoreactivity. In the medial amygdala and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, nuclei implicated in motivated behaviors, ovarian hormones and MA independently enhance the neuronal activation, but more striking was the significantly greater activation induced by their combined administration. Increases in dopamine neurotransmission may underlie the MA/hormone mediated increase in neuronal activation. In support of this possibility, ovarian hormones significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) immunoreactivity in the medial amygdala. Thus our present data suggest that the interactions of MA and ovarian hormones leads to changes in the neural substrate of key nuclei involved in mediating female sexual behaviors, and these changes may underlie MA's ability to enhance these behaviors. PMID:19589643

  15. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  16. Affect and sexual behavior in the transition to university.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Galambos, Nancy L

    2009-10-01

    This research applied a lifespan developmental framework to the study of sexual behavior among late adolescents by examining monthly covariations of penetrative and oral sex with positive and negative affect across the first year of university. Participants were 177 Canadian students who completed baseline questionnaires, followed by six monthly, web-based questionnaires assessing sexual behaviors and affect. Multilevel analyses revealed an average positive relation between oral sex and positive affect. Of six variables, five predicted individual differences in covariation between sex and affect: psychosocial maturity (immature and semi-mature status), attitudes toward sex, prior sexual experience, and living situation. During months when participants reported sexual behavior, psychosocially mature students reported more positive affect than did less mature students; students with more permissive attitudes reported more positive affect than did students with less permissive attitudes; students with no penetrative sexual experience reported more positive affect than students who had penetrative sexual experience; and living away from parents was associated with less negative affect. Implications for further study of sexual behavior from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:18814022

  17. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857

  18. Attachment styles and sexual dysfunctions: a case-control study of female and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, G; Limoncin, E; Di Tommaso, S; Mollaioli, D; Gravina, G L; Marcozzi, A; Tullii, A; Carosa, E; Di Sante, S; Gianfrilli, D; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate attachment styles in a group of women and men with sexual dysfunction. We recruited 44 subjects (21 women and 23 men) with sexual dysfunction and 41 subjects (21 women and 20 men) with healthy sexual function as the control group. Validated instruments for the evaluation of male and female sexual dysfunctions (M/F SD) and a psychometric tool specifically designed to investigate attachment style were administered. In women, significant differences were found between subjects with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls. The scales indicating an insecure attachment showed: discomfort with closeness (FSD = 42.85 ± 11.55 vs CTRL = 37.38 ± 8.54; P < 0.01), relationship as secondary (FSD = 26.76 ± 2.60 vs CTRL = 18.42 ± 7.99; P < 0.01), and need for approval (FSD=26.38 ± 3.61 vs CTRL = 20.76 ± 7.36; P < 0.01). Healthy women also had significantly higher scores in secure attachment (confidence: FSD = 24.57 ± 3.89 vs CTRL = 33.42 ± 5.74; P < 0.01). Men with sexual dysfunctions differed from healthy men in confidence (MSD = 30 ± 6.33 vs CTRL = 36.05 ± 5.26; P < 0.01) and in discomfort with closeness (MSD = 39.08 ± 8 vs CTRL = 34.25 ± 7.54; P < 0.05). These results suggest that particular aspects related to insecure attachment have a determinant role in people with sexual dysfunctions. It is therefore fundamental to identify the attachment styles and relational patterns in patients receiving counselling and psychological treatments focussed on sexual problems. PMID:25119586

  19. Facial features influence the categorization of female sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Feriozzo, Melissa M; Rule, Nicholas O

    2013-01-01

    Social categorization is a rapid and automatic process, and people rely on various facial cues to accurately categorize each other into social groups. Recently, studies have demonstrated that people integrate different cues to arrive at accurate impressions of others' sexual orientations. The amount of perceptual information available to perceivers could affect these categorizations, however. Here, we found that, as visual information decreased from full faces to internal facial features to just pairs of eyes, so did the accuracy of judging women's sexual orientation. Yet and still, accuracy remained significantly greater than chance across all conditions. More important, however, participants' response bias varied significantly depending on the facial feature judged. Perceivers were significantly more likely to consider that a target may be lesbian as they viewed less of the faces. Thus, although facial features may be continuously integrated in person construal, they can differentially affect how people see each other. PMID:24494440

  20. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  1. Feeling Abstinent? Feeling Comprehensive? Touching the Affects of Sexuality Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This interpretive study draws on interdisciplinary scholarship on affect and knowledge to ask: toward what feelings do abstinence-only and comprehensive sexuality education curricula direct us? A methodology that is attuned to double exposures is discussed, and one abstinence-only sexuality education curriculum and one comprehensive sexuality…

  2. Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.

    PubMed

    Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

  3. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  4. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  5. Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females

    PubMed Central

    Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that

  6. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  7. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  8. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  9. Prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction among Turkish pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Küçükdurmaz, Faruk; Efe, Erkan; Malkoç, Önder; Kolus, Eyüp; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Resim, Sefa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction together with the concerns of women about sexuality during pregnancy. Material and methods A total of 207 healthy, sexually active pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Demographic data of all participants were noted and sexual functions were evaluated by Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Each FSFI domain score was calculated and mean scores were noted. Concerns of women about sexuality were also investigated. Results Mean age of participant women was 27.0±5.9 (range 15–44) years. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was found to be 87% in study population. Mean FSFI score was 18.6±1.21. The rate of sexual dysfunction was higher in the first (87%) and third (92.6%) trimesters when compared to the second (80.6%) trimester (p=0.243). Among demographic variables, education levels of partners and preconceptional sexual dysfunction were found to be significantly related to FSD. The most common concerns of women about sexual relationship have been reported as the fear of having pain (35%), risk of abortion (21.3%) and religious factors (10%). Conclusion Prevalence of sexual dysfunction is relatively high among pregnant women. Educational levels and preconceptional sexual functions were found to have an impact on this high rate. Accurate counseling of partners about sexuality during pregnancy may help to reduce misbeliefs, concerns and, thereby, decrease this high rate of female sexual dysfunction.

  10. Associations of desire for change in sexual life amongst female medical students in North America

    PubMed Central

    Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as “sexually bothered”. The survey also assessed ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and depressive symptoms. Respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Index of Sex Life (ISL). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 661 non-virgin female subjects with data adequate for analysis. Whereas 281 (43%) of these met criteria for High Risk of Female Sexual Dysfunction (HRFSD) based on FSFI scoring, just 173 (26%) reported sexual bother. Among women with HRFSD, 126 (45%) reported sexual bother; in women without HRFSD, 362 (95%) were not sexually bothered. Interference in sexual life from tiredness and stress were associated with sexual bother. Progressively better scores on the FSFI-desire, orgasm, and satisfaction domains were significantly associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Few women in this cohort with FSFI score >26.55 reported sexual bother. Women with FSFI less than 26.55 had greater odds of sexual bother but this criterion alone was not pathognomonic for sexual concerns. Issues of sexual desire and orgasm appear to play a more important role than lubrication, arousal, and sexual pain issues in this population. PMID:22971616

  11. Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in female help-seeking victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the aftermath of rape and other sexual assault, but the risk factors leading to PTSD following rape have been shown to differ from those related to PTSD following nonsexual assault. This prospective study examined risk factors for PTSD severity in 148 female help-seeking victims of sexual assault. Approximately 70% of the victims experienced significant levels of traumatization, with 45% reporting symptoms consistent with a probable PTSD diagnosis. Regression analyses showed that relationship with the assailant, number of assailants, the nature of the assault, perceived positive social support, support satisfaction, feeling let down by others, and prior exposure to sexual trauma did not significantly predict PTSD severity at the final level of analysis. In accordance with suggestions by Dancu, Riggs, Hearst-Ikeda, and Shoyer (1996), it is suggested that this is partly caused by a very high degree of traumatization in the sample. Instead, previous nonsexual traumatic experiences and negative affectivity accounted for 30% of the variance in PTSD severity. Although more research is needed on risk factors of assault-related PTSD, these findings suggest that although sexual assault is associated with a high degree of PTSD severity, prior nonsexual victimization and high levels of negative affectivity appear to further increase the vulnerability toward developing symptoms of assault-related PTSD. PMID:23862315

  12. Sexual competition and N supply interactively affect the dimorphism and competiveness of opposite sexes in Populus cathayana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-07-01

    Several important dioecious species show sexual spatial segregation (SSS) along environmental gradients that have significant ecological effect on terrestrial ecosystem. However, little attention has been paid to understanding of how males and females respond to environmental gradients and sexual competition. We compared eco-physiological parameters of males and females of Populus cathayana under different sexual competition patterns and nitrogen (N) supply levels. We found that males and females interacting with the same or opposite sex showed significant differences in biomass partition, photosynthetic capacity, carbon (C) and N metabolism, and leaf ultrastructure, and that the sexual differences to competition were importantly driven by N supply. The intersexual competition was enhanced under high N, while the intrasexual competition among females was amplified under low N. Under high N, the intersexual competition stimulated the growth of the females and negatively affected the males. In contrast, under low N, the males exposed to intrasexual competition had the highest tolerance, whereas females exposed to intrasexual competition showed the lowest adaptation among all competition patterns. Sexual competition patterns and N supply levels significantly affected the sexual dimorphism and competitiveness, which may play an important role in spatial segregation of P. cathayana populations. PMID:25366665

  13. Influence of sexual sensation-seeking on factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among African-American female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly C.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The identification of antecedents to sexual risk among youth is critical to the development and dissemination of multilevel interventions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sexual sensation-seeking on partner age, partner communication, and the sexual attitudes and behaviours of African-American female youth. Methods This study examined survey data collected by audio computer-assisted self-interviews from 701 young African-American females between 14 and 20 years of age. The survey consisted of items designed to measure adolescents’ sexual risk and preventive behaviours. Results The results of this study suggest that sexual sensation-seeking is associated with condom use among adolescent African-American females. For adolescents who reported greater sexual sensation-seeking, lower levels of sexual happiness were associated with a decreased likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 1.01, P ≤ 0.05). For those reporting lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking, greater sexual enjoyment was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 0.93, P ≤ 0.01). Adolescents with younger sexual partners and lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking reported a higher proportion of condom use in the past 6 months (β = 0.70, P = 0.01). Higher partner communication self-efficacy and decreasing levels of sexual sensation-seeking were associated with fewer lifetime sexual partners (β = –0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Future research should address the impact of these variables on adolescent relationship dynamics and sexual decision-making. PMID:25355174

  14. Likely female-to-female sexual transmission of HIV--Texas, 2012.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shirley K; Thornton, Lupita R; Chronister, Karen J; Meyer, Jeffrey; Wolverton, Marcia; Johnson, Cynthia K; Arafat, Raouf R; Joyce, Patricia M; Switzer, William M; Heneine, Walid; Shankar, Anupama; Granade, Timothy; Owen, Michele S; Sprinkle, Patrick; Sullivan, Vickie

    2014-03-14

    In August 2012, the Houston Department of Health contacted CDC regarding the rare transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely by sexual contact between two women. The case was investigated, and laboratory testing confirmed that the woman with newly diagnosed HIV infection had a virus virtually identical to that of her female partner, who was diagnosed previously with HIV and who had stopped receiving antiretroviral treatment in 2010. This report describes this case of HIV infection, likely acquired by female-to-female sexual transmission during the 6-month monogamous relationship of the HIV-discordant couple (one negative, one positive). The woman with newly acquired infection did not report any other recognized risk factors for HIV infection, and the viruses infecting the two women had ≥ 98% sequence identity in three genes. The couple had not received any preventive counseling before acquisition of the virus by the woman who had tested negative for HIV. HIV-discordant couples should receive counseling regarding safer sex practices, and HIV-infected partners should be linked to and retained in medical care. PMID:24622284

  15. The Role of Learned Resourcefulness in Helping Female Undergraduates Deal with Unwanted Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Humphreys, Terry P.; Patchell, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learned resourcefulness skills and the manner in which undergraduate heterosexual women handle unwanted sexual advances/activity. Participants consisted of 150 females completing a set of questionnaires assessing general learned resourcefulness, sexual giving-in experience, sexual resourcefulness, sexual…

  16. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  17. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  18. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  19. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kerry A.; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F2 generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection. PMID:22113030

  20. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection. PMID:22113030

  1. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  2. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused. PMID:18701747

  3. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  4. Assessment of Sexual Violence against Female Students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tora, Abebayehu

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…

  5. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  6. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality. PMID:25597406

  7. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  8. Sexual Experience and Risky Alcohol Consumption among Incoming First-Year College Females

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Millbury, Savannah; Lac, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sexual experience and various drinking measures in 550 incoming first-year college females. During this transition period, sexually experienced participants reported stronger alcohol expectancies and endorsed higher drinking motives, and drank more frequently and in greater quantities than sexually inexperienced participants. Sexual status was also a significant predictor of alcohol-related nonsexual consequences, over and above amount consumed. Furthermore, controlling for drinking, sexual status moderated the relationship between coping motives and consequences. Among women who endorsed strong coping motives for drinking, sexual experience was linked to greater nonsexual alcohol-related consequences. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:25392606

  9. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. PMID:22276546

  10. Reproductive and resource benefits to large female body size in a mammal with female-biased sexual size dimorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Fokidis, H.B., T.S. Risch and T.C. Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Factors underlying the evolution of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in mammals are poorly understood. In an effort to better understand these factors we tested whether larger female southern flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans, gained reproductive advantages (larger litters or more male mates) and direct resource benefits, such as larger home ranges or access to more food (i.e. mast-producing trees). As dimorphism can vary with age in precocial breeding species, we compared females during their first reproduction and during a subsequent breeding attempt. Females were not significantly larger or heavier than males at first reproduction, but became about 7% heavier and 22% larger than males at subsequent breeding. Larger females produced larger litters and had home ranges containing a greater proportion of upland hardwood trees. Female body size was not associated with either multiple male mating or home range size, but females with larger home ranges had higher indexes of body condition. Females in precocial breeding flying squirrels initiate reproduction before sexual size dimorphism is evident, and thus, may be allocating resources to both reproduction and growth simultaneously, or delaying growth entirely. Larger females produce more pups and have access to more food resources. Thus, selection for increased female size may partly explain how female-biased sexual size dimorphism is maintained in this species.

  11. Female genital mutilation/cutting and issues of sexuality in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Amel; El-Mouelhy, Mawaheb T; Ragab, Ahmed R

    2010-11-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), officially referred to as female circumcision and at community level as tahara (cleanliness), is still prevalent in Egypt. This study was designed to examine the role of female sexuality in women's and men's continued support for FGM/C, and their perceptions of its sexual consequences. The study was conducted in 2008-09 in two rural communities in Upper Egypt and a large slum area in Cairo. Qualitative data were collected from 102 women and 99 men through focus group discussions and interviews. The clitoris was perceived to be important to, and a source of, sexual desire rather than sexual pleasure. FGM/C was intended to reduce women's sexual appetite and increase women's chastity, but was generally not believed to reduce women's sexual pleasure. Men and women framed sexual pleasure differently, however. While men, especially younger men, considered sexual satisfaction as a cornerstone of marital happiness, women considered themselves sexually satisfied if there was marital harmony and their socio-economic situation was satisfactory. However, sexual problems, including lack of pleasure in sex and sexual dissatisfaction, for whatever reasons, were widespread. We conclude that political commitment is necessary to combat FGM/C and that legal measures must be combined with comprehensive sexuality education, including on misconceptions about FGM/C. PMID:21111362

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  13. Effects of physical attractiveness on evaluations of a male employee's allegation of sexual harassment by his female employer.

    PubMed

    Wuensch, Karl L; Moore, Charles H

    2004-04-01

    College students (N = 324) served as mock jurors in a simulated civil case in which a male plaintiff accused a female defendant of sexual harassment. The authors experimentally manipulated the physical attractiveness of the litigants. The authors asked mock jurors to decide whether the defendant was guilty and to rate their certainty of belief in the defendant's guilt (or lack of guilt). Jurors were more certain of the guilt of the defendant when the plaintiff was attractive than when he was unattractive. Plaintiff attractiveness significantly affected female jurors' individual recommended verdicts when the defendant was unattractive but not when she was attractive. With male jurors, plaintiff attractiveness significantly affected their verdicts when the defendant was attractive but not when she was unattractive. Female jurors were more likely than male jurors to conclude that sexual harassment had taken place but only when the litigants were different in attractiveness. PMID:15074507

  14. Predictors of Sexual Coercion and Alcohol Use among Female Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  15. Predictors of sexual coercion and alcohol use among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Montanaro, Erika A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34 % of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  16. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  17. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes. PMID:15582858

  18. Are males and females sexually abused as children socially anxious adults?

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third of males and a little over a third of females reported being sexually abused as a child or adolescent. Although a large portion of the sample exhibited socially anxious symptomology, childhood sexual abuse did not place males and females at increased risk for social anxiety. The use of a nonclinical, college student sample may provide researchers the opportunity to investigate resiliency in individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:19842534

  19. Association of Body Weight and Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Mosayeb; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Najafi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide with negative effects on women’s health, psychosocial factors and quality of life. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a major public health problem that is worrying for many women physically, emotionally and socially. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of body weight with FSD and sexual satisfaction, in Ilam, western Iran, in 2010 to 2011. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study on 120 women aged 18–50 years [64 with FSD (case), 64 without FSD (control)] married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were recorded by researchers. The subjects were randomly selected from primary health centers. Results: FSFI score was significantly lower in overweight women (P < 0.05). FSFI strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.68, P < 0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = -0.29, P < 0.05) in women with FSD. Of sexual function parameters, there was a strong and inverse correlation between BMI and arousal (r = -0.71, P < 0.001), lubrication (r = -0.61, P < 0.001), orgasm (r = -0.52, P < 0.001) and satisfaction (r = -0.54, P < 0.001), while pain (r = -0.12, P > 0.05) and desire (r = -0.17, P > 0.05) did not correlate with BMI. There was an association between BMI and extreme satisfaction (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). Extreme physical pleasure (r = -0.19, P > 0.05) and extreme emotional satisfaction (r = -0.16, P > 0.05) were not correlated with BMI. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity negative affect sexuality in women with sexual dysfunction. A systematic evaluation of sexual function to disclose a cause and effect relationship between obesity and FSD is suggested. PMID:25763278

  20. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality. PMID:23386660

  1. Further Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index: Specificity and Associations With Clinical Interview Data.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Toorabally, Nasreen; Lyons, Leah; M Meston, Cindy

    2016-07-01

    Female sexual function is a multi-faceted psychophysiological construct. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is considered a "gold standard" self-report instrument that assesses the various aspects of sexual function. However, researchers have recently proposed potential limitations of the FSFI, highlighting the need for continued validation research. The aims of the current analyses were (a) to assess the correlations between FSFI scores and information regarding specific rates of functional impairment gained via clinical interview; and (b) to assess the specificity of FSFI subscale scores in reflecting corresponding aspects of sexual function (e.g., whether the Sexual Desire subscale reflects sexual desire specifically rather than sexual arousal, orgasm, etc.). The participants were 97 sexually active women who reported impairments in sexual function. Clinical interview data exhibited moderate-to-strong correlations with FSFI scores. Additionally, FSFI subscales generally exhibited adequate specificity in terms of reflecting their corresponding aspects of sexual function more strongly than other aspects. The results generally supported the validity of the FSFI. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of female sexual function are discussed. PMID:26098130

  2. Light conditions affect sexual performance in a lekking tephritid fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2011-08-01

    Sensory systems are very susceptible to early environment experience. Mating success depends on the transmission of information from the signaller to the receiver, which means that sensory biases caused by developmental environment are likely to affect sexual selection. We investigated the impact of the developmental visual environment (light spectrum) on male copulation behaviour and female preference in the lekking tephritid Anastrepha ludens. We reared flies in four different light spectrum conditions - red light, blue light, shaded light and darkness - during their first 16 days after emerging from pupae. We found that the light environment experienced during early adulthood affected mating frequency and, in some cases, the latency to copulate, but not copulation duration. Males exposed to any of the three light treatments (red, blue or shaded light) were more frequently chosen as mating partners than dark-reared males. Flies reared under dark conditions exhibited the lowest mating performance out of any of the rearing environments. Under field cage conditions, a slight assortative mating between blue- and red-light-reared flies was detected. Additionally, females reared in blue light and darkness mated less compared with females reared in red and shaded light. Our data demonstrate that male mating behaviour is flexible in response to light environment. The findings suggest that light spectrum only weakly affects the direction of sexual selection by female choice; however, dark rearing environments deeply affect mating success. PMID:21753054

  3. Maternal models of risk: links between substance use and risky sexual behavior in African American female caregivers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-08-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers' sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls' sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk. PMID:22353241

  4. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269

  5. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  6. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  7. EVOLUTION OF DIVERGENT FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIMENTAL SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation. PMID:24931497

  8. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain.

    PubMed

    Shors, Tracey J; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M; Chang, Han Yan M

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  9. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  10. An Update on Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Old Age and Its Relevance to Old Age Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R.; McManus, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient’s sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women’s sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women’s sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients’ treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care. PMID:23185718

  11. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  12. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  13. Female sexual behavior, estrous cycle and gene expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions after pre- and postnatal exposure to endocrine active UV filters.

    PubMed

    Faass, Oliver; Schlumpf, Margret; Reolon, Sasha; Henseler, Manuel; Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2009-03-01

    The developing female brain represents a potential target for estrogenic environmental chemicals because it depends on estrogen but is exposed to low endogenous estrogen levels, thus facilitating competition by exogenous estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. We investigated effects of two estrogenic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). 4-MBC has been detected in human milk, indicating potential exposure of fetus and infant. The two chemicals were administered in chow to rats of the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to their offspring until adulthood. Female sexual behavior was recorded on videotape in adult female offspring on proestrus evening at the beginning of the dark phase. 4-MBC (7 and 24mg/kg bw/day) and 3-BC (2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day) reduced proceptive behavior (jump and ear wiggling) and receptive behavior (lordosis quotient), and increased rejection behavior towards the male. Estrous cycles were not affected by 4-MBC but disturbed by 3-BC. mRNAs encoding for genes involved in female sexual behavior, ERalpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), were measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area of adult male and female offspring (studied in diestrus) after pre- and postnatal exposure to 3-BC (0.24, 0.7, 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day). Gene expression was affected in a sex- and region-specific manner. PR mRNA in female VMH was reduced to male levels at dose levels of 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day 3-BC. Our data demonstrate that female sexual behavior represents a sensitive target of endocrine disrupters and point to an involvement of PR in VMH. PMID:19150460

  14. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults. PMID:23837266

  15. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  16. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  17. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  18. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs. PMID:23823249

  19. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus. PMID:21491139

  20. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  1. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  2. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time in spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  3. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Normandin, J J; Murphy, A Z

    2011-02-23

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  4. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  5. Sexual victimization in female and male college students: examining the roles of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Monks, Stormy M; Tomaka, Joe; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Sharon E

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol and alcohol expectancies relate to sexual victimization. The present study examined these links in a sample of 407 predominantly Hispanic male and female college students, along the Mexico-US border. The study also examined the independent contribution of sexual sensation seeking to the prediction of victimization. Results showed that victimization was associated with alcohol risk, alcohol consumption-related problems, and positive alcohol expectancies. Importantly, sexual sensation seeking independently predicted victimization and did so after controlling for alcohol risk and expectancies. Our results suggest that associations among victimization, alcohol risk, and expectancies generalize to Hispanic women and men. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20388010

  6. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland. PMID:27149714

  7. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  8. Sexual Experience and Risky Alcohol Consumption among Incoming First-Year College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Migliuri, Savannah; Lac, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sexual experience and various drinking measures in 550 incoming first-year college females. During this transition period, sexually experienced participants reported stronger alcohol expectancies and endorsed higher drinking motives, and drank more frequently and in greater quantities than sexually…

  9. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  10. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden – repeated surveys over a 25-year period

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study female students’ sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Design Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Setting Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Population Female university students (n = 359). Methods Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Main outcome measures Sexual and contraceptive behavior. Results In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p < 0.001), and experience of anal sex increased from 39% to 46% (n = 136 in 2009 vs. n = 165 in 2014: p = 0.038), and 25% (n = 41 in 2014) always used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students’ knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Conclusions Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. PMID:25619646

  11. Conditioning of sexual proceptivity in female quail: Measures of conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Germán; Domjan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to explore the nature of conditioned sexual proceptivity in female quail. Females exposed to males subsequently approached the area where the males were previously housed (Experiment 1). This increased preference for the male’s area reflected an increase in female sexual proceptivity and not an increase in non-directed locomotor activity (Experiment 2). These findings provide the first evidence that female quail show conditioned responses that may be considered to be proceptive responses toward male conspecifics. The proceptive responses are expressed as tonic changes in preference for areas where males have been observed in the past rather than as specific phasic conditioned responses. PMID:21664442

  12. Exploiting a moment of weakness: male spiders escape sexual cannibalism by copulating with moulting females.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Gabriele; Zimmer, Stefanie M; Renner, Dirk; Schneider, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual cannibalism is a particularly extreme example of conflict between the sexes, depriving the male of future reproduction. Theory predicts that sexual conflict should induce counter-adaptations in the victim. Observations of male spiders mating with moulting and hence largely immobile females suggest that this behaviour functions to circumvent female control and cannibalism. However, we lack quantitative estimates of natural frequencies and fitness consequences of these unconventional matings. To understand the importance of mating while moulting in cannibalistic mating systems, we combined mating experiments and paternity assessment in the laboratory with extensive field observations using the sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. Copulations with moulting females resulted in 97% male survival compared with only 20% in conventional matings. Mating while moulting provided similar paternity benefits compared with conventional matings. Our findings support the hypothesis that mating with moulting females evolved under sexual conflict and safely evades sexual cannibalism. Despite male benefits, natural frequencies were estimated around 44% and directly predicted by a male guarding a subadult female. Since only adult females signal their presence, the difficulty for males to locate subadult females might limit further spreading of mating with moulting females. PMID:26607497

  13. Exploiting a moment of weakness: male spiders escape sexual cannibalism by copulating with moulting females

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Gabriele; Zimmer, Stefanie M.; Renner, Dirk; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual cannibalism is a particularly extreme example of conflict between the sexes, depriving the male of future reproduction. Theory predicts that sexual conflict should induce counter-adaptations in the victim. Observations of male spiders mating with moulting and hence largely immobile females suggest that this behaviour functions to circumvent female control and cannibalism. However, we lack quantitative estimates of natural frequencies and fitness consequences of these unconventional matings. To understand the importance of mating while moulting in cannibalistic mating systems, we combined mating experiments and paternity assessment in the laboratory with extensive field observations using the sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. Copulations with moulting females resulted in 97% male survival compared with only 20% in conventional matings. Mating while moulting provided similar paternity benefits compared with conventional matings. Our findings support the hypothesis that mating with moulting females evolved under sexual conflict and safely evades sexual cannibalism. Despite male benefits, natural frequencies were estimated around 44% and directly predicted by a male guarding a subadult female. Since only adult females signal their presence, the difficulty for males to locate subadult females might limit further spreading of mating with moulting females. PMID:26607497

  14. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. Methods School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Results Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Conclusion Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students. PMID:24885739

  15. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  16. Underage Females' Experiences of Sexual Relations, Motherhood, and Married Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurko, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the social issues that concern the young adolescents in Russia and their early onset to sexual activity. The early onset of sexual activity among adolescents in Russia is taking place under conditions that are quite specific. These conditions include: a low level of contraceptive awareness, a very small number…

  17. The Effects of Forced Sexual Intercourse on White Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brent C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Psychological and sexual variables were compared for white women, ages 18 through 22, who did (n=41) or did not (n=400) report prior forced sexual intercourse (FSI). Those who had FSI had lower internal locus of control and higher depression scores and needed and received more psychological help than those not reporting FSI. (Author/SW)

  18. The influence of running away on the risk of female sexual assault in the subsequent year.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault. PMID:22288098

  19. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    PubMed

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences. PMID:26081382

  20. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  1. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change. PMID:26090007

  2. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being. PMID:23340952

  3. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  4. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  5. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

  6. Childbirth and Female Sexual Function Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Julia E.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Thom, David H.; Subak, Leslee L.; Huang, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between parity, mode of delivery, and other parturition-related factors with women's sexual function later in life. Methods Self-administered questionnaires examined sexual desire, activity, satisfaction, and problems in a multiethnic cohort of women aged 40 years and older with at least one past childbirth event. Trained abstractors obtained information on parity, mode of delivery, and other parturition-related factors from archived records. Multivariable regression models examined associations with sexual function, controlling for age, race or ethnicity, partner status, diabetes, and general health. Results Among 1,094 participants, mean (±SD) age was 56.3 (±8.7) years, 568 (43%) were racial or ethnic minorities (214 Black, 171 Asian, and 183 Latina), and 963 (88%) were multiparous. Fifty-six percent (n=601) reported low sexual desire ; 53% (n=577) reported less than monthly sexual activity, and 43% (n=399) reported low overall sexual satisfaction. Greater parity was not associated with increased risk of reporting low sexual desire (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.08, CI=0.96-1.21 per each birth), less than monthly sexual activity (AOR=1.05, CI=0.93-1.20 per each birth), or low sexual satisfaction (AOR=0.96, CI=0.85-1.09 per each birth). Compared to vaginal delivery alone, women with a history of cesarean delivery were not significantly more likely to report low desire (AOR=0.71, CI=0.34-1.47), less than monthly sexual activity (AOR=1.03, CI=0.46-2.32), or low sexual satisfaction (AOR=0.57, CI=0.26-1.22). Women with a history of operative-assisted delivery were more likely to report low desire (AOR=1.38, CI=1.04-1.83). Conclusions Among women with at least one childbirth event, parity and mode of delivery are not major determinants of sexual desire, activity, or satisfaction later in life. PMID:24104776

  7. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  8. Measuring Implicit Sexual Response Biases to Nude Male and Female Pictures in Androphilic and Gynephilic Men.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Liam; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Cullen, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Snowden, Wichter, and Gray (2008) demonstrated that an Implicit Association Test and a Priming Task both predicted the sexual orientation of gynephilic and androphilic men in terms of their attraction biases towards pictures of nude males and females. For both measures, relative bias scores were obtained, with no information on the separate response biases to each target gender. The present study sought to extend this research by assessing both relative and individual implicit biases using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). An explicit measure screened for men with androphilic (n = 16) or gynephilic (n = 16) orientations on the dimensions of "sexual attraction," "sexual behavior," "sexual fantasies," "hetero/gay lifestyle," and "self identification." The IRAP involved responding "True" or "False" to pictures of nude males and females as either attractive or unattractive. Participants were required to respond in a manner consistent with their reported sexual orientation for half of the IRAP's test blocks and inconsistent for the other half. Response latencies were recorded and analyzed. The IRAP revealed a non-orthogonal pattern of biases across the two groups and had an excellent ability to predict sexual orientation with areas under the curves of 1.0 for the relative bias score and .94 and .95 for the bias scores for the male and female pictures, respectively. Correlations between the IRAP and explicit measures of sexual orientation were consistently high. The findings support the IRAP as a potentially valuable tool in the study of sexual preferences. PMID:26976283

  9. Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Janssen, E; Sanders, S A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of fragrance on sexual response in women were investigated using subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal and of mood. Responses were obtained from female participants in three different fragrance conditions (female fragrance, male fragrance, and a "blank" or neutral substance), as they viewed erotic and sexually neutral films, and fantasized about sexual situations. Each woman was tested twice: during the midfollicular and periovulatory phases of her menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phase effects were apparent; self-report data indicated greater sexual arousal and more positive mood during the periovulatory than during the follicular phase. Results demonstrated a positive effect of the male fragrance on genital arousal during erotic fantasy, but this finding was apparent only during the follicular phase testing session. This effect did not appear to be mediated by any effects of fragrance on mood. PMID:10705769

  10. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…