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Sample records for affects neuropsychological function

  1. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Context: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  3. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  4. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  5. Affective Infrastructures: Toward a Cultural Neuropsychology of Sport

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Leslie L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes’ social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable – that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes’ social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways. PMID:22069389

  6. The affective neuropsychology of confabulation and delusion.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the scientific understanding of the role of emotion in confabulation and delusion. I argue that the significance of emotion in the pathogenesis of these symptoms was obscured by academic polarisation between psychodynamic and neurocognitive traditions and was also often obfuscated by rigid distinctions between psychogenic and neurogenic explanations. This tradition of epistemic dualism was implicitly maintained in the fields of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry. This paper focuses on memory-related confabulation following ventromedial frontal lobe lesions, awareness-related confabulation following right perisylvian lesions, and delusions of various aetiologies. Ambiguity regarding the definition and taxonomy of symptoms renders direct comparison difficult, but certain overriding principles are becoming discernible. Recent findings suggest that emotion and motivation influence both confabulation and delusion. These influences may be instigated directly by neural dysfunction or indirectly by life changes and altered social circumstances, or by a combination of these. Importantly, the rejection of epistemic dualism in the conceptualisation of both symptoms can allow us to study them in parallel and draw conclusions about the relation between cognition and emotion. Specifically, confabulation and delusion can be described as faulty attempts to balance the conflicting demands of accurate and self-serving reality representation. PMID:19823958

  7. Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tükel, Raşit; Gürvit, Hakan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oflaz, Serap; Ertekin, Erhan; Baran, Bengi; Kalem, Sükriye Akça; Kandemir, Pınar Elif; Ozdemiroğlu, Filiz Alyanak; Atalay, Figen

    2012-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease characterized by repetitive, unwanted intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, and motor speed. The objective of the present study was to investigate systematically the cognitive functioning of OCD patients who were free of medication and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 72 OCD patients were compared with 54 healthy controls on their performance in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were administered to the patients, and a semistructured interview form was used to evaluate the demographic features of the patients and control subjects. Overall, widespread statistically significant differences were found in tests related to verbal memory, global attention and psychomotor speed, and visuospatial and executive functions indicating a poorer performance of the OCD group. A closer scrutiny of these results suggests that the OCD group has difficulty in using an effective learning strategy that might be partly explained by their insufficient mental flexibility and somewhat poor planning abilities. PMID:21550029

  8. Neuropsychological functioning following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C E; Borod, J C; Perrine, K; Beric, A; Brin, M F; Rezai, A; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Germano, I; Weisz, D; Olanow, C W

    2004-03-01

    The cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been examined. However, there are no reported studies that evaluate, by incorporating a disease control group, whether neuropsychological performance in surgical patients changes beyond the variability of the assessment measures. To examine this issue, 17 PD patients were tested before and after bilateral STN stimulator implantation, both on and off stimulation. Eleven matched PD controls were administered the same repeatable neuropsychological test battery twice. Relative to changes seen in the controls, the surgery for electrode placement mildly adversely affected attention and language functions. STN stimulation, per se, had little effect on cognition. The STN DBS procedure as a whole resulted in a mild decline in delayed verbal recall and language functions. There were no surgery, stimulation, or procedure effects on depression scale scores. In contrast to these group findings, one DBS patient demonstrated significant cognitive decline following surgery. PMID:15010083

  9. Ecological validity of neuropsychological and personality measures of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Ready, R E; Stierman, L; Paulsen, J S

    2001-08-01

    Associations between two types of measures of executive functions, namely, neuropsychological and personality, and measures of real-world behavior were investigated. Undergraduate students were administered neuropsychological measures of executive functions and completed a personality questionnaire developed to measure traits central to the construct of executive functions. Participants also reported on their behavior. Hierarchical regressions indicated that neuropsychological and personality measures of executive functions were significant predictors of different types of behavior. Neuropsychological measures predicted work behaviors and personality measures predicted substance use, risk-taking, and aggressive behaviors. Findings highlight the importance of including personality assessment in standard neuropsychological assessment in order to maximize ability to predict real-world behaviors relevant to independent and socially responsible functioning. PMID:11778769

  10. Orbital and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced…

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning and Severity of ADHD in Early Childhood: A Four-Year Cross-Lagged study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Rindskopf, David; O’Neill, Sarah; Marks, David J.; Nomura, Yoko; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have poorer neuropsychological functioning relative to their typically-developing peers. However, it is unclear whether early neuropsychological functioning predicts later ADHD severity and/or the latter is longitudinally associated with subsequent neuropsychological functioning; and whether these relations are different in children with and without early symptoms of ADHD. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between ADHD severity and neuropsychological functioning among children at high and low risk of developing ADHD. Hyperactive/Inattentive (H/I; N=140) and Typically-developing (TD; N=76) preschoolers (age 3 – 4 years) were recruited (BL) and followed annually for 3 years (F1, F2 and F3). Teachers rated the children’s ADHD severity and impairment using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 and the Children’s Problem Checklist, respectively. Parent reports of children’s ADHD severity were obtained using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia – Present and Lifetime version. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed using the NEPSY. In the full sample, there were bi-directional longitudinal associations between neuropsychological functioning and ADHD severity between F1 and F3. Among H/I children, neuropsychological functioning at F1 and F2 predicted ADHD severity at F2 and F3, respectively. In contrast, among TD children the only significant relationship observed was that elevated ADHD symptoms at F2 were associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at F3. Improved neuropsychological functioning may attenuate ADHD symptoms and associated impairment among H/I children during the early school years. Interventions designed to improve neuropsychological functioning among young H/I children may be beneficial in reducing their ADHD severity. PMID:24364619

  12. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  13. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  14. Neuropsychological functioning in children with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Krueger, Casey E; Burnett, Christiane; Wilson, Christina K

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with deficits in the areas of verbal memory and learning, executive functioning, working memory, and attention in adults. Findings have been less consistent in the few studies examining neuropsychological functioning in childhood PTSD, which are often limited by comparing children with PTSD to children without trauma histories, making it unclear whether observed neuropsychological deficits are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD symptomatology. In an ethnically diverse sample of 62 children who witnessed intimate partner violence (n = 27 PTSD+ and 35 PTSD-), children with PTSD exhibited slower and less effective learning, heightened sensitivity to interference, and impaired effect of rehearsal on memory acquisition on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version, a word list learning task. Both groups performed in the below average range on measures of executive functioning, attention, and intellectual ability. PMID:19787496

  15. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. PMID:23582098

  16. The scientist-practitioner model: how do advances in clinical and cognitive neuroscience affect neuropsychology in the courtroom?

    PubMed

    Wood, Rodger Ll

    2009-01-01

    One of the core tenets of the scientist-practitioner model, slightly modified to make it applicable to modern neuropsychology, is that assessment procedures should be developed, applied, and interpreted in a relevant scientific framework. However, over the last 30 years, the general structure of a neuropsychological assessment has changed little, if at all. It has continued to focus mainly on the assessment of cognitive constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, and perception. During the same time period, cognitive neuroscience has focused on integrative systems, largely controlled by frontal mechanisms, that allow individuals to utilize cognitive functions in an adaptive way, especially in the context of novel situations or when social stimuli are ambiguous. Consequently, the gulf between cognitive neuroscience and the practice of clinical neuropsychology has grown uncomfortably large. This article attempts to review some of the developments in cognitive and affective neuroscience that are relevant to an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities, especially in a medicolegal context, to determine whether conventional neuropsychological methods can be considered fit for purpose. PMID:19333064

  17. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  20. Cognitive and affective disturbances following focal cerebellar damage in adults: a neuropsychological and SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Baillieux, Hanne; De Smet, Hyo Jung; Dobbeleir, André; Paquier, Philippe F; De Deyn, Peter P; Mariën, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The traditional view on cerebellar functioning has recently been challenged by results from neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies. In this contribution, eighteen patients with primary cerebellar lesions (vascular: n=13; neoplastic: n=5) were systematically investigated by means of an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Fifteen patients (83%) presented with a broad variety of cognitive and linguistic deficits following cerebellar damage. Disturbances of attention (72%), executive functioning (50%) and memory (50%) were most commonly found. Analyses of our results tend to support the hypothesis of a lateralization of cognitive modulation within the cerebellum, the right cerebellar hemisphere being associated with logical reasoning and language processing and the left cerebellum mediating right-hemispheric functions including attentional and visuo-spatial skills. In addition, nine patients (50%) presented with frontal-like behavioural and affective alterations. In an attempt to determine the working-mechanism underlying cerebellar-induced cognitive and affective disturbances, all patients were investigated by means of quantified Tc-99m-ethylenecysteine dimer (ECD) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies. From a semiological point of view, damage to the cerebellum can cause a broad spectrum of clinically significant cognitive and affective disturbances. From a pathophysiological point of view, quantified SPECT data, reflecting the phenomenon of cerebello-cerebral diaschisis, support the functional impact of the cerebellar lesion on cortical functioning through disruption of cerebello-cerebral connections. PMID:19853848

  1. Neuropsychological function in children with primary complex motor stereotypies

    PubMed Central

    MAHONE, E. MARK; RYAN, MATTHEW; FERENC, LISA; MORRIS-BERRY, CHRISTINA; SINGER, HARVEY S.

    2014-01-01

    AIM Complex motor stereotypies (CMS) are patterned, repetitive, rhythmic, and involuntary movements that persist over time. They are divided into two subgroups dependent on the presence of other developmental problems: ‘primary’ (development is otherwise typical) or ‘secondary’ (associated with autism, intellectual disability, or sensory deficits). There are no currently published studies that examine neuropsychological function in children with primary CMS. This case–control study examines whether children with primary CMS manifest neurobehavioral deficits. METHOD Fifty-seven children with primary CMS (32 males, 25 females; mean age 6y 8mo, SD 2y 4mo, range 4–12y) with negative screens for autism and 57 comparison participants (32 males, 25 females; mean age 6y 6mo, SD 2y 1mo) completed neuropsychological assessments of IQ, reading ability, attention, language, and motor and executive functions. Parents completed ratings of their child’s repetitive movement severity. RESULTS The CMS group performed significantly less well than comparison participants on motor skills and IQ tests (both p<0.01), although IQ was consistently in the average range. One-third of the CMS group showed signs of developmental motor coordination difficulties. Parent report of stereotypy severity was significantly associated with parent report of inattention and executive dysfunction. INTERPRETATION Children with primary CMS were found to have largely intact neuropsychological profiles. Stereotypy severity appears to be associated with executive dysfunction. Although motor difficulties were observed in children with CMS, these were not correlated with parent report of symptom severity. PMID:24814517

  2. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid psychiatric history and one or more possible precipitating factors for their amnesia. Eight of the 10 patients still had persistent retrograde amnesia at our last contact with them (median = 14 mo after the onset of amnesia). On tests of anterograde amnesia, the patients performed normally as a group, though some patients scored poorly on tests of verbal memory. On tests of retrograde amnesia, all patients had difficulty recollecting well-formed autobiographical memories of specific events from their past. In contrast, patients performed as well as controls at distinguishing the names of cities from fictitious city names. On remote memory tests for past public events and famous faces, different patients exhibited different but internally consistent patterns of impaired and spared performance. The variability in the clinical and neuropsychological findings among our patients may be understood by supposing that memory performance is poor in proportion to how directly a test appears to assess a patient's commonsense concept of memory. The presentation of patients with functional amnesia is as variable as humankind's concept of what memory is and how it works. PMID:15054137

  3. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits. PMID:26745770

  4. Relationship between functional and neuropsychological performance in early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Hodges, J R

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects with Alzheimer disease underwent cognitive and functional assessment. Functional assessment by caregivers consisted of a 25-item bipolar analog scale measuring activities of daily living and social behaviors divided into four functional domains: memory, attention/executive abilities, everyday skills, and self-care. Cognitive assessment consisted of standardized neuropsychological tests designed to evaluate five cognitive domains: episodic memory, attention/executive function, semantic memory, visuospatial function, and auditory-verbal short-term (working) memory. Functional assessment correlated well with overall severity as measured by Mini Mental State Examination (r = -0.733). Analysis of individual cognitive and functional domains revealed no significant correlation between episodic memory and functional performance. By contrast, functional ability correlated strongly with the cognitive domains of visuospatial function and semantic memory, being significantly greater than the correlation of functional ability with any other cognitive domain. These results were supported by multiple regression analyses that showed visuospatial function to be the sole cognitive predictor of functional abilities. These findings have implications for the evaluation of drug therapies in Alzheimer disease, in particular the effect of current cholinergic therapies on activities of daily living. PMID:10718199

  5. A comprehensive neuropsychological mapping battery for functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Sirel; Baran, Zeynel; Ceylan, Arzu Ozkan; Tileylioglu, Emre; Tali, Turgut; Karakas, Hakki Muammer

    2013-11-01

    Existing batteries for FMRI do not precisely meet the criteria for comprehensive mapping of cognitive functions within minimum data acquisition times using standard scanners and head coils. The goal was to develop a battery of neuropsychological paradigms for FMRI that can also be used in other brain imaging techniques and behavioural research. Participants were 61 healthy, young adult volunteers (48 females and 13 males, mean age: 22.25 ± 3.39 years) from the university community. The battery included 8 paradigms for basic (visual, auditory, sensory-motor, emotional arousal) and complex (language, working memory, inhibition/interference control, learning) cognitive functions. Imaging was performed using standard functional imaging capabilities (1.5-T MR scanner, standard head coil). Structural and functional data series were analysed using Brain Voyager QX2.9 and Statistical Parametric Mapping-8. For basic processes, activation centres for individuals were within a distance of 3-11 mm of the group centres of the target regions and for complex cognitive processes, between 7 mm and 15 mm. Based on fixed-effect and random-effects analyses, the distance between the activation centres was 0-4 mm. There was spatial variability between individual cases; however, as shown by the distances between the centres found with fixed-effect and random-effects analyses, the coordinates for individual cases can be used to represent those of the group. The findings show that the neuropsychological brain mapping battery described here can be used in basic science studies that investigate the relationship of the brain to the mind and also as functional localiser in clinical studies for diagnosis, follow-up and pre-surgical mapping. PMID:23892066

  6. The interplay among temperament, neuropsychological abilities, and global functioning in young hyperactive/inattentive children.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dione M; Rajendran, Khushmand; O'Neill, Sarah; Gopin, Chaya B; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Cognition and emotion have been shown to interact and influence psychological functioning. However, to date these interactions have only been examined cross-sectionally among inattentive and/or hyperactive/impulsive children. This study investigated the moderating effects of neuropsychological functioning at age 3-4 years on the relation between negative emotionality at age 3-4 years and global functioning 1 year later, at age 4-5 years. Hyperactive/inattentive (H/I; n = 114) preschoolers entered the study (BL: baseline) and were seen again 1 year later (F1). Children's BL scores on a neuropsychological test (NEPSY) and their temperament as rated by parents (Child Behavior Questionnaire) and teachers (Temperament Assessment Battery for Children-Revised) were obtained, as were clinicians' ratings of their global functioning (Children's Global Assessment Scale) at F1. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that BL temperament variables accounted for significant variance in F1 Global Functioning. Significant interactions indicated that higher Verbal Executive abilities were associated with better child functioning when parent-rated Effortful Control was high, but not when Effortful Control was low. Additionally, high levels of Nonverbal Executive skills were associated with higher child global functioning when both parent- and teacher-rated negative affect was low, but not when negative affect was high. PMID:26868832

  7. Associations between substance use, neuropsychological functioning and treatment response in psychosis.

    PubMed

    deVille, Madeleine; Baker, Amanda; Lewin, Terry J; Bucci, Sandra; Loughland, Carmel

    2011-04-30

    Relationships between substance use, severity of psychosis, and neuropsychological functioning were examined, together with their associations with treatment response and retention status. Participants included 477 people with psychosis (354 volunteers registered on a research database, and 123 enrolled in a treatment trial for substance misuse). Variables of primary interest included substance use history, course of psychotic disorder, and neuropsychological functioning on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Specific RBANS deficits were associated with a more chronic illness course. Compared to those with a stable or chronic course, younger people with a single episode of psychosis were more likely to have uncertain diagnoses, higher levels of substance use problems and variable neuropsychological functioning. History of substance use was not associated with additional overall neuropsychological deficits. Likewise, treatment retention and outcome were not associated with neuropsychological functioning. The findings suggest that, among people with co-existing psychotic and substance use disorders, response to cognitive-behaviour therapy is likely to be independent of neuropsychological functioning. Consideration should also be given to the potential use of neuropsychological assessments to assist differentiation of likely substance-associated psychosis from primary psychosis. PMID:20843558

  8. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: Concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and Math Disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), RD+MD (N = 188), and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and ten neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD+MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD+MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and seven of ten neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD, and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur due to shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  9. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and math disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), and RD + MD (N = 188) and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and 10 neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD + MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD + MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and 7 of 10 neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur because of shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  10. Methamphetamine Dependence and Neuropsychological Functioning: Evaluating Change During Early Abstinence*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sara L.; Dean, Andy C.; Cordova, Xochitl; Monterosso, John R.; London, Edythe D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess neuropsychological functioning of individuals in early abstinence from methamphetamine dependence and to test for cognitive change over the first month of abstinence. Method: Methamphetamine-dependent subjects in very early abstinence from methamphetamine (4–9 days; n = 27) were compared with healthy comparison subjects (n = 28) on a test battery that evaluated five cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, learning/memory, working memory, timed executive functioning, and untimed executive functioning). A subsample of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects (n = 18), who maintained abstinence for 1 month, as well as a subsample of the comparison subjects (n = 21), were retested. Results: At the first assessment, the methamphetamine-dependent subjects showed significantly worse performance than the comparison group on a test of processing speed; they also performed 0.31 SDs worse than the control group on a global battery composite score (p < .05). After a month of abstinence, methamphetamine-dependent subjects demonstrated slightly more cognitive improvement than healthy control subjects on the entire cognitive battery, but this difference did not approach statistical significance (p = .33). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that methamphetamine-dependent subjects do not show considerable cognitive gains in the first month of abstinence. A greater length of abstinence may be needed for cognitive improvement. PMID:20409426

  11. Ecstasy (MDMA) exposure and neuropsychological functioning: a polydrug perspective.

    PubMed

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Shear, Paula K; Corcoran, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) is a popular drug that can act as a selective serotonin neurotoxin in several species. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between ecstasy exposure and cognitive functioning after controlling for other drug use and demographic variables. Furthermore, we assessed whether gender was a moderator of the relationship between cognitive functioning and ecstasy use. Data were collected from 31 men and 34 women with a wide range of ecstasy use (17 marijuana users with no ecstasy use and 48 ecstasy users ranging from low to heavy use). Participants were interviewed and administered a battery of neuropsychological tests. The primary finding was that ecstasy exposure was significantly related to poorer verbal learning and memory ability in a dose-dependent manner, while no such relationship was observed between ecstasy exposure and executive functioning or attentional ability. Gender was found to significantly moderate the relationship between ecstasy consumption and design fluency. These results suggest primary memory dysfunction among abstinent recreational ecstasy users. This finding is consistent with reports of hippocampal vulnerability, particularly among heavy users. PMID:16248911

  12. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  13. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  14. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  15. Probing prefrontal function in schizophrenia with neuropsychological paradigms.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T E; Weinberger, D R

    1988-01-01

    In a recent series of studies we have attempted to clarify the nature of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia, and in particular, how patterns of dysfunction implicate specific neural systems. First, we found that acute psychotic adolescent patients displayed the same pattern of IQ scores (Performance less than Verbal) as adult chronic schizophrenic patients. We explored this deficit in problem solving by studying the performance of schizophrenic patients after receiving concrete and explicit instructions on how to do the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a task thought to be mediated by prefrontal cortex. We then studied the differential impact such a deficit in problem-solving strategies might have on a task thought to elicit both cognitive (prefrontal) and procedural or motor-skill (basal ganglia) processing. Procedural components appeared to be relatively more intact. We also addressed schizophrenic patients' ability to learn in other (extrafrontal) cognitive domains through verbal memory tasks and block design puzzles. Learning occurred under both conditions. We believe the overall pattern of deficit implicates primarily prefrontal neural systems, though a number of other neuropsychological functions are yet to be surveyed. PMID:3059467

  16. Functional and neuropsychological late outcomes in posterior fossa tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Bouffet, Eric; Mabbott, Donald; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2015-10-01

    Tumors of the posterior fossa (PF) account for up to 60 % of all childhood intracranial tumors. Over the last decades, the mortality rate of children with posterior fossa tumors has gradually decreased. While survival has been the primary objective in most reports, quality of survival increasingly appears to be an important indicator of a successful outcome. Children with a PF tumor can sustain damage to the cerebellum and other brain structures from the tumor itself, concomitant hydrocephalus, the consequences of treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), or a combination of these factors. Together, these contribute to long-term sequelae in physical functioning, neuropsychological late outcomes (including academic outcome, working memory, perception and estimation of time, and selective attention, long-term neuromotor speech deficits, and executive functioning). Long-term quality of life can also be affected by endocrinological complication or the occurrence of secondary tumors. A significant proportion of survivors of PF tumors require long-term special education services and have reduced rates of high school graduation and employment. Interventions to improve neuropsychological functioning in childhood PF tumor survivors include (1) pharmacological interventions (such as methylphenidate, modafinil, or donepezil), (2) cognitive remediation, and (3) home-based computerized cognitive training. In order to achieve the best possible outcome for survivors, and ultimately minimize long-term complications, new interventions must be developed to prevent and ameliorate the neuro-toxic effects experienced by these children. PMID:26351237

  17. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  18. Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in first-year undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Sher, K J; Martin, E D; Wood, P K; Rutledge, P C

    1997-08-01

    The relation between alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning was examined in 489 first-year undergraduates, approximately half of whom had a history of alcoholism in their biological fathers. Factor analyses of 17 neuropsychological tests and subtests produced the following 5 factors that were the basis of subsequent analyses: Language/Verbal Memory, Visuospatial Ability, Motor Speed, Booklet Category Performance, and Attention. Participants with alcohol use disorders showed deficits in visuospatial ability. Those who had alcohol dependence showed deficits in both visuospatial ability and motor speed relative to participants who abused alcohol. The differences in neuropsychological functioning remained even after several potential confounding variables were controlled statistically. Results suggest that alcohol use disorders in first-year college students are associated with deficits in neuropsychological measures that are not attributable to several potential third-variable explanations. PMID:9260079

  19. Neuropsychological functions and visual contrast sensitivity in schizophrenia: the potential impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Halász, Ibolya; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kelemen, Oguz; Benedek, György; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with other severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the neuropsychological and psychophysical correlates of comorbid PTSD are less exactly defined. The purpose of the present study was to assess immediate and delayed memory, attention, visuospatial skills, language, and basic visual information processing in patients with schizophrenia with or without PTSD. We recruited 125 patients with schizophrenia and 70 healthy controls matched for visual acuity, age, gender, education, and socioeconomic status. Twenty-one of patients with schizophrenia exhibited comorbid PTSD. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and visual contrast sensitivity tasks for low spatial/high temporal frequency (0.3 cycle/degree and 18 Hz) and high spatial/low temporal frequency (10 cycles/degree and 1Hz) sinusoidal gratings. All patients were clinically stable and received antipsychotic medications. Results revealed that relative to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significant and generalized neuropsychological dysfunctions and reduced visual contrast sensitivity, which was more pronounced at low spatial/high temporal frequency. When we compared schizophrenia patients with and without PTSD, we found that patients with comorbid PTSD displayed lower scores for RBANS attention, immediate and delayed memory, and visuospatial scores. Schizophrenia patients with or without PTSD displayed similar visual contrast sensitivity. In conclusion, comorbid PTSD in schizophrenia may be associated with worse neuropsychological functions, whereas it does not affect basic visual information processing. PMID:23519404

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder--a review.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Fuhr, Margarete; Air, Tracy; Hering, Carola

    2014-08-30

    While neuropsychological dysfunction is a contributor to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult MDD, little is known about neuropsychological function in MDD during adolescence and early adulthood. The aim of this review is to evaluate literature on neuropsychological function in this young age group. A database search of Medline, the Cochrane database and PsycInfo was conducted. Inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded seven case-control studies on neuropsychological functioning in MDD (12-25 years of age) published since 1995. Effect sizes were calculated. Results show a broader range of statistically significant neuropsychological deficits in MDD compared to controls in the cognitive domains of executive function (EF), working memory (WM), psychomotor and processing speed (PPS), verbal fluency (VF) and visual (-spatial) memory (VM). Most convincingly, three out of four studies investigating WM and three out of four studies investigating PPS found statistically significant impairments in MDD with varying effect sizes. EF deficits were reported only in three out of seven studies with small, medium and large effect sizes. While some evidence was found for impaired VM and VF, no evidence was observed for attention and verbal learning and memory; however, these domains have been less extensively studied. Further research is required to broaden the study base. PMID:24851725

  1. Evaluation of information-processing speed and neuropsychological functioning in patients with myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Kates, M H; Poirier, C A; Hylton, D; Humphreys, P; Keene, D; Laflèche, G

    1987-04-01

    Patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD) were compared to a control group, matched to the patients in important demographic variables including IQ, on the Sternberg Memory Scanning procedure, to investigate the hypothesis of a selective change in speed of information processing in MD patients. The neuropsychological functioning of these MD patients was also compared to normative data to provide a descriptive picture of their abilities; these results were correlated to the factors of age of onset and duration of the disease. Finally, the MD patients were also compared to the defined control group on the neuropsychological measures. There was little evidence of selective slowness of information processing or particular deficit independent of overall IQ. Neuropsychologically, the MD patients as a group performed at the low average level. There was, however, a wide range of abilities, suggesting that MD patients are not a unitary group in terms of neuropsychological functioning. Age of onset of the disease was important, at least for certain results. Further research of the neuropsychological functioning of MD patients must account for the wide range of results, with more precise measures of actual onset of the disease and muscular weakness, in a longitudinal evaluation. PMID:3558745

  2. Work productivity and neuropsychological function in persons with skull base tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bethany D.; Weimer, Jason; Choi, Chienwen J.; Bradley, Cathy J.; Bender, Catherine M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Gardner, Paul; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Skull base tumors comprise many common benign brain tumors. Treatment has advanced, allowing many survivors to return to work. However, literature is limited about the neuropsychological status of these patients prior to treatment. Literature pertaining to the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and occupational ability prior to surgical intervention is even more limited. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of neuropsychological function on work productivity in persons with skull base tumors prior to resection. Methods Neuropsychological function and work productivity were assessed in adults newly diagnosed with skull base tumors (n = 45) prior to surgical intervention. Univariate analyses identified potential predictors of work limitations; variables with P < .10 were analyzed using multivariate regression analyses controlled for age, sex, tumor type, and education. Results Poorer mental attention and flexibility (MF) and higher depressive symptoms (DS) were significantly associated with poor time management at work (MF: β = -0.59, P = .01; DS: β = 3.42, P < .01; R2 = 0.54). Difficulty meeting physical work demands was significantly associated with poorer visuospatial ability (VA) and higher depressive symptoms (VA: β = −3.30, P = .05; DS: β = 2.29, P < .01; R2 = 0.29). Lower learning and memory scores (LM) and higher depressive symptoms were significantly associated with difficulty meeting mental-interpersonal work demands (LM: β = −3.39, P = .04; DS: β = 3.25, P < .01; R2 = 0.47) and overall health-related loss of work productivity (LM: β = −0.72, P = .05; DS: β = 0.659, P < .001; R2 = 0.43). Conclusion Domains of neuropsychological function that predicted work productivity were identified. Future research should examine neuropsychological function, depressive symptoms, and work productivity across the care trajectory from diagnosis through long-term survivorship. PMID:25789168

  3. Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning: An Investigative Tool for Cognitive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

  4. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  5. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Veltman, Dick J; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-07-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence, and excessive caffeine use, comparing stimulant abusers (SAs) to nondrug using healthy controls (HCs). Despite some inconsistencies, most studies indicated altered brain activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula in response to reward and punishment, and higher limbic and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/PFC activation during craving and attentional bias paradigms in SAs compared with HCs. Impulsivity in SAs was associated with lower ACC and presupplementary motor area activity compared with HCs, and related to both ventral (amygdala, ventrolateral PFC, insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal ACC, posterior parietal cortex) systems. Decision making in SAs was associated with low dorsolateral PFC activity and high orbitofrontal activity. Finally, executive function in SAs was associated with lower activation in frontotemporal regions and higher activation in premotor cortex compared with HCs. It is concluded that the lower activations compared with HCs are likely to reflect the neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive functions, whereas higher activations in SAs compared with HCs are likely to reflect compensatory cognitive control mechanisms to keep behavioral task performance to a similar level as in HCs. However, before final conclusions can be drawn, additional research is needed using neuroimaging in SAs and HCs using larger and more homogeneous samples as well as more comparable task paradigms, study designs, and statistical analyses. PMID:22950052

  6. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  7. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  8. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  9. Neuropsychological Functioning in Specific Learning Disorders--Reading, Writing and Mixed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Adarsh; Kaur, Manreet; Mohanty, Manju; Malhotra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The study compared the pattern of deficits, intelligence and neuropsychological functioning in subcategories of learning disorders. Methods: Forty-six children (16 with reading disorders, 11 with writing disorders and 19 with both reading and writing disorders--mixed group) in the age range of 7-14 years were assessed using the NIMHANS Index…

  10. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  11. Associations between Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptom Severity: Indirect Effects via Primary Neuropsychological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Burt; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD has a range of aetiological origins which are associated with a number of disruptions in neuropsychological functioning. This study aims to examine how low birth weight, a proxy measure for a range of environmental complications during gestation, predicts ADHD symptom severity in preschool-aged children indirectly via neuropsychological functioning. Methods 197 preschool-aged children were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study. Two neuropsychological factors were derived from NEPSY domain scores. One, referred to as ‘Primary Neuropsychological Function,’ loaded highly with Sensorimotor and Visuospatial scores. The other, termed ‘Higher-Order Function’ loaded highly with Language and Memory domain scores. Executive functioning split evenly across the two. Analyses examined whether these neuropsychological factors allowed for an indirect association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. Results While both factors were associated with symptom severity, only the Primary Neuropsychological Factor was associated with birth weight. Furthermore, birth weight was indirectly associated to symptom severity via this factor. Conclusions These data indicate that birth weight is indirectly associated with ADHD severity via disruption of neuropsychological functions that are more primary in function as opposed to functions that play a higher-order role in utilising and integrating the primary functions. PMID:24795955

  12. Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Woods, Steven Paul; Zurhellen, Cynthia H; Vertinski, Mary; Narvaez, Jenille M; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2008-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate impairment in prospective memory (ProM), which describes the multifaceted ability to execute a future intention. Despite its clear implications for everyday functioning, the neuropsychological substrates and functional correlates of ProM impairment in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), a standardized measure of ProM, was administered to 72 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric research evaluation. Results showed that ProM was positively correlated with standard clinical tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, learning, and executive functioning, but not delayed recall. In the context of multiple neuropsychological predictors, learning ability was the only domain that independently contributed to ProM. Importantly, better ProM was predictive of higher functional capacity (as measured by the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version), above and beyond the variability explained by demographic and disease factors. Analysis of component processes revealed that event-based ProM, as well as no response (i.e., omission) and task substitution errors were the strongest predictors of everyday functioning. Overall, these findings suggest that ProM impairment in schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive substrates, particularly episodic learning deficits, and plays an important role in everyday living skills. Studies regarding the potential effectiveness of ProM-based remediation strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia are indicated. PMID:18055178

  13. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  14. Neuropsychological Function in a Child with 18p Deletion Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian L.; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Braaten, Ellen B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

  15. Socioeconomic status and neuropsychological functioning: Associations in an ethnically diverse HIV+ cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Rosario, Ana; Miranda, Caitlin; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. Method We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i.e., Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Modified Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results Bivariate analyses showed that adult SES was significantly, positively correlated with neuropsychological performance on specific tests within the domains of verbal fluency, attention/concentration, learning, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and childhood SES was significantly linked to measures of verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning. In a series of linear regressions, controlling for SES significantly attenuated group differences in NP test scores between racial/ethnic minority individuals and non-Hispanic white individuals. Finally, SES scores significantly differed across HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) diagnoses. In a binary logistic regression, SES was the only independent predictor of HAND diagnosis. Conclusions HIV+ individuals with lower SES may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated neuropsychological sequelae due to prominent health disparities, although the degree to which this is influenced by factors such as test bias remains unclear. Overall, our results suggest that SES is significantly linked to neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ individuals, and is an important factor to consider in clinical practice. PMID:25871409

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Serroni, N; Moschetta, F S; Di Giannantonio, M; Ferrara, M; De Berardis, D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological functioning and the effect of antidepressant drug intake on cognitive performance in a group of relatively young generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. Forty patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and 31 healthy subjects participated in the study (Control group, CON). None of the selected subjects had comorbid depression. GAD subjects were divided into two different subgroups: 18 were taking antidepressants [GAD-pharmacotherapy (GAD-p group)] and 22 were treatment-naïve (GAD group). Each group was administered with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention, memory and executive functions. Performance on executive and non-verbal memory tasks of both GAD groups was largely worse than the CON group. However, these deficits seem to be more marked in patients taking antidepressants, especially in the domains of attention, non-verbal memory and executive functions. The present study indicates that GAD is associated with cognitive impairments among young adults. However, the observed association of neuropsychological deficits and the use of pharmacotherapy suggest a possible effect of antidepressant treatment on attention, executive functioning and non-verbal memory. PMID:23796524

  17. Neuropsychological function and suicidal behavior: attention control, memory and executive dysfunction in suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    Keilp, J. G.; Gorlyn, M.; Russell, M.; Oquendo, M. A.; Burke, A. K.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.; Mann, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Executive dysfunction, distinct from other cognitive deficits in depression, has been associated with suicidal behavior. However, this dysfunction is not found consistently across samples. Method Medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive episode (major depressive disorder and bipolar type I disorder) and a past history of suicidal behavior (n=72) were compared to medication-free depressed subjects with no history of suicidal behavior (n=80) and healthy volunteers (n=56) on a battery of tests assessing neuropsychological functions typically affected by depression (motor and psychomotor speed, attention, memory) and executive functions reportedly impaired in suicide attempters (abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency, impulse control). Results All of the depressed subjects performed worse than healthy volunteers on motor, psychomotor and language fluency tasks. Past suicide attempters, in turn, performed worse than depressed non-attempters on attention and memory/working memory tasks [a computerized Stroop task, the Buschke Selective Reminding Task (SRT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT) and an N-back task] but not on other executive function measures, including a task associated with ventral prefrontal function (Object Alternation). Deficits were not accounted for by current suicidal ideation or the lethality of past attempts. A small subsample of those using a violent method in their most lethal attempt showed a pattern of poor executive performance. Conclusions Deficits in specific components of attention control, memory and working memory were associated with suicidal behavior in a sample where non-violent attempt predominated. Broader executive dysfunction in depression may be associated with specific forms of suicidal behavior, rather than suicidal behavior per se. PMID:22781400

  18. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  19. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  20. Jumping to Conclusions, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Delusional Beliefs in First Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, M. Aurora; Murray, Robin M.; Wiffen, Benjamin D. R.; O’Connor, Jennifer A.; Russo, Manuela; Kolliakou, Anna; Stilo, Simona; Taylor, Heather; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Paparelli, Alessandra; Jichi, Fatima; Di Forti, Marta; David, Anthony S.; Freeman, Daniel; Jolley, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The “jumping to conclusions” (JTC) data-gathering bias is implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis but has only recently been studied in first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study, we set out to establish the relationship of JTC in FEP with delusions and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: One hundred and eight FEP patients and 101 age-matched controls completed assessments of delusions, general intelligence (IQ), working memory (WM), and JTC (the probabilistic reasoning “beads” task). Results: Half the FEP participants jumped to conclusions on at least 1 task, compared with 25% of controls (OR range 2.1 to 3.9; 95% CI range 1.5 to 8.0, P values ≤ .02). JTC was associated with clinical, but not nonclinical delusion severity, and with neuropsychological functioning, irrespective of clinical status. Both IQ and delusion severity, but not WM, were independently associated with JTC in the FEP group. Conclusions: JTC is present in FEP. The specific association of JTC with clinical delusions supports a state, maintaining role for the bias. The associations of JTC with neuropsychological functioning indicate a separable, trait aspect to the bias, which may confer vulnerability to psychosis. The work has potential to inform emerging interventions targeting reasoning biases in early psychosis. PMID:25053654

  1. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  2. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  3. Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

  4. The relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability in dementia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reger, Mark A; Welsh, Robert K; Watson, G Stennis; Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D; Craft, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 27 primary studies was conducted to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and driving ability for adults with dementia. When studies using a control group were included, the relationship between cognitive measures and on-road or non-road driving measures was significant for all reported domains; mean correlations ranged from.35 to.65. Caregiver reports of driving ability and cognitive variables were correlated significantly only on measures of mental status and visuospatial skills. When studies using a control group were excluded, moderate mean correlations were observed for visuospatial skills and on-road or non-road measures, and for mental status with non-road tests. Other effects were small or nonsignificant. Implications for basing driving recommendations on neuropsychological testing are discussed. PMID:14744191

  5. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kayoko; Matsui, Mie; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B), together with disease severity (HY stage), predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD. PMID:26273243

  6. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  7. Change in neuropsychological functioning is associated with the trajectory of ADHD severity and impairment in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Trampush, Joey W.; Rindskopf, David; Marks, David J.; O’Neill, Sarah; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined whether changes in neuropsychological functioning were associated with the trajectory of ADHD-related symptoms and impairment between preschool and school-age. Method The sample consisted of 3- and 4-year-old children (N=138) who were identified as being “at-risk” for ADHD based on parent and teacher reports. Neuropsychological functioning was measured annually using the NEPSY at four points of time (Mean ages: 4.19, 5.36, 6.35 and 7.35 years). ADHD symptoms and impairment were assessed using semi-annual parent and teacher reports on the ADHD-RS-IV and the Children’s Problems Checklist over 10 points of time (Mean age at baseline and final assessment = 4.19 and 8.81 years, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess the trajectories of change in neuropsychological functioning and ADHD severity as well as the association of change in neuropsychological functioning with change in ADHD severity over time. Results Baseline neuropsychological functioning was not significantly associated with the slope of change in ADHD severity. However, the magnitude of change in neuropsychological functioning was linearly associated with the trajectory of ADHD symptom severity and impairment such that individuals with greater neuropsychological growth over time had a greater diminution of ADHD severity and impairment. Family socioeconomic status at baseline was significantly associated with initial ADHD severity and impairment but not with change over time. Conclusion Interventions that enhance neuropsychological functioning from an early age may be beneficial to attenuating long-term ADHD severity and impairment. PMID:23897408

  8. Single Case Study: Neuropsychological Functioning in a Patient Diagnosed with Intermittent Explosive Disorder Pre and Post Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alonso, María José; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Castaño-León, Ana María; Lagares, Alfonso; Rubio, Gabriel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterized by a difficulty to resist the urge to carry out a recognized harmful behavior. The central symptom is aggressiveness, expressed in isolated episodes. Executive function impairments are habitually found in impulse control disorders. Neuropsychology of impulsivity is related to dysfunctions in the orbito-frontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex and anterior-cingulated regions, being consequently involved in cognitive mechanisms of inhibition. Lesions in those areas are common in IED. In the most severe cases of IED, surgical procedures are required for treatment. In this study, we examined JML; a patient suffering from a severe case of IED. He experienced frequent episodes of auto and heteroaggression and multiple psychiatric admissions, and thus stereotactic surgery was the recommended treatment. The procedure consisted of an electrode situated lateral to the lateral ventricle, targeting the projections between frontal and subcortical affected regions. We aimed to study the neuropsychological functioning of JML, before and after electrode implantation. Our results suggested that surgery in IED improves cognitive performance at some levels. JML significantly improved his cognitive flexibility, measured with WCST, and alternate attention assessed with CPT and TMT-B tests, after electrode implantation. Cognitive flexibility deficits may be also related to increased aggressiveness. Therefore, improvements at this level may involve a reduction of impulsivity and aggressive behavior. PMID:27161981

  9. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model.

    PubMed

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief Aphasia Evaluation was used. A sample of 65 patients with left cerebral lesions, and two supplementary samples comprising 35 patients with right cerebral lesions and 30 healthy participants were studied. A model encompassing an all inclusive verbal organizer and two successive organizers was validated. The two last organizers were: three factors of comprehension, expression and a "complementary" verbal factor which included praxia, attention, and memory; followed by the individual (and correlated) factors of auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, speech, reading, writing, and the "complementary" factor. By following this approach all the patients fall inside the classification system; consequently, theoretical improvement is guaranteed. PMID:25168953

  10. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  11. Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Workman-Daniels, K L; Hesselbrock, V M

    1987-05-01

    The relationship of childhood hyperkinetic and minimal brain dysfunction (Hk-MBD) to neuropsychological functioning was examined in three groups of young adults. Nonalcoholic offspring of an alcoholic parent (N = 21) and of nonalcoholic parents (N = 21) were examined. A comparison group of similar age alcoholic patients (N = 21) was also studied. Each subject completed a battery of neuropsychological test measures and was administered a checklist on the presence of Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Offspring of an alcoholic parent and offspring of nonalcoholic parents could not be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive abilities or their frequency of reported Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Alcoholic subjects performed more poorly on measures of verbal and performance intelligence and reported a higher frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms. Further, it was found that the frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms was related to poor performance on certain types of cognitive tasks, regardless of group membership. These findings do not support the suggestion that certain cognitive deficits distinguish persons with a family history for alcoholism. However, poor neuropsychological performance in adulthood, at least on certain types of tasks, appears to be associated with the presence of childhood Hk-MBD. PMID:3657159

  12. Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most

  13. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  14. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  15. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  16. The influence of cognitive reserve on psychosocial and neuropsychological functioning in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Forcada, Irene; Mur, Maria; Mora, Ester; Vieta, Eduard; Bartrés-Faz, David; Portella, Maria J

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain pathology in order to minimize symptomatology. CR was initially investigated in dementia and acute brain damage, but it is being applied to other neuropsychiatric conditions. The present study aims at examining the fit of this concept to a sample of euthymic bipolar patients compared with healthy controls in order to investigate the role of CR in predicting psychosocial and cognitive outcome in bipolar disorder (BD). The sample included 101 subjects: 52 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD type I or II and 49 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and gender. They were all assessed with a cognitive battery tapping into executive and memory functioning. CR was obtained using three different proxies: education-occupation, leisure activities and premorbid IQ. Psychosocial functioning was evaluated by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). MANCOVAs were performed to determine differences in cognitive and functioning variables. Linear regression analyses were carried out to predict neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes. Euthymic bipolar patients showed worse neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning than HC. The linear regression models revealed that CR was significantly predictive of FAST score (β = -0.47, p < 0.0001), Executive Index (β = 0.62, p < 0.0001) and Visual Memory Index (β = 0.44, p = 0.0004), indicating that CR is a significant predictor of cognitive and psychosocial functioning in euthymic bipolar outpatients. Therefore, CR may contribute to functional outcome in BD and may be applied in research and clinical interventions to prevent cognitive and functional impairment. PMID:25172270

  17. Neuropsychological, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of Swiss children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruof, Helge; Hammer, Juerg; Tillmann, Bettina; Ghelfi, Daniela; Weber, Peter

    2008-11-01

    This study collected data about developmental problems in a cohort of children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. In 2003, in Switzerland, 11 children with this disease were registered. Nine of them gave their informed consent to participate in the study and were examined. Clinical assessments were conducted, including examinations of neuropsychological, behavioral, and adaptive functions using Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children, Child Behavior Checklist, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The mean age (+/- standard deviation) was 7.5 +/- 2.5 years. The cognitive tests showed problems in working memory functions with a near-to-normal full-range intelligence quotient (87.4 +/- 23.3). The children showed normal values (t-values < 67) on problem scales of behavior, although 5 of the 9 children showed elevated values on the attention and on the social interaction problem scales. Adaptive function problems were identified in communication and daily living skills. PMID:18984833

  18. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atiea, J A; Moses, J L; Sinclair, A J

    1995-08-01

    Neuropsychological function was compared in three well-matched groups of subjects: Group 1, 20 diabetic patients with hypertension, mean age 69.1 +/- 4.8 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 2, 20 normotensive diabetic patients, mean age 69.0 +/- 6.2 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 3, 20 healthy community controls, mean age 68.1 +/- 4.5 years, 13 males and 7 females. There were no significant differences between the groups in education or estimated IQ using the NART (National Adult Reading Test). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in duration of diabetes (mean 10.6 and 9.5 years, respectively), or mean glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1 (mean 9.8 and 10.6%, respectively), or mean blood glucose before and after testing. On a battery neuropsychological tests, sensitive to cognitive impairment in older subjects, analysis of covariance using estimated IQ as the covariate showed no significant differences between the groups on tests of recall, with (Brown-Peterson Test) and without (Kendrick Object Learning Test) interference, forward and backward digit span, concentration (serial subtraction), verbal fluency, immediate and delayed prose recall, digit symbol substitution or psychomotor speed (Kendrick Digit Copying Test). These results provide no support for an association between cognitive deficits and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older subjects or for the view that such deficits may also be mediated by hypertension. PMID:7587006

  19. Changes in neuropsychological and behavioral functioning in children with and without obstructive sleep apnea following Tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Bruno; Hodges, Elise K; Guire, Kenneth E; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Dillon, James E; Weatherly, Robert A; Garetz, Susan L; Chervin, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    The most common treatment for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Following AT, SDB resolves in most cases, and gains in cognitive and behavior scores are consistently reported, although persistent neuropsychological deficits or further declines also have been noted. This study presents results of the comprehensive 1-year follow-up neuropsychological examinations for children in the Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort I (95% return rate). After adjusting for normal developmental and practice-effect related changes in control children, significant improvements 1 year following AT were noted in polysomnography and sleepiness, as well as parental reports of behavior, although cognitive outcomes were mixed. Children undergoing AT with and without polysomnography-confirmed obstructive sleep apnea improved across a range of academic achievement measures, a measure of delayed visual recall, short-term attention/working memory, and executive functioning, along with parental ratings of behavior. On the other hand, measures of verbal abstraction ability, arithmetic calculations, visual and verbal learning, verbal delayed recall, sustained attention, and another measure of visual delayed recall demonstrated declines in ability, while other measures did not improve over time. These findings call into question the expectation that AT resolves most or all behavioral and cognitive difficulties in children with clinical, office-based diagnoses of SDB. PMID:22272653

  20. Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion

    PubMed Central

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J. John; Grunebaum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in study of patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicidal Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk. PMID:25555415

  1. Experience with V-STORE: considerations on presence in virtual environments for effective neuropsychological rehabilitation of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lo Priore, Corrado; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Liccione, Diego; Liccione, Davide

    2003-06-01

    The paper discusses the use of immersive virtual reality systems for the cognitive rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndrome, usually caused by prefrontal brain injuries. With respect to classical P&P and flat-screen computer rehabilitative tools, IVR systems might prove capable of evoking a more intense and compelling sense of presence, thanks to the highly naturalistic subject-environment interaction allowed. Within a constructivist framework applied to holistic rehabilitation, we suggest that this difference might enhance the ecological validity of cognitive training, partly overcoming the implicit limits of a lab setting, which seem to affect non-immersive procedures especially when applied to dysexecutive symptoms. We tested presence in a pilot study applied to a new VR-based rehabilitation tool for executive functions, V-Store; it allows patients to explore a virtual environment where they solve six series of tasks, ordered for complexity and designed to stimulate executive functions, programming, categorical abstraction, short-term memory and attention. We compared sense of presence experienced by unskilled normal subjects, randomly assigned to immersive or non-immersive (flat screen) sessions of V-Store, through four different indexes: self-report questionnaire, psychophysiological (GSR, skin conductance), neuropsychological (incidental recall memory test related to auditory information coming from the "real" environment) and count of breaks in presence (BIPs). Preliminary results show in the immersive group a significantly higher GSR response during tasks; neuropsychological data (fewer recalled elements from "reality") and less BIPs only show a congruent but yet non-significant advantage for the immersive condition; no differences were evident from the self-report questionnaire. A larger experimental group is currently under examination to evaluate significance of these data, which also might prove interesting with respect to the question of objective

  2. The executive functions and self-regulation: an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A

    2001-03-01

    Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the longer-term, functional nature of the executive functions (EFs), using an evolutionary perspective. For purely illustrative purposes, a previously developed model of the EFs is briefly presented and is then examined from an evolutionary perspective. That model views the EFs as forms of behavior-to-the-self that evolved from overt (public) to covert (private) responses as a means of self-regulation. That was necessary given the interpersonal competition that arises within this group-living species. The EFs serve to shift the control of behavior from the immediate context, social others, and the temporal now to self-regulation by internal representations regarding the hypothetical social future. The EFs seem to meet the requirements of a biological adaptation, being an improbable complex design for a purpose that exists universally in humans. Discovering the adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve offers an invaluable research agenda for neuropsychology lest that agenda be resolved first by other scientific disciplines. Some adaptive problems that the EFs may have evolved to solve are then considered, among them being social exchange (reciprocal altruism or selfish cooperation), imitation and vicarious learning as types of experiential theft, mimetic skill (private behavioral rehearsal) and gestural communication, and social self-defense against such theft and interpersonal manipulation. Although clearly speculative at the moment, these proposals demonstrate the merit of considering the larger adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve. Taking the evolutionary stance toward the EFs would achieve not

  3. Assessment of neuropsychological function through use of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery: performance in 4- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica; Nelson, Charles A

    2002-01-01

    In this article, children's performance on subtasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) is described. Two samples were recruited, one of which included children who spoke English as a second language. Children in this group also completed subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Revision (WISC-III). Despite the fact that ESL children scored over 1 SD below the norm on the WISC-III Vocabulary subtest, there were no CANTAB performance distinctions between primary versus secondary English-language speakers. In addition, several aspects of CANTAB performance were significantly correlated with verbal and nonverbal IQ. When developmental trends were examined, findings indicated that several aspects of frontal lobe function (memory span, working memory, and planning skills) are not functionally mature, by the age of 12 years. Implications for use of the CANTAB in clinical studies are discussed. PMID:12661972

  4. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems. PMID:22690655

  5. Order Effects on Neuropsychological Test Performance of Normal, Learning Disabled and Low Functioning Children: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Adebowale

    2000-01-01

    Investigated possible priming effect of two neuropsychological tests, the Booklet Category Test (BCT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Obtained counterbalanced order effects on like-aged sample of 63 South African elementary school students (normally- achieving, low-functioning, learning-disabled). Found a significant effect of set-shifting…

  6. Examination of postconcussion-like symptoms in healthy university students: relationships to subjective and objective neuropsychological function performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Deng, Yongyu

    2006-05-01

    This study examined postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of university students and explored their relationships to neuropsychological function performance. A sample of 124 students was recruited. All of the participants received the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) and completed a comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests. They reported a relatively high base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms. The most frequently endorsed items were "fatigue" (76.9%), "longer time to think" (60.3%), "poor concentration" (58.7%), "sleep disturbance" (50.4%), and "frustration" (46.3%). There were no significant differences between low symptom reporters and high symptom reporters, except for self-reported dysexecutive problems. A comparison of the healthy high symptom reporters and a convenient sample of traumatic brain injury patients revealed that the patients performed significantly worse on neuropsychological functions than the high symptom reporters, despite non-significant differences between symptom endorsement. Our findings demonstrate that: (a) the base rate of postconcussion-like symptoms in a group of healthy university students is relatively high and (b) postconcussion symptom (PCS) is not related to neuropsychological functions in normal people. PMID:16765018

  7. Is Insomnia Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning? Evidence from a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M.; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. Design and Participants: We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Results: A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Conclusions: Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among

  8. Change in Neuropsychological Functioning over One Year in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; McFarlane, William R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Verdi, Mary B.; Cook, William L.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are associated with significant neuropsychological (NP) impairments. Yet the onset and developmental evolution of these impairments remains incompletely characterized. This study examined NP functioning over one year in a sample of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis participating in a treatment study. We assessed functioning across six cognitive domains at two time points in a sample of 53 CHR and 32 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Linear regression of HC one-year scores was used to predict one-year performance for CHR from baseline scores and relevant demographic variables. We used raw scores and MANOVAs of the standardized residuals to test for progressive impairment over time. NP functioning of CHR at one year fell significantly below predicted levels. Effects were largest and most consistent for a failure of normative improvement on tests of executive function. CHR who reached the highest positive symptom rating (6, severe and psychotic) on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes after the baseline assessment (n = 10/53) demonstrated a particularly large (d= −1.89), although non-significant, discrepancy between observed and predicted one-year verbal memory test performance. Findings suggest that, although much of the cognitive impairment associated with psychosis is present prior to the full expression of the psychotic syndrome, some progressive NP impairments may accompany risk for psychosis and be greatest for those who develop psychotic level symptoms. PMID:23434505

  9. Neuropsychology of domestic violence: a comparative preliminary study of executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Becerra-García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In neuropsychological studies of executive functioning in domestic violence offenders, the different investigations conducted have only studied differences within this group or in relation to control groups of non-offenders. To minimize the limitations in relation to comparison groups, the purpose of this study was to compare executive functioning in domestic violence offenders in relation to different groups of offenders (i.e. sexual, violent and non-violent) and a control group of non-offenders, with all groups matched on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Executive functioning was tested of all participants with the Trail Making Test (direct and derived scores). Compared with the control group, the domestic violence offenders and sex offenders exhibited the poorest performance on the Trail Making Test part B (time) and on the B-A derived index; whereas, the violent offenders group (i.e. convicted of assault, wounding, homicide etc.) showed a high number of errors in part B. These findings suggest that domestic violence offenders exhibit similar performance on the TMT as sex offenders, where both have poorer cognitive flexibility and executive control. Other violent offenders exhibited different patterns of difficulty on this test (e.g. more impulsivity responses). Executive functioning may be a central psychological process that could help explain the interrelations between domestic and sexual aggression, and could be a relevant construct for common treatment of domestic batterers and sex offenders. PMID:24644222

  10. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, at follow-up (M age = 14.2 years). ADHD-Inattentive vs. ADHD-Combined contrasts were nonsignificant and of negligible effect size, even when a refined, “sluggish cognitive tempo” subgroup of the Inattentive type was examined. Although ADHD vs. comparison differences largely withstood statistical control of baseline demographics and comorbidities, control of childhood IQ reduced EF differences to nonsignificance. Yet when the subset of girls meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence were compared to the remainder of the participants, neuropsychological deficits emerged even with full statistical control. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological and executive deficits that persist for at least 5 years. PMID:17402826

  12. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kitty K; Anderson, Vicki; Castiello, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates multiple aspects of executive functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These areas include attentional components, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. The rationale of the study is based on neurophysiological studies that suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ADHD. As frontal lobe functioning is related to abilities in executive control, ADHD is hypothesised to be associated with deficits in various areas of executive functioning. The specific effect of comorbidity of learning disability (LD) was also investigated. Eighty-three children with ADHD and 29 age-matched controls (age 7-13) participated in the study. A battery of neuropsychological tests was utilized to evaluate specific deficits in speed of processing, selective attention, switching attention, sustained attention, attentional capacity, impulsiveness, planning and problem solving. Findings indicated that children with ADHD have slower verbal responses and sustained attention deficit. Deficits in selective attention and attentional capacity observed were largely related to the presence of LD. No specific deficit associated with ADHD or the comorbidity of LD was identified in switching attention, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. These results revealed that ADHD is not associated with a general deficit in executive functioning. Instead, ADHD is related to a specific deficit in regulation for attentional resources. The importance of isolating the deficit related to LDs for examining the specific deficit associated with ADHD is highlighted. Results also emphasised the importance of isolating the effect of lower level of abilities (e.g., speed of processing) and the utilization of specific definition for the examination of executive functions. PMID:12537336

  13. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Lisa H.; Harp, Jordan P.; Han, Dong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored. PMID:24516855

  14. Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sarah Jane Mackenzie; Brewin, Chris Ray; Curran, Helen Valerie; Furlong, Clement Eugene; Abraham-Smith, Kelly Michelle; Harrison, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs than others. Performance on tests of cognition and mood of 127 exposed sheep farmers (67 working, 60 retired) was compared with 78 unexposed controls (38 working, 40 retired) and published test norms derived from a cross section of several thousand adults in the general population. Over 40% of the exposed cohort reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression compared to less than 23% of controls. Exposed subjects performed significantly worse than controls and standardisation samples on tests of memory, response speed, fine motor control, mental flexibility and strategy making, even after controlling for the effects of mood. The pattern was similar for both working and retired groups. The cognitive deficits identified cannot be attributed to mood disorder, malingering, a history of acute exposure or genetic vulnerability in terms of PON1192 polymorphisms. Results suggest a relationship may exist between low level exposure to organophosphates and impaired neurobehavioural functioning and these findings have implications for working practice and for other occupational groups exposed to OPs such as aviation workers and Gulf War veterans. PMID:20227490

  15. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  16. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrene C.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive batteries for neuropsychological assessment of children with learning problems,such as the Reitan-Indiana and Luria-Nebraska Children's Batteries, have demonstrated diagnostic validity. Guidelines are proposed for the neuropsychological interpretation of assessment instruments commonly used by school psychologists and educational…

  18. Monitoring cognitive function and need with the automated neuropsychological assessment metrics in Decompression Sickness (DCS) research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Sammuel G.

    1993-01-01

    Hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) research presents the medical monitor with the difficult task of assessing the onset and progression of DCS largely on the basis of subjective symptoms. Even with the introduction of precordial Doppler ultrasound techniques for the detection of venous gas emboli (VGE), correct prediction of DCS can be made only about 65 percent of the time according to data from the Armstrong Laboratory's (AL's) hypobaric DCS database. An AL research protocol concerned with exercise and its effects on denitrogenation efficiency includes implementation of a performance assessment test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning during a 4-h simulated 30,000 ft (9144 m) exposure. Information gained from such a test battery may assist the medical monitor in identifying early signs of DCS and subtle neurologic dysfunction related to cases of asymptomatic, but advanced, DCS. This presentation concerns the selection and integration of a test battery and the timely graphic display of subject test results for the principal investigator and medical monitor. A subset of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) developed through the Office of Military Performance Assessment Technology (OMPAT) was selected. The ANAM software provides a library of simple tests designed for precise measurement of processing efficiency in a variety of cognitive domains. For our application and time constraints, two tests requiring high levels of cognitive processing and memory were chosen along with one test requiring fine psychomotor performance. Accuracy, speed, and processing throughout variables as well as RMS error were collected. An automated mood survey provided 'state' information on six scales including anger, happiness, fear, depression, activity, and fatigue. An integrated and interactive LOTUS 1-2-3 macro was developed to import and display past and present task performance and mood-change information.

  19. Neuropsychological picture of 33 spinocerebellar ataxia cases.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Laura; D'Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Franco, Alessandra; Caglio, Marcella Maria; Avidano, Federica; Manzone, Cristina; Mortara, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    We administered a large battery of neuropsychological tests to an heterogeneous cohort of genetically defined spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients in order to assess their cognitive profile and to compare cognitive impairment among different SCA genotypes, particularly between SCA with the classical pattern of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (SCA1 and SCA2) and those with a relatively "pure" olivo-cerebellar atrophy (SCA6 and SCA8). Our data revealed a neuropsychological picture characterized by fronto-parietal involvement with mnestic, linguistic, visuospatial, attentional, executive, and mood changes, in agreement with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome definition. We found a homogeneous neuropsychological profile among SCA subgroups with a prominent role of frontal dysfunction--particularly, attention, memory, and executive functions. We analyzed the possible interactions between neuropsychological pattern and clinical, demographical, and genetic variables. We found the presence of a cognitive impairment at the early stages of the disease, without visuospatial alterations, which appeared later. Age and education represented the most important demographic factors to predict the neuropsychological performance in SCA and in controls, but their effect in patients had definitely more impact. In our sample education could represent a protective factor and a marker of an enriched environment or a better developmental cognitive differentiation. We demonstrated that in our patients there was a distinct subgroup of high functional subjects and that triplet repeats modulated the effect of aging on cognition and progression of motor disability. PMID:21302172

  20. The Relationship of Neuropsychological Skills and Functional Outcome in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    Typically, neuropsychological assessment has been used to predict various diagnostic parameters. In the elderly, referrals are often made to psychologists for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis of psychiatric or organic conditions, such as depression or Alzheimer's disease. However, psychologists are routinely requested to make recommendations…

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  2. Neuropsychological functioning is compromised in binge drinking young adults with depression.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; De Regt, Tamara; Lagopoulos, Jim; Naismith, Sharon L; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-11-30

    For many young people, binge drinking is the most common form of alcohol misuse, particularly in those with a depressive disorder. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the effects that the combination of depression and binge drinking has on neuropsychological outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether binge drinkers with depression show more pronounced neuropsychological dysfunction compared to their peers with depression alone or binge drinking alone. Neuropsychological testing was conducted on help-seeking young people (18-30 years) recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder and classified as either 'binge drinkers' (n=43) or 'non-bingers' (n=48). Two healthy control groups (i.e. binge drinkers, n=24 and non-bingers, n=21) were additionally recruited and also underwent the same testing. Qualitatively, binge-drinking patients with depression performed consistently below controls, depression alone, or binge drinking alone. In keeping with our hypotheses, visual learning and memory was significantly reduced in depressed binge drinkers, whereas mental flexibility was reduced at a trend level. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological performance in depressed alone or binge drinking alone individuals compared to controls. The findings suggest that when treating young people with a depressive disorder, strategies targeting binge drinking may contribute to preventing potential neurobiological changes underlying poorer long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:23721946

  3. Neuropsychological, Academic, and Adaptive Functioning in Children Who Survive In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robin D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 25 children, ages 2-15, who survived a cardiac arrest while hospitalized, found that a majority of subjects exhibited low-average to deficient levels of performance on neuropsychologic, achievement, and adaptive behavior measures. Duration of cardiac arrest and a medical risk score were significantly correlated with decreased…

  4. Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

  5. The COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease (COgnitive-PD) study: protocol of a longitudinal observational comparative study on neuropsychological functioning of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD

  6. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  7. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  8. Protective Effects of Higher Cognitive Reserve for Neuropsychological and Daily Functioning Among Individuals Infected with Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Woods, Steven Paul; Kolessar, Michael; Kriz, Daniel; Anderson, J. Renee; Olavarria, Hannah; Sasaki, Anna W.; Chang, Michael; Flora, Kenneth D.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) can be protective against the neuropsychological manifestation of neural injury across a variety of clinical disorders. However, the role of CR in the expression of neurocognitive deficits among persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not well understood. Thirty-nine HCV-infected participants were classified as having either high (n=19) or low (n=20) CR based on educational attainment, oral word reading, and IQ scores. A sample of 40 demographically comparable healthy adults (HA) was also included. All participants completed the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Linear regression analyses, controlling for gender, depression and lifetime substance use disorders, found significant effects of HCV/CR group on verbal fluency, executive functions, and daily functioning T-scores, but not in learning or the BRIEF-A. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the HCV group with low CR performed significantly below the HCV high CR and HA cohorts, who did not differ from one another. Findings indicate that higher levels of CR may be a protective factor in the neurocognitive and real-world manifestation of neural injury commonly associated with HCV infection. PMID:24018902

  9. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills. PMID:26601407

  10. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    PubMed Central

    Oades, Robert D; Röpcke, Bernd; Henning, Uwe; Klimke, Ansgard

    2005-01-01

    Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance). However, profiles (as presented here) of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dys)functions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function) were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching) in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased HVA/5-HIAA ratios

  11. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  12. [The Value of Neuropsychological Legal Evaluations].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, C W

    2016-07-01

    In the context of neurological assessment, neuropsychological deficits, in particular of attention and memory functions, usually require additional neuropsychological evaluation. Clinical neuropsychology also has at its disposal an inventory of validated and standardized tests for assessing symptom validity. Procedure, test selection, quality criteria and limitations of neuropsychological expert medical evaluations are presented. Independent expert evaluations should be conducted by a qualified clinical neuropsychologist. PMID:27472001

  13. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time. PMID:25171131

  14. School Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we observed mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task requires not only working memory, but also attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously. PMID:27148110

  16. Associations among treatment-related neurological risk factors and neuropsychological functioning in survivors of childhood brain tumor.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Mark D; Rane, Shruti; Daly, Brian P; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Adverse neurological side effects associated with childhood brain tumors and their treatments contribute to long-term neurocognitive morbidity. Measures designed to quantify tumor-related risk factors are lacking. The neurological predictor scale (NPS) is designed to assess treatment-related neurological risks. Preliminary validation established associations between the NPS and global cognitive functioning in this population, though its associations with specific neurobehavioral domains has yet to be addressed. Participants referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment completed performance-based measures of intellectual, attentional, working memory, motor speed, and executive abilities. Caregivers completed ratings of adaptive functioning. Neuropsychological and adaptive data were available for 100 brain tumor survivors (51 % female), ages 6 to 22 years (M = 12.83, SD = 4.37). Total NPS scores were generated via retrospective medical record review. Total NPS scores were significantly associated with several neurocognitive composite scores including verbal reasoning and working memory, after controlling for years post-diagnosis (ps < .05). NPS scores also were significantly associated with performance-based measures of attention, executive functioning, and cognitive efficiency (ps < .05). No significant relationship was demonstrated between NPS scores and caregiver-reported adaptive behavior skills (ps > .05). Results indicate that the NPS is associated with performance-based neurocognitive functioning and executive skills but not with functioning in specific caregiver-reported adaptive behavior domains. The NPS offers some value as a resource for understanding associations between treatment-related neurological risks and select aspects of neurocognitive morbidity. Future studies should examine whether the NPS can aid in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention as survivors progress into early adulthood. PMID:26725098

  17. Relation of infant motor development with nonverbal intelligence, language comprehension and neuropsychological functioning in childhood: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Serdarevic, Fadila; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Mous, Sabine E; White, Tonya; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-09-01

    Within a population-based study of 3356 children, we investigated whether infant neuromotor development was associated with cognition in early childhood. Neuromotor development was examined with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between 9 and 20 weeks. Parents rated their children's executive functioning at 4 years. At age 6 years, children performed intelligence and language comprehension tests, using Dutch test batteries. At age 6-9 years, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 486 children using the validated NEPSY-II-NL test battery. We showed that less optimal neurodevelopment in infancy may predict poor mental rotation, immediate memory, shifting, and planning; but not nonverbal intelligence or language comprehension. PMID:26549804

  18. Neuropsychological sequelae of bacterial and viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Heimann, B; Djukic, M; Mazurek, C; Fels, C; Wallesch, C-W; Nau, R

    2006-02-01

    Survivors of meningitis often complain about neurological and neuropsychological consequences. In this study, the extent of these sequelae was quantified and correlated to MRI findings. Neurological, neuropsychological and neuroradiological examinations were performed with adult patients younger than 70 years, 1-12 years after recovery from bacterial meningitis (BM; n = 59), or from viral meningitis (VM; n = 59). Patients with other potential causes for neuropsychological deficits (e.g. alcoholism) were carefully excluded. Patients were compared to 30 healthy subjects adjusted for age, gender and length of school education. With the exception of attention functions, both patient groups showed more frequently pathological results than the control group for all domains examined. Applying an overall cognitive sum score, patients after BM did not differ significantly in their performance from patients after VM. Separate analyses of various cognitive domains, however, revealed a higher rate of persistent disturbances in short-term and working memory after BM than after VM. Moreover, patients after BM exhibited greater impairment of executive functions. Associative learning of verbal material was also reduced. These deficits could not be ascribed to impaired alertness functions or decreased motivation in BM patients. Applying a logistic regression model, the neuropsychological outcome was related to the neurological outcome. Patients with a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of <5 had more frequently impaired test results for non-verbal learning and memory. GOS was also correlated with performance in executive functions. Brain volume was lower and ventricular volume was higher in the bacterial than in the VM group, and cerebral volume and the amount of white matter lesions of patients after BM were negatively correlated with short-term and working memory. In conclusion, patients after both BM and VM with favourable outcome showed affected learning and memory functions. More

  19. Neuropsychological and functional outcomes in recent-onset major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R S C; Hermens, D F; Naismith, S L; Lagopoulos, J; Jones, A; Scott, J; Chitty, K M; White, D; Robillard, R; Scott, E M; Hickie, I B

    2015-01-01

    Functional disability is the lead contributor to burden of mental illness. Cognitive deficits frequently limit functional recovery, although whether changes in cognition and disability are longitudinally associated in recent-onset individuals remains unclear. Using a prospective, cohort design, 311 patients were recruited and assessed at baseline. One hundred and sixty-seven patients met eligibility criteria (M=21.5 years old, s.d.=4.8) and returned for follow-up (M=20.6 months later, s.d.=7.8). Two-hundred and thirty participants were included in the final analysis, comprising clinically stable patients with major depression (n=71), bipolar disorder (BD; n=61), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=35) and 63 healthy controls. Neuropsychological functioning and self-rated functional disability were examined using mixed-design, repeated-measures analysis, across diagnoses and cognitive clusters, covarying for relevant confounds. Clinical, neuropsychological and functional changes did not differ between diagnoses (all P>0.05). Three reliable neuropsychological subgroups emerged through cluster analysis, characterized by psychomotor slowing, improved sustained attention, and improved verbal memory. Controlling for diagnosis and changes in residual symptoms, clusters with improved neuropsychological functioning observed greater reductions in functional disability than the psychomotor slowing cluster, which instead demonstrated a worsening in disability (P<0.01). Improved sustained attention was independently associated with greater likelihood of follow-up employment (P<0.01). Diagnosis of BD uniquely predicted both follow-up employment and independent living. Neuropsychological course appears to be independently predictive of subjective and objective functional outcomes. Importantly, cognitive phenotypes may reflect distinct pathophysiologies shared across major psychiatric conditions, and be ideal targets for personalized early intervention. PMID:25918992

  20. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  1. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and ‘weak’ central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning of Siblings of Children with Autism, Siblings of Children with Developmental Language Delay, and Siblings of Children with Mental Retardation of Unknown Genetic Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning of 30 siblings of children with autism (AU-S), 28 siblings of children with mental retardation of (MR-S), and 30 siblings of children with developmental language delay (DLD-S) was compared. Two siblings, both AU-S, received diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). More siblings with cognitive disabilities…

  3. Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Carte, E T; Nigg, J T; Hinshaw, S P

    1996-08-01

    We administered a neuropsychological battery to boys aged 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51) and to comparison boys of the same age range (n = 31). Boys with ADHD had greater difficulty than comparison youngsters on nonautomated language and motor tasks administered with a fast instructional set and on one of two traditional frontal executive measures (Porteus mazes). When tasks requiring automatic processing were paired with similar tasks requiring greater use of selective attention processes, the latter, controlled processing tasks differentiated groups better than did automated tasks. This differential effect of otherwise similar tasks is interpreted in terms of an output deficit mediated by response organization as detailed in the information processing literature. The ADHD group also exhibited slow gross motor output, measured independently of verbal output. The findings are evaluated in terms of both Luria's (1973) tripartite model of neurocognitive organization and frontal striatal models, with an emphasis on output processes. The observed language deficits could represent frontal lobe processes intricately related to self-monitoring and planning. The utility of controlled processing, self-paced tasks with fast instructional sets in assessing language and motor skills in ADHD is highlighted. PMID:8886944

  4. Neurological, neuropsychological, and functional outcome following treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Towgood, Karren; Ogden, Jenni A; Mee, Edward

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a detailed investigation of the neurological, neuropsychological, and return-to-work status of treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). A prospective design was used to evaluate the outcome of UIA treatment in a group of 26 UIA patients. Over a 24-month period UIA patients were assessed prior to treatment, during hospitalization, at three months and at six months following treatment. Their performance was compared to a group of 20 matched controls. Neurological morbidity as a result of the UIA treatment was 5%, as assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) or Rankin at 3 months. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) proved to be unreliable as a measure of cognitive change. Reliability of change analysis was more sensitive than group analysis, and revealed a pattern of cognitive deficits in 10% of patients as a result of the UIA treatment. In addition, 25% of patients reported a change in work role as a result of the UIA treatment. While 10% of patients sustained mild to moderate neurological and cognitive impairments 3 to 6 months following UIA treatment, their deficits were not as wide-ranging nor as severe as those sustained by patients who survive a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PMID:16212679

  5. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Marie N; Barnes, Sunni A; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1-5 of the California Verbal Learning Test-II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  6. Cognitive complaints and neuropsychological functioning in adults with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder referred for multidisciplinary assessment.

    PubMed

    In de Braek, Dymphie; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-04-01

    The present study aims to gain insight into the clinical presentation (viz., self-reported complaints and neuropsychological functioning) of adults referred for an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. The investigation evaluated group differences between an ADHD and a non-ADHD sample (n = 30 and n = 42, respectively), all of which had been clinically referred for multidisciplinary assessment of ADHD. Forty-two percent of all referred patients were diagnosed with adult ADHD. Adults with ADHD made significantly more errors on a verbal learning task than the non-ADHD control group, which could indicate an impairment of the self-monitoring function in adult ADHD. The ADHD group reported more problems than the control group in the domains of executive functioning but not in the domains of attention and hyperactivity. More attention should be paid to executive complaints and functioning (present and past) when referring adults suspected of ADHD for multidisciplinary assessment. Also, characteristics that are thought to be striking symptoms of adult ADHD, such as problems with concentration and hyperactive behavior, are in fact not distinctive symptoms of ADHD at all. PMID:21660764

  7. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sunni A.; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1–5 of the California Verbal Learning Test–II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  8. [Neuropsychological testing in medicolegal cases].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Because the assessment of cognitive function is among the most important diagnostic evaluations in medicolegal cases, neuropsychological testing, the optimal scientific method available to determine the manifestation of brain dysfunction, is a potentially very strong tool in those cases. However, the use of neuropsychological testing in a medicolegal setting should be done with caution. Firstly, the nature of any neuropsychological testing is complex, and cannot be simplified as "Test A measures Function A' ". Oversimplified explanation of a test is misleading, resulting in serious misjudgment in the legal procedure. Secondly, the result of the test shows someone's cognitive function at the time of the test, not the time of the act in question (i. e., a crime). Finally and most importantly, the cognitive function measured by neuropsychological testing does not directly correspond to the legal questions being asked, even when the terms used in the fields of law and neuroscience are similar. In determining whether an individual meets a specified legal standard (e. g., criminal responsibility), the results of neuropsychological testing are far from sufficient and substantial additional information is required. With these caveats in mind, an expert witness should carefully choose the neuropsychological testing battery in each case, which may greatly help to understand the individual's mental state at the time of the act in question. PMID:24341071

  9. Long-term low-level arsenic exposure is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning: a Project FRONTIER study.

    PubMed

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Edwards, Melissa; Menon, Chloe V; Gong, Gordon; Barber, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to elements in groundwater (toxic or beneficial) is commonplace yet, outside of lead and mercury, little research has examined the impact of many commonly occurring environmental exposures on mental abilities during the aging process. Inorganic arsenic is a known neurotoxin that has both neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between current and long-term arsenic exposure and detailed neuropsychological functioning in a sample of rural-dwelling adults and elders. Data were analyzed from 434 participants (133 men and 301 women) of Project FRONTIER, a community-based participatory research study of the epidemiology of health issues of rural-dwelling adults and elders. The results of the study showed that GIS-based groundwater arsenic exposure (current and long-term) was significantly related to poorer scores in language, visuospatial skills, and executive functioning. Additionally, long-term low-level exposure to arsenic was significantly correlated to poorer scores in global cognition, processing speed and immediate memory. The finding of a correlation between arsenic and the domains of executive functioning and memory is of critical importance as these are cognitive domains that reflect the earliest manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. Additional work is warranted given the population health implications associated with long-term low-level arsenic exposure. PMID:21556183

  10. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  11. Impact of gender and age on executive functioning: do girls and boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder differ neuropsychologically in preteen and teenage years?

    PubMed

    Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years. PMID:15737943

  12. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore‐processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn‐air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn‐air ranged from 0.11–0.46 mg/m3 (55% >0.20 mg/m3). MnB >10 µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p⩽0.05), executive function (p⩽0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p⩽0.04), verbal learning (p

  13. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:26282228

  14. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  15. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  16. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  17. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning of New Zealand Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have studies included a female Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sample when investigating neurocognitive functioning of individuals with ADHD. As such, the generalisability of findings of impaired executive functioning is limited to ADHD males. This study compared four groups aged 13-17 years: 30 male controls, 35…

  18. [Neuropsychological exploration in frontotemporal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, J; Böhm, P

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses the neuropsychological assessment in fronto-temporal lobe degeneration. Having established the neuroanatomical and functional basis for the discussion the major syndromes included in the concept of frontotemporal degeneration are reviewed from a neuropsychological standpoint. With reference to fronto-temporal dementia the different frontal or executive function tests and their limitations are discussed. With reference to progressive aphasia and semantic dementia we differentiate the distinct language profiles as observed in aphasia batteries and general neuropsychological tests. Reference is made to especially useful tests for the differentiation of the two syndromes from each other, as well as from other primary progressive disorders. Concluding remarks postulate a series of axis of cognitive function in fronto-temporal lobe degenerations, which exist at the functional as well as the anatomical level and along which the different syndromes evolve. PMID:10723171

  19. A Neuropsychological Study of Personality: Trait Openness in Relation to Intelligence, Fluency, and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schretlen, David J.; van der Hulst, Egberdina J.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Gordon, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Openness is a personality trait that has been linked to intelligence and divergent thinking. DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2005) theorized that trait Openness depends on dopamine function, especially in the prefrontal cortex. We tested their theory in 335 healthy adults by hypothesizing that individual differences in Openness would correlate more strongly with performance on tests of executive function than on tests of intelligence and fluency. However, Openness correlated more strongly with verbal/crystallized intelligence (Gc; r=0.44) than with executive functioning (r=0.16) and fluency (r=0.24). Further, the partial correlation between Openness and Gc increased from r=0.26 among young adults to r=0.53 among elderly adults. These findings suggest that Openness is more closely associated with the acquisition of broad verbal intellectual skills and knowledge than with executive abilities localized to a specific brain region or neurotransmitter system. PMID:20408002

  20. Neuropsychological consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on different components of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Serrano, María José; Pérez-García, Miguel; Schmidt Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have shown alterations in different components of executive functioning in users of different drugs, including cannabis, cocaine and heroin. However, it is difficult to establish a specific association between the use of each of these drugs and executive alterations, since most drug abusers are polysubstance abusers, and alcohol is a ubiquitous confounding factor. Moreover, in order to study the association between consumption of different drugs and executive functioning, the patterns of quantity and duration of drugs used must be considered, given the association between these parameters and the executive functioning alteration degree. Based on the multicomponent approach to executive functions, the aims of the present study were: (i) to analyse the differential contribution of alcohol versus cocaine, heroin and cannabis use on executive functions performance; and (ii) to analyse the contribution made by the severity of the different drugs used (quantity and duration patterns) on these functions in a sample of polysubstance abusers that requested treatment for cannabis-, cocaine- or heroin-related problems. We administered measures of fluency, working memory, analogical reasoning, interference, cognitive flexibility, decision-making and self-regulation to two groups: 60 substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) and 30 healthy control individuals (HCIs). SDIs had significantly poorer performance than HCIs across all of the executive domains assessed. Results from hierarchical regression models showed the existence of common correlates of the use of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine on verbal fluency and decision-making; common correlates of quantity of cannabis and cocaine use on verbal working memory and analogical reasoning; common correlates of duration of cocaine and heroin use on shifting; and specific effects of duration of cocaine use on inhibition measures. These findings indicate that alcohol abuse is negatively associated with fluency and

  1. The remediation of executive functions in children with cognitive disorders: the Vygotsky-Luria neuropsychological approach.

    PubMed

    Akhutina, T V

    1997-04-01

    The demands of methods of effective remediation arising from the Vygotsky-Luria approach to the structure and development of higher mental functions are discussed. These demands suggest the structuring of a therapeutic interaction in accordance with the rules of the internalization process, taking into account a weak component of the child's functional systems and the emotional involvement of a child in that interaction. In order to provide a theoretical framework for developing methods of executive function remediation, the approaches of Vygotsky and Luria, as well as modern views on the structure and development of executive functions, are discussed. The Method of Numerical Sequence is presented as an example of the application of the general principles discussed above. The Method of Numerical Sequence provides a background for following the development of successive processing, programming and planning, and can be considered as a complement to the development of the metacognitive aspects of self-regulation. This method was verified experimentally in groups of 5-8-year-old children with intellectual disability. PMID:9161926

  2. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: A repeated-measures clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. The goal of this study was to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychologica...

  3. Impaired Executive Functions in Subjects with Frequent Nightmares as Reflected by Performance in Different Neuropsychological Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simor, Peter; Pajkossy, Peter; Horvath, Klara; Bodizs, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic…

  4. Neuropsychologic function in children with brain tumors. III. Interval changes in the six months following treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhern, R.K.; Kun, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six children with primary brain tumors were studied prospectively with regard to their sensorimotor, intellectual, academic, and emotional status. Serial evaluations were conducted after surgery (pre-irradiation) and six months after the completion of radiation therapy. The timing of the second evaluation was chosen so as to antedate the late effects of irradiation. Children over 6 years old displayed significant improvement of intellectual function over time, with only 11% exhibiting deterioration on one or more cognitive parameters. In contrast, 68% of younger children clinically deteriorated in one or more areas of intellectual functioning, with prominent difficulties in memory and selective attention for age. Children under 6 years old with supratentorial tumors were less likely than those with posterior fossa tumors to improve their cognitive performance. At the second evaluation, 23% of the patients were functioning below normal (IQ less than 80) intellectually, with 50% of the younger children and 11% of the older children receiving special educational assistance. Approximately 40-50% of the patients manifested emotional adjustment problems at each evaluation. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical need to follow similar patient populations with formal psychological assessments over time, and in terms of the difficulties involved in defining factors that determine the functional status of children surviving brain tumors.

  5. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Savitz, David A.; Bellinger, David C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In animal studies, perfluorinated compounds affect fetal growth, development, viability, and postnatal growth. The limited epidemiologic findings on child neurobehavioral development are mixed. METHODS We recruited and evaluated 320 children who participated in the C8 Health Project, a 2005–2006 survey in a mid-Ohio-Valley community highly exposed to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) through contaminated drinking water. We examined associations between estimated in utero PFOA exposure, measured childhood PFOA serum concentration, and subsequent performance on neuropsychological tests 3–4 years later at ages 6–12 years. We assessed IQ reading and math skills, language, memory and learning, visual-spatial processing, and attention. All multivariable linear-regression models were adjusted for age, sex, home environment, test examiner, and maternal IQ. Models with measured childhood PFOA were additionally adjusted for child body mass index. RESULTS Children in the highest as compared to lowest quartile of estimated in utero PFOA had increases in full scale IQ (β 4.6, 95% CI 0.7, 8.5) and decreases in characteristics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by the Clinical Confidence Index of Connors' Continuous Performance Test-II (β −8.5, 95% CI −16.1, −0.8). There were negligible associations between PFOA and reading or math skills or neuropsychological functioning. CONCLUSION These results do not suggest an adverse association between the levels of PFOA exposure experienced by children in this cohort and their performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:23680941

  6. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  7. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  8. Memory in myasthenia gravis: neuropsychological tests of central cholinergic function before and after effective immunologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Glennerster, A; Palace, J; Warburton, D; Oxbury, S; Newsom-Davis, J

    1996-04-01

    There are reports of central cholinergic deficits in myasthenia gravis (MG) describing impaired performance on a variety of tests of memory with varying benefits from plasmapheresis. We tested 11 patients with symptomatic MG at the start of a trial of immunosuppressive treatment (prednisolone plus azathioprine or placebo) and again when in remission. The tests included the Logical Memory and Design Reproduction parts of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Peterson-Peterson task, and an auditory vigilance task. Muscle strength improved significantly over the period of treatment, but overall performance on tests of memory or attention did not. These results fail to substantiate reports of functionally significant and reversible central deficits in myasthenia gravis. PMID:8780106

  9. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  10. Impaired executive functions in subjects with frequent nightmares as reflected by performance in different neuropsychological tasks.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Pajkossy, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2012-04-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning in subjects with frequent nightmares would be reflected at the behavioral level during waking tasks as well. 35-35 Subjects with frequent nightmares and matched controls participated in Study 1, involving an Emotional Go/NoGo, an Emotional Stroop task, and a Verbal Fluency task. Nightmare subjects exhibited longer reaction times in the Emotional Go/NoGo and Emotional Stroop tasks. Moreover, they committed more perseveration errors and showed less fluent word generation in the Verbal Fluency task. Nightmare subjects showed an overall slowing irrespective of the valence of the stimuli. While the effects of sleep quality and waking anxiety were associated to these deficits in some cases, these factors could not solely explain the difference between the two groups. In Study 2, 17 subjects with frequent nightmares and 18 controls were compared by a Color-word and an Emotional, block design Stroop task in order to avoid the slow effects of emotional interference potentially caused by previous items. Nightmare subjects were characterized by an overall slowing in the Emotional Stroop task, irrespective of the valence of the stimuli. In the Color-word Stroop task, nightmare subjects were not significantly slower in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that individuals with frequent nightmares are impaired in executive tasks involving the suppression of task-irrelevant semantic representations. PMID:22305923

  11. Borderline personality disorder and neuropsychological measures of executive function: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    McClure, Georgia; Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R

    2016-02-01

    The notion that neurocognitive deficits may be core to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received considerable attention in recent years, with growing evidence pointing to cognitive deficits in executive function (EF). A relationship between EF and BPD has long been suggested by evidence of high comorbidity between BPD and disorders characterized by poor EF (e.g. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder); however, despite a marked increase in studies of EF and BPD in recent years, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. We provide a systematic review of this emerging evidence base, with respect to (1) studies of participants diagnosed with BPD in which EF has been indexed in isolation from broader cognitive processes; (2) the specific domains of EF that have been most robustly associated with BPD; and (3) whether deficits in EF are uniquely associated with BPD, independent of comorbid psychopathology. Key directions for future research are discussed with respect to strategies for measuring EF and the need for research designs that control for phenotypic overlap between BPD and related forms of psychopathology. PMID:26381859

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of executive functions: A neuropsychological approach using the EXAMINER battery

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Heather; Calamia, Matthew; Gläscher, Jan; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) encompass a variety of higher-order capacities such as judgment, planning, decision-making, response monitoring, insight, and self-regulation. Measuring such abilities quantitatively and establishing their neural correlates has proven to be challenging. Here, using a lesion-deficit approach, we report the neural correlates of a variety of EF tests that were developed under the auspices of the NINDS-supported EXAMINER project (Kramer, 2011; www.examiner.ucsf.edu). We administered a diverse set of EF tasks that tap three general domains—cognitive, social/emotional, and insight—to 37 patients with focal lesions to the frontal lobes, and 25 patients with lesions outside the frontal lobes. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), we found that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was predominately associated with deficits in social/emotional aspects of EF, while damage to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate was predominately associated with deficits in cognitive aspects of EF. Evidence for an important role of some non-frontal regions (e.g., the temporal poles) in some aspects of EF was also found. The results provide further evidence for the neural basis of EF, and extend previous findings of the dissociation between the roles of the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal sectors in organizing, implementing, and monitoring goal-directed behavior. PMID:23759126

  13. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  14. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  15. Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddes, William H.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Neuropsychological classifications of brain function and behavior are discussed in order to help psychologists recognize those cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment.…

  16. Development of a Unidimensional Composite Measure of Neuropsychological Functioning in Older Cardiac Surgery Patients with Good Measurement Precision

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Richard N.; Rudolph, James L.; Inouye, Sharon K; Yang, Frances M.; Fong, Tamara G.; Milberg, William P.; Tommet, Douglas; Metzger, Eran D.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to develop a measure of neuropsychological performance for cardiac surgery and assess its psychometric properties. Older patients (n=210) underwent a neuropsychological battery using nine assessments. The number of factors was identified with variable reduction methods. Item response theory-based factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the measure. Modified parallel analysis supported a single factor, and the battery formed an internally consistent set (coefficient alpha=0.82). The developed measure provided a reliable, continuous measure (reliability >0.90) across a broad range of performance (−1.5 SD units to +1.0 SD units) with minimal ceiling and floor effects. PMID:20446144

  17. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  18. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  20. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  1. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. PMID:26708387

  3. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  4. Pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes: A review.

    PubMed

    Gerner, Gwendolyn; Baron, Ida Sue

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy complications elevate risk of associated adverse medical, socioenvironmental, and behavioral outcomes in children. These are likely to have a substantial impact on neuropsychological functioning and mental health across the child's lifespan. Thus, an understanding of the complex relationships between pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes is critical for both practitioners and researchers. This review summarizes prevalent pregnancy complications and the associated psychological and neuropsychological findings, highlighting methodological challenges that have restricted investigations of these outcomes and identifying opportune areas for future study. PMID:24801883

  5. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  6. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  7. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe. PMID:22903808

  8. Changing patterns of neuropsychological functioning in children living at high altitude above and below 4000 m: a report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) study.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M

    2011-09-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral autoregulation above this altitude (4000 m) suggests a potential threshold of hypoxia severity over which neuropsychological functioning may be compromised. We conducted physiological and neuropsychological assessments in 62 Bolivian children and adolescents living at La Paz (∼3700 m) and El Alto (∼4100 m) in order to address this issue. Groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender, social class, schooling, parental education and genetic admixture. Apart from percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen in arterial blood (%SpO(2)), participants did not differ in their basal cardiac and cerebrovascular performance as explored by heart rate, mean arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and cerebral blood flow velocity at the basilar, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was administered, including tests of executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor performance. Participants living at extreme altitude showed lower levels of performance in all executive tests (Cohen effect size = -0.91), whereas all other domains remained unaffected by altitude of residence. These results are compatible with earlier physiological evidence of a transitional zone for cerebral autoregulation at an altitude of 4000 m. We now show that above this threshold, the developing brain is apparently increasingly vulnerable to neuropsychological deficit. PMID:21884333

  9. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  10. Recognizing and identifying people: A neuropsychological review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g., face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favor a 'distributed-only' model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a 'person-hub' model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second question is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  11. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  12. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  13. [Vitamin D and neuropsychological assessment of cognitive functions: a study of their relationships in a sample of 244 patients attending a memory clinic].

    PubMed

    Vicente, Pavla; Herr, Marie; Mahieux, Florence; Ankri, Joël

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence of a role of vitamin D in cognitive functioning, but little is known about the type of functions involved. To describe vitamin D status in a population of old patients with memory complaints and its relationships with cognitive performance and white matter lesions. A retrospective single-centre observational study from the medical records of 244 patients who had a measurement of serum 25OHD together with a battery of neuropsychological tests during a complete geriatric and memory assessment in a day care hospital. The results of the 10 neuropsychological tests considered in this study were analysed as binary variables, opposing patients with results within the highest two tertiles to patients with the worse results or unable to perform the test. Mean age of people included was 80.2 ± 8.1 years and 64% of patients were women. Severe deficiency in vitamin D (25OHD <10 ng/mL) was found in 34 patients (13.9%) and moderate deficiency (10 ≤ 25OHD < 30 ng/mL) in 148 (60.7%). Compared to subjects with sufficient concentrations in vitamin D, patients with severe deficiency performed significantly worse on a global test, the Mini mental state examination, and two tests of verbal memory, the 5 words and the 16-item free and cued recall, independently from age, gender, education, body mass index and autonomy (OR = 2.85 [1.04-7.85], 4.31 [1.42-13.07], and 3.04 [1.01-9.19] respectively). Levels of vitamin D did not differ according to the extent of white matter lesions, visualized semi-quantitatively on magnetic resonance imaging of 115 subjects. This study confirms the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly population and suggests a link between vitamin D deficiency and memory. PMID:26707563

  14. Impact of the HIV Tat C30C31S dicysteine substitution on neuropsychological function in patients with clade C disease

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert H.; Joska, John A.; Woods, Carol; Seedat, Soraya; Engelbrecht, Susan; Hoare, Jacqueline; Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Ances, Beau; Baker, Laurie M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal studies have identified a C31S residue substitution in the C30C31 dicysteine motif of the Tat protein that is associated with reduced neurovirulence in clade C HIV. However, clinical studies of patients infected with clade C HIV have reported significant levels of cognitive impairment. To date no study has specifically examined cognitive function in clade C-infected patients as a function of the presence or absence of the Tat C31 substitution. The present study investigated the impact of the Tat C30C31S genetic substitution among individuals residing in South Africa infected with clade C HIV that either exhibited the C30C31 motif (n = 128) or the C31S motif (n = 46). A control group of seronegative individuals were included to examine the overall impact of HIV on cognitive performance. All individuals completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery consisting of tests sensitive to HIV. Results revealed that clade C-infected individuals performed significantly worse across cognitive tests compared to seronegative controls. However, there were no significant differences in cognitive performances between individuals with the C31S motif versus those without the C31S substitution. Proximal CD4 cell count and plasma viral load were unrelated to cognitive performances for either group. Results confirm that the C31S dicysteine motif substitution of the Tat protein does not appreciably moderate neuropsychological outcomes in clade C. Further, these findings highlight the importance of clinical management of cognitive symptoms among individuals infected with this viral clade worldwide. PMID:25366660

  15. A neuropsychological approach to intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A

    1999-09-01

    This paper proposes that current psychometric intelligence tests are limited in evaluating cognitive activity. From a neuropsychological perspective, they fail to measure some fundamental cognitive abilities such as executive functions, memory, and visuospatial abilities. The analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale presented shows that the original rationale for selecting the specific subtests included in the WAIS was unclear. The concept of a g factor in cognition is also analyzed, with the conclusion that the g factor continues to be controversial. The value of intelligence tests in predicting school performance is also criticized. It is proposed that the psychometric concept of general intelligence should be deleted from cognitive and neurological sciences. Finally, it is proposed that, in the future, neuropsychological instruments sensitive to more specific cognitive abilities replace current psychometric intelligence tests. PMID:10565673

  16. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  17. [Neuropsychology of normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Merten, T

    1999-06-01

    Although dementia is described as one of the constituent characteristics of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), alongside gait disturbances and urinary incontinence, there is a rather limited number of controlled studies concerning neuropsychological deficits in the disease. A wide range of psychopathologically relevant symptoms have been described, but the common features of most cases include mental and motor slowing, apathy, emotional indifference, anosognosia, memory and attentional impairment. A number of other functional deficits such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, acalculia, apraxia can also frequently be found. Some emphasis is put on the work of J. de Mol (Brussels) which appears to be most important for the study of neuropsychological symptoms in NPH patients. The methodological standard of a number of studies has been found to be rather low, and yet a sound neuropsychological investigation may be of utmost importance for the diagnosis and neurosurgical outcome assessment. Concerning morphological correlates of the functional deficits in NPH, various hypotheses have been formulated, but it is argued that symptoms can neither be described as predominantly "diffuse" in nature, nor can they be reduced to unilocular dysfunctions. Recommendations for future research strategies are formulated. PMID:10412693

  18. Merging clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging to evaluate the construct validity and neural network engagement of the n-back task.

    PubMed

    Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Fausett, Jennifer S; Gess, Jennifer L; Reno, Ashley; Peraza, Jennifer; Kilts, Clint D; James, G Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The n-back task is a widely used neuroimaging paradigm for studying the neural basis of working memory (WM); however, its neuropsychometric properties have received little empirical investigation. The present study merged clinical neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the construct validity of the letter variant of the n-back task (LNB) and to further identify the task-evoked networks involved in WM. Construct validity of the LNB task was investigated using a bootstrapping approach to correlate LNB task performance across clinically validated neuropsychological measures of WM to establish convergent validity, as well as measures of related but distinct cognitive constructs (i.e., attention and short-term memory) to establish discriminant validity. Independent component analysis (ICA) identified brain networks active during the LNB task in 34 healthy control participants, and general linear modeling determined task-relatedness of these networks. Bootstrap correlation analyses revealed moderate to high correlations among measures expected to converge with LNB (|ρ|≥ 0.37) and weak correlations among measures expected to discriminate (|ρ|≤ 0.29), controlling for age and education. ICA identified 35 independent networks, 17 of which demonstrated engagement significantly related to task condition, controlling for reaction time variability. Of these, the bilateral frontoparietal networks, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral superior parietal lobules including precuneus, and frontoinsular network were preferentially recruited by the 2-back condition compared to 0-back control condition, indicating WM involvement. These results support the use of the LNB as a measure of WM and confirm its use in probing the network-level neural correlates of WM processing. PMID:24963641

  19. Merging Clinical Neuropsychology and Functional Neuroimaging to Evaluate the Construct Validity and Neural Network Engagement of the n-Back Task

    PubMed Central

    Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E.; Fausett, Jennifer S.; Gess, Jennifer L.; Reno, Ashley; Peraza, Jennifer; Kilts, Clint D.; James, G. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The n-back task is a widely used neuroimaging paradigm for studying the neural basis of working memory (WM); however, its neuropsychometric properties have received little empirical investigation. The present study merged clinical neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the construct validity of the letter variant of the n-back task (LNB) and to further identify the task-evoked networks involved in WM. Construct validity of the LNB task was investigated using a bootstrapping approach to correlate LNB task performance across clinically validated neuropsychological measures of WM to establish convergent validity, as well as measures of related but distinct cognitive constructs (i.e., attention and short-term memory) to establish discriminant validity. Independent component analysis (ICA) identified brain networks active during the LNB task in 34 healthy control participants, and general linear modeling determined task-relatedness of these networks. Bootstrap correlation analyses revealed moderate to high correlations among measures expected to converge with LNB (|ρ| ≥0.37) and weak correlations among measures expected to discriminate (|ρ| ≤0.29), controlling for age and education. ICA identified 35 independent networks, 17 of which demonstrated engagement significantly related to task condition, controlling for reaction time variability. Of these, the bilateral frontoparietal networks, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral superior parietal lobules including precuneus, and frontoinsular network were preferentially recruited by the 2-back condition compared to 0-back control condition, indicating WM involvement. These results support the use of the LNB as a measure of WM and confirm its use in probing the network-level neural correlates of WM processing. PMID:24963641

  20. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology. PMID:20582855

  1. Prospective Memory in Substance Abusers at Treatment Entry: Associations with Education, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Everyday Memory Lapses

    PubMed Central

    Weinborn, Michael; Woods, Steven Paul; O'Toole, Stephanie; Kellogg, Emily J.; Moyle, Jonson

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly report lapses in prospective memory (PM) in their daily lives; however, our understanding of the profile and predictors of laboratory-based PM deficits in SUDs and their associations with everyday PM failures is still very preliminary. The current study examined these important questions using well-validated measures of self-report and laboratory-based PM in a mixed cohort of 53 SUD individuals at treatment entry and 44 healthy adults. Consistent with prior research, the SUD group endorsed significantly more self-cued and environmentally based PM failures in their daily lives. Moreover, the SUD group demonstrated significantly lower time-based PM performance, driven largely by cue detection errors. The effect of SUDs on PM was particularly strong among participants with fewer years of education. Within the SUD cohort, time-based PM was correlated with clinical measures assessing executive functions, retrospective memory, and psychomotor speed. Importantly, time-based PM was uniquely associated with elevated PM failures in daily lives of the SUD participants, independent of current affective distress and other neurocognitive deficits. Findings suggest that individuals with SUD are vulnerable to deficits in PM, which may in turn increase their risk for poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., treatment non-compliance). PMID:21903701

  2. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  3. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  4. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  5. Neuropsychological remediation of hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Rao, S L

    1997-10-01

    Hyperkinesis is associated with deficits of attention (poor allocation of attention resources, susceptibility to interference and perseveration); vigilance and perceptual sensitivity. Three boys aged 7-8 years with simple hyperkinesis were given cognitive tasks to improve the above functions in daily one hour sessions for a month. The children improved significantly in the above functions and behaviour. Three other children aged 5-8 years with simple hyperkinesis who were on medication improved only slightly in their behaviour during this period. Behavioural intervention and parental counselling were additional inputs to the children in both groups. Neuropsychological remediation combined with parental counselling and behavioural intervention shows promise in treating hyperactive children. PMID:21584098

  6. Neuropsychological Assessment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Adarsh; Rana, Devender Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychological deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been encouraged by brain imaging studies suggesting a putative fron to- striatial biological basis of the condition. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, motor speed and memory. The Aim of the present study was to assess neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD. Objectives of the study were to assess and compare the neuropsychological profile of patients with OCD and matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty clinically stable outpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD and equal number of normal controls matched for age, education, gender and handedness were studied using a battery of neuropsychological tests. The tests consisted of verbal and performance tests of intelligence, memory, perceptual motor functions, set test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results: On perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence and memory patients with OCD did not show impairments comparable to healthy controls. An attempt to correlate the test findings with the duration of illness, stability of illness and the average drug dose was made and it was found that there was no correlation between the two. Conclusion: The present study does not provide evidence for a localized neuropsychological/cognitive impairment in OCD in cases that are stable for at least three months. Absence of impairments in perceptual-motor functions, verbal fluency, executive functions (WCST), intelligence, and memory does not agree with the results of other studies using these tests. PMID:25969608

  7. Colour vision loss among disabled workers with neuropsychological impairment.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Bowler, R; Cone, J

    1990-01-01

    Test performance on a neurobehavioural battery was examined with respect to acquired colour vision loss among patients with a history of neurotoxin exposure. The study group included 14 men and 7 women with clinically diagnosed neuropsychological impairment (mean age: 41.3 +/- 8.1 years; mean educational level: 13.4 +/- 1.4 years). Verbal and visual ability, memory and psychomotor function were assessed with the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Colour vision was assessed with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated colour arrangement panel. Acquired dyschromatopsia was present in 17 patients (80.9%), 11 of whom manifested patterns of Type II colour vision loss. Simple regression analysis of neuropsychological test performance with respect to colour vision loss, using age-adjusted Z-scores, revealed significant relationships (p less than or equal to 0.05) solely for tests which rely heavily on the visual system. Significant differences in visual task test scores were also observed with the type of dyschromatopsia (Kruskal-Wallis, p less than or equal to 0.05). These findings suggest that poor performance on visual tasks and colour vision loss may both result from damage to neuro-ophthalmic pathways or that loss of integrity of the peripheral visual pathways may affect visual task performance. The authors propose that visual testing should be incorporated into neurobehavioural test batteries. PMID:2255314

  8. Neuropsychologic evaluation and exposure to neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Lezak, Muriel D

    2015-01-01

    The history of neuropsychologic assessment describes the development of a psychometric approach to neuropsychologic measurement, based on the initial clinical/theoretical approach exemplified by pioneers, who also discussed different brain functions and hypotheses for clinical exploration and treatment. Early neuropsychologic assessment practices in the USA arose out of the need to screen, diagnose, and treat World War II veterans who returned with brain injuries. Clinical testing was used to determine treatment and rehabilitation potential. Clinical psychologists had previously developed educational tests to investigate students' abilities and disabilities. Using population studies, primarily in the USA, Canada and Europe, neuropsychologists developed standardized test scores, permitting comparisons of scores based on the normal curve and evolving knowledge of brain/behavior relationships. In clinical interpretations, neuropsychologists use extensive normative data based on cognitive, mood, executive, neurologic, and motor brain functions of groups with different cultural and educational backgrounds and psychiatric illnesses. Large groups of workers can be screened with a brief neuropsychologic screening test battery to assess the psychologic status of personnel. Commonly used tests by domain are described, as well as patterns of acute and chronic neurotoxicant exposures, treatment, and rehabilitation. Future developments will relate imaging studies to neuropsychologic performance. PMID:26563781

  9. Toward a model of neuropsychological activity.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Galeano, L M; Rosselli, M

    1998-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to establish the intercorrelations existing among different psychological and neuropsychological test scores in a normal and homogeneous population. A second purpose was to attempt further step in the component analysis of cognitive activity measured by means of neuropsychological tests. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually administered to a 300-subject sample, aged 17-25 year-old. All of them were right-handed male university students. The battery included some basic neuropsychological tests directed to assess language, calculation abilities, spatial cognition, praxic abilities, memory, perceptual abilities, and executive functions. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered. Forty-one different scores were calculated. Correlations among the different test scores were analyzed. It was found that some of the tests presented a quite complex intecorrelation system, whereas other tests presented few or no significant correlations. Mathematical ability tests and orthography knowledge represented the best predictors of Full Scale IQ. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed five factors (verbal, visuoperceptual, executive function, fine movements, and memory) accounting for 63.6% of the total variance. Implications of these results for a neuropsychological model about brain organization of cognition were analyzed. PMID:9951709

  10. Play-Based Neuropsychological Assessment of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Standardized psychological assessment provides a precise yet limited view of the neuropsychological status of preschool toddlers, whose brain functioning is only beginning to develop localized functioning. Yet, referrals for preschool evaluation of these early-age children often request a wide variety of information about brain-behavior…

  11. Neuropsychological assessment and differential diagnosis in young-onset dementias.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Emilia J; Barczak, Anna; Harciarek, Michał

    2015-06-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, there are several conditions (ie, frontotemporal dementia or Huntington's disease) associated with a relatively earlier onset. This article provides arguments in favor of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia, as episodic memory impairment is not observed early in the course of most types of young-onset dementia that predominantly affect the domains of behavior, executive, language, and/or motor function. PMID:25998115

  12. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values. PMID:26963317

  13. Lack of Neuropsychological Deficits in Generalized Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Sutterby, Scott R.; Bedwell, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few existing studies examining neuropsychological functioning in social phobia (SP), which collectively yield mixed results. Interpretation of results is further complicated by a number of methodological inconsistencies across studies, including the examination of neuropsychological domains in relative isolation from one another. The present study utilized a broader collection of neuropsychological tests to assess nine domains of functioning in 25 individuals diagnosed with generalized SP and 25 nonpsychiatric controls (NC). A mixed ANOVA revealed neither a significant group by domain interaction, nor a significant main effect of group. Furthermore, no significant group differences emerged between the SP and NC groups within each specific neuropsychological domain. These findings suggest that underlying neuropsychological deficits are not likely to account for the information processing biases observed in the empirical literature, and appear to be consistent with current theoretical models which argue for the specificity of these biases to social information. PMID:22880078

  14. Early neuropsychological characteristics of progranulin mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Bradley J; Jacova, Claudia; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Wittenberg, Dana; Sengdy, Pheth; Bouchard-Kerr, Phoenix; Slack, Penny; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matthew; Chow, Tiffany W; Levine, Brian; Feldman, Howard H; Mackenzie, Ian R

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia. We used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to investigate whether early cognitive changes could be detected in GRN mutation carriers before dementia onset. Twenty-four at-risk members from six families with known GRN mutations underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Group differences were investigated by domains of attention, language, visuospatial function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, working memory and executive function. There was a trend for mutation carriers (n=8) to perform more poorly than non-carriers (n=16) across neuropsychological domains, with significant between group differences for visuospatial function (p<.04; d=0.92) and working memory function (p<.02; d=1.10). Measurable cognitive differences exist before the development of frontotemporal dementia in subjects with GRN mutations. The neuropsychological profile of mutation carriers suggests early asymmetric, right hemisphere brain dysfunction that is consistent with recent functional imaging data from our research group and the broader literature. PMID:24993774

  15. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  16. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  17. The Impact of Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Associated Complications on the Neuropsychological Functioning of a 13-Year-Old Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…

  18. Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. Although many studies have…

  19. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  20. Neuropsychological functioning and social anhedonia: three-year follow-up data from a longitudinal community high risk study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Couture, Shannon M; Blanchard, Jack J

    2012-07-01

    Social anhedonia is a promising vulnerability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. Prior research has demonstrated that individuals with psychometrically-defined social anhedonia show a range of "schizophrenia-like" neurocognitive abnormalities. However, this research is limited in that it is based largely on the study of college students. The present article reports findings from a longitudinal study of social anhedonia recruited from a community sample. As part of this study, a neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and at three-year follow-up sessions to participants with (n = 78) versus without (n = 77) social anhedonia. Additional measures of global functioning and schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms were also administered. Across groups, subjects showed significant improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time. Compared to controls, at follow-up, individuals with social anhedonia showed significantly poorer attentional vigilance and simple processing speed, but failed to evidence impairments in immediate or delayed verbal memory, immediate or delayed visual memory, visual or verbal working memory, olfaction or executive abilities. At follow-up, within the social anhedonia group, schizoid (and to a lesser extent, schizotypal) symptom severity was associated with a range of neurocognitive impairments. Neurocognitive impairments were generally not associated with paranoid symptoms or global functioning. Baseline neurocognitive performance was not significantly predictive of follow-up symptom severity or functioning. Collectively, these findings suggest that neurocognitive dysfunctions only characterize a subset of individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:22507637

  1. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  2. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  3. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    PubMed

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  4. White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities of the Cingulum Bundle in Youth with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Associations with Medication, Neuropsychological Function, and Prodromal Symptoms of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Wendy R.; Olszewski, Amy K.; Gnirke, Matthew H.; Kikinis, Zora; Nelson, Joshua; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Radoeva, Petya D.; Middleton, Frank A.; Shenton, Martha E.; Coman, Ioana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is regarded as an etiologically homogenous model for understanding neuroanatomic disruptions associated with a high risk for schizophrenia. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze white matter microstructure in individuals with 22q11.2DS. We focused on the cingulum bundle (CB), previously shown to be disrupted in patients with schizophrenia and associated with symptoms of psychosis. Methods White matter microstructure was assessed in the anterior, superior, and posterior CB using the tractography algorithm in DTIStudio. Neuropsychological function, presence of prodromal symptoms of psychosis, and medication history were assessed in all participants. Results Relative to controls, young adults with 22q11.2DS showed alterations in most DTI metrics of the CB. Alterations were associated with positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. However, when individuals with 22q11.2DS were divided by usage of antipsychotics / mood stabilizers, the medicated and non-medicated groups differed significantly in axial diffusivity of the anterior CB and in fractional anisotropy of the superior CB. DTI metrics did not differ between the medicated group and the control group. Conclusions Results suggest that the microstructure of the CB is altered in individuals with 22q11.2DS, and that those alterations may underlie positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Our findings further provide preliminary evidence that antipsychotic / mood stabilizer usage may have a reparative effect on white matter microstructure in prodromal 22q11.2DS, independent of the potential effects of psychosis. Future studies of white matter pathology in individuals with 22q11.2DS should test for potential effects of medication on white matter microstructure. PMID:25066496

  5. Executive Function in Adolescence: A Commentary on Regulatory Control and Depression in Adolescents: Findings From Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Research.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses the manner in which executive control processes and their development is impacted by major depressive episodes during adolescence. Strengths of the articles within this special issue include the breadth of executive functions that were examined, incorporation of biological probes to understand neural mechanisms involved in observed impairments, the use of longitudinal paradigms to assess developmental timing, consideration and modeling of comorbid conditions, and the identification of individual difference factors that may serve as both liabilities and resilience factors. This work is timely; a close examination of negative emotions and how they change during adolescence is needed if we are to fully understand motivation-cognition interactions and how they are impaired by psychopathology. PMID:26743038

  6. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  7. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  8. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  9. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  10. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  11. Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Klimkeit, Ester I; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John L; Melvin, Glenn A; Gould, Kate

    2011-11-01

    Although neuropsychological deficits in adult depression are relatively well established, findings in children/adolescents have been inconsistent and thus require further investigation. The current study investigated verbal fluency (VF), cognitive speed, motor speed, and executive functions in adolescents with unipolar depression. Results indicated that adolescents with minor depression showed working memory deficits and poorer VF (letter task). Adolescents with major depression showed working memory deficits and processing speed deficits from the early stages of information processing to the later stages of motor output. Executive function deficits of set-shifting and response inhibition that are well established in adults were not found, but may reflect task differences. Thus, it appears that depression subtype or severity of symptoms may impact on neuropsychological functioning and may in part explain previous inconsistent results. PMID:21690097

  12. Obesity--a neuropsychological disease? Systematic review and neuropsychological model.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic associated with a series of secondary complications and comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, sleep-breathing disorders, and certain forms of cancer. On the surface, it seems that obesity is simply the phenotypic manifestation of deliberately flawed food intake behavior with the consequence of dysbalanced energy uptake and expenditure and can easily be reversed by caloric restriction and exercise. Notwithstanding this assumption, the disappointing outcomes of long-term clinical studies based on this assumption show that the problem is much more complex. Obviously, recent studies render that specific neurocircuits involved in appetite regulation are etiologically integrated in the pathomechanism, suggesting obesity should be regarded as a neurobiological disease rather than the consequence of detrimental food intake habits. Moreover, apart from the physical manifestation of overeating, a growing body of evidence suggests a close relationship with psychological components comprising mood disturbances, altered reward perception and motivation, or addictive behavior. Given that current dietary and pharmacological strategies to overcome the burgeoning threat of the obesity problem are of limited efficacy, bear the risk of adverse side-effects, and in most cases are not curative, new concepts integratively focusing on the fundamental neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying overeating are urgently required. This new approach to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies would justify assigning obesity to the spectrum of neuropsychological diseases. Our objective is to give an overview on the current literature that argues for this view and, on the basis of this knowledge, to deduce an integrative model for the development of obesity originating from disturbed neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24394671

  13. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed. PMID:12607152

  14. Neuropsychological Frameworks for Understanding Autism

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological theories have traditionally attempted to provide a unifying account of the complex and diverse behavioral manifestations of autism in terms of their underlying psychological mechanisms and associated brain bases. This article reviews three competing neuropsychological theories of autism: the executive dysfunction hypothesis, the weak central coherence hypothesis, and the limbic system hypothesis. Each theory is evaluated critically with regard to the primary neuropsychological deficit hypothesized and the research findings that have been offered in support of it. In a concluding section, some of the metatheoretical assumptions informing attempts to identify a “core” neuropsychological impairment in autism are outlined and questioned, and new approaches to a neuropsychological understanding of autism are suggested. PMID:16467917

  15. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  16. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  17. Concepts and Categories: A Cognitive Neuropsychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    One of the most provocative and exciting issues in cognitive science is how neural specificity for semantic categories of common objects arises in the functional architecture of the brain. More than two decades of research on the neuropsychological phenomenon of category-specific semantic deficits has generated detailed claims about the organization and representation of conceptual knowledge. More recently, researchers have sought to test hypotheses developed on the basis of neuropsychological evidence with functional imaging. From those two fields, the empirical generalization emerges that object domain and sensory modality jointly constrain the organization of knowledge in the brain. At the same time, research within the embodied cognition framework has highlighted the need to articulate how information is communicated between the sensory and motor systems, and processes that represent and generalize abstract information. Those developments point toward a new approach for understanding category specificity in terms of the coordinated influences of diverse regions and cognitive systems. PMID:18767921

  18. Combination Training in Aging Individuals Modifies Functional Connectivity and Cognition, and Is Potentially Affected by Dopamine-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Sensi, Francesca; Cilli, Franco; Mantini, Dante; Mattei, Peter A.; Frazzini, Valerio; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Gatta, Valentina; Ferretti, Antonio; Romani, Gian Luca; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging is a major co-risk factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Cognitive enrichment positively affects the structural plasticity of the aging brain. In this study, we evaluated effects of a set of structured multimodal activities (Combination Training; CT) on cognitive performances, functional connectivity, and cortical thickness of a group of healthy elderly individuals. CT lasted six months. Methodology Neuropsychological and occupational performances were evaluated before and at the end of the training period. fMRI was used to assess effects of training on resting state network (RSN) functional connectivity using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Effects on cortical thickness were also studied. Finally, we evaluated whether specific dopamine-related genes can affect the response to training. Principal Findings Results of the study indicate that CT improves cognitive/occupational performances and reorganizes functional connectivity. Intriguingly, individuals responding to CT showed specific dopamine-related genotypes. Indeed, analysis of dopamine-related genes revealed that carriers of DRD3 ser9gly and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms had the greatest benefits from exposure to CT. Conclusions and Significance Overall, our findings support the idea that exposure to a set of structured multimodal activities can be an effective strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline and also indicate that significant capability of functional and structural changes are maintained in the elderly. PMID:22937122

  19. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  20. Neuropsychological advocacy and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Hermann, Bruce P; Cohen, Morris J

    2010-04-01

    Neuropsychologists are in a unique position to be active advocates for patients with epilepsy given their unique understanding of the behavioral and cognitive effects associated the disease, its progression, and its treatment. Neuropsychologists communicate the cognitive and behavioral consequences of epilepsy and its long-term implications to patients, family, school, and employers. In this article we review factors influencing the neuropsychological profile of patients with epilepsy, and discuss common behavioral comorbidities, as well as special issues associated with school placement and long-term planning. We also include a seizure action plan, which is designed to be both an educational tool for individuals with limited epilepsy knowledge, and a way to minimize stigma associated with an event should a seizure occur during school or work. PMID:19214828

  1. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  2. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  3. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years.

  4. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  5. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  6. The neuropsychology of sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Beaulieu-Plante, Jolyane; de Chantérac, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Typically, neuropsychological studies of sex offenders have grouped together different types of individuals and different types of measures. This is why results have tended to be nonspecific and divergent across studies. Against this background, the authors undertook a review of the literature regarding the neuropsychology of sex offenders, taking into account subgroups based on criminological theories. They also conducted a meta-analysis of the data to demonstrate the cognitive heterogeneity of sex offenders statistically. Their main objective was to test the hypothesis to the effect that the neuropsychological deficits of sex offenders are not broad and generalized compared with specific subgroups of participants based on specific measures. In all, 23 neuropsychological studies reporting data on 1,756 participants were taken into consideration. As expected, a highly significant, broad, and heterogeneous overall effect size was found. Taking subgroups of participants and specific cognitive measures into account significantly improved homogeneity. Sex offenders against children tended to obtain lower scores than did sex offenders against adults on higher order executive functions, whereas sex offenders against adults tended to obtain results similar to those of non-sex offenders, with lower scores in verbal fluency and inhibition. However, it is concluded that neuropsychological data on sex offenders are still too scarce to confirm these trends or to test more precise hypotheses. For greater clinical relevance, future neuropsychological studies should consider specific subgroups of participants and measures to verify the presence of different cognitive profiles. PMID:23567470

  7. Neuropsychology of childhood arithmetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, E S

    1989-01-01

    The arithmetic learning disability literature was reviewed and critiqued. Due to the paucity of research in this area, few conclusions may be inferred. In general, the available research has provided tentative hypotheses about the nature of arithmetic disabilities. A variety of psychosocial variables notwithstanding, childhood arithmetic disability may directly result from cerebral dysfunction, poor motivation, and emotional/behavioral disturbance. However, further research is necessary in order to clarify the effects of maturation on arithmetic skills acquisition. Indeed, one approach to identification of the disorder would consider individual differences in neuropsychological development and performance affecting arithmetic achievement. It was concluded that a more comprehensive approach to investigating and diagnosing childhood arithmetic disability is needed. Reformulations and methods of study were articulated. Six related lines of research were outlined. A diagnostic rating scale was suggested which would account for type and severity of disorder. Diagnostic criteria were recommended based on the degree and definition of disability. Needs for remediation research were briefly explored. PMID:2485827

  8. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  9. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  10. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  11. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  12. Neuropsychology Review Submission

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, P. Justin; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN. PMID:26577509

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L.; McLaren, Donald; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K.; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as valid indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI. PMID:22777078

  14. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Paul G; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward learning may underlie both cognitive and motivation deficits, as expressed by neuropsychological impairment and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:25261881

  15. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  16. Neuropsychological Findings in Relapsing-Remitting and Chronic-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Robert K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed neuropsychological functioning in 100 patients who had relapsing-remitting or chronic-progressive courses of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both MS subgroups showed significant neuropsychological impairment, relative to a normal comparison group (N=100), but chronic-progressive MS was associated with greater impairment in each major ability…

  17. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  18. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinead M; Riby, Deborah M; Matthews, Keith; Coghill, David R

    2011-01-01

    We compared verbally matched attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological tasks included those that assessed short-term memory and executive functions from the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) neuropsychological battery. Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did not differ in severity from ADHD children on the Conners Oppositionality, Cognitive Problems/Inattention, Hyperactivity, and ADHD Index subscales. The WS and ADHD groups also showed similar patterns of neuropsychological functioning, particularly in working memory (WM) strategy use and delayed short-term memory (STM). The findings may have clinical implications for the management of individuals with WS, highlighting the potential significance of behavioral, educational, and pharmacological strategies and treatments known to be useful in the treatment of children with ADHD for individuals with WS. PMID:20700845

  20. Heterogeneity of schizophrenia: a study of individual neuropsychological profiles.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Seidman, Larry J; Faraone, Stephen V; Toomey, Rosemary; Tsuang, Ming T

    2004-12-01

    Based on a strategy developed by Seidman et al. (Seidman, L.J., Faraone, S.V., Kremen, W.S., Pepple, J.R., Lyons, M.J., Tsuang, M.T., 1993. Neuropsychological dysfunctions in the non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients, Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Research and Psychopathology. Chicago, IL) we examined neuropsychological heterogeneity in schizophrenia using clinical neuropsychological descriptions of individual cases as the starting point. We blindly rated neuropsychological profiles of 74 schizophrenia patients and 91 normal controls based primarily on prototypes from the clinical literature in neuropsychology. Patients were classified as having the following profile types: within normal limits (WNL) (23%, n=17), frontal/abstraction (46%, n=34), widespread/diffuse (14%, n=10), left temporal/verbal memory (8%, n=6) and other (9%, n=7). As expected based on our classification scheme, the groups had different profile shapes (group x function interactions). They were also significantly different from one another in terms of overall severity (main effects); however, severity differences were not inherent in the definition of all groups. Longer duration of illness and greater overall cognitive impairment were observed as one went from the left temporal to the frontal to the widespread groups. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the different neuropsychological profiles reflect true subgroup differences or within-person change over time. Further research-probably including neuroimaging and genetic studies-will also be needed to determine the validity and the utility of this strategy for identifying neuropsychological profile types. PMID:15474901

  1. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  2. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  3. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  4. Hospital-based neuropsychological services.

    PubMed

    Sciara, A D

    1986-01-01

    Hospital-based neuropsychological services may provide the hospital with a new means of interfacing with the general medical community, especially neurologists and neurosurgeons. This could produce increased census through the evaluation and treatment of patients who may not have been referred to the psychiatric hospital previously. Additionally, it is a service that can be marketed to the legal community. The establishment of neuropsychological services is a relatively inexpensive project that requires little in the way of physical plant and personnel needs other than a qualified technician and neuropsychologist. PMID:10279536

  5. Neuropsychological correlates of chronic alcoholism and aging.

    PubMed

    Blusewicz, M J; Dustman, R E; Schenkenberg, T; Beck, E C

    1977-11-01

    Independent investigations of alcoholism and aging have demonstrated significant parallels between the two phenomena suggesting the possibility of "premature aging" as a result of alcoholism. To test this hypothesis a cross-sectional design was utilized with three groups of 20 male subjects: young normal (mean age 31 years), young alcoholics (mean age 33 years), and elderly normal (mean age 71 years). Eleven objective measures, selected from a battery of sensory and perceptual motor tests routinely used to evaluate cerebral dysfunction in hospitalized patients, were compared for the three groups. The results indicated a definite general decline in neuropsychological functioning with aging and suggested a similar trend with alcoholism. The tendency seen with alcoholism was least apparent with regard to fundamental sensory-motor functions and the perceptual functions of vision and audition and most apparent with regard to short term memory and abstract reasoning, i.e., higher mental processes. The results provided support for the hypothesis that chronic alcoholism causes premature aging of neuropsychological functions and possibly the brain. PMID:915495

  6. Neuropsychological Investigation of Motor Impairments in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Tyler; Trontel, Haley; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5–33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved peg-board test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (pre-central gyrus), somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were non-significant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as region of interest (ROI) volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD. PMID:23985036

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  8. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression. PMID:26041566

  9. Neuropsychological follow-up in early-treated congenital hypothyroidism: a problem-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Bargagna, S; Canepa, G; Costagli, C; Dinetti, D; Marcheschi, M; Millepiedi, S; Montanelli, L; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    2000-03-01

    Screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) dramatically improved the neuropsychological prognosis in affected children. However, mild impairments in cognitive performances, poorer motor skills, defective language abilities, and learning problems have been reported in some studies of early-treated CH children. The occurrence of these defects makes neuropsychological follow-up mandatory. The aim of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological functions that are more frequently affected in early-treated CH children and that might require prompt rehabilitation treatment to prevent permanent defects. The study group involved 24 CH children. Levothyroxine (LT4) treatment (initial dose 8-10 microg/kg per day) was started at mean age of 28 days (range 15-45) and was then adjusted with the goal to keep thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroid hormone levels in the normal range. Cognitive evaluation was performed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age and did not significantly differ from that of controls. Mean neurological scores were lower in children 5 years of age than in controls. Children with severe neonatal hypothyroidism (serum thyroxine [T4] < 2 microg/dL) had significantly lower neurological scores compared to less affected CH children and normal controls. The most affected functions were balance, extremity coordination, fine motricity, quality of movements, associated movements, and head movements. Language disorders were observed in half of CH children at 3 and 5 years of age, but moderately severe defects were restricted to those with severe neonatal hypothyroidism. In conclusion, a problem-oriented, simplified neuropsychological follow-up of early-treated children with CH should not systematically include the frequent repetition of time-consuming and expensive psychometric tests because individual IQ scores are in the normal range of tests in almost all CH children and can be differentiated from those of normal controls only on a population

  10. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  11. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  12. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  13. Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for the integration of the principles of behavior therapy with those of neuropsychology is provided. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations and future directions pertaining to this area of specialization are discussed, with special reference to the practice of school psychology. (Author/AL)

  14. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  15. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Walsh, V

    2001-02-20

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit. PMID:11250165

  16. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  17. What's wrong and what's right in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, M D

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent converging of interests by psychiatrists and psychologists in subjective mental phenomena. Examples of topics where these converging interests arise include the relationship of confabulation and delusional memories, the nature of face-processing deficits in prosopagnosia and the Capgras delusion, and hierarchial models of psychological function. These developments are very much welcomed; but the over-interpretation of neuropsychological test findings in neuropsychiatry, and the occasional failure to take account of clinical context (particularly the psychiatric background) in neuropsychology, are also noted. Cognitive neuropsychiatry appears to have emerged as a label to identify this converging of interests, modelling itself on cognitive neuropsychology. The potential benefits and limitations of such an approach are discussed. PMID:16571493

  18. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  19. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  20. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  1. Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Academic Sequelae in Children with Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald T.; Madan-Swain, Avi

    1993-01-01

    This research review finds that children with leukemia exhibit deficits in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning following either central nervous system irradiation or intrathecal chemotherapy. Implications of increased life expectancies for school reentry and the need for special education services are addressed. (DB)

  2. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  3. Contributions of Neuropsychology to Our Understanding of Developmental Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how neuropsychological research has increased understanding of the reading process and reading disabilities in children. Variations in impaired processes in reading disabilities can best be understood when brain-behavior relations involved in reading are conceptualized as a widespread functional system. Discusses implications for…

  4. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  5. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  6. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  7. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  8. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  9. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  10. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  11. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Bland, Amy R; Roiser, Jonathan P; Mehta, Mitul A; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K; Emsley, Richard A; Munafo, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18-50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  12. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  13. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:22206622

  14. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel. PMID:11752491

  15. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  16. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery. PMID:25882162

  17. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  18. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  19. How cognitive neuroscience could be more biological—and what it might learn from clinical neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Three widespread assumptions of Cognitive-affective Neuroscience are discussed: first, mental functions are assumed to be localized in circumscribed brain areas which can be exactly determined, at least in principle (localizationism). Second, this assumption is associated with the more general claim that these functions (and dysfunctions, such as in neurological or mental diseases) are somehow generated inside the brain (internalism). Third, these functions are seen to be “biological” in the sense that they can be decomposed and finally explained on the basis of elementary biological causes (i.e., genetic, molecular, neurophysiological etc.), causes that can be identified by experimental methods as the gold standard (isolationism). Clinical neuropsychology is widely assumed to support these tenets. However, by making reference to the ideas of Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965), one of its most important founders, I argue that none of these assumptions is sufficiently supported. From the perspective of a clinical-neuropsychological practitioner, assessing and treating brain damage sequelae reveals a quite different picture of the brain as well as of us “brain carriers”, making the organism (or person) in its specific environment the crucial reference point. This conclusion can be further elaborated: all experimental and clinical research on humans presupposes the notion of a situated, reflecting, and interacting subject, which precedes all kinds of scientific decomposition, however useful. These implications support the core assumptions of the embodiment approach to brain and mind, and, as I argue, Goldstein and his clinical-neuropsychological observations are part of its very origin, for both theoretical and historical reasons. PMID:25100981

  20. [Forensic neuropsychology in the aging and the dementias].

    PubMed

    Delgado Losada, M L; Rodríguez Aizcorbe, J R; Fernández Guinea, S

    INTRODUCTION. Forensic Neuropsychology establishes an expert valuation of the brain-injured patient (or supposed), or of the law offender people (or supposed) requiring law protection due to their illness. This discipline has a fundamental role in the study of cerebral organic syndromes, particularly in the dementias. DEVELOPMENT. The demential syndrome is common to a group of diseases as degenerative or cardiovascular disorders, brain tumors, syphilis, alcoholism or toxic factors, etc. When speaking of dementia we refer to a syndrome characterized by a progressive and global deterioration of the cognitive functions (memory, language, attention, space-temporal orientation, praxis, thinking, etc.) with preservation of the level of conscience (DSM-IV). This symptomatology affects the personality of the individual as reasonable being , as well as to his behavior and social adaptation. The decrease or loss of the intellectual and volitives abilities of the affected person of a demential syndrome, if it is permanent, also implies a change in its legal situation, since its legal capacity is altered. Therefore, it will be necessary to adopt protective measures for his person and his patrimony. Even if it is necessary, to promote a process of disability, whose sentence will be emitted by a judge, who will indicate: the degree of the mentioned disability, the trusteeship regime and who is designated as a legal tutor. PMID:11391517

  1. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  2. Patterns of neuropsychological deficit in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, R R; Acker, C F; Lishman, W A

    1990-05-01

    Twenty-five male and 13 female patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS) were compared with age- and sex-matched non-Korsakoff chronic alcoholics and healthy volunteers in a neuropsychological study, which included computer-administered tests of cognitive function. The performance of male Korsakoff patients was significantly inferior to that of healthy male controls, not only in tests of memory, but also in visuo-perceptual tasks with a speed or motor component, and on category sorting and verbal fluency measures. Compared with male alcoholics, the performance of male Korsakoff patients was again inferior on similar tests. Female Korsakoff patients showed more extensive deficits compared with female controls, but differed less from matched female alcoholics. The results suggest that, in addition to their amnesia, many Korsakoff patients have sustained widespread cognitive deficits, affecting particularly visuo-perceptual and abstracting functions, which are sensitive to cortical lesions. The range of deficits falls short of what may be regarded as 'global' in male, but probably not in female, Korsakoffs. The implications for a dual aetiology of AKS involving thiamine deficiency and other features associated with alcoholism, probably direct alcohol neurotoxicity, are discussed. PMID:2356257

  3. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  4. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  5. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  6. The biosocial correlates of neuropsychological deficits: results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Higgins, George E

    2010-12-01

    A body of empirical research has revealed that neuropsychological functioning is one of the most consistent predictors of antisocial behavior. It is somewhat surprising however that criminological research has been slow to examine the different factors that are implicated in the development of neuropsychological deficits. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the effects that a number of social and biological variables have on neuropsychological functioning. Analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) indicates that postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke, duration of breastfeeding, maternal involvement, and household income predicts variation in adolescent and adulthood levels of neuropsychological functioning. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed. PMID:19741153

  7. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognition disorders. Neuropsychological study of a population of 26 patients].

    PubMed

    Dary-Auriol, M; Ingrand, P; Bonnaud, V; Dumas, P; Neau, J P; Gil, R

    1997-05-01

    Typical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is described as a motoneuron disease which spared cognitive functions. Recent studies reported cognitive impairement associated with classical ALS. Gallasi and al. (1985) detect subtle cognitive impairement sparing memory in a population of 22 patients affected with sporadic motoneuron disease. Iwasaki and al. (1990) finds lower scores, including memory tests. Our study evaluated 26 patients compared with 26 control subjects with neurospychological tests (rapid evaluation of cognitive function fluency, Weschler adult intelligence scale, Wisconsin cards, Rey scheme, memory tests - Luria -, trail making, visual retentional test of Benton Violon Seyll test). All the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the patients group. The cognitive impairement is global: memory and frontal functions were not spared and this impairement is also subtle. It may easily go undetected without tests. We cannot isolate a cortical or subcortical profile of the deterioration. PMID:9296142

  8. Neuropsychological aspects for evaluating learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This review surveys the empirical literature for assessments of learning problems in children from a neuropsychological perspective. An evaluation of children with learning problems must consider measures of working memory, attention, executive function, and comprehension (listening and written), particularly for children who do not respond to intervention. These constructs must be tied to intervention techniques, and their connections must be empirically verified. The response-to-intervention (RTI) perspective provides excellent support for the process in young children but is still developing the process for students above the second grade. This review provides information about the existing research on neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities, possible areas for further evaluation, and the link to the RTI movement. PMID:16392699

  9. Neuropsychology and behavior in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bettina; Yacubian, Elza Marcia; Feucht, Martha; Hermann, Bruce; Trimble, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Following decades of neglect, there has been an increasing interest in the behavioral aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in the recent literature. A number of authors have investigated psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive profiles, and related behavioral features associated with JME. Although these findings are not entirely uniform, most studies suggest an increased incidence in psychiatric comorbidity and specific cognitive deficits that explain some of the clinical observations of poor compliance and other unhealthy behaviors in people suffering from JME. Neuropsychological profiles in JME are suggestive of subtle frontal dysfunctions, and some of the observations have been linked with sophisticated structural and functional imaging findings. Taken together, there is evidence that JME is associated with dysfunctions in networks linking motor and cognitive neuronal centers. Interestingly, there is evidence from family studies that the behavioral abnormalities in JME are genetically determined, suggesting an underlying developmental disorder. PMID:23756486

  10. Neuropsychological outcomes of children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has investigated the consequences of being born very preterm (VP; <32 weeks of gestation), especially in relation to cognitive functioning. While numerous cognitive and neuropsychological outcome studies have been published, it is important to consider methodological issues when reviewing this research, as the generalizability of the studies varies greatly. This article describes the nature of cognitive difficulties confronting VP children, both in terms of the frequency and severity of deficits. The breadth of cognitive difficulties reported in this population implies a generalized cognitive impairment; however, the presence of selective or primary cognitive deficits is discussed. It is concluded that whereas mortality and neonatal morbidity rates have decreased significantly in VP infants in recent decades, these children continue to be at significant risk for cognitive impairments and need to be closely monitored throughout childhood. PMID:24361279

  11. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  12. Measurement in cross-cultural neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  13. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed. PMID:18609338

  14. Finding models to detect Alzheimer's disease by fusing structural and neuropsychological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Velasco, Nelson; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects higher brain functions. Initial diagnosis of AD is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The accuracy of the diagnosis is highly dependent on the examiner's skills and on the evolution of a variable clinical frame. This work presents an automatic strategy that learns probabilistic brain models for different stages of the disease, reducing the complexity, parameter adjustment and computational costs. The proposed method starts by setting a probabilistic class description using the information stored in the neuropsychological test, followed by constructing the different structural class models using membership values from the learned probabilistic functions. These models are then used as a reference frame for the classification problem: a new case is assigned to a particular class simply by projecting to the different models. The validation was performed using a leave-one-out cross-validation, two classes were used: Normal Control (NC) subjects and patients diagnosed with mild AD. In this experiment it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 80% and 79% respectively.

  15. The extent of neurocognitive dysfunction in a multidisciplinary pain centre population. Is there a relation between reported and tested neuropsychological functioning?

    PubMed

    Landrø, Nils Inge; Fors, Egil A; Våpenstad, Lindis L; Holthe, Øyvor; Stiles, Tore C; Borchgrevink, Petter C

    2013-07-01

    Patients with chronic nonmalignant pain syndromes frequently report cognitive dysfunction, in particular with respect to concentration and attention. Such complaints have, in general, been attributed to depressive symptoms. In this study we showed that cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients are significantly associated with objective test performance in the area of inhibitory control after partialling out degree of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, about 20% of the patients performed below cut-off for clinically significant impairment on tests of basic neurocognitive functioning. A larger proportion of patients with generalized and neuropathic pain performed below this cut-off, whereas patients with localized pain exhibited impaired function to a lesser degree. Chronic pain patients receiving opioids did not perform worse than patients off opioid treatment. Systematic assessment of basic neurocognitive functions in centres treating chronic pain patients is warranted. PMID:23473784

  16. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  17. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  18. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:26936160

  19. Importance of a critical reading of neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, M; Baschenis, I M C; Dolci, R; Bejor, M

    2011-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing has become an important part of the diagnostic tools available to assess children's functioning. Tests are routinely use to establish diagnosis, measure patient's impairment and drive rehabilitation. The authors present the clinical case of a eight-year-old girl, sent to our Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit for a suspected Specific Learning Disorder. Peculiar findings regarding attention and reading ability became evident during the initial evaluation; a mistaken diagnosis of dyslexia was avoided by carefully examining her global functioning (in particular sight, as she suffered from hyperopia but more importantly she had an insufficient control of vertical saccadic movements) and the strategies she used during testing. This constitutes a good example of the need to take into consideration the patient as a whole during any assessment, including neuropsychological testing. PMID:21654605

  20. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  1. Changing Patterns of Neuropsychological Functioning in Children Living at High Altitude above and below 4000 M: A Report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral…

  2. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  3. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  4. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  5. The emergence of psychopathy: implications for the neuropsychological approach to developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Blair, R J R

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic disturbance). I will argue that the ability of the amygdala to form the stimulus-punishment associations necessary for successful socialization is disrupted and that because of this, individuals with psychopathy do not learn to avoid actions that will harm others. It is noted that this model follows the neuropsychological approach to the study of developmental disorders, an approach that has been recently criticized. I will argue that these criticisms are less applicable to psychopathy. Indeed, animal work on the development of the neural systems necessary for emotion, does not support a constructivist approach with respect to affect. Importantly, such work indicates that while environmental effects can alter the responsiveness of the basic neural architecture mediating emotion, environmental effects do not construct this architecture. However, caveats to the neuropsychological approach with reference to this disorder are noted. PMID:16904094

  6. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  7. Neuropsychological profiles and subsequent diagnoses of children with early life insults: do caregiver reports suggest deficits?

    PubMed

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many types of early life events can cause cerebral dysfunction; however, not all children have medical records or neurologic imaging documenting brain injuries. Rather, many neuropsychologists base their findings on caregiver reports describing possible early brain insults. Neuropsychological studies suggest that brief perinatal cyanosis and/or childhood neglect may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Should the mere suggestion of these events from caregiver reports be enough to suggest deficits? This study examines four groups of children: those with (1) reported nuchal cord compression with brief cyanosis, (2) reported childhood neglect, (3) reported history of both, and (4) reported history of none. It was hypothesized that based on the literature of these populations, children who present at an evaluation with the report of these insults would also present cognitive deficits. Results revealed no significant difference in intellect, memory, or academic abilities. A significant difference was shown between groups during the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, as groups with a history of neglect had lower scores. A history of childhood neglect also suggested an increased risk for subsequent emotional/behavioral diagnoses. These findings suggest that although the profiles range between low-average and average, reports of early life insults can flag potential deficits in a child's neuropsychological profile. PMID:24236945

  8. The neuropsychology of repeated 1- and 3-meter springboard diving among college athletes.

    PubMed

    Zillmer, Eric A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the neuropsychological effects of repeated springboard diving. It was hypothesized that the impact velocity, which can range from 20 to 30 mph, and accompanying deceleration in the water may lead to concussions and affect the diver's cognitive function. Six varsity National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 springboard divers participated in the study. Each diver performed a total of 50 practice dives from either the 1- or 3-m springboard. After each set of 10 dives, the participants were immediately evaluated at poolside using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color Word Test, and the Trail Making Test B. Baseline testing revealed, consistent with their athletic specialty, clear neurocognitive strengths among the divers on tests sensitive to proprioception, motor speed, and visual-spatial organization. Results from the serial assessments indicated no detectable neuropsychological deficits among competitive divers compared to baseline testing. Skilled diving at the collegiate level appears to be a safe sport and water appears to present the perfect medium for gradual deceleration. More studies, however, are warranted for 5-, 7.5-, and 10-m platform diving since the impact velocity of the diver from these heights is higher. PMID:12734072

  9. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  10. Neuropsychological Investigation in Chinese Patients with Progressive Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Cui, Liying; Liu, Mingsheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Ma, Junfang; Fang, Jia; Ding, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a rare type of degenerative motor neuron disease (MND) of which the onset happens in adult period. Despite its well-defined clinical characteristics, its neuropsychological profile has remained poorly understood, considering the consensus of cognitive and behavioral impairment reached in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of Chinese PMA patients with a series of comprehensive batteries emphasizing the executive and attention function, and covering other domains of memory, language, visuospatial function, calculation and behavior as well. Their performances were compared with those of age- and education-matched ALS and healthy controls (HC). Results 21 patients newly diagnosed with PMA were consecutively enrolled into our ALS and other MND registry platform, accounting for 14.7% of all the incident MND cases registered during the same period. 20 patients who completed the neuropsychological batteries were included into analysis. Compared with HC, PMA performed significantly worse in maintenance function of attention, while they exhibited quantitative similarity to ALS in all behavioral inventories and neuropsychological tests except the time for Stroop interference effect. Conclusion PMA could display mild cognitive dysfunction in the same frontal-mediated territory of ALS but in a lesser degree, whereas they did not differ from ALS behaviorally. PMID:26042930

  11. The neuropsychological underpinnings to psychopathic personality traits in a nationally representative and longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Barnes, J C; Boutwell, Brian B

    2012-06-01

    Although psychopathy is a major area of research in psychology and criminology, much remains unknown about its etiological underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study explored the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits and produced three key findings. First, four neuropsychological deficits measures were consistently related to the measure of psychopathic personality traits both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. Second, neuropsychological deficits measures predicted variation in psychopathic personality traits for both males and females and the magnitude of the association between neuropsychological deficits and psychopathic personality traits did not vary as a function of gender. Third, parental socialization measures had relatively small and inconsistent effects on psychopathic personality traits. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:21879360

  12. Depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological performance in mild Alzheimer's and cognitively normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls) from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment) as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition. PMID:21904674

  13. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  14. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  15. Insomnia: Neurophysiological and neuropsychological approaches.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Célyne H

    2011-03-01

    Insomnia is a symptom, a syndrome and a comorbid disorder. Its diagnosis relies on subjective reports from the afflicted individual and is defined as difficulties in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, waking up too early or non-restorative sleep. However, insomnia and especially, primary insomnia, has received much attention in insomnia research with the use of objective measures. Insomnia, its peculiarities, most frequent subtypes and two most prominent models will first be briefly introduced. Then, insomnia will be reviewed according to results obtained with the use of neurophysiological measures as basic/traditional as polysomnography to more sophisticated ones such as power spectral analysis, neuroimaging, cyclic alternating patterns and event-related potentials. In addition, a review of the discrepancies between subjective and objective reports of cognitive alterations through neuropsychological testing is offered. The need to combine measures is then highlighted in conclusion. PMID:21249453

  16. Longitudinal neuropsychological test performance among HIV seropositive individuals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Skolasky, Richard L; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate longitudinal neuropsychological testing performance over a 12-month period among HIV+individuals, and to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on neuropsychological test changes in Uganda. The study examined 77 HIV+individuals recruited from the Infectious Diseases Clinic at Makerere University, Uganda. They underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, immune status, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and 12 months later. Thirty-one individuals initiated ART (ART group) after their baseline visit, whereas 46 individuals were not placed on ART (no-ART group) during those 12 months. Paired samples t-tests were used to evaluate longitudinal changes in neuropsychological test performance for the entire sample, as well as for groups defined by ART initiation and baseline neurocognitive status. The study evaluated 77 HIV individuals (62 % women, mean age=37 years, mean education=8 years, mean CD4 count=235 cells/μl). Both the ART and no-ART groups showed significant improvements in tests of verbal memory, executive functioning, motor, and psychomotor speed performance, as well as depression symptoms. The ART group had significant improvements in CD4 count over the 12-month period (p<0.001), whereas the no-ART group had no CD4 count improvement. ART use is associated with improvements in cognitive functioning among HIV+individuals in Uganda. However, these improvements did not appear to be higher than those seen among HIV+individuals who did not initiate ART. Possible reasons for this include practice effects among the no-ART group as well as improvements in their mood and overall quality of life. PMID:23315423

  17. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  18. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  19. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  20. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121384

  1. Distinguishing between neuropsychological malingering and exaggerated psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas; Chute, Douglas L; Mandel, Steven; Platek, Steven M; Zillmer, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    It is unclear whether symptom validity test (SVT) failure in neuropsychological and psychiatric domains overlaps. Records of 105 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation, who completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Reliable Digit Span (RDS), and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), were examined. TOMM and RDS scores were uncorrelated with MCMI-III symptom validity indices and factor analysis revealed two distinct factors for neuropsychological and psychiatric SVTs. Only 3.5% of the sample failed SVTs in both domains, 22.6% solely failed the neuropsychological SVT, and 6.1% solely failed the psychiatric SVT. The results support a dissociation between neuropsychological malingering and exaggeration of psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting. PMID:17853126

  2. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  3. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  4. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  5. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  6. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  7. ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Dobson-Patterson, Roberta; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2016-08-01

    The study investigated, with an adult sample, the hypothesis that differences between subtypes of ADHD on neuropsychological tests contribute to the poor separation of ADHD and healthy groups on tests of this kind. Groups of ADHD inattentive (n=16) and combined (n=16) subtypes were carefully identified using DSM-IV criteria, and their performance on 14 measures of attention, memory, and executive function (EF) was compared between subtypes and between the two subtypes combined and a group of healthy controls (n=30). Multivariate analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two subtypes, and between the two subtypes combined and the healthy controls. Importantly for the hypothesis, where differences for neuropsychological tests in terms of effect sizes between subtypes were largest, the differences in effect sizes between the two groups combined and controls were smallest (r=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.87]). PMID:27043366

  8. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:26413738

  9. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  10. A Case of Chronic Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Postma, Albert; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After 5 days without treatment, she was diagnosed with WE in a general hospital. During the course of the disease, minimal change to the acute situation occurred, with chronic confusion, attention deficits, and incoherent behavior symptoms most notable unlike classical Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychological assessment after 4 and 16 months after admission to the hospital revealed global cognitive decline, with striking impairments in attentional, executive, and memory functions. The present case study suggests that the state of confusion and the neuropsychological symptoms in WE can become chronic in case of very late treatment. We therefore recommend that confused alcoholics should receive appropriate parenteral thiamine according to the current clinical standards. PMID:24904442

  11. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions. PMID:26773674

  12. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  13. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    PubMed Central

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea. PMID:26621910

  15. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  16. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  17. Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Acker, C

    1985-01-01

    Female alcoholics performed significantly less well on neuropsychological tests than matched non-alcoholic controls. The range of performance deficits was similar to that previously reported for male alcoholics despite significantly shorter drinking histories. PMID:4084369

  18. Neuropsychology of Arithmetic Disabilities in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M; Loveland, Katherine A.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of arithmetic disabilities in children is discussed first in this review. Then research studies are reported, classified by cognitive and neuropsychological studies and social competency studies. Finally, suggestions for remediation are provided. (MNS)

  19. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  20. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  1. Mevalonate availability affects human and rat resistance vessel function.

    PubMed Central

    Roullet, J B; Xue, H; Roullet, C M; Fletcher, W S; Cipolla, M J; Harker, C T; McCarron, D A

    1995-01-01

    Previous data in rat conductance vessels indicated that cellular mevalonate contributes to vascular tone and systemic blood pressure control. Using exogenous mevalonate (M) or lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (L), we characterized the role of mevalonate availability in resistance artery function, both in experimental animals and humans. Rat mesenteric artery resistance vessels (MARV, n = 9) were incubated for 48 h with either L, M, L + M, or vehicle (V) and tested for reactivity to NE, serotonin, acetylcholine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Lovastatin increased sensitivity to NE (P < 0.03) and serotonin (P < 0.003), and significantly impaired the response to all three vasodilators. These effects were reversed by co-incubation with mevalonate. Mevalonate alone had no effect. In separate experiments, intravascular free Ca2+ concentration (ivfCa2+) was determined in fura-2AM loaded MARV. Basal ivfCa2+ was increased after a 48-h exposure to L (52.7 +/- 4.6 nM, L, vs. 29.7 +/- 2.4 nM, V, n = 12, P < 0.003), as were ivfCa2+ levels following stimulation with low (100 nM) NE concentrations. Similar ivfCa2+ concentrations were achieved during maximum contraction with NE (10 mM) in both groups. Human resistance arteries of human adipose tissue were also studied. Lovastatin increased the sensitivity to NE (ED50 = 372 +/- 56 nM, V, and 99 +/- 33 nM, L, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the relaxation to acetylcholine and SNP of human vessels. We conclude that mevalonate availability directly contribute to resistance vessel function and vascular signal transduction systems in both experimental animals and humans. The study calls for the identification of non-sterol, mevalonate-derived vasoactive metabolites, and suggests that disorders of the mevalonate pathway can alter vascular tone and cause hypertension. PMID:7615793

  2. Neuropsychological development in adolescents: cognitive and emotional model for considering risk factors for adolescents with cleft.

    PubMed

    Richman, L C

    1995-03-01

    This article reviews neurologic, endocrinologic, and neuropsychological developments that affect our understanding of the adolescent patient. Neuroimaging and neuroradiologic techniques have assisted in identifying brain-behavior relationships and how different neuropsychological patterns result in different ways of thinking. Psychoneuroendocrinologic studies have shown that sex differences in maturation and hormonal effects on behavior need taking into account. At adolescence, the individual with a cleft or craniofacial condition may be at risk for adjustment problems due to earlier developmental events, which may affect language, behavior, and self-esteem. PMID:7748881

  3. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Poggesi, Anna; Chabriat, Hugues; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Fazekas, Franz; Hennerici, Michael; O'Brien, John; Pantoni, Leonardo; Salvadori, Emilia; Scheltens, Philip; Visser, Marieke C; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results showed that executive functioning, memory and speed of motor abilities are valid latent variables of neuropsychological performance among older adults, and that this structure is relatively consistent longitudinally, even though performance decreases with time. PMID:23398381

  5. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  6. Neuropsychological Status in Children After Repair of Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Flynn, Thomas B.; Gaynor, J. William; Zhang, Xuemei; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Nance, Michael L.; Wernovsky, Gil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The majority of previous studies that described the neuropsychological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children were performed after surgery in infancy for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to limit confounding variables and isolate potential independent effects of CPB by describing neuropsychological function in school-aged children after repair of acyanotic CHD. METHODS This was a prospective study of patients who were aged 5 to 18 years and undergoing repair of acyanotic CHD. Neuropsychological testing battery included assessment of intelligence, memory, motor, attention, executive function, and behavior before and 6 months after CPB. The independent effects of anesthesia, surgery, and hospitalization on neuropsychological function were assessed by testing a surgical control group of patients who were undergoing repair of pectus deformities. In addition, an outpatient group of children with mild CHD were enrolled to assess the practice effects of serial testing. RESULTS Patients included CPB (n = 35), surgical control (n = 19), and nonsurgical (n = 12). Groups were comparable in age, gender, and race and demonstrated similar unadjusted group mean scores on baseline and 6-month follow-up neuropsychological testing. When adjusted for practice effects, the CPB group performed similar to the non-CPB groups in all assessed neuropsychological domains, with the exception of 1 of 4 tests of executive function. CONCLUSIONS When controlling for the non-CPB effects of surgery (eg, hospitalization, anesthesia, thoracotomy) and the practice effects of serial testing, there were no consistent independent effects of CPB on neuropsychological status in a cohort of children and adolescents 6 months after repair of acyanotic CHD. PMID:20660542

  7. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  8. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  9. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  10. Moderators of neuropsychological mechanism in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikolas, Molly A; Nigg, Joel T

    2015-02-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been proposed as both a way to tap mechanisms and as endophenotypes for child ADHD. However, substantial evidence supporting heterogeneity in neuropsychological performance among youth with ADHD as well as apparent effect differences by sex, age, and comorbidity have slowed progress. To address this, it is important to understand sibling effects in relation to these moderators. 461 youth ages 6-17 years (54.8 % male, including 251 youth with ADHD, 107 of their unaffected biological siblings, and 103 non-ADHD controls) completed diagnostic interviews and a theoretically informed battery of neuropsychological functioning. A structural equation model was used to consolidate neuropsychological domains. Group differences between unaffected siblings of youth with ADHD and controls across each domain were first examined as the primary endophenotype test for ADHD. Moderation of these effects was evaluated via investigation of interactions between diagnostic group and both proband and individual level characteristics, including sex, age, and comorbidity status. Unaffected siblings performed worse than control youth in the domains of inhibition, response time variability, and temporal information processing. Individual age moderated these effects, such that differences between controls and unaffected siblings were pronounced among younger children (ages 6-10 years) but absent among older youth (ages 11-17 years). Evidence for moderation of effects by proband sex and comorbidity status produced more variable and smaller effects. Results support the utility of inhibition, response time variability, and temporal processing as useful endophenotypes for ADHD in future genetic associations studies of the disorder, but suggest this value will vary by age among unaffected family members. PMID:25037459

  11. Predictors of Neuropsychological Effort Test Performance in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Lindsay F.; Gold, James M.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Strauss, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome, symptoms, and premorbid adjustment were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having “deficit schizophrenia” (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia. PMID:25583248

  12. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  13. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  14. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the first study, we administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 20 deficit and 25 nondeficit patients with schizophrenia and 25 normal healthy controls. In the second study, a meta-analysis was conducted of 13 separate studies examining the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. There was little evidence from either of the present studies that the deficit syndrome is associated with a selective impairment in frontal and parietal lobe functions. The first study failed to find significant differences in frontal or parietal abilities for deficit vs nondeficit patients. The meta-analytic findings revealed that deficit patients were globally more neuropsychologically impaired than nondeficit patients (effect size [ES] = 0.41). Relative to nondeficit patients, deficit patients performed poorest on tests of olfaction (ES = 1.11), social cognition (ES = 0.56), global cognition (ES = 0.52), and language (ES = 0.51). The neuropsychological impairments associated with the deficit form of schizophrenia do not follow an obvious anatomically defined pattern of impairment. The question of whether deficit patients exhibit a unique cognitive impairment profile will require a more sophisticated and rigorous examination of the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. PMID:17159230

  15. Multidimensional effects of acculturation on English-language neuropsychological test performance among HIV+ Caribbean Latinas/os

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Robbins, Reuben N.; Monzones, Jennifer; Miranda, Caitlin; Rosario, Ana; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D’Aquila, Erica; Sheynin, Jake; Fraser, Felicia; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Acculturation has been linked to neuropsychological performance in several ethnic groups. However, research among Latina/o samples has examined primarily Mexican/Mexican Americans, and has not examined Latina/o clinical populations of Caribbean descent. This study examined associations between a multidimensional acculturation measure and neuropsychological performance among 82 HIV+ Caribbean Latina/o adults. Multivariate results showed that U.S. acculturation significantly predicted 11–14% of the variance in Global Neuropsychological functioning, Verbal Fluency, and Processing Speed, whereas Latina/o acculturation predicted 8% of the variance in Executive Function and 6% in Motor Function (trend level associations). Both linguistic and non-linguistic cultural factors had distinct effects on neuropsychological performance. PMID:22624844

  16. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  17. Reward-related decision making in eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from neuropsychological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mudan; Brockmeyer, Timo; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are serious public health concerns that share common neuropsychological features and patterns of disturbed eating. Reward-related decision making as a basic neurocognitive function may trans-diagnostically underlie both pathological overeating and restricted eating. The present meta-analysis synthesizes the evidence from N=82 neuropsychological studies for altered reward-related decision making in all ED subtypes, OW and OB. The overall effect sizes for the differences between currently-ill ED patients and OW/OB people and controls were Hedge's g=-0.49 [CI: -0.63; -0.35], and Hedge's g=-0.39 [CI: -0.53; -0.25], respectively. Decision making was found to be altered to similar degrees in all ED subtypes and OB. Effect sizes, however, diverged for the different measures of decision making. Adolescents appear to be less affected than adults. When foods were used as rewarding stimuli, decision making was found to be intact in OB. The findings support that altered general reward-related decision making is a salient neuropsychological factor across eating and weight disorders in adulthood. PMID:26698021

  18. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  19. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  20. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  1. Different vulnerability indicators for psychosis and their neuropsychological characteristics in the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohor

    PubMed Central

    Mukkala, Sari; Ilonen, Tuula; Nordström, Tanja; Miettunen, Jouko; Loukkola, Jukka; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Murray, Graham K.; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja; Moilanen, Irma; Jones, Peter B.; Heinimaa, Markus; Veijola, Juha

    2011-01-01

    This study is one of very few that has investigated the neuropsychological functioning of both familial and clinical high risk subjects for psychosis. Participants (N = 164) were members of the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort in the following four groups: familial risk for psychosis (n = 62), clinical risk for psychosis (n = 20), psychosis (n = 13), and control subjects (n = 69). The neurocognitive performance of these groups was compared across 19 cognitive variables. The two risk groups did not differ significantly from controls, but differed from the psychosis group in fine motor function. Neuropsychological impairments were not evident in a non-help-seeking high-risk sample. PMID:21462045

  2. [Progress on neuropsychology and event-related potentials in patients with brain trauma].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ri-xia; Cai, Wei-xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-yin

    2010-02-01

    With the development of information technology, as one of the research frontiers in neurophysiology, event-related potentials (ERP) is concerned increasingly by international scholars, which provides a feasible and objective method for exploring cognitive function. There are many advances in neuropsychology due to new assessment tool for the last years. The basic theories in the field of ERP and neuropsychology were reviewed in this article. The research and development in evaluating cognitive function of patients with syndrome after brain trauma were focused in this review, and the perspectives for the future research of ERP was also explored. PMID:20232746

  3. Acute Neuropsychological Effects of Methylphenidate in Stimulant Drug-Naive Boys with ADHD II--Broader Executive and Non-Executive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Coghill, David R.; Matthews, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports methylphenidate-induced enhancement of neuropsychological functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was designed to investigate the acute effects of the psychostimulant drug, methylphenidate (MPH), on neuropsychological performance in stimulant naive boys with ADHD.…

  4. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  5. Relationship of Temporal Lobe Volumes to Neuropsychological Test Performance in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy…

  6. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Special Education Students with Serious Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2006-01-01

    Special education, elementary school students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) were investigated for neuropsychological deficits with the NEPSY battery. Over half (54%) scored two or more standard deviations below the test mean on at least one of the four functional domains, especially Language and Attention/Executive Functions. The NEPSY…

  7. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Adults with Comorbid ADHD and Borderline/Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, E.; Bramham, J.; Young, S.; Paliokostas, E.; Xenitidis, K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise the neuropsychological functioning of adults with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability. Individuals with ADHD and mild-borderline range intelligence (N=59) and individuals with ADHD and normal intellectual functioning (N=95) were compared on attentional and response…

  8. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in “Younger” and “Older” Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208

  9. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification. PMID:20591819

  10. Short term neuropsychological recovery in substance use disordered clients

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Voelbel, Gerald T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Labouvie, Erich W.; Barry, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in clients who enter treatment programs for substance abuse. The potential for early recovery of cognitive abilities is suggested by previous research; however, the extent of improvement and risk factors that may help predict individual differences in rates of recovery remain unclear. This study is a 6-week follow-up and retest of an original sample of 197 men and women who had received a broad neuropsychological assessment at addiction treatment entry. The aim was to examine the potential clinical significance of changes in cognitive functioning and the extent to which differential recovery was predictable from client background information. Methods Fifteen neuropsychological tests were readministered to 169 of 197 clients 6 weeks after treatment entry. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate separately the practice effects and recovery in four cognitive domains: executive function, memory, information processing speed, and verbal ability. Client background information included age, sex, education, substance use and consequences, psychopathology, medical problems, familial alcoholism history, and childhood behavior problems. Results A four-factor model of latent neuropsychological ability that was previously identified at treatment entry was replicated at follow-up. Statistically significant increases in the means of the four latent abilities were found. Memory showed a medium effect size improvement. Executive function, verbal ability, and information processing speed, however, showed only small effect size improvements, suggesting limited clinical significance. Substance use between treatment entry and follow-up, antisocial personality disorder, negative use consequences, less education, and medical problems were modestly predictive of less recovery. Conclusion Cognitive recovery in the first 6 weeks of treatment is possible, but, with the possible exception of memory, improvement may be minor in

  11. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    PubMed

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings. PMID:19778915

  12. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  13. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation. PMID:26218326

  14. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  15. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  16. Positive Affect in the Midst of Distress: Implications for Role Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Acree, Michael; Folkman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions. PMID:23175617

  17. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  19. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed. PMID:25671391

  20. Managing Neuropsychological Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephanie; Penner, Iris; Heesen, Christoph; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system of potential autoimmune origin that is frequently associated with psychological disorders and cognitive deficits, as well as with fatigue, stress, and psychosocial burden. These factors often cause decreased quality of life, social withdrawal, and unemployment. We describe the development of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention based on the concept of metacognition and evaluation of the feasibility and acceptance of the program as a rehabilitation tool. Methods: Metacognitive Training in MS (MaTiMS) consists of six modules, each 90 minutes in duration. We tested acceptance and design of the program in six focus groups (entire sample, n = 27). Framework analysis of transcripts was used to identify key topics and categories. Program modules were revised in accordance with appropriate recommendations of focus group members. We subsequently evaluated MaTiMS in two groups (n = 5, n = 6) in a rehabilitation center. Neuropsychological functioning as well as coping self-efficacy, depression, stress, perceived cognitive deficit, fatigue, and quality of life were assessed. Acceptance of MaTiMS from the patient perspective was also studied. Results: The modules were highly accepted by patients. Pre-post assessments showed significant improvements in the Coping Self Efficacy Scale (P = .007), the Würzburger Fatigue Inventory for MS Score (P = .028), and the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire in Multiple Sclerosis Mood subscale (P = .046). Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that MaTiMS represents a feasible psychological group training program that may foster improvements in self-efficacy, fatigue, and mood. The next step will be an evaluation of the program in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:26052258

  1. Proton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Miller, Eric N; Chang, Linda; Marra, Christina M; Schifitto, Giovanni; Ernst, Thomas; Singer, Elyse; Richards, Todd; Jarvik, G Jeffrey; Price, Richard; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Kolson, Dennis; Ellis, Ronald J; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Lenkinski, Robert E; Cohen, Ronald A; Navia, Bradford A

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have described the metabolic substrates underlying neuropsychological performance in HIV infection or examined the specificity of these relationships. The authors performed magnetic resonance spectroscopic and neuropsychological evaluations on 61 patients with AIDS dementia complex (stages 1-3) and 39 HIV-positive neurologically asymptomatic individuals. N-acetylaspartate, a marker of mature neurons, choline and myoinositol, both markers of gliosis, and creatine, a reference marker, were measured in the basal ganglia, frontal white matter, and parietal cortex. The neuropsychological evaluation consisted of tests that measured gross and fine motor skills, psychomotor function, information processing speed, and verbal memory. The authors examined performance on individual subtests and an aggregate Z score based on eight subtests (NPZ-8), adjusted for age and education. The NPZ-8 was significantly higher in subjects with greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine in the frontal white matter and was lower in subjects with higher myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. Particularly strong associations were found between measures of gross and fine motor function, which correlated positively with N-acetylaspartate/creatine in the frontal white matter and negatively with myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. Similarly, cognitive processing speed was negatively correlated with myoinositol/creatine in the basal ganglia. In contrast, there were no statistically significant relationships between brain metabolite levels in the parietal cortex and neuropsychological function. This study provides convincing evidence that neuropsychological impairment is associated with reduced markers of mature neurons and increased markers of gliosis in the basal ganglia and frontal white matter. Neural changes as reflected by these metabolite levels may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk for neuropsychological impairment. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the

  2. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  3. The Neuropsychological Status of Adolescent Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, P. H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The neuropsychological status and neuromotor performance of adolescent boys from lower-middle-class social environments who were detained as juvenile delinquents were compared to those of nondelinquent lower- and upper-middle-class controls. Principal aims were to investigate relationships between delinquency and learning disabilities,…

  4. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  5. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  6. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  7. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  8. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  9. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  10. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25832558

  11. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837

  12. Neuropsychological and Dimensional Behavioral Trait Profiles in Costa Rican ADHD Sib Pairs: Potential Intermediate Phenotypes for Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Peskin, Viviana A.; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R. Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise A.; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A.; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. Methods We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. Results We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). Conclusions The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70–90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25832558

  13. Neuropsychological evaluation for detecting alterations in the central nervous system after chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolla, K I

    1996-08-01

    Individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) report decreased attention/concentration, memory loss, disorientation, confusion, fatigue, depression, irritability, decreased libido, sleep disturbances, headaches, and weakness. These neurobehavioral symptoms represent possible alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The evaluation of neurobehavioral functioning using neuropsychological techniques provides an indirect method for determining the integrity of the CNS. However, caution must be used in interpreting neuropsychological test results, since this technique is extremely sensitive but is not specific. Clinically significant aberrant test performance may be noted after chemical exposure as well as with other diseases of the CNS. In addition, neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression are often manifested as cognitive difficulties that are similar in pattern to the cognitive dysfunction caused by toxic chemicals. Herein, limitations and cautions in the interpretations of neuropsychological test results are discussed. PMID:8921555

  14. Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Matthias; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-10-01

    The term Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) denotes dream loss following focal brain damage. We report the first case of CWS, in whom neuropsychological functions, extension of the underlying lesion, and sleep architecture changes were assessed. A 73-year-old woman reported a total dream loss after acute, bilateral occipital artery infarction (including the right inferior lingual gyrus), which lasted for over 3 months. In the absence of sleep-wake complaints and (other) neuropsychological deficits, polysomnography demonstrated an essentially normal sleep architecture with preservation of REM sleep. Dreaming was denied also after repeated awakenings from REM sleep. This observation suggests that CWS (1) can represent a distinct and isolated neuropsychological manifestation of deep occipital lobe damage, and (2) may occur in the absence of detectable REM sleep abnormalities. PMID:15389890

  15. Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, H K; Prigatano, G P; Pollay, M; Biscoe, C B; Smith, R V

    1985-01-01

    Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second year for strabismus, amblyopia and visual acuity. Their medical records were reviewed for history of ocular motility and/or acuity abnormalities. Hydrocephalic children with normal range IQ were found to have lower verbal IQ, memory, and fine motor skills compared to controls. A history of ocular motility and acuity abnormalities was associated with impaired visuospatial and verbal problem-solving skills. PMID:4005882

  16. Forensic neuropsychology: the art of practicing a science that does not yet exist.

    PubMed

    Faust, D

    1991-09-01

    Despite its future promise, neuropsychological evidence generally lacks scientifically demonstrated value for resolving legal issues, and thus, if admitted into court, should be accorded little or no weight. In support of this contention, examples of problems and limits in forensic neuropsychology are described. These include contrasts between the clinical and forensic context; the base-rate problem; lack of standardized practices; problems assessing credibility or malingering; difficulties determining prior functioning, limits in the capacity to integrate complex data; and the lack of relation between judgmental accuracy and education, experience, or credentials. Some possible counterarguments are also addressed. PMID:1844709

  17. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  18. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Design Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Results Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001), Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01), Narrative Memory (p<0.001) and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05) and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01). Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent. PMID:26829278

  19. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

    PubMed

    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors. PMID:2134302

  20. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed. PMID:17194563

  1. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  2. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  3. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  4. Neuropsychological assessment of a case of early right hemiplegia: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Brizzolara, D; Chilosi, A M; de Nobili, G L; Ferretti, G

    1984-12-01

    Evidence for normal development of linguistic but poor visuo-perceptual skills has been obtained with the neuropsychological assessment of a case of early left-brain injury. Data suggest the transfer of linguistic functions from the left to the right hemisphere at the expense of visuo-perceptual capacities for which the right hemisphere is potentially specialized. PMID:6522185

  5. Effectiveness of Selected Neuropsychological, Academic, and Sociocultural Measures for Predicting Bannatyne Pattern Categories in Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Charles A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the degree to which a set of neuropsychological, organismic, school achievement, and ethnic identity variables correlated with Bannatyne pattern groupings for a selected sample of 100 right-handed Black 12- and 13-year olds. Finds a possible relationship between Bannatyne pattern categories, gender, and certain types of brain functions.…

  6. Multicultural Neuropsychology: Performance of Mandarin-Speaking Children On Widely Used Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Shaio-Ling Judy; Tori, Christopher D.; Saito, Paul

    2008-01-01

    In order to extend the multicultural horizons of neuropsychological assessment in the Chinese mainland, a battery of eight commonly used neurocognitive tests assessing motor speed, verbal and visual-spatial memory, language fluency, attention, and executive functioning were given to 224 Mandarin-speaking school children (107 boys and 117 girls)…

  7. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  8. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  9. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  10. Impact of frequency and lateralization of interictal discharges on neuropsychological and fine motor status in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    PubMed

    Vannest, Jennifer; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Spencer, Caroline; Maloney, Thomas C; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Morita, Diego; Glauser, Tracy A

    2016-08-01

    Despite a positive prognosis for seizure remission, children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) have been reported to exhibit subtle neuropsychological difficulties. We examined the relationship between patterns of centrotemporal spikes (the typical electroencephalography [EEG] finding in BECTS) and neuropsychological and motor outcomes in children with new-onset BECTS. Thirty-four patients with new-onset BECTS (not taking antiepileptic medication) and 48 typically developing children participated in the study. In BECTS patients, centrotemporal spikes (CTS) were evaluated in the first hour awake and first 2 h of sleep in a 24-h EEG recording and left or right-sided origin was noted. General intellectual function, language, visuospatial skill, processing speed, and fine motor skill were assessed in all participants. We found no significant difference between BECTS patients and controls on measures of general intellectual function, or visuospatial or language testing. There were significant differences in processing speed index and nondominant hand fine motor scores between groups. Significant negative relationships were observed between rates of left-sided CTS and right hand fine motor scores. This suggests that psychomotor and fine motor speed are affected in BECTS, but the extent of affected domains may be more limited than previously suggested, especially in untreated patients early in the course of their epilepsy. PMID:27350662

  11. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  12. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits. PMID:17676531

  13. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. PMID:24105915

  14. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    PubMed

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's < .05). The two groups performed similarly on tests of executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  15. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  16. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis. PMID:26507010

  17. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition. PMID:19333063

  18. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  19. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  20. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  1. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  2. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  3. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  4. The Indiana University Telephone-Based Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: A new method for large scale neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    UNVERZAGT, FREDERICK W.; MONAHAN, PATRICK O.; MOSER, LYNDSI R.; ZHAO, QIANQIAN; CARPENTER, JANET S.; SLEDGE, GEORGE W.; CHAMPION, VICTORIA L.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive measures of neuropsychological function were adapted to a telephone administration format for use in a large survey of quality of life in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Healthy controls (HC) and BCS were recruited from the community and administered the same neuropsychological test battery on two occasions separated by 1 week. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions, stratified by diagnosis: In-person at Time-1 and In-person at Time-2 (P-P); Telephone at Time-1 and Telephone at Time-2 (T-T); T-P; and P-T. Four cognitive (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Digit Span, Symbol Digit) and two self-report measures (Squire Memory Self-Report Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. The 106 subjects were randomized (54 HC and 52 BCS). Test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlations) did not differ significantly by condition across the cognitive or self-report measures and ranged from moderate to near perfect (r's .43–.93; p's < .05). Mean scores at Time-1, practice effects (Time-1 to Time-2), and standard errors of measurement were comparable between In-person and Telephone administration formats. Results suggest that memory, attention, information processing speed, verbal fluency, and self-report of mood and memory can be measured reliably and precisely over the telephone. PMID:17697411

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of an aging population of Great Lakes fisheaters.

    PubMed

    Schantz, S L; Sweeney, A M; Gardiner, J C; Humphrey, H E; McCaffrey, R J; Gasior, D M; Srikanth, K R; Budd, M L

    1996-01-01

    Because of the decline in central nervous system function that occurs with age, older people may be at greater risk of neurological dysfunction following exposure to neurotoxic contaminants in the environment. This study was designed to assess the neuropsychological functioning of a group of 50-90-year-old fisheaters exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through Great Lakes fish consumption, and a group of age- and sex-matched nonfisheaters selected from the Michigan Department of Public Health's established cohort of fisheaters and nonfisheaters. A neuropsychological assessment battery, demographic interview, and fish consumption questionnaire were developed and piloted on similarly aged men and women in the Lansing and Detroit, Michigan, areas. The assessment battery included tests of motor function, memory and learning, executive functions, and visual-spatial functions, and took approximately two hours to administer. Most of the tests included in the battery have been shown to be sensitive to subtle, age-related declines in cognitive and motor function. The demographic questionnaire included questions on a number of important control variables that could influence the neuropsychological end points that were assessed in the study. These included demographic background, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, prescription and nonprescription drug use, medical history (including psychiatric illnesses), employment history, and activity level. The fish consumption questionnaire asked about historical and current consumption of specific fish species from each of the Great Lakes and its tributaries and was based on the fish consumption advisories published in the 1992 Michigan Fishing Guide. The questionnaire also asked about consumption of wild game, fish preparation and cooking methods, serving size, and changes in fish consumption patterns over time. After each subject completed the neuropsychological assessment, demographic interview, and fish consumption

  6. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  7. Aging and the misinformation effect: a neuropsychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; Geraci, Lisa

    2007-03-01

    Older adults' susceptibility to misinformation in an eyewitness memory paradigm was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that older adults are more susceptible to interfering misinformation than are younger adults on two different tests (old-new recognition and source monitoring). Experiment 2 examined the extent to which processes associated with frontal lobe functioning underlie older adults' source-monitoring difficulties. Older adults with lower frontal-lobe-functioning scores on neuropsychological tests were particularly susceptible to false memories in the misinformation paradigm. The authors' results agree with data from other false memory paradigms that show greater false recollections in older adults, especially in those who scored poorly on frontal tests. The results support a source-monitoring account of aging and illusory recollection. PMID:17352614

  8. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  9. Psychosocial, neuropsychological and neurological status in a sample of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Thormann, T; Strenge, H; Biernath, E; Foerst, U; Stauch, C; Torp, U; Bernhard, A; Speidel, H

    1992-04-01

    The sample for this psychosocial follow-up study was formed using the 71 surviving patients from a total of 100 who underwent heart transplantation up until March 1990 at Kiel University Hospital. Forty of these could be investigated comprehensively. The neurological investigation comprised EEG and auditory and visually evoked potentials. The psychological investigation started with several neuropsychological tests; additionally all patients were interviewed and they completed questionnaires concerning anxiety, depression, ways of coping, personality characteristics and life satisfaction. Within the entire sample, there were few indications for specific psychological impairment. The psychosocial status of the patients was not significantly related to the time which had elapsed since they underwent transplantation. There were few associations between neuropsychological and psychosocial data, and several indicators of early postoperative complications which are described in the literature (e.g., length of stay in the intensive care unit). Clinically relevant subgroups (formed on the basis of neuropsychological test results, anxiety and depression) did not differ in terms of these indicators. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of the patients (25%) were characterized by having a higher level of affective and neuropsychological impairment. Although based upon retrospective investigations, the results of this follow-up generally correlate with those gained from Anglo-American countries. In interpreting the results one needs to consider the possible influence of premorbid personality characteristics as well as denial which may be typical for patients undergoing heart transplantation. PMID:1301119

  10. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology. PMID:24685311

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and neuropsychological performance in Latina victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vélez, Giselle M; González-Viruet, Maribella; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Pérez-Mojica, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the memory, attention/concentration, and executive functioning of 12 women with histories of child sexual abuse with a control group of 12 women without childhood abuse. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and various instruments assessing post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation. The child sexual abuse group had lower performance than the control group on long- and short-term visual and verbal memory and presented more limited performance on executive functioning tasks. Functioning in these areas showed a negative correlation with post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative symptoms. These findings suggest that child sexual abuse is associated with memory and executive functioning deficits and supports the idea that people with trauma histories and increased post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation symptoms may have alterations in neuropsychological functioning. PMID:24393090

  12. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  13. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  14. [Hypofrontality and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: synthesis of anatomic and neuropsychological knowledge and ecological perspectives].

    PubMed

    Semkovska, M; Bédard, M A; Stip, E

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been observed with neuropsychological tests of executive function, traditionally considered sensitive to frontal lobe damage. These impairments affect planning abilities, as well as the aptitude to initiate and regulate a goal-directed behaviour. On the other hand, negative symptoms of schizophrenia are widely suspected to reflect a frontal lobe dysfunction. Based on a review of a hundred papers, the present article analyses the anatomical and neuropsychological evidence of disturbed frontal lobe functioning in patients with negative schizophrenic symptoms. The phenomenological similarity of some schizophrenic symptoms to the clinical features of patients with prefrontal injury inspired the hypothesis of damaged frontal lobe in the former disorder. The morphological findings of neuroimaging studies brought inconsistent conclusions, with some researchers noting no differences between patients and control subjects while others observing reduced prefrontal volumes in schizophrenia. The functional neuroimaging demonstrated a reduced frontal blood flow relative to the general cerebral perfusion in patients with schizophrenia. Even though the overall neuroimaging literature provides reliable evidence of frontal impairment in schizophrenia, the average magnitude of the difference between patients and healthy controls is insufficient to defend the hypothesis of frontal lobe dysfunction, as far as brain volume, resting metabolism or blood flow are concerned. The only measure, which clearly distinguishes between the patients' and controls' distributions, is the functional neuroimaging of the frontal lobe while subjects are performing an experimentally controlled task. Schizophrenic patients fail to activate their frontal cortex when the task requires it. Analysing executive abilities in relation to symptom expression leads to recognising the fact that frontal dysfunction is a characteristic of only a sub-syndrome of schizophrenia. The

  15. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  16. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  17. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  18. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  19. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  20. Neuropsychological correlates of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, frontal variant of frontotemporal, subcortical vascular, and lewy body dementias: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological correlates of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in patients affected by various forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). 21 fvFTD, 21 LBD, 22 AD, and 22 SIVD patients matched for dementia severity received a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI). The possible association between performance on neuropsychological tests and severity of BPSD was assessed by correlational analysis and multivariate regression. BPSD were present in 99% of patients. Most behavioral symptoms were not related to a particular dementia group or to a specific cognitive deficit. Euphoria and disinhibition were predicted by fvFTD diagnosis. Hallucinations correlated with the severity of visuospatial deficits in the whole sample of patients and were predicted by LBD diagnosis. Apathy, which was found in all dementia groups, correlated with executive functions and was predicted by both reduced set-shifting aptitude and fvFTD diagnosis. The results confirm the high prevalence of BPSD in the mild to moderate stages of dementia and show that most BPSD are equally distributed across dementia groups. Most of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms are independent dimensions of the dementia syndromes. Nevertheless, hallucinations in LBD and euphoria and disinhibition in fvFTD are related to the structural brain alterations that are responsible for cognitive decline in these dementia groups. Finally, apathy arises from damage in the frontal cortical areas that are also involved in executive functions. PMID:24254701

  1. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  2. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  3. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  4. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  5. The inheritance of neuropsychological dysfunction in twins discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cannon, T D; Huttunen, M O; Lonnqvist, J; Tuulio-Henriksson, A; Pirkola, T; Glahn, D; Finkelstein, J; Hietanen, M; Kaprio, J; Koskenvuo, M

    2000-08-01

    While genetic influences in schizophrenia are substantial, the disorder's molecular genetic basis remains elusive. Progress has been hindered by lack of means to detect nonpenetrant carriers of the predisposing genes and by uncertainties concerning the extent of locus heterogeneity. One approach to solving this complexity is to examine the inheritance of pathophysiological processes mediating between genotype and disease phenotype. Here we evaluate whether deficits in neurocognitive functioning covary with degree of genetic relationship with a proband in the unaffected MZ and DZ co-twins of patients with schizophrenia. Twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were recruited from a total population cohort and were compared with a demographically balanced sample of control twin pairs, on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The following four neuropsychological functions contributed uniquely to the discrimination of degree of genetic loading for schizophrenia and, when combined, were more highly correlated within MZ pairs than within DZ pairs, in both discordant and control twins: spatial working memory (i.e., remembering a sequence of spatial locations over a brief delay), divided attention (i.e., simultaneous performance of a counting and visual-search task), intrusions during recall of a word list (i.e., "remembering" nonlist items), and choice reaction time to visual targets. Together with evidence from human and animal studies of mediation of these functions by partially distinct brain systems, our findings suggest that there are multiple independently inherited dimensions of neural deficit in schizophrenia and encourage a search for genes contributing to quantitative variation in discrete aspects of disease liability. On tests of verbal and visual episodic memory, but not on the liability-related measures, patients were more impaired than their own MZ co-twins, suggesting a preferential impact of nongenetic influences on long-term memory systems

  6. Meta-analysis of academic interventions derived from neuropsychological data.

    PubMed

    Burns, Matthew K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusion criteria, which resulted in 37 articles that were included in the current study. Each article was coded based on how the data were used (screening-86% or designing interventions-14%), size of the group for which interventions were delivered (small group-45%, individual students-45%, or entire classroom-10%), and type of data collected (cognitive functions-24%, reading fluency-33%, phonemic/phonological awareness-35%, or mixed-8%). A corrected Hedges' g was computed for every study and reported for variables of interest. A Fail-safe N was also computed to determine how many studies with a zero effect would have to be found to change the conclusions. The data resulted in a small effect (g = 0.17) for measures of cognitive functioning, but moderate effects of g = 0.43 and g = 0.48 for measures of reading fluency and phonemic/phonological awareness. There were few studies that examined measures of cognitive functioning within the intervention process. Taken together with previous research, the data do not support the use of cognitive measures to develop interventions but instead favor more direct measures of academic skills (e.g., reading fluency) in a skill-by-treatment interaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26192390

  7. Neuropsychological findings in pediatric maltreatment: relationship of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and abuse/neglect indices to neurocognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Michael D; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Maltreated (n = 38), maltreated + posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 60), and control youth (n = 104) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. The two maltreated groups performed significantly lower on IQ, academic achievement, and nearly all of the neurocognitive domains than controls. Maltreated + PTSD performed significantly worse than maltreated youth without PTSD on a task in the visuospatial domain that assessed higher order visuoconstructive abilities. No group differences were evident on the fine motor domain. PTSD diagnosis duration negatively correlated with the visuospatial, and dissociation negatively correlated with the attention domain. Cumulative lifetime maltreatment types experienced negatively correlated with academic achievement. Sexual abuse negatively correlated with language and memory functions after controlling for other maltreatment types. These data support the adverse effects of maltreatment on neuropsychological functions in youth and suggest that all child protective services identified youth should be comprehensively examined for the integrity of their neuropsychological functioning and academic skills, regardless of the presence or absence of mental health symptoms. PMID:23886642

  8. Amygdala Perfusion Is Predicted by Its Functional Connectivity with the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Coombs III, Garth; Loggia, Marco L.; Greve, Douglas N.; Holt, Daphne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. Results BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. Conclusions These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach. PMID:24816735

  9. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  10. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  11. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  12. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  13. The Marin Lab at the Dawn of Cognitive Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses the intellectual developments in psychology, linguistics, and behavioral neurology that shaped Oscar Marin’s approach to disorders of high cortical function. As Chief of Neurology at Baltimore City Hospitals in the 1970s, Dr Marin teamed with biopsychologist Eleanor Saffran and the author in seminal studies of acquired language disorders (aphasia) centering on core processes of syntax and semantics, and rejecting premature reductionism. The philosophical and methodological principles that motivated these studies are traced through the author’s personal recollections and the published writings of the Marin lab. These principles came to be associated with the cognitive neuropsychology school of research and have important linkages to contemporary work in the neuroscience of aphasia and related cognitive disorders. PMID:26413736

  14. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  15. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.03; n = 13). Fifteen of 20 (75%) patients tolerated tacrolimus well. The most frequent side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  16. Neuropsychological Profile in a Large Group of Heart Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Daniela; Bardi, Lara; Mojoli, Marco; Volpe, Biancarosa; Gerosa, Gino; Amodio, Piero; Daliento, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. Methods 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. Results Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%). Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. Conclusions Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence. PMID:22180780

  17. The Flynn effect in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Mercedes D; Hiscock, Merrill

    2011-04-01

    The Flynn effect refers to the rise in IQ throughout the 20th century. This study examined whether the Flynn effect has also elevated performance on neuropsychological tests. A search of published norms revealed five tests with appropriate normative data available for comparison. These tests were the Trail-Making Test (TMT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Boston Naming Test, Finger Tapping, and Grooved Pegboard. Results indicated a strong Flynn effect for Parts A and B of the TMT and a probable Flynn effect for the oral SDMT. No Flynn effect was evident for the other tests. Implications for clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:21660765

  18. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and neuropsychological development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Forns, Joan; Casas, Maribel; Martínez, David; Júlvez, Jordi; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-08-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on children's neuropsychological development. We evaluate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and the cognitive, psychomotor and behavioral development of 367 children at repeated ages in a prospective birth cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolites (sum of four DEHP metabolites - Σ4DEHP, MBzP, MEP, MiBP and MnBP) in urine samples collected during the 1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy in women participating in the INMA-Sabadell birth cohort study. We assessed cognitive and psychomotor development of their children at 1 and 4 years, and social competence, ADHD symptoms and other behavioral problems at 4 and 7 years. No associations were observed between prenatal phthalate exposure and cognitive and psychomotor scores at the age of 1 year and at the age of 4 years, except for an association between MBzP and lower psychomotor scores (β=-1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.78, -0.21]). Σ4DEHP concentrations were associated with increased social competence scores at 4 years and with reduced ADHD symptoms at age 4 and 7 years. Increasing MEP concentrations were associated with a reduced risk of inattention symptoms at 4 years. No associations were observed for MBzP, MiBP or MnBP in relation to behavioral problems. This study, with multiple phthalate exposure measurements and measures of neuropsychological domains at different ages, suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure does not adversely affect children's cognitive, psychomotor or behavioral development. PMID:26095249

  19. The superior longitudinal fasciculus in typically developing children and adolescents: diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Urger, Sacide E; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Stephen R; Woolley, Donald P; Chen, Steven D; Provenzale, James

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between superior longitudinal fasciculus microstructural integrity and neuropsychological functions were examined in 49 healthy children (range: 5-17 years) using diffusion tensor imaging. Seven major cognitive domains (intelligence, fine-motor, attention, language, visual-spatial, memory, executive function) were assessed. Data analyses used correlational methods. After adjusting for age and gender, fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus were positively correlated with executive functions of set shifting, whereas left superior longitudinal fasciculus fractional anisotropy values correlated with attention and language. Apparent diffusion coefficient values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus negatively correlated with inhibitory control. In the left arcuate fasciculus, fractional anisotropy correlated with IQ and attention, whereas radial diffusivity values negatively correlated with IQ, fine-motor skills, and expressive language. Findings from this study provide an examination of the relationship between superior longitudinal fasciculus integrity and children's neuropsychological abilities that can be useful in monitoring pediatric neurologic diseases. PMID:24556549

  20. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise. PMID:22136405

  1. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917

  2. Neuropsychological phenotype and psychopathology in seven adult patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome: implications for treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Egger, J I M; Zwanenburg, R J; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Kleefstra, T; Verhoeven, W M A

    2016-04-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is characterized by a variable degree of intellectual disability, impaired speech and language as well as social communicative skills and mild dysmorphic features. The SHANK3 gene is thought to be a major contributor to the phenotype. Apart from the syndrome-associated autistic features, symptoms from the bipolar spectrum can be discerned, in particular behavior instability and fluctuating mood culminating in a (hypo)manic state. In case of coincident major somatic events, a deteriorating course may occur. This study comprises seven adult patients (four females and three males; aged 21-44 years) with genetically proven PMS. Data from medical records were collected and extensive assessment of neuropsychological variables was performed to identify cognitive characteristics and their relation with psychopathology and treatment. All patients showed profound communication deficits and their developmental functioning ranged from 1.0 to 6.3 years. In addition, they had slow speed of information processing, impairment of attentional and executive functions and cognitive alexithymia. As to psychopathology, features from the affective and anxiety domains were prominent findings in these seven patients suggesting the presence of a bipolar spectrum disorder that could be effectively moderated with mood-stabilizing agents. Results are discussed in terms of the putative involvement of structural brain abnormalities, in particular cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and corpus callosum thinning and their cognitive and emotional sequelae. It is concluded that the treatment of 22q13.3-associated psychopathology should include prescription of mood-stabilizing agents in combination with individually tailored contextual neuropsychological measures. PMID:26824576

  3. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs. PMID:26147518

  4. Developing fragility functions for the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, H.; Koshimura, S.; Imai, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Namegaya, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Fragility functions in terms of flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force are developed to evaluate structural vulnerability in the areas affected by the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami. First, numerical simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation are conducted to reproduce the features of tsunami inundation. To validate the results, flow depths measured in field surveys and waveforms measured by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) gauges are utilized. Next, building damage is investigated by visually interpreting changes between pre- and post-tsunami high-resolution satellite images. Finally, the data related to tsunami features and building damage are integrated using Geographic Information System (GIS), and tsunami fragility functions are developed based on the statistical analyses. From the developed fragility functions, we quantitatively understood the vulnerability of a coastal region in American Samoa characterized by steep terrains and ria coasts.

  5. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed. PMID:24848863

  6. Observed Differences in Social Behaviors Exhibited in Peer Interactions Between Youth With Spina Bifida and Their Peers: Neuropsychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Kolbuck, Victoria D.; Zebracki, Kathy; Roache, Caitlin R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in social behaviors in observed peer interactions between children with spina bifida (SB) and peers, and to examine neuropsychological correlates of these differences. Method A total of 100 youth (aged 8–15 years) with SB and peers participated in video-recorded interaction tasks, which were coded for interaction style, affect, and collaboration. Children with SB also completed a neuropsychological test battery. Results Children with SB demonstrated less adaptive social behaviors in peer interactions, particularly within the interaction style domain. Observational items found to be different between children with SB and their peers were best predicted by social language and attention abilities. Conclusions Children with SB exhibit a less adaptive interaction style and lower levels of social dominance but are comparable with typically developing peers on other social behaviors. The observed group differences may have a neuropsychological basis. PMID:25427551

  7. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  8. Neuropsychological Screening with School-Age Children: Rationale and Conceptualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recently endorsed definitions of learning disabilities presume that the disability is due to central nervous system dysfunction. To identify those children who should receive a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, an effective approach to neuropsychological screening is needed. Provides a rationale and conceptual framework for development…

  9. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Changes in a "Normal" Elderly Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, William D.; And Others

    Given the methodological problems with generating and using normative data with the elderly, the need for age-related norms on neuropsychological tests is clearly important. A study was conducted to examine a normal elderly group's performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) over time. Subjects were 57 elderly volunteers…

  10. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  11. Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the neuropsychology of written language is provided. An historical review of language disorders is presented to provide a framework for understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the reading process. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed. Two distinct forms of the disorder are…

  12. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  13. A newly recognized autosomal recessive syndrome affecting neurologic function and vision.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa A; Tzschach, Andreas; Oystreck, Darren T; Hassan, Hamdy H; AlDrees, Abdulmajeed; Elmalik, Salah A; El Khashab, Heba Y; Wienker, Thomas F; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Bosley, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Genetic factors represent an important etiologic group in the causation of intellectual disability. We describe a Saudi Arabian family with closley related parents in which four of six children were affected by a congenital cognitive disturbance. The four individuals (aged 18, 16, 13, and 2 years when last examined) had motor and cognitive delay with seizures in early childhood, and three of the four (sparing only the youngest child) had progressive, severe cognitive decline with spasticity. Two affected children had ocular malformations, and the three older children had progressive visual loss. The youngest had normal globes with good functional vision when last examined but exhibited the oculodigital sign, which may signify a subclinical visual deficit. A potentially deleterious nucleotide change (c.1A>G; p.Met1Val) in the C12orf57 gene was homozygous in all affected individuals, heterozygous in the parents, and absent in an unaffected sibling and >350 normal individuals. This gene has no known function. This family manifests a autosomal recessive syndrome with some phenotypic variability that includes abnormal development of brain and eyes, delayed cognitive and motor milestones, seizures, and a severe cognitive and visual decline that is associated with a homozygous variant in a newly identified gene. PMID:23633300

  14. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  15. Incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Wei; Zhang, Wen; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying how developmental temperature affects the immune system is critical for understanding how ectothermic animals defend against pathogens and their fitness in the changing world. However, reptiles have received little attention regarding this issue. We incubated eggs at three ecologically relevant temperatures to determine how incubation temperature affects the immune function of hatchling soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. When exposed to bacterial infections, hatchlings from 24 °C had lower cumulative mortalities (55%, therefore, higher immunocompetence) than those from 28 °C (85%) or 32 °C (100%). Consistent with higher immunocompetence, hatchlings from low incubation temperature had higher IgM, IgD, and CD3γ expressions than their counterparts from the other two higher incubation temperatures. Conversely, the activity of immunity-related enzymes did not match the among-temperature difference in immune function. Specifically, enzyme activity was higher at intermediate temperatures (alkaline phosphatase) or was not affected by incubation temperature (acid phosphatase, lysozyme). Our study is the first to provide unequivocal evidence (at the molecular and organismal level) about the significant effect of incubation temperature on offspring immunity in reptiles. Our results also indicate that the reduced immunity induced by high developmental temperatures might increase the vulnerability of reptiles to the outbreak of diseases under global warming scenarios. PMID:26028216

  16. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  17. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury: acute versus chronic disturbances?

    PubMed

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M; Rödiger, Lars A; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-04-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully understood. As the admission computed tomography (CT) often is normal, perfusion CT imaging may be a useful indicator of brain dysfunction in the acute phase after injury in these patients. In the present study, directly after admission perfusion CT imaging was performed in mild TBI patients with follow-up neuropsychological assessment in those with complaints and a normal non-contrast CT. Neuropsychological tests comprised the 15 Words test Immediate Recall, Trailmaking test part B, Zoo Map test and the FEEST, which were dichotomized into normal and abnormal. Perfusion CT results of patients with normal neuropsychological test scores were compared to those with abnormal test scores. In total eighteen patients were included. Those with an abnormal score on the Zoo Map test had a significant lower CBV in the right frontal and the bilateral parieto-temporal white matter. Patients with an abnormal score on the FEEST had a significant higher MTT in the bilateral frontal white matter and a significant decreased CBF in the left parieto-temporal grey matter. No significant relation between the perfusion CT parameters and the 15 Words test and the Trailmaking test part B was present. In conclusion, impairments in executive functioning and emotion perception assessed with neuropsychological tests during follow up were related to differences in cerebral perfusion at admission in mild TBI. The pathophysiological concept of these findings is discussed. PMID:24556319

  18. Acute effects of heat on neuropsychological changes and physiological responses under noise condition.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Tripathi, S R; Pradhan, C K; Kashyap, S K

    1990-09-01

    To examine the effects of heat and noise individually and jointly on certain physiological responses and cognitive and neuromotor based functions, 12 male participants were tested under 6 experimental conditions which resulted by combining 3 levels of heat (25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) and 2 levels of white noise (70 and 100 dB). The experiment was carried out in a controlled climatic chamber following two 6 x 6 latin square designs. The results indicated elevations in heart rate, oxygen uptake and body temperature due to the independent effect of heat or the combined effects of heat and noise. The independent action of noise was found to be depressive on the first two responses. On the neuropsychological effects, the heat adversely affected the speed in card sorting (by design configuration) and digit symbol tests, and also the accuracy and error rate in the reasoning ability test. The noise caused performance improvements in critical flicker frequency (simultaneous) and in error rates in card sorting (by design configuration). The combined effects of heat and noise indicated higher error rates in card sorting (by face value), decreased accuracy in reasoning ability and improvements in performance in accuracy scores and error rates in digit symbol test. PMID:2279778

  19. Performance of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) in Detecting Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Susan S.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Gathright, Emily C.; Gunstad, John; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate capacity of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) to detect cognitive impairment (CI) in heart failure (HF) patients. Background CI is a key prognostic marker in HF. Though the most widely used cognitive screen in HF, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is insufficiently sensitive. The ANAM has demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive domains affected by HF, but has not been assessed in this population. Methods Investigators administered the ANAM and MMSE to 57 HF patients, compared against a composite model of cognitive function. Results ANAM efficiency (p < .05) and accuracy scores (p < .001) successfully differentiated CI and non-CI. ANAM efficiency and accuracy scores classified 97.7% and 93.0% of non-CI patients, and 14.3% and 21.4% with CI, respectively. Conclusions The ANAM is more effective than the MMSE for detecting CI, but further research is needed to develop a more optimal cognitive screen for routine use in HF patients. PMID:26354858

  20. Elementary neurocognitive function, facial affect recognition and social-skills in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Melissa B; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2009-05-01

    Social-skill deficits are pervasive in schizophrenia and negatively impact many key aspects of functioning. Prior studies have found that measures of elementary neurocognition and social cognition are related to social-skills. In the present study we selected a range of neurocognitive measures and examined their relationship with identification of happy and sad faces and performance-based social-skills. Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Results revealed that: 1) visual vigilance, problem-solving and affect recognition were related to social-skill; 2) links between problem-solving and social-skill, but not visual vigilance and social-skill, remained significant when estimates of verbal intelligence were controlled; 3) affect recognition deficits explained unique variance in social-skill after neurocognitive variables were controlled; and 4) affect recognition deficits partially mediated the relationship of visual vigilance and social-skill. These results support the conclusion that facial affect recognition deficits are a crucial domain of impairment in schizophrenia that both contribute unique variance to social-skill deficits and may also mediate the relationship between some aspects of neurocognition and social-skill. These findings may help guide the development and refinement of cognitive and social-cognitive remediation methods for social-skill impairment. PMID:19328653

  1. Functional Connectivity of Pain-Mediated Affect Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Kirsch, Peter; Schulze, Lars; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD. We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para-) limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex) in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral) affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception). Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-)limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen), as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate). We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia. PMID:22428013

  2. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  3. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Chantsoulis, Marzena; Mirski, Andrzej; Rasmus, Anna; Kropotov, Juri D; Pachalska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the 'Academy of Life,' which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy. PMID:26094541

  4. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Tajnik, Mojca; Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Balestra, Dario; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  5. Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Strategies to Rescue Factor IX Variants That Affect Splicing and Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Bussani, Erica; Barbon, Elena; Pinotti, Mirko; Pagani, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that result in amino acid changes can affect both pre-mRNA splicing and protein function. Understanding the combined effect is essential for correct diagnosis and for establishing the most appropriate therapeutic strategy at the molecular level. We have identified a series of disease-causing splicing mutations in coagulation factor IX (FIX) exon 5 that are completely recovered by a modified U1snRNP particle, through an SRSF2-dependent enhancement mechanism. We discovered that synonymous mutations and missense substitutions associated to a partial FIX secretion defect represent targets for this therapy as the resulting spliced-corrected proteins maintains normal FIX coagulant specific activity. Thus, splicing and protein alterations contribute to define at the molecular level the disease-causing effect of a number of exonic mutations in coagulation FIX exon 5. In addition, our results have a significant impact in the development of splicing-switching therapies in particular for mutations that affect both splicing and protein function where increasing the amount of a correctly spliced protein can circumvent the basic functional defects. PMID:27227676

  6. Microbial Functional Potential and Community Composition in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the NW Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Frank-Fahle, Béatrice A.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.; Lantuit, Hugues; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most obvious ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of global warming. Warmer conditions in polygonal tundra will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. To identify current microbial assemblages in carbon rich, water saturated permafrost environments, four polygonal tundra sites were investigated on Herschel Island and the Yukon Coast, Western Canadian Arctic. Ion Torrent sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA amplicons revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups and indicated a local, vertical heterogeneity of the polygonal tundra soil community with increasing depth. Microbial diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing towards the permafrost table. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes involved in carbon and nitrogen-cycling revealed a high functional potential in the surface layers, decreasing with increasing active layer depth. We observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied in each study site. These results highlight the small-scale heterogeneity of geomorphologically comparable sites, greatly restricting generalizations about the fate of permafrost-affected environments in a warming Arctic. PMID:24416279

  7. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  8. Extender components and surfactants affect boar sperm function and membrane behavior during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, M J; Buhr, M M

    1998-01-01

    To determine how the individual components of extenders affected boar sperm function and membrane structure and to test a new surfactant's cryoprotective ability, boar sperm were cryopreserved in straws in BF5 extender plus or minus egg yolk plus or minus glycerol plus or minus a surfactant (Orvus ES Paste [OEP] or various concentrations of Pluronic F-127). After thawing, sperm function and fluidity of the isolated head plasma membrane (HPM) were determined. Total motility and adenosine triphosphate content (a measure of viability) were superior postthaw in sperm extended in egg yolk plus glycerol (P < 0.05); neither surfactant improved function. Egg yolk plus any other ingredients improved normal acrosome morphology, whereas a combined measure of motility and normal acrosome morphology was better in the presence of 0.33% OEP or 0.1% Pluronic F-127 (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Head plasma membrane was isolated from freshly collected spermatozoa and spermatozoa cryopreserved in the various extenders. Membrane fluidity was monitored with the probes cis-parinaric acid (cPNA), transparinaric acid (tPNA), and 1,6-diphenyl-1 ,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The cPNA and the DPH monitor the fluidity of gel and liquid-crystalline areas of the membrane, whereas the tPNA preferentially monitors the gel-phase domains of the membrane. Additionally, DPH monitors the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. In the HPM from fresh sperm, the fluidity of each domain changed over time in a manner unique to that domain, and the behavior of the DPH domain varied among boars. The fluidity dynamics of each domain responded uniquely to cryopreservation. The cPNA domain was unaffected, the tPNA domain was altered by four of the eight extenders, and all extenders affected the fluidity of the DPH domain. Membrane structure was significantly correlated with cell function for sperm cryopreserved in extenders that preserved viability and motility. Sperm cryopreserved in egg yolk plus glycerol plus either OEP or 0

  9. Ultra-endurance exercise induces stress and inflammation and affects circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell function.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, I; Kröpfl, J M; Fuchs, R; Pekovits, K; Mangge, H; Raggam, R B; Gruber, H-J; Prüller, F; Hofmann, P; Truschnig-Wilders, M; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Haushofer, A C; Kessler, H H; Mächler, P

    2015-10-01

    Although amateur sports have become increasingly competitive within recent decades, there are as yet few studies on the possible health risks for athletes. This study aims to determine the impact of ultra-endurance exercise-induced stress on the number and function of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) and hematological, inflammatory, clinical, metabolic, and stress parameters in moderately trained amateur athletes. Following ultra-endurance exercise, there were significant increases in leukocytes, platelets, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, tissue enzymes, blood lactate, serum cortisol, and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Ultra-endurance exercise did not influence the number of CPCs but resulted in a highly significant decline of CPC functionality after the competition. Furthermore, Epstein-Barr virus was seen to be reactivated in one of seven athletes. The link between exercise-induced stress and decline of CPC functionality is supported by a negative correlation between cortisol and CPC function. We conclude that ultra-endurance exercise induces metabolic stress and an inflammatory response that affects not only mature hematopoietic cells but also the function of the immature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fraction, which make up the immune system and provide for regeneration. PMID:25438993

  10. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  11. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mcinnes, Andrew D.; DeGroote, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. PMID:25371840

  12. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD. PMID:27058747

  13. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective. PMID:27509764

  14. The cognitive neuropsychological phenotype of carriers of the FMR1 premutation.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Jim; Cornish, Kim; Hocking, Darren; Kraan, Claudine; Olichney, John M; Rivera, Susan M; Schneider, Andrea; Sherman, Stephanie; Wang, Jun Yi; Yang, Jin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting a subset of carriers of the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) premutation. Penetrance and expression appear to be significantly higher in males than females. Although the most obvious aspect of the phenotype is the movement disorder that gives FXTAS its name, the disorder is also accompanied by progressive cognitive impairment. In this review, we address the cognitive neuropsychological and neurophysiological phenotype for males and females with FXTAS, and for male and female unaffected carriers. Despite differences in penetrance and expression, the cognitive features of the disorder appear similar for both genders, with impairment of executive functioning, working memory, and information processing the most prominent. Deficits in these functional systems may be largely responsible for impairment on other measures, including tests of general intelligence and declarative learning. FXTAS is to a large extent a white matter disease, and the cognitive phenotypes observed are consistent with what some have described as white matter dementia, in contrast to the impaired cortical functioning more characteristic of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Although some degree of impaired executive functioning appears to be ubiquitous among persons with FXTAS, the data suggest that only a subset of unaffected carriers of the premutation - both female and male - demonstrate such deficits, which typically are mild. The best-studied phenotype is that of males with FXTAS. The manifestations of cognitive impairment among asymptomatic male carriers, and among women with and without FXTAS, are less well understood, but have come under increased scrutiny. PMID:25136377

  15. A genome-wide screen for genes affecting eisosomes reveals Nce102 function in sphingolipid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Florian; Moreira, Karen; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Hubner, Nina C.; Mann, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The protein and lipid composition of eukaryotic plasma membranes is highly dynamic and regulated according to need. The sphingolipid-responsive Pkh kinases are candidates for mediating parts of this regulation, as they affect a diverse set of plasma membrane functions, such as cortical actin patch organization, efficient endocytosis, and eisosome assembly. Eisosomes are large protein complexes underlying the plasma membrane and help to sort a group of membrane proteins into distinct domains. In this study, we identify Nce102 in a genome-wide screen for genes involved in eisosome organization and Pkh kinase signaling. Nce102 accumulates in membrane domains at eisosomes where Pkh kinases also localize. The relative abundance of Nce102 in these domains compared with the rest of the plasma membrane is dynamically regulated by sphingolipids. Furthermore, Nce102 inhibits Pkh kinase signaling and is required for plasma membrane organization. Therefore, Nce102 might act as a sensor of sphingolipids that regulates plasma membrane function. PMID:19564405

  16. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  17. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  18. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  19. Noise affects the shape of female preference functions for acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    The shape of female mate preference functions influences the speed and direction of sexual signal evolution. However, the expression of female preferences is modulated by interactions between environmental conditions and the female's sensory processing system. Noise is an especially relevant environmental condition because it interferes directly with the neural processing of signals. Although noise is therefore likely a significant force in the evolution of communication systems, little is known about its effects on preference function shape. In the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus, female preferences for male calling song characteristics are likely to be affected by noise because its auditory system is sensitive to fine temporal details of songs. We measured female preference functions for variation in male song characteristics in several levels of masking noise and found strong effects of noise on preference function shape. The overall responsiveness to signals in noise generally decreased. Preference strength increased for some signal characteristics and decreased for others, largely corresponding to expectations based on neurophysiological studies of acoustic signal processing. These results suggest that different signal characteristics will be favored under different noise conditions, and thus that signal evolution may proceed differently depending on the extent and temporal patterning of environmental noise. PMID:25546134

  20. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R.; Battin, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5–152 μmole photons s−1 m−2) and combined 454‐pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph‐derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure–function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes. PMID:26013911