Sample records for affects surface photometry

  1. Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Tarusawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies with B(sub 25.5) less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x 9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based on photographic photometry using an automated surface photometry software for data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalog provides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major and minor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentary morphology (early of late type).

  2. BVRI Surface Photometry of Isolated Galaxy Triplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Méndez-Hernández, H.; Aceves, H.; Olguín, L.

    2011-03-01

    Optical broadband BVRI observations of 54 galaxies selected from the Catalog of Isolated Triplets of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere have been carried out at San Pedro Mártir National Observatory to evaluate their photometric and morphological properties. We complement our analysis with Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and look for signatures likely related to interactions/mergers. We report apparent/absolute BVRI magnitudes and colors for the 54 galaxies. The membership of these galaxies is re-evaluated by imposing a reasonable condition of concordant redshifts upon the original selection criteria, rendering a final sample of 34 galaxies in 13 triplets, 12 galaxies in close pairs, and 8 galaxy outliers. The triplets are spiral-dominated systems in different dynamical stages from loosely interacting to almost merged objects. The incidence fraction of features likely associated with interactions is ~56%, similar to those found in northern and southern compact groups. The average fraction of bars is 35% with a mean value of maximum bar ellipticity epsilonmax ? 0.4. Bars are hosted in the late-type triplet spirals, almost twice more than in early-type spirals. The global fraction of rings is 20%, all in the late-type components. The overdensity of triplets with respect to the background and their current dynamical status, as devised from our estimate of their dynamical parameters, namely the harmonic radius RH , velocity dispersion ?, dimensionless crossing time H 0? c , and virial mass MV , appear to be sufficient to favor galaxy transformations similar to those seen in dense groups and clusters. By contrast, the lower fraction of bonafide ellipticals and the relatively higher fraction of late-type spirals make these triplets essentially different from the Hickson Compact Groups and more representative of the field. A modest 1.6 enhancement factor in the optical luminosity of the late-type triplet components relative to an isolated galaxy control sample is also interpreted as consistent with interactions in physically bounded aggregates. Our results lead us to suggest that non-negligible populations of physical triplets might be found in complete and well-observed samples. We provide individual mosaics for the 54 galaxies containing (1) logarithmic-scaled R-band images, (2) R-band sharp/filtered images, (3) (B - I) color index maps, (4) RGB images from the SDSS database, (5) co-added J + H + K images generated from the 2MASS archives that were also sharp/filtered, and (6) epsilon, position angle radial profiles from a surface photometry analysis of (a) the R band and (b) the co-added near-infrared images, all used for the present analysis.

  3. Evaluation of biangular reflection photometry for quantitative study of etched alloy surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J R; Brantley, W A

    1987-08-01

    Biangular reflection photometry was correlated with quantitative stereology and direct pit-depth measurements for an electrolytically etched nickel-chromium-beryllium alloy. Effects of viewing angle, viewing aperture, and plane polarization of incident and viewing light were also studied. The results showed that architectural changes in the etched metal surface could be quantitatively described with the use of reflection photometry. An off-specular peak, located at an angle of reflection considerably different from the angle of incidence, was observed to have an intensity comparable with that of the specular reflection peak. Viewing aperture was found to affect one's ability to distinguish among degrees of surface roughness. PMID:3305636

  4. The Structure of Galaxies I: Surface Photometry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, J.; Smith, A. K.

    2012-04-01

    This project uses the 2MASS all-sky image database to study the structure of galaxies over a range of luminosities, sizes and morphological types. This first paper in this series will outline the techniques, reliability and data products to our surface photometry program. Our program will analyze all acceptable galaxies (meeting our criteria for isolation from companions and bright stars) from the Revised Shapley-Ames and Uppsala galaxy catalogs. Resulting photometry and surface brightness profiles are released using a transparent scheme of data storage which includes not only all the processed data but knowledge of the processing steps and calibrating parameters.

  5. Fractoids and photometry of solid surfaces of celestial bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Yu. G.

    1995-12-01

    The scale self-similarity of the surfaces of atmosphereless celestial bodies is demonstrated to be liable to control their photometric properties, particularly, the brightness distribution across the visible disk. Mathematical objects called fractoids are introduced for the sake of modeling the effect of the self-similarity. Fractoids are self-similar structures with an infinity of scales, but, as distinct from fractals, they keep the equality of topological and fractal dimensions. A general method for determining photometric functions of fractoids is proposed, taking advantage of the scale invariance of the classic photometry problems. Examples of application of the method are offered. In particular, a fractoid with a generating structure of the random relief type furnishes, at certain values of the parameter, Akimov's scattering law, which was derived previously from other considerations. The case of a degenerate fractoid, formed by the superposition of single-scaled generating structures, is also discussed.

  6. Surface photometry of a sample of elliptical and S0 galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    De carvalho, R.R.; Da costa, L.N.; Djorgovski, S. (Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Sao Cristovao (Brazil) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The results are reported of surface photometry of 38 early-type galaxies, located mainly in the Fornax Cluster. Detailed comparisons with previously published work are given along with internal and external error estimates for all quantities, and some serious systematic discrepancies in the older aperture photometry of some of the galaxies in the present sample are pointed out. 15 refs.

  7. Surface Photometry of the Southern Milky Way at 170 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Koczet, P.

    As part of the D2-Space-Shuttle-Mission in 1993, the GAUSS-Camera has obtained photographic images of the Milky Way in various passbands in the Ultraviolet. Each film covers an area of the sky of about 140^\\circ. Six images were obtained at 170 nm, but only three of them could be used. The calibration has been done using the catalogued intensities of stars and transforming them into surface brightnesses. Then the stars on the images have been filtered out and the Shuttle-Glow has been eliminated. The images finally have been transformed into maps of the Milky Way in galactic coordinates l, b. These maps cover the Milky Way between the Galactic Center and Vela (360^\\circ <= l <= 270^\\circ, - -25^\\circ <= b <= 35^\\circ) and include dark clouds, reflection nebulae and bright open clusters. They are a perfect tool to investigate the distribution of these objects and therefore the global structure of the Milky Way. The image of the Milky Way at 170 nm is heavily dominated by interstellar extinction, leading to high intensity gradients all over the galactic plane. The images at 217 nm and 280 nm, also obtained by the GAUSS-Camera, and previous photometries taken in U, B, V and R have been used for comparison.

  8. Photometry of rough planetary surfaces - The role of multiple scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Veverka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Topographic features affect the scattering properties of planetary surfaces by casting shadows and altering the local incidence and emission angles. Measurements of this phenomenon were obtained on the Cornell goniometer for both high and low albedo surfaces. For the low albedo surface, the decrease in reflected radiation due to topography increases sharply with increasing phase angle, whereas for the high albedo sample the effects are approximately constant between phase angles of 30 and 70 deg. The observations are in good agreement with a theoretical model in the case of the dark surface. However, for the high albedo surface the model overestimates the effects by a factor of 2, since it does not include the partial illumination of shadows by multiple scattering. For both high and low albedo surfaces, the effects of topography do not become significant until a phase angle of 30-40 deg.

  9. Planetary surface photometry and imaging: progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goguen, Jay D

    2014-10-01

    Spacecraft have visited and returned many thousands of images and spectra of all of the planets, many of their moons, several asteroids, and a few comet nuclei during the golden age of planetary exploration. The signal in each pixel of each image or spectral channel is a measurement of the radiance of scattered sunlight into a specific direction. The information on the structure and composition of the surface that is contained in variation of the radiance with scattering geometry and wavelength, including polarization state, has only just begun to be exploited and is the topic of this review. The uppermost surfaces of these bodies are mainly composed of particles that are continuously generated by impacts of micrometeoroids and larger impactors. Models of light scattering by distributions of sizes and irregular shapes of particles and by closely packed particles within a surface are challenging. These are active topics of research where considerable progress has recently been made. We focus on the surfaces of bodies lacking atmospheres.These surfaces are diverse and their morphologies give evidence of their evolution by impacts and resurfacing by a variety of processes including down slope movement and electrostatic transport of particles, gravitational accumulation of debris, volatile outgassing and migration, and magnetospheric interactions. Sampling of scattering geometries and spatial resolution is constrained by spacecraft trajectories. However, the large number of archived images and spectra demand more quantitative interpretation. The scattering geometry dependence of the radiance is underutilized and promises constraints on the compositions and structure of the surface for materials that lack diagnostic wavelength dependence. The general problem is considered in terms of the lunar regolith for which samples have been returned to Earth. PMID:25313169

  10. Asteroid Photometry

    E-print Network

    Li, Jian-Yang; Buratti, Bonnie J; Takir, Driss; Clark, Beth Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid photometry has three major applications: providing clues about asteroid surface physical properties and compositions, facilitating photometric corrections, and helping design and plan ground-based and spacecraft observations. The most significant advances in asteroid photometry in the past decade were driven by spacecraft observations that collected spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy data. In the mean time, laboratory measurements and theoretical developments are revealing controversies regarding the physical interpretations of models and model parameter values. We will review the new developments in asteroid photometry that have occurred over the past decade in the three complementary areas of observations, laboratory work, and theory. Finally we will summarize and discuss the implications of recent findings.

  11. CCD surface photometry for E and S0 galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, I.; Franx, M.; Kjaergaard, P.

    1992-11-01

    The paper presents CCD surface photometry in Johnson B and Gunn r for 33 galaxies in the Coma cluster and for 13 galaxies in the field or in other clusters, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO, La Silla, Chile in the period April 3-10, 1989. The data were calibrated with standard stars. Data for all galaxies include derivations of effective radius, mean surface brightness, and total magnitude. Good agreement was found between the photometry and the global parameters presented with data of Dressler, Faber, Burstein and their collaborators, indicating that the quality of the CCD data is fully adequate for studies of the large-scale motions in the universe.

  12. Radiative transfer in the surfaces of atmosphereless bodies. III - Interpretation of lunar photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.; Irvine, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Narrowband and UBV photoelectric phase curves of the entire lunar disk and surface photometry of some craters have been interpreted using a newly developed generalized radiative transfer theory for planetary regoliths. The data are well fitted by the theory, yielding information on both macroscopic and microscopic lunar properties. Derived values for the integrated disk geometric albedo are considerably higher than quoted previously, because of the present inclusion of an accurately determined opposition effect. The mean surface roughness, defined as the ratio of the height to the radius of a typical irregularity, is found to be 0.9 + or - 0.1, or somewhat less than the mean value of 1.2 obtained for the asteroids. From the phase curves, wavelength-dependent values of the single scattering albedo and the Henyey-Greenstein asymmetry factor for the average surface particle are derived.

  13. Deep Near-IR Surface Photometry of 57 Galaxies in the Local Sphere of Influence

    E-print Network

    Emma Kirby; Helmut Jerjen; Stuart Ryder; Simon Driver

    2008-08-19

    We present H-band surface photometry of 57 galaxies drawn from the Local Sphere of Influence (LSI) with distances of less than 10 Mpc from the Milky Way. The images with a typical surface brightness limit 4 mag fainter than 2MASS (24.5 mag arcsec^-2 _eff between 18-21 mag arcsec^-2 by up to 2.5 mag. The Sersic parameters best describing the observed surface brightness profiles are also presented. Adopting accurate galaxy distances and a H-band mass-to-light ratio of Upsilon_H=1.0 +/- 0.4, the LSI galaxies are found to cover a stellar mass range of 5.6 < log_10 (M_stars) < 11.1. The results are discussed along with previously obtained optical data. Our sample of low luminosity galaxies is found to follow closely the optical-infrared B versus H luminosity relation defined by brighter galaxies with a slope of 1.14 +/- 0.02 and scatter of 0.3 magnitudes. Finally we analyse the luminosity - surface brightness relation to determine an empirical mass-to-light ratio of Upsilon_H=0.78 +/- 0.08 for late-type galaxies in the H-band.

  14. Photographic surface photometry of the Milky Way. IV - The Northern Milky Way in the ultraviolet spectral region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Winkler; T. Schmidt-Kaler; W. Schlosser

    1982-01-01

    The most important objective of the reported investigation is related to an examination of the methods for the intensity calibration of the super wide-angle photographs without any accompanying photoelectric measurements. The investigation is also to provide photographic surface photometry of the Milky Way in the region of the anticenter for the ultraviolet spectral region as a basis for a study

  15. Multicolour Optical Imaging of IR-Warm Seyfert Galaxies. III. Surface Photometry: Light Profile Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Eleni T. Chatzichristou

    1999-12-10

    This paper is the third in a series, studying the optical properties of a sample of mid-IR Warm Seyfert galaxies and of a control sample of mid-IR Cold galaxies. The present paper is devoted to surface photometry. We analyse the light distributions characterizing the galaxies outside the central 2 kpc. The radial light profiles are decomposed, using two generalized exponentials, in inner and outer components. Each is characterized by the profile shape, central surface brightness and scale length. We find that light is more centrally concentrated in Seyfert 1s, that also tend to lie in earlier-type hosts than Seyfert 2s. Seyfert 1 and 2 bulges have similar shapes but the former are characterized by larger central surface brightnesses and smaller scale lengths. The three parameters characterizing the bulge component correlate with each other, within a limited range of bulge luminosities. Cold galaxies are disk-dominated systems, with complex morphologies. Their bulges are flatter and fainter compared to the Warm sample. The disk structural parameters span similar ranges for the three (sub)samples but with larger scatter. The parametrization of light profiles, as described in this paper, shows that the three (sub)samples occupy different loci in parameter space, that is suggestive of an evolutionary connection between them.

  16. Near-infrared surface photometry of early-type spiral galaxies: I. Bulge and disk decomposition

    E-print Network

    Giovanni Moriondo; Carlo Giovanardi; Leslie K. Hunt

    1998-02-11

    We present near-infrared (NIR) surface photometry of a sample of 14 early-type spirals with observed rotation curves. In this first paper, we report the results of two-dimensional parametric and non-parametric decompositions to separate the bulge and disk components; the parametric bulge is modeled with a generalized exponential law of integer index n, and the disk with a simple exponential. We find that the derived bulge parameters, for a given galaxy, vary systematically with the bulge shape index n. The mean early-type bulge has a best-fit n = 2.6, and 80% of the sample has best n of 2 or 3. Bulges are rarely spherical; the median bulge intrinsic ellipticity is 0.33. The median early-type disk has (J-K)_d more than 0.1 mag bluer than the bulge, and a NIR disk surface brightness more than 1 mag arcsec^{-2} brighter than later-type disks. Our data are consistent with the well-established correlation of both bulge and disk surface brightness with physical scale length, and we note that the location of bulges within this projection of the fundamental plane depends on their shape index n. In agreement with previous work, the ratios of bulge and disk scale lengths are consistent with a constant value r_e/r_d = 0.3; however, such value again depends on the bulge index n, implying that claims for a scale-free Hubble sequence may be premature.

  17. NGC 4314. I - Visible and short-wavelength infrared surface photometry of the nucleus and bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.; Higdon, J. L.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Hahn, J. M.; Harvey, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    BVI (TI CCD) and JHK (University of Texas IR Camera) surface photometry of NGC 4314, an SB (rs)ap anemic spiral with a nuclear ring containing recent star formation, is presented. The shortwave IR (SWIR) frames reveal a nuclear bar of length 2 arcsec at PA of 0 deg. The nuclear ring and associated dust were detected in all SWIR color indices. A nuclear spiral was detected in the visible and SWIR just exterior to the ring. Extremely low-amplitude spiral-shaped deficits were found in the stellar distribution in the SWIR in this same region. These are attributed to dust, since CO is detectable at or near these locations. Average minor-axis profiles show this galaxy to have a nuclear bulge obeying the de Vaucouleurs r exp 1/4 law for values in the range 2-7 arcsec. The extinction and scattering characteristics of dust near the sites of recent star formation in the nuclear ring are discussed.

  18. LROC NAC Photometry as a Tool for Studying Physical and Compositional Properties of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Stopar, J. D.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.

    2014-10-01

    LROC NAC photometry has been used to study the effects of rocket exhaust on lunar soil properties, and here we apply the same photometric methods to place compositional constraints on regions of silicic volcanism and pure anorthosite on the Moon.

  19. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  20. HST Surface Photometry of NGC 4314 - History of Star Formation in a Nuclear Ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fritz Benedict; Andy Howell; Inger Jorgensen; Beverly J. Smith; Jeffrey D. P. Kenney

    1998-01-01

    Using HST WFPC2 images, we have derived U, B, V, I, and H-alpha photometry for 80 star clusters in the nuclear star-forming ring in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4314. The blue colors and strong H-alpha emission for some of these clusters imply very young ages of less than 5 Myr. Further out in the galaxy, just exterior to this

  1. Hierarchical titanium surface textures affect osteoblastic functions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changli; Cao, Peng; Ji, Weiping; Han, Pei; Zhang, Jihong; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2011-12-15

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and in vitro cytocompatibility of hierarchical textured titanium surfaces with nanograins and microroughness, produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle, and surface energy measurements. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the SMAT processed surfaces (hereafter Ti-SMAT surfaces) were assessed in terms of cellular attachment, morphology, viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA gene expression. Two other titanium surfaces were compared: well-polished Ti6Al4V surfaces (hereafter Ti-polish surfaces) and thermally sprayed rough surfaces (hereafter Ti-spray surfaces). The Ti-SMAT surfaces showed a higher hydrophilicity and increased surface energy compared with the Ti-polish and Ti-spray surfaces. Consequently, these Ti-SMAT surfaces demonstrated enhancement of cell attachment, spreading, viability, and ALP activity. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed significantly higher ALP activity and stronger expression of mRNA levels of key osteoblast genes in cells grown on the Ti-SMAT surfaces than the other two surfaces. These results reveal a synergic role played by nanostructure and microtopography in osteoblastic functions and demonstrate the more promising cytocompatibility of the hierarchical textured surfaces. It is suggested that the SMAT process may provide a novel method of surface modification to the currently available metallic biomaterials. PMID:21972107

  2. VEGAS: A VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey. I. Presentation, wide-field surface photometry, and substructures in NGC 4472

    E-print Network

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrichetta; Limatola, Luca; Napolitano, Nicola R; Cantiello, Michele; Paolillo, Maurizio; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A; Puzia, Thomas H; Raimondo, Gabriella; Schipani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    We present the VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey (VEGAS), which is designed to obtain deep multiband photometry in g, r, i, of about one hundred nearby galaxies down to 27.3, 26.8, and 26 mag/arcsec^2 respectively, using the ESO facility VST/OmegaCAM.} The goals of the survey are 1) to map the light distribution up to ten effective radii, r_e, 2) to trace color gradients and surface brightness fluctuation gradients out to a few r_e for stellar population characterization, and 3) to obtain a full census of the satellite systems (globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) out to 20% of the galaxy virial radius. The external regions of galaxies retain signatures of the formation and evolution mechanisms that shaped them, and the study of nearby objects enables a detailed analysis of their morphology and interaction features. To clarify the complex variety of formation mechanisms of early-type galaxies (ETGs), wide and deep photometry is the primary observational step, which at the moment has been pursued with only a few d...

  3. Deep multiband surface photometry on star forming galaxies: II. A volume limited sample of 21 emission lines galaxies

    E-print Network

    Micheva, Genoveva; Zackrisson, Erik; Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Masegosa, Josefa; Marquez, Isabel; Cumming, Robert; Durret, Florence

    2012-01-01

    We present deep surface photometry of a volume--limited sample of 21 UM emission line galaxies in broadband optical UBVRI and near infra-red (NIR) HKs filters. The sample comprises 19 blue compact galaxies (BCGs) and two spirals. For some targets the exposure times are the deepest to date. For the BCG UM462 we observe a previously undetected second disk component beyond a surface brightness level of mu_B=26 mag arcsec^{-2}. This is a true low surface brightness component with central surface brightness mu_0=24.1 mag arcsec^{-2} and scale length h_r=1.5 kpc. All BCGs are dwarfs, with M_B>=-18, and very compact, with an average scale length of h_r~1 kpc. We separate the burst and host populations for each galaxy and compare them to stellar evolutionary models with and without nebular emission contribution. We also measure the A_{180} asymmetry in all filters and detect a shift from optical to NIR in the average asymmetry of the sample. This shift seems to be correlated with the morphological class of the BCGs. ...

  4. Stellar Populations and the Star Formation Histories of LSB Galaxies: IV Spitzer Surface Photometry of LSB Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James M.; McGaugh, Stacy

    2014-02-01

    Surface photometry at 3.6 ?m is presented for 61 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies (? o <19 3.6 ?m mag arcsecs-2). The sample covers a range of luminosity from -11 to -22 in M 3.6 and size from 1 to 25 kpc. The morphologies in the mid-IR are comparable to those in the optical with 3.6 ?m imaging reaches similar surface brightness depth as ground-based optical imaging. A majority of the resulting surface brightness profiles are single exponential in shape with very few displaying upward or downward breaks. The mean V - 3.6 colour of LSB is 2.3 with a standard deviation of 0.5. Colour-magnitude and two-colour diagrams are well matched to models of constant star formation, where the spread in colour is due to small changes in the star formation rate (SFR) over the last 0.5 Gyrs as also suggested by the specific SFR measured by H?.

  5. How surface damage removal affects fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeelani, S.; Scott, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the removal of work hardened surface layers from specimens of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy and AISI-4130 steel on their fatigue lives has been investigated. Specimens were fatigued at selected stress levels for a given number of cycles, and the surface layer was removed followed by subsequent fatigue cycling. Results confirm that when a material is subjected to fatigue loading, damage accumulates in the surface layers in the form of work hardening. Removal of the surface layer brings the specimen back to its pre-fatigued condition.

  6. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McWilliams

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC),

  7. Surface forces affecting the biocompatibility of modified polydimethylsiloxane films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Farrell Kelchner

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in surface properties once polysaccharides and polyethylene glycol are covalently bonded to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane with the goal of understanding how changes in those properties would affect the surface forces relevant to protein adsorption. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was selected as a substrate for its use in microfluidic and biomedical applications. PDMS is treated with a

  8. The photometric functions of Phobos and Deimos. III - Surface photometry of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noland, M.; Veverka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Phobos are used to study the uniformity of a certain photometric scattering parameter over the surface of the satellite, assuming that the scattering law for Phobos can be represented by the Hapke-Irvine equation. Ways of avoiding topographically irregular areas are discussed, phase functions for Phobos are obtained from scans along the photometric equator, and the photometric behavior of selected areas not along this equator is examined. Searches are conducted for anomalously bright areas and evidence of solid rock on the surface. The results indicate that: (1) at least three large regions on the surface of Phobos are covered by a dark material of complex texture which scatters light according to the Hapke-Irvine law; (2) the average intrinsic phase coefficient of this material is 0.020 mag/deg over the phase-angle range from 20 to 80 deg; (3) even the topographically irregular areas have photometric properties similar to those of the three smooth regions; (4) the surface of Phobos is rougher than that of Deimos on the largest scale; and (5) apparent bright patches are most likely caused by local tilts of the surface.

  9. The stellar mass distribution in early-type disk galaxies: surface photometry and bulge-disk decompositions

    E-print Network

    E. Noordermeer; J. M. van der Hulst

    2007-01-25

    We present deep B- and R-band surface photometry for a sample of 21 galaxies with morphological types between S0 and Sab. We present radial profiles of surface brightness, colour, ellipticity, position angle and deviations of axisymmetry for all galaxies, as well as isophotal and effective radii and total magnitudes. We have decomposed the images into contributions from a spheroidal bulge and a flat disk, using an interactive, 2D decomposition technique. We study in detail the relations between various bulge and disk parameters. In particular, we find that the bulges of our galaxies have surface brightness profiles ranging from exponential to De Vaucouleurs, with the average value of the Sersic shape parameter n being 2.5. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the shape of the bulge intensity distribution depends on luminosity, with the more luminous bulges having more centrally peaked light profiles. By comparing the ellipticity of the isophotes in the bulges to those in the outer, disk dominated regions, we are able to derive the intrinsic axis ratio q_b of the bulges. The average axis ratio is 0.55, with an rms spread of 0.12. None of the bulges in our sample is spherical, whereas in some cases, the bulges can be as flat as q_b = 0.3 - 0.4. The bulge flattening seems to be weakly coupled to luminosity, more luminous bulges being on average slightly more flattened than their lower-luminosity counterparts. Our finding that most bulges are significantly flattened and have an intensity profile shallower than R^{1/4} suggests that `pseudobulges', formed from disk material by secular processes, do not only occur in late-type spiral galaxies, but are a common feature in early-type disk galaxies as well. (abridged)

  10. The photometric functions of Phobos and Deimos. II - Surface photometry of Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noland, M.; Veverka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Deimos are used to study the uniformity of a certain photometric scattering parameter over the surface of the satellite. It is shown that the photometric data considered satisfy the reciprocity principle and that the Hapke-Irvine scattering law is adequate for describing the surface. Phase functions for Deimos are obtained from scans along the photometric equator, and the photometric behavior of the brightest and darkest areas on the satellite's disk is examined. The results indicate that the surface of Deimos is covered uniformly by a dark and texturally complex material whose photometric behavior is well-represented by the Hapke-Irvine law, that the intrinsic phase coefficient of this material is about 0.017 mag/deg over the phase-angle range from 20 to 80 deg, and that slightly brighter material is present near some craters. Since enhanced brightening was not observed at the specular point of the photometric equator in any of the pictures studied, it is concluded that large exposures of solid rock are absent from the Mars-facing side of Deimos.

  11. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. I. vec H-band surface photometry of 174 spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriondo, G.; Baffa, C.; Casertano, S.; Chincarini, G.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Pierini, D.; Sperandio, M.; Trinchieri, G.

    1999-05-01

    We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 $() ?m), surface photometry of 174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. The images, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes, are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities, and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-band magnitudes and diameters Radial profiles in tabular form and images FITS files are also available upon request from gmorio@arcetri.astro.it.}. The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and the B-band D25 implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than 3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D25 depends on (global) color and absolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometric parameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and disk scale length of ~ m3.5 and a mean disk central brightness ~ meq 17.5 H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration index C31$ with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, with morphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetric structures on the radial profiles and on the derived parameters. Based on observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO (Gornergrat, CH) is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (La Palma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic Observatory Scientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, Az) is operated by VORG, the Vatican Observatory Research Group Table 3 and Fig. 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

  12. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  13. Near-Infrared Surface Photometry of Bulges and Disks of Spiral Galaxies. The Data

    E-print Network

    R. F. Peletier; M. Balcells

    1997-01-09

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colour profiles,in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulge components of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies with inclinations larger than 50 degrees. We describe in detail the observations and the determination of colour parameters. Calibrated monochromatic and real-colour images are presented, as well as colour index maps. This data set, tailored for the study of the population characteristics of galaxy bulges, provides useful information on the colours of inner disks as well. In related papers, we have used them to quantify colour gradients in bulges, and age differentials between bulge and inner disk.

  14. Surface photometry and metallicity of the polar ring galaxy A0136-0801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spavone, M.; Iodice, E.; Arnaboldi, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the polar ring galaxy A0136-0801 in order to constrain its formation history. Near-infrared and optical imaging data are used to extract surface brightness and colour profiles of the host galaxy and the wide polar structure in A0136-0801. The host galaxy dominates the light emission in all bands; the polar structure is more luminous in the optical bands and is three times more extended than the main spheroid. The average stellar population in the spheroid is redder than in the polar structure and we use their (B - K) versus (J - K) colours to constraint the ages of these populations using stellar population synthesis models. The inferred ages are 3-5 Gyr for the spheroid and 1-3 Gyr for the polar structure. We then use long slit spectra along the major axis of the polar structure to derive the emission line ratios and constrain the oxygen abundance, metallicity and star formation rate in this component. We find 12 + log (O/H) = 8.33 ± 0.43 and Z ? 0.32 Z?, using emission line ratios. These values are used, together with the ratio of the baryonic masses of the host galaxy and polar structure, to constrain the possible models for the formation scenario. We conclude that the tidal accretion of gas from a gas-rich donor or the disruption of a gas-rich satellite are formation mechanisms that may lead to systems with physical parameters in agreement with those measured for A0136-0801.

  15. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  16. Context affects lightness at the level of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Marianne; Wichmann, Felix A; Shapley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception of object attributes such as surface lightness is crucial for successful interaction with the environment. How the visual system assigns lightness to image regions is not yet understood. It has been shown that the context in which a surface is embedded influences its perceived lightness, but whether that influence involves predominantly low-, mid-, or high-level visual mechanisms has not been resolved. To answer this question, we measured whether perceptual attributes of target image regions affected their perceived lightness when they were placed in different contexts. We varied the sharpness of the edge while keeping total target flux fixed. Targets with a sharp edge were consistent with the perceptual interpretation of a surface, and in that case, observers perceived significant brightening or darkening of the target. Targets with blurred edges rather appeared to be spotlights instead of surfaces; for targets with blurred edges, there was much less of a contextual effect on target lightness. The results indicate that the effect of context on the lightness of an image region is not fixed but is strongly affected by image manipulations that modify the perceptual attributes of the target, implying that a mid-level scene interpretation affects lightness perception. PMID:25589299

  17. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James

    2011-07-01

    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determinationframe cleaningellipse fittingprofile fittingtotal and isophotal magnitudes The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  18. How a Change in Water Phase Affects Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem-based learning (PBL) activity, students take on the role of a student research scientist and explore the role of solar energy in determining climate. Students conduct experiments to observe how a change in water phase affects surface temperatures. Materials required for the investigation include 2 aquariums, dry sand or soil, two heat lamps, and two thermometers.The lesson is supported by teacher notes, answer key, glossary and an appendix with information about using PBL in the classroom. This is the second of three activities in Investigating the Climate System: Energy, a Balancing Act.

  19. 1.65 ?m (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Boselli, A.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.

    2000-02-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 ?m ) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  20. 1.65?m (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. II. Observations of 297 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5m telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Randone, I.; Boselli, A.

    1996-12-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 297 galaxies (mostly) in the Coma Supercluster obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera, ARNICA, mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5mag/arcsec^2^ isophote, concentration indices, and total H magnitudes are derived. Combining these observations with those obtained similarly using the Calar Alto telescopes (Paper I, 1996A&AS..120..489G) we find a strong positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity, and we analyze the consequent dependence of near-infrared growth-curves on H-band luminosity.

  1. 1.65 micrometers (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. IV:observations of 170 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope

    E-print Network

    A. Boselli; G. Gavazzi; P. Franzetti; D. Pierini; M. Scodeggio

    1999-11-22

    We present near-infrared (H band) surface photometry of 170 galaxies, obtained in 1997 using the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope equipped with the NICMOS3 camera MAGIC. The majority of our targets are selected among bright members of the Virgo cluster, however galaxies in the A262 and Cancer clusters and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are also included. This data set is aimed at complementing the NIR survey in the Virgo cluster discussed in Boselli et al. (1997) and in the Coma Supercluster, presented in Papers I, II and III of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. (Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form upon request to gavazzi@uni.mi.astro.it)

  2. Sky background uncertainty causes errors in surface photometry. BM98 fig. 4.16. NGC 1700 is accurately fit by a deVaucouleurs law. BM98 fig 4.25.

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Sky background uncertainty causes errors in surface photometry. BM98 fig. 4.16. #12;NGC 1700 is accurately fit by a deVaucouleurs law. BM98 fig 4.25. #12;1987IAUS..127...89T Surface brightness vs radius luminosities. BM98 fig 4.26. Luminosity profile of the cD galaxy in Abell 1413. BM98 fig 4.28. #12;Effect

  3. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp., Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); McDonald, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); De Jong, Roelof [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Tully, R. Brent, E-mail: jsick@astro.queensu.ca [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ?0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  4. 1.65 micron (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V: Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies

    E-print Network

    G. Gavazzi; P. Franzetti; M. Scodeggio; A. Boselli; D. Pierini

    2000-07-27

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 micron) surface brightness profile decomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies: Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma and A1367 in the "Great Wall". The optically selected (m_p<=16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD, except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning from isolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surface brightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r^(1/4) law (dV), with an exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D). From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surface brightness (mu_e) and radius (r_e) of each component, the asymptotic magnitude H_T and the light concentration index C_31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Elliptical galaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is best represented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pure exponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong function of the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubble classification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositions decreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases with luminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity range L_H<10^(10) L_solar and become dominant above 10^(11) L_solar.

  5. Surface Photometry and Radial Color Gradients of Nearby Luminous Early-type Galaxies in SDSS Stripe 82

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Fangzhou; Gu, Qiusheng

    2010-01-01

    We make use of the images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 to present an analysis of r band surface brightness profiles and radial color gradients (g - r, u - r) in 111 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). With Stripe 82 images, we are able to pay special attentions to the low-surface-brightness areas (LSB areas) of the galaxies. The LSB areas make a difference to the Sersic fittings and concentration indices, making both the indices less than the typical values for ETGs. There are about 60% negative color gradients (red-core) within 1.5Re , much more than the approximately 10% positive ones (blue-core) within the same radius. However, taking into account of the LSB areas, we find that the color gradients are not necessarily monotonic: about one third of the red-core (or blue-core) galaxies have positive (or negative) color gradients in the outer areas. So LSB areas not only make ETGs' Sersic profiles deviate from de Vaucouleur ones and shift to the disk end, but also reveal that quite a number of ET...

  6. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  7. Photometry of asteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Lupishko; Yu. N. Kruglyi; V. G. Shevchenko

    2007-01-01

    Photometry is one of the most efficient investigation techniques. It provided a large body of data on albedos, sizes, shapes,\\u000a rotation, optical properties, and structural characteristics of asteroids and other minor bodies of the solar system. The\\u000a contribution of photometry to the determination of asteroid parameters was most crucial. This review summarizes main results\\u000a of asteroid studies in three most

  8. Topographically modified surfaces affect orientation and growth of hippocampal neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Dowell-Mesfin; M.-A. Abdul-Karim; A. M. P. Turner; S. Schanz; H. G. Craighead; B. Roysam; J. N. Turner; W. Shain

    2004-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules provide biochemical and topographical cues that influence cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Effects of topographical cues on hippocampal neuron growth were examined after 14 days in vitro. Neurons from hippocampi of rat embryos were grown on poly-L-lysine-coated silicon surfaces containing fields of pillars with varying geometries. Photolithography was used to fabricate 1 µm high pillar

  9. Surface Water Quality as Affected by Sugarcane Residue Management Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theophilus K. Udeigwe; Jim J. Wang; Howard P. Viator; Lewis Gaston

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of three sugarcane residue management techniques, namely postharvest burning of residue (BR),\\u000a shredding of residue (SR), and full postharvest retention of residue (RR), on the water quality of surface runoff from February\\u000a 2006 to September 2007 in Iberia, LA. Total runoff volumes recorded were 58,418, 57,923, and 46,578 L for the BR, SR, and\\u000a RR treatments,

  10. Astronomical photometry from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-06-01

    The Moon would be an excellent platform for photometric astronomical observations. This paper discusses such observations, emphasizing time-series photometry of oscillating stars (asteroseismology), of faint gravitating bodies (microlensing), and of the interplanetary medium. To prepare for the deployment of major new telescopes and instrumentation on the surface of the Moon, I suggest that smaller 'site survey' instruments be put in place as soon as possible. Each application suggested can derive great benefits from small site-survey instruments established relatively soon, and each would ultimately need extensive arrays of large instruments.

  11. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. III. LENS MODELS, SURFACE PHOTOMETRY, AND STELLAR MASSES FOR THE FINAL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Suyu, Sherry H.; Treu, Tommaso [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) near-infrared ground-based images for the final sample of 56 candidate galaxy-scale lenses uncovered in the CFHT Legacy Survey as part of the Strong Lensing in the Legacy Survey project. The new images are used to perform lens modeling, measure surface photometry, and estimate stellar masses of the deflector early-type galaxies (ETGs). Lens modeling is performed on the HST images (or CFHT when HST is not available) by fitting the spatially extended light distribution of the lensed features assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile and by reconstructing the intrinsic source light distribution on a pixelized grid. Based on the analysis of systematic uncertainties and comparison with inference based on different methods, we estimate that our Einstein radii are accurate to ?3%. HST imaging provides a much higher success rate in confirming gravitational lenses and measuring their Einstein radii than CFHT imaging does. Lens modeling with ground-based images, however, when successful, yields Einstein radius measurements that are competitive with space-based images. Information from the lens models is used together with spectroscopic information from companion Paper IV to classify the systems, resulting in a final sample of 39 confirmed (grade A) lenses and 17 promising candidates (grade B,C). This represents an increase of half an order of magnitude in sample size with respect to the sample of confirmed lenses studied in Papers I and II. The Einstein radii of the confirmed lenses in our sample span the range 5-15 kpc and are typically larger than those of other surveys, probing the mass in regions where the dark matter contribution is more important. Stellar masses are in the range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub ?}, covering the range of massive ETGs. The redshifts of the main deflector span a range 0.3 ? z{sub d} ? 0.8, which nicely complements low-redshift samples like the Sloan Lens ACS survey and thus provides an excellent sample for the study of the cosmic evolution of the mass distribution of ETGs over the second half of the history of the universe.

  12. Galileo photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Helfenstein; J. Veverka; P. C. Thomas; D. P. Simonelli; P. Lee; K. Klaasen; T. V. Johnson; H. Breneman; J. W. Head; S. Murchie

    1994-01-01

    The mean photometric properties of Gaspra's surface are derived in terms of Hapke's photometric model by combining earth-based telescopic photometry with Galileo's whole-disk and disk-resolved data. The results are used to estimate fundamental properties, such as the geometric albedo, and to compare surface materials on Gaspra with materials on other planetary surfaces. The photometric parameters and a new shape model

  13. Spectral Fluorescence Imaging for Quantitative Diagnosis and Mapping of Dental Fluorosis Affected Tooth Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liviu Feller; Yakov Yasman; Valery Bulatov; Israel Schechter

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method for quantitative diagnosis of dental fluorosis is suggested. The method is based on the spectral modifications in the fluorescence light emitted from affected enamel surfaces, relative to normal dental enamel. Imaging of the tooth surface is obtained using an imaging Fourier transform fluorescence spectrophotometer. This technique provides simultaneous fluorescence spectra at all pixels of the examined

  14. Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters

    E-print Network

    Krishnamoorthy, Bala

    Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters.S.A. *Corresponding author. Email: vasavada@wsu.edu We have studied the effects of wrapping surfaces on muscle paths and moment arms of the semispinalis capitis muscle, one of the major extensors of the neck. Sensitivities

  15. Gaia broad band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Gebran, M.; Carrasco, J. M.; de Bruijne, J.; Voss, H.; Fabricius, C.; Knude, J.; Vallenari, A.; Kohley, R.; Mora, A.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: The scientific community needs to be prepared to analyse the data from Gaia, one of the most ambitious ESA space missions, which is to be launched in 2012. The purpose of this paper is to provide data and tools to predict how Gaia photometry is expected to be. To do so, we provide relationships among colours involving Gaia magnitudes (white light G, blue GBP, red GRP and GRVS bands) and colours from other commonly used photometric systems (Johnson-Cousins, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Hipparcos and Tycho). Methods: The most up-to-date information from industrial partners has been used to define the nominal passbands, and based on the BaSeL3.1 stellar spectral energy distribution library, relationships were obtained for stars with different reddening values, ranges of temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities. Results: The transformations involving Gaia and Johnson-Cousins V - IC and Sloan DSS g - z colours have the lowest residuals. A polynomial expression for the relation between the effective temperature and the colour GBP - GRP was derived for stars with Teff ? 4500 K. For stars with Teff < 4500 K, dispersions exist in gravity and metallicity for each absorption value in g - r and r - i. Transformations involving two Johnson or two Sloan DSS colours yield lower residuals than using only one colour. We also computed several ratios of total-to-selective absorption including absorption AG in the G band and colour excess E(GBP - GRP) for our sample stars. A relationship involving AG/AV and the intrinsic (V - IC) colour is provided. The derived Gaia passbands have been used to compute tracks and isochrones using the Padova and BASTI models. Finally, the performances of the predicted Gaia magnitudes have been estimated according to the magnitude and the celestial coordinates of the star. Conclusions: The provided dependencies among colours can be used for planning scientific exploitation of Gaia data, performing simulations of the Gaia-like sky, planning ground-based complementary observations and for building catalogues with auxiliary data for the Gaia data processing and validation. Tables 11-13 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/523/A48

  16. Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

    1956-01-01

    As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

  17. Third Workshop on Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J. (Editor); Lasher, Lawrence E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The discoveries of extrasolar planets by Wolszczan, Mayor and Queloz, Butler et al., and others have stimulated a widespread effort to obtain a body of data sufficient to understand their occurrence and characteristics. Doppler velocity techniques have found dozens of extrasolar planets with masses similar to that of Jupiter. Approximately ten percent of the stars that show planets with orbital periods of a few days to a week are expected to show transits. With the mass obtained from Doppler velocity measurements and the size from transit photometry, the densities of the planets can be determined. Theoretical models of the structure of "hot Jupiters" (i.e., those planets within a tenth of an astronomical unit (AU) of the parent star) indicate that these planets should be substantially larger in size and lower in density than Jupiter. Thus the combination of transit and Doppler velocity measurements provide a critical test of the theories of planetary structure. Furthermore, because photometry can be done with small-aperture telescopes rather than requiring the use of much larger telescopes, transit photometry should also reduce the cost of discovering extrasolar planets.

  18. The 2060 Chiron: CCD photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bus, Schelte J.; Bowell, Edward; Harris, Alan W.

    1987-01-01

    R-band CCD photometry of 2060 was carried out on nine nights in Nov. and Dec. 1986. The rotation period is 5.9181 + or - 0.0003 hr and the peak to peak lightcurve amplitude is 0.088 + or - 0.0003 mag. Photometric parameters are H sub R = 6.24 + or - 0.02 mag and G sub R = + or - 0.15, though formal errors may not be realistic. The lightcurve has two pairs of extrema, but its asymmetry, as evidenced by the presence of significant odd Fourier harmonics, suggests macroscopic surface irregularities and/or the presence of some large scale albedo variegation. The observational rms residual is + or - 0.015 mag. On time scales from minutes to days there is no evidence for nonperiodic (cometary) brightness changes at the level of a few millimagnitudes.

  19. How waves affect the distribution of particles that float on a liquid surface.

    PubMed

    Denissenko, P; Falkovich, G; Lukaschuk, S

    2006-12-15

    We study experimentally how waves affect the distribution of particles that float on a liquid surface. We show that clustering of small particles in a standing wave is a nonlinear effect with the clustering time decreasing as the square of the wave amplitude. In a set of random waves, we show that small floaters concentrate on a multifractal set with caustics. PMID:17280291

  20. Colloid Surface Chemistry Critically Affects Multiple Particle Tracking Measurements of Biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Valentine; Z. E. Perlman; M. L. Gardel; J. H. Shin; P. Matsudaira; T. J. Mitchison; D. A. Weitz

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of complex biomaterials using microrheological techniques has the promise of providing fundamental insights into their biomechanical functions; however, precise interpretations of such measurements are hindered by inadequate characterization of the interactions between tracers and the networks they probe. We here show that colloid surface chemistry can profoundly affect multiple particle tracking measurements of networks of fibrin,

  1. Nanoscale topographic changes on sterilized glass surfaces affect cell adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Lauer, Günter; Oswald, Steffen; Labudde, Dirk; Franz, Clemens M

    2014-08-01

    Producing sterile glass surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of laboratory and medical applications, including in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering. However, sterilization may change the surface properties of glass and thereby affect its use for medical applications, for instance as a substrate for culturing cells. To investigate potential effects of sterilization on glass surface topography, borosilicate glass coverslips were left untreated or subjected to several common sterilization procedures, including low-temperature plasma gas, gamma irradiation and steam. Imaging by atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the surface of untreated borosilicate coverslips features a complex landscape of microislands ranging from 1000 to 3000 nm in diameter and 1 to 3 nm in height. Steam treatment completely removes these microislands, producing a nanosmooth glass surface. In contrast, plasma treatment partially degrades the microisland structure, while gamma irradiation has no effect on microisland topography. To test for possible effects of the nanotopographic structures on cell adhesion, human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on untreated or sterilized glass surfaces. Analyzing fibroblast adhesion 3, 6, and 24 h after cell seeding revealed significant differences in cell attachment and spreading depending on the sterilization method applied. Furthermore, single-cell force spectroscopy revealed a connection between the nanotopographic landscape of glass and the formation of cellular adhesion forces, indicating that fibroblasts generally adhere weakly to nanosmooth but strongly to nanorough glass surfaces. Nanotopographic changes induced by different sterilization methods may therefore need to be considered when preparing sterile glass surfaces for cell culture or biomedical applications. PMID:24027204

  2. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xujie; Feng, Qingling; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (sbnd NH2), carboxyl (sbnd COOH) and methyl (sbnd CH3), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (sbnd COOH and sbnd NH2) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (sbnd CH3). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the sbnd NH2 modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the sbnd COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the sbnd CH3 modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  3. Photometry from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, M. J.; Bless, R. C.; Percival, J. W.; White, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A brief description of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) of the Hubble Space Telescope is given, in particular the HSP light path, detectors, entrance apertures, and filters. The status of HSP testing to date is reported, and problems encountered with the bright earth and the telescope pointing system are described. The calibration effort for the HSP is well under way. Results of internal (instrument coordinate) aperture locations good to 0.05 arcsec and external (telescope coordinate) locations good to 0.02 arcsec are shown. The effects of spacecraft pointing and jitter on HSP photometry are detailed, and a preliminary measurement of spacecraft jitter with HSP is shown. The aperture calibration effort is verified by accurate pointing of a star to different HSP 1.0 arcsec entrance apertures, and photometric performance of the instrument is shown to be accurate to the 2 percent photon noise of the observations. Future science verification and guaranteed observing time programs are listed. Suggestions are made for future space-based photometers.

  4. The surface coloration that an animal presents to its environment can affect its fitness both by determining its

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Blair O.

    The surface coloration that an animal presents to its environment can affect its fitness both of short-wave (solar) radiation reflected from the animal's surface. Solar radiation, however component of the heat budget. For example, irradiance perpendicular to the solar beam at the earth's surface

  5. Sea-surface temperature affects breeding density of an avian rocky intertidal predator, the black oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani

    E-print Network

    Sea-surface temperature affects breeding density of an avian rocky intertidal predator, the black Rocky intertidal Sea-surface temperature Data collected in ten years (2003­2012) on Triangle Island oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) declines with increasing spring sea-surface temperature. In all ten years

  6. How will surface treatments affect the translucency of porcelain laminate veneers?

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Ulusoy, K?vanç Utku; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether surface treatments affect the translucency of laminate veneers with different shades and thicknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 224 disc-shaped ceramic veneers were prepared from A1, A3, HT (High Translucent) and HO (High Opaque) shades of IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent) with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses. The ceramics were divided into four groups for surface treatments. Group C: no surface treatments; Group HF: etched with hydrofluoric acid; Group SB: sandblasted with 50-µm Al2O3; and Group L; irradiated with an Er;YAG laser. A translucent shade of resin cement (Rely X Veneer, 3M ESPE) was chosen for cementation. The color values of the veneers were measured with a colorimeter and translucency parameter (TP) values were calculated. A three-way ANOVA with interactions for TP values was performed and Bonferroni tests were used when appropriate (?=0.05). RESULTS There were significant interactions between the surface treatments, ceramic shades and thicknesses (P=.001). For the 0.5-mm-thick specimens there were significant differences after the SB and L treatments. There was no significant difference between the HF and C treatments for any shades or thicknesses (P>.05). For the 1-mm-thick ceramics, there was only a significant difference between the L and C treatments for the HT shade ceramics (P=.01). There were also significant differences between the SB and C treatments except not for the HO shades (P=.768). CONCLUSION The SB and L treatments caused laminate veneers to become more opaque; however, HF treatment did not affect the TP values. When the laminate veneers were thinner, both the shade of the ceramic and the SB and laser treatments had a greater effect on the TP values. PMID:24605200

  7. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule. PMID:19021791

  8. Seat surface inclination may affect postural stability during Boccia ball throwing in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Shen; Yu, Yi-Chen; Huang, Po-Chang; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how seat surface inclination affects Boccia ball throwing movement and postural stability among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with bilateral spastic CP (3 with gross motor function classification system Level I, 5 with Level II, and 4 with Level III) participated in this study. All participants underwent pediatric reach tests and ball throwing performance analyses while seated on 15° anterior- or posterior-inclined, and horizontal surfaces. An electromagnetic motion analysis system was synchronized with a force plate to assess throwing motion and postural stability. The results of the pediatric reach test (p = 0.026), the amplitude of elbow movement (p = 0.036), peak vertical ground reaction force (PVGRF) (p < 0.001), and movement range of the center of pressure (COP) (p < 0.020) were significantly affected by seat inclination during throwing. Post hoc comparisons showed that anterior inclination allowed greater amplitude of elbow movement and PVGRF, and less COP movement range compared with the other inclines. Posterior inclination yielded less reaching distance and PVGRF, and greater COP movement range compared with the other inclines. The anterior-inclined seat yielded superior postural stability for throwing Boccia balls among children with bilateral spastic CP, whereas the posterior-inclined seat caused difficulty. PMID:25241116

  9. Upper limits for brightness and dust concentration of the hypothetical libration cloud at L4 in the system earth-moon based on photographic surface photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Schlosser; H. M. Maitzen; D. Hablick

    1975-01-01

    Three wide-angle photographs with a field diameter of 140 deg are used to derive upper limits for the surface brightness and dust density of the hypothetical libration cloud at the L4 Lagrangian point in the earth-moon system. A region of 40 by 9.2 deg along the moon's orbit and centered on L4 was scanned with a digitized microdensitometer, and the

  10. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia) and Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G. [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  11. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  12. Nature of immobilization surface affects antibody specificity to placental alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Khan, Imran; Sinha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Retention of native conformation of immobilized protein is essential for various applications including selection and detection of specific recombinant antibodies (scFvs). Placental alkaline phosphatase (PAP), an onco-fetal antigen expressed on the surface of several tumors, was immobilized on supermagnetic particles for selection of recombinant antibodies from a human phage display antibody library. The isolated antibodies were found to be cross-reactive to either of the isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, i.e., bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) or intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and could not be used for tumor targeting. A specific anti-PAP monoclonal antibody H17E2 was tested for retention of specificity under these conditions. Binding of the antibody to magnetic beads conjugated IAP and BAP along with PAP and the ability of the two isozymes to inhibit its binding to PAP depicted the loss of isozyme specificity of the antibody. However, the antibody retained its specificity to PAP immobilized on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface. Enzyme activity was observed on both surfaces. This demonstrates that nature of immobilization may affect antigen-antibody binding in subtle ways, resulting in alteration of conformation of the epitopes. This may have consequences for determining the specificity of antibody binding for proteins that share a high degree of homology. PMID:25321174

  13. Affected zone generated around the erosion pit on carbon steel surface at the incipient stage of vibration cavitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HaoSheng Chen; Jiang Li; ShiHan Liu; DaRong Chen; JiaDao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of erosion pits on a carbon steel surface were investigated at the incipient stage of cavitation erosion.\\u000a After a 5-minute experiment performed in an ultrasonic vibration system, needle-like erosion pits appeared on the polished\\u000a steel surface, and a specially affected zone was formed around the pit. The shape of the pit and the plastic deformation of\\u000a the affected

  14. PHOTOM: Photometry of digitized images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nicholas; Draper, Peter W.; Allan, Alasdair; Naylor, Tim; Mukai, Koji; Currie, Malcolm J.; McCaughrean, Mark

    2014-05-01

    PHOTOM performs photometry of digitized images. It has two basic modes of operation: using an interactive display to specify the positions for the measurements, or obtaining those positions from a file. In both modes of operation PHOTOM performs photometry using either the traditional aperture method or via optimal extraction. When using the traditional aperture extraction method the target aperture can be circular or elliptical and its size and shape can be varied interactively on the display, or by entering values from the keyboard. Both methods allow the background sky level to be either sampled interactively by the manual positioning of an aperture, or automatically from an annulus surrounding the target object. PHOTOM is the photometry backend for the GAIA tool (ascl:1403.024) and is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  15. Soil factors affecting mycorrhizal use in surface mine reclamation. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Norland, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface and subsurface stabilization of mining-related wastes through revegetation depends upon the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the waste following mining. Mining disturbances can significantly alter the soil physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a site, reducing or eliminating mycorrhizal fungi from the soil. Mycorrhizae are economically and ecologically important because they can alleviate environmental stresses caused by lack of proper soil condition and because they are vital to stabilization of mining waste by increasing plant survival and biomass through increased nutrient and water uptake. The report discusses some of the ecological factors that may affect mycorrhizae-plant associations on mining-related wastes and provides general information on mycorrhizae inoculation technology.

  16. Strip Photometry of Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, J. R.; Bergmann, T. S.; Bevilacqua, C. M.; Bonatto, C.; Cavalcanti, R. L.; Costa, R. D. D.; Dottori, H. A.; Girardi, L.; Hadiimichef, D.; Kepler, S. O.; Livi, S. H. B.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Santos, J. F.; Schmidt, A.; Schroder, M. F. S.

    1987-05-01

    Post--perihelical observations of Comet Halley were performed on 25 nights at the 50-cm reflector of UFRGS by the technique of strip photometry. A slit of dimensions 8' x 8" scanned the comet image at a speed of 1.345" x cos (declination) /sec, in east-west direction or inversely. For photometry we used NASA interference filters C2, C3, CO+, H20+, ?4865 and ?6840. Calibration used IHW standard stars and scans of field stars. Significant signals are detected for H2O+, C2 and C3. Time evolution of coma is seen from profiles. No color effect was observed from the continuum filters.

  17. Analysis of welded tensile plates with a surface notch in the weld metal and heat affected zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mersida Manjgo; Bojan Medjo; Ljubica Milovi?; Marko Rakin; Zijah Burzi?; Aleksandar Sedmak

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of the plates with a surface notch under tensile external loading is experimentally and numerically analyzed. The specimens were made of micro-alloyed steel NIOMOL 490K, welded by MAG (CO2) welding method. Surface notches were machined by the spark erosion method in the weld metal and heat affected zone. A finite element analysis of the specimens subjected to the

  18. Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    E-print Network

    Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected Diedenhoven d , Kirk Knobelspiesse a , Chris Hostetler e , Rich Ferrare e , Sharon Burton e , John Hair e in detecting variations of ocean surface prop- erties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we

  19. 1.65 micron (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. VIII the near-IR k-space at z=0

    E-print Network

    Pierini, D; Franzetti, P; Scodeggio, M; Boselli, A

    2002-01-01

    We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxies in the k-space (k1 ~ log M, k2 ~ log Ie, k3 ~ log M/L). Our study is based on near-IR (H-band: lambda = 1.65 micron) observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-type systems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamical mass-to-light ratio M/L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases with increasing effective dynamical mass M, as expected from the existence of the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCD galaxies show a broad distribution in M/L with no detected trend of M/L with M, the former galaxies having M/L values about twice larger than the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M/L increases with decreasing effective surface intensity Ie, consistent with the existence of the Tully--Fisher relation. These results are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind the construction of the k-space and their limitations. Our study is complementary to a previous investigation in the opt...

  20. Second Workshop on Improvements to Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings show that a major effort is under way to improve all aspects of photometry. Astronomical multichannel photometry, photodiodes, analog-to-digital converters, data reduction techniques, interference filters and optical fibers are discussed.

  1. Parameters affecting spore recovery from wipes used in biological surface sampling.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Sandra M; Filliben, James J; Morrow, Jayne B

    2011-04-01

    The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H(2)O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H(2)O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H(2)O and H(2)O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

  2. Molecular flexibility as a factor affecting the surface ordering of organic adsorbates on metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Soubatch, Serguei; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan

    2006-11-01

    The effect of molecular flexibility on the surface ordering of complex organic adsorbates is explored, using alpha,omega-dihexylquaterthiophene (DH4T) and mixed DH4T|tetracene phases on Ag(111) as model systems. The structure of DH4T/Ag(111) interfaces is determined by the flexibility of the hexyl chains at either end of the quaterthiophene backbone: Above 273 K, DH4T forms a nematic liquid crystalline phase with a director close to the [112] direction of the silver substrate. At 273 K, a reversible phase transition to a long-range ordered, point-on-line coincident phase is observed. However, this ordered state is still affected substantially by the flexible nature of DH4T, which materializes in a large number of local structural defects. If traces of DH4T are coevaporated with tetracene, inclusions of a 1:1 stoichiometric DH4T|tetracene phase are found in a tetracene/Ag(111) matrix (alpha-phase). In this mixed phase, the two surface enantiomers of pro-chiral DH4T on one hand and tetracene on the other form a complex stripe structure. The mixed phase shows a higher degree of order than present at the pure DH4T/Ag(111) interface, which also lacks chiral organization. The addition of tetracene molecules as structural templates stabilizes certain conformations of DH4T and thus, by balancing its structural flexibility, allows the surface-induced chirality of DH4T to become a decisive factor in determining the structure of the mixed phase. PMID:17073481

  3. The development of photo-electric photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Huffer

    1955-01-01

    Photo-electric photometry is to-day an important branch of astronomy and is used wherever accurate measures of light intensity are needed. The first electric photometry was with a selenium cell, which was first employed by Professor in England in 1891 for measuring the brightness of stars. It was little used until 1906 when and in America revived selenium photometry. In 1911

  4. Overview of GAIA Multi-Color Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høg, Erik

    Gaia will obtain multi-color photometry for astrometric and astrophysical purposes. A photometry in five broad bands and with high angular resolution will be obtained after every astrometric observation of a star, especially for the sake of correcting slight astrometric chromaticity errors of the optical system. A separate smaller telescope will obtain photometry in eleven passbands of medium width designed to serve the astrophysical analysis of the mission results. The medium-band photometry (MBP) has less angular resolution, but much longer effective integration time than the broad-band photometry (BBP).

  5. Atmospheric Scintillation in Astronomical Photometry

    E-print Network

    Osborn, J; Dhillon, V S; Wilson, R W

    2015-01-01

    Scintillation noise due to the Earth's turbulent atmosphere can be a dominant noise source in high-precision astronomical photometry when observing bright targets from the ground. Here we describe the phenomenon of scintillation from its physical origins to its effect on photometry. We show that Young's (1967) scintillation-noise approximation used by many astronomers tends to underestimate the median scintillation noise at several major observatories around the world. We show that using median atmospheric optical turbulence profiles, which are now available for most sites, provides a better estimate of the expected scintillation noise and that real-time turbulence profiles can be used to precisely characterise the scintillation noise component of contemporaneous photometric measurements. This will enable a better understanding and calibration of photometric noise sources and the effectiveness of scintillation correction techniques. We also provide new equations for calculating scintillation noise, including ...

  6. Strip Photometry of Halley's Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, J. R.; Bergmann, T.S.; Bonatto, C.; Cavalcanti, R.L.; Costa, R.D.D.; Dottori, H.A.; Girardi, L.A.; Hadjimichef, D.; Kepler, S.O.; Livi, S.H.B.; Pastoriza, M.G.; Santos, J.F.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.F.S.

    1986-12-01

    Post-perihelical photometric observations of comet Halley were performed on 25 nights at the 50 cm reflector of UFRGS by the technique of strip photometry. A slit of dimensions 8arcmin×8arcsec scanned the comet image at a speed of 1arcsec.345 cos ? sec-1, in east-west direction or inversely. For photometry the authors used NASA interference filters C2, C3, CO+, H2O+, ?4845 and ?6840. Calibration used IHW standard stars and scans of field stars. Significant signals were detected for H2O+, C2 and C3. Time evolution of coma is seen from profiles. No color effect was observed from the continuum filters.

  7. Photometry of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Schmitt, B.; Moynier, F.; Barrat, J.-A.

    2012-03-01

    We have measured the bi-directional reflectance phase function on selected meteorite samples (1 howardite, 1 eucrite, 1 diogenite, Orgeuil (CI), Tagish Lake (CC), Allende (CV), Lunar meteorite (MAC 88105), Forest Vale (H4)) covering part of the geochemical and petrologic diversity expected for asteroid surfaces. Samples were measured as powders, for which we achieved reflectance measurements from phase angles down to 3°, and up to 150°, at five different wavelengths covering the VIS-NIR spectral region. The data were fitted by the photometric model of Hapke (Hapke, B. [1993]. Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). The physical sense of the retrieved Hapke’s parameters seems unclear but they permit to interpolate the data to any observation geometry. Strong opposition effects were observed for all samples. The absolute intensity of this effect appears moderately variable among our sample suite, and is not correlated with the average sample reflectance. We interpret this observation as Shadow-Hiding Opposition Effect (SHOE). In the case of samples presenting intense absorption bands (the Fe crystal field band at 1 ?m of HED and the ordinary chondrite), we observe significant dependence of band depth to phase angle, up to 70°, even for moderate variation of phase angle. In addition, a general trend of spectral reddening with phase angle is observed. This reddening, linear with phase angle, is present in all meteorites studied. This behavior is not predicted by classical radiative theories. We propose that small-scale roughness (of the order of or below the wavelength) may induce such a behavior.

  8. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 ?g/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 ?g/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lower values up to 7500 ng/g, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant in Larymna bay. The examination of PAH molecular indices revealed that in Antikyra and Larymna bays more than 80% of the PAHs have pyrolytic origin coming from various combustion sources. On the contrary, in Aliveri bay about 60% of the PAHs are related to petrogenic/petroleum inputs. With respect to ecotoxicological effects, mean quotient Effect-Range Median (m-ERM) values, higher than 1.5, were calculated in Antikyra bay, indicating a high probability (76%) of toxicity. In Aliveri and Larymna bays the m-ERM values were between 0.11 and 0.5 bay suggesting a lower probability (21%) of toxicity. Overall, the results of our study reveal that high quantities of PAHs produced from land point sources such as the industrial units can enter into small coastal marine areas supporting activities such as aquaculture and fishing. Thus, desirable and permitted uses must be well defined and regulatory frameworks must be established.

  9. SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EFFLUX IN A CLAYPAN SOIL AFFECTED BY SURFACE COMPACTION AND APPLICATIONS OF POULTRY MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of soil compaction on soil physical properties may alter soil microbial activities and processes, including carbon (C) cycling, and possibly affect agricultural production and environmental degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of surface soil compaction...

  10. The Presence of VEGF Receptors on the Luminal Surface of Endothelial Cells Affects VEGF Distribution and VEGF

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    The Presence of VEGF Receptors on the Luminal Surface of Endothelial Cells Affects VEGF Distribution and VEGF Signaling Marianne O. Stefanini1 *, Florence T. H. Wu1 , Feilim Mac Gabhann2 , Aleksander Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine that binds to specific receptors

  11. Surface Physicochemistry and Ionic Strength Affects eDNA’s Role in Bacterial Adhesion to Abiotic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Regina, Viduthalai R.; Lokanathan, Arcot R.; Modrzy?ski, Jakub J.; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important structural component of biofilms formed by many bacteria, but few reports have focused on its role in initial cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of eDNA in bacterial adhesion to abiotic surfaces, and determine to which extent eDNA-mediated adhesion depends on the physicochemical properties of the surface and surrounding liquid. We investigated eDNA alteration of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential, and subsequently quantified the effect of eDNA on the adhesion of Staphylococcus xylosus to glass surfaces functionalised with different chemistries resulting in variable hydrophobicity and charge. Cell adhesion experiments were carried out at three different ionic strengths. Removal of eDNA from S. xylosus cells by DNase treatment did not alter the zeta potential, but rendered the cells more hydrophilic. DNase treatment impaired adhesion of cells to glass surfaces, but the adhesive properties of S. xylosus were regained within 30 minutes if DNase was not continuously present, implying a continuous release of eDNA in the culture. Removal of eDNA lowered the adhesion of S. xylosus to all surfaces chemistries tested, but not at all ionic strengths. No effect was seen on glass surfaces and carboxyl-functionalised surfaces at high ionic strength, and a reverse effect occurred on amine-functionalised surfaces at low ionic strength. However, eDNA promoted adhesion of cells to hydrophobic surfaces irrespective of the ionic strength. The adhesive properties of eDNA in mediating initial adhesion of S. xylosus is thus highly versatile, but also dependent on the physicochemical properties of the surface and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. PMID:25122477

  12. Dynamics between fruit cuticles and surface microflora can affect sanitizing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms held together by substances such as polysaccharides which form on surfaces. These communities do not need to be on living tissue but form on any available surface such as rocks in a stream, interior of pipes and on teeth. On surfaces, including fruit, these...

  13. Analysing Thermal Response Test Data Affected by Groundwater Flow and Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Imitazione, Gianmario; Chiozzi, Paolo; Orsi, Marco; Armadillo, Egidio

    2014-05-01

    Tests that record the underground temperature variation due to a constant heat injected into a borehole (or extracted from it) by means of a carrier fluid are routinely performed to infer subsurface thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which are needed to size geothermal heat pump systems. The most popular model to analyse temperature-time curves obtained from these tests is the infinite line source (ILS). This model gives appropriate estimations of thermal parameters only if particular hydro-geological conditions are fulfilled. Several flaws can however affect data interpretation with ILS, which is based on strong assumptions like those of a purely conductive heat transfer regime in a homogeneous medium, no vertical heat flow and infinite length of the borehole. Other drawbacks can arise from the difficulty in the proper thermal insulation of the test equipment, and consequently with oscillations of the carrier fluid temperature due to surface temperature changes. In this paper, we focused on the treatment of thermal response test data when both advection and periodic changes of surface temperature occur. We used a moving line source model to simulate temperature-time signals under different hypothesis of Darcy velocity and thermal properties. A random noise was added to the signal in order to mimic high frequency disturbances, possibly caused by equipment operating conditions and/or geological variability. The subsurface thermal conductivity, the Darcy velocity and the borehole thermal resistance were inferred by minimising the root mean square error between the synthetic dataset and the theoretical model. The optimisation was carried out with the Nelder-Mead algorithm, and thermal and hydraulic properties were determined by iterative reprocessing according to a trial-and-error procedure. The inferred thermal and hydraulic parameters are well consistent with the 'a priory' values, and the presence of noise in the synthetic data does not produce instability. The same optimisation procedure was also applied to interpret the synthetic signal with the ILS model. In case of Darcy velocity of the order of 10-6 m s-1, ILS largely overestimates thermal conductivity. The optimisation analysis was then applied to real thermal response tests carried out in boreholes drilled in sedimentary formation aquifers, whose volume heat capacity was assumed to be known. These data showed a periodic offset in the recorded temperature-time series. A Fourier analysis allowed the recognition of harmonic contributions with period of about 12 and 24 hours. These oscillations appeared to be coherent with the data of air temperature change recorded at the test sites. The temperature-time curves were then filtered to remove the disturbing spectral components associated to a non-optimal thermostatic behaviour of the apparatus. This produced reliable estimates of thermal conductivity, Darcy velocity and borehole thermal resistance. The magnitude of the inferred groundwater flow was also checked by means of an independent method based on the analysis of temperature-depth logs recorded prior to the thermal tests, under thermal equilibrium conditions.

  14. DDO photometry on red giants in the open clusters NGC 2232, NGC 2287, and NGC 2451

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Pastoriza; U. O. Ropke

    1983-01-01

    From DDO photometry combined with U,B,V photometry of red stars in the open clusters NGC 2232, NGC 2287, and NGC 2451, the mean color excess E(B-V), the distance modulus, and the mean metal abundance [Fe\\/H] were derived for the clusters. The physical parameters, surface gravity, effective temperature, and spectral type were also obtained for the red stars. Estimation of age

  15. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. X. ULTRAVIOLET TO INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF 117 MILLION EQUIDISTANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Byler, Nell; Johnson, L. C., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: byler@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point-spread function (PSF) fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 mas accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W ? 28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W ? 25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest-resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) that are up to 2.5 mag deeper when compared with CMDs from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We present extensive analysis of the data quality including comparisons of luminosity functions and repeat measurements, and we use artificial star tests to quantify photometric completeness, uncertainties and biases. We find that the largest sources of systematic error in the photometry are due to spatial variations in the PSF models and charge transfer efficiency corrections. This stellar catalog is the largest ever produced for equidistant sources, and is publicly available for download by the community.

  16. Fast photometry with small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanbach, G.; Rau, A.; S?owikowska, A.

    2014-03-01

    Facility instruments on major telescopes rarely provide photometry on timescales into the sub-second range. The development of dedicated high-time resolution detectors that could be attached as guest instruments was therefore natural to follow up with optical observations on many highly time variable astronomical objects. Such sources were often discovered first in the radio range (e.g. pulsars, quasars) or with X- and gamma-ray satellites (X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, gamma-ray bursts). Although telescopes in the 4 - 8m class would be nice to have for high-time resolution astronomy (HTRA) the access is often oversubscribed. Many currently active HTRA instruments were started on smaller telescopes in the 1-3m class, which provide the flexibility and observation time needed for the observation of highly variable stars. We describe the basic detector types, i.e. fast imaging or photon counting, and current projects. Based on our experience with the fast timing photo-polarimeter OPTIMA (Optical Timing Analyzer), we review some observational constraints on meter-class telescopes. We demonstrate the 'scientific power' of very fast photometry, done with OPTIMA and similar systems on small telescopes, with selected results for a black hole binary, an optical transient magnetar, and the Crab pulsar. %

  17. Surface and Subsurface Geologic Risk Factors to Ground Water Affecting Brownfield Redevelopment Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin M. Kaufman; Kent S. Murray; Daniel T. Rogers

    2003-01-01

    brownfields. The model is derived from a space and time conceptual framework that identifies and measures the surface and subsurface risk the substances released on and just below the surface factors present at brownfield sites. The model then combines these by human activity and their interactions with the near- factors with a contamination extent multiplier at each site to create

  18. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    PubMed

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. PMID:26032318

  19. Surface variations affecting human dental enamel studied using nanomechanical and chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Emma Dickinson

    2005-01-01

    The enamel surface is the interface between the tooth and its ever changing oral environment. Cavity (caries) formation and extrinsic tooth staining are due, respectively, to degradation of the enamel structure under low pH conditions and interactions between salivary pellicle and dietary elements. Both of these occur at the enamel surface and are caused by the local environment changing the

  20. Development and characterization of integrating sphere for photometry and radiometry measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Mujahid, Abdul Al; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made; Siregar, Rustam Efendi

    2013-09-01

    Integrating Sphere (IS) is an instrument formed a cavity sphere with its inner surface act as a Lambertian reflector. IS is needed in many optical measurements which involves a high diffused reflection. In addition, IS very essential in photometry and radiometry measurement system. However, currently, IS is still an imported product which considered very expensive. The material for the sphere and inner surface coating affect the performance of the IS systems. Therefore, the main challenges in designing IS are the material engineering for the sphere and the procedure for the inner surface coating. The inner surface was coated using BaSO4 which has a low absorption and high diffuse reflection. Spectral responses of the IS system was characterized using USB2000+ and calibrated using a standard Spectralon from ocean optic. The obtained IS system used an inner surface coating from a mixed 80% Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) and 20% Nippon Elastex paint which yield a reflection factor ? = 0.955 and amplification factor M=10.69. The validation was conducted using an emitter with known specification from Luxeon of LXHL-DW01 which produced light flux 40.5 lumen with injection current 350 mA and junction temperature Tj 25°C.

  1. Substrate material affects wettability of surfaces coated and sintered with silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kang; Zeng, Hansong; Zhao, Yi

    2013-05-01

    Silica nanoparticles coating and sintering is a widely-used approach for creating hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. The role of substrate material in this process, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, the role of substrate material is examined by measuring surface wettability of three different substrate materials (glass, polyimide and copper) under systematically varied conditions. These surfaces are modulated from hydrophilic (water contact angle (WCA) < 90°) to superhydrophobic (WCA > 150°) by coating and sintering silica nanoparticles, followed by assembling a layer of fluorine compound. Static WCA characterization shows that surface wettability is not solely dependent on the concentration of the coating colloidal, but is also on the substrate material. In particular, copper substrate exhibits a larger WCA than glass and polyimide substrates. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) characterizations show that the substrate material-dependent wettability is attributed to thermal-induced nanostructures on the copper surface, which contributes to the hierarchical micro-/nano- topography. This finding is important for designing hydrophobic/superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of different materials, especially those that would experience thermal cycles in surface functionalization and subsequent use.

  2. Factors affecting the spontaneous motion of condensate drops on superhydrophobic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Qin, Zhaoqian; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-04-10

    The coalescence-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its potential applications in sustained dropwise condensation, water collection, anti-icing, and anticorrosion. However, an investigation of the mechanism of such self-propelled motion including the factors for designing such SHSs is still limited. In this article, we fabricated a series of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with nanoribbon structures using wet chemical oxidation followed by fluorization treatment. We then systematically studied the influence of surface roughness and the chemical properties of as-prepared surfaces on the spontaneous motion of condensate drops. We quantified the "frequency" of the condensate drop motion based on microscopic sequential images and showed that the trend of this frequency varied with the nanoribbon structure and extent of fluorination. More obvious spontaneous condensate drop motion was observed on surfaces with a higher extent of fluorization and nanostructures possessing sufficiently narrow spacing and higher perpendicularity. We attribute this enhanced drop mobility to the stable Cassie state of condensate drops in the dynamic dropwise condensation process that is determined by the nanoscale morphology and local surface energy. PMID:22424422

  3. Theory of wide-angle photometry from standard stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1989-01-01

    Wide angle celestial structures, such as bright comet tails and nearby galaxies and clusters of galaxies, rely on photographic methods for quantified morphology and photometry, primarily because electronic devices with comparable resolution and sky coverage are beyond current technological capability. The problem of the photometry of extended structures and of how this problem may be overcome through calibration by photometric standard stars is examined. The perfect properties of the ideal field of view are stated in the guise of a radiometric paraxial approximation, in the hope that fields of view of actual telescopes will conform. Fundamental radiometric concepts are worked through before the issue of atmospheric attenuation is addressed. The independence of observed atmospheric extinction and surface brightness leads off the quest for formal solutions to the problem of surface photometry. Methods and problems of solution are discussed. The spectre is confronted in the spirit of standard stars and shown to be chimerical in that light, provided certain rituals are adopted. After a brief discussion of Baker-Sampson polynomials and the vexing issue of saturation, a pursuit is made of actual numbers to be expected in real cases. While the numbers crunched are gathered ex nihilo, they demonstrate the feasibility of Newton's method in the solution of this overdetermined, nonlinear, least square, multiparametric, photometric problem.

  4. Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water. In some places the pipeline might be quite near the water table and in others it could be 50-100 feet

  5. Abiotic Factors Affecting the Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus in Surface Waters of Waterfowl Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Cressler, Alan M.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-?m filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  6. Biogenic nanoparticulate UO 2: Synthesis, characterization, and factors affecting surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, David M.; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    The surface reactivity of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 with respect to sorption of aqueous Zn(II) and particle annealing is different from that of bulk uraninite because of the presence of surface-associated organic matter on the biogenic UO 2. Synthesis of biogenic UO 2 was accomplished by reduction of aqueous uranyl ions, UO22+ by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and the resulting nanoparticles were washed using one of two protocols: (1) to remove surface-associated organic matter and soluble uranyl species (NAUO2), or (2) to remove only soluble uranyl species (BIUO2). A suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques was used to examine bulk and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 as a function of particle size and surface-associated organic matter. The N 2-BET surface areas of the two biogenic UO 2 samples following the washing procedures are 128.63 m 2 g -1 (NAUO2) and 92.56 m 2 g -1 (BIUO2), and the average particle sizes range from 5-10 nm based on TEM imaging. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the surface charge behavior of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 (both NAUO2 and BIUO2) over the pH range 3-9 is the same as that of bulk. The U L III-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic UO 2 (both NAUO2 and BIUO2) were best fit with half the number of second-shell uranium neighbors compared to bulk uraninite, and no oxygen neighbors were detected beyond the first shell around U(IV) in the biogenic UO 2. At pH 7, sorption of Zn(II) onto both bulk uraninite and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 is independent of electrolyte concentration, suggesting that Zn(II) sorption complexes are dominantly inner-sphere. The maximum surface area-normalized Zn(II) sorption loadings for the three substrates were 3.00 ± 0.20 ?mol m -2 UO 2 (bulk uraninite), 2.34 ± 0.12 ?mol m -2 UO 2 (NAUO2), and 2.57 ± 0.10 ?mol m -2 UO 2 (BIUO2). Fits of Zn K-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 indicate that Zn(II) sorption is dependent on the washing protocol. Zn-U pair correlations were observed at 2.8 ± 0.1 Å for NAUO2 and bulk uraninite; however, they were not observed for sample BIUO2. The derived Zn-U distance, coupled with an average Zn-O distance of 2.09 ± 0.02 Å, indicates that Zn(O,OH) 6 sorbs as bidentate, edge-sharing complexes to UO 8 polyhedra at the surface of NAUO2 nanoparticles and bulk uraninite, which is consistent with a Pauling bond-valence analysis. The absence of Zn-U pair correlations in sample BIUO2 suggests that Zn(II) binds preferentially to the organic matter coating rather than the UO 2 surface. Surface-associated organic matter on the biogenic UO 2 particles also inhibited particle annealing at 90 °C under anaerobic conditions. These results suggest that surface-associated organic matter decreases the reactivity of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 surfaces relative to aqueous Zn(II) and possibly other environmental contaminants.

  7. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by prohibitive variability in atmospheric conditions (very inhomogeneous aerosol distribution and cloud cover). Although the results presented for the surface are essentially unaffected, we discuss the results obtained by typing algorithms in sorting the complex mix of aerosol types, and show evidence of oriented ice in cirrus clouds present in the area. In this context, polarization measurements at 1880 nm were used to infer ice habit and cirrus optical depth, which was found in the subvisual/threshold-visible regime, confirming the utility of the aforementioned RSP channel for the remote sensing of even thin cold clouds.

  8. Cholesterol level affects surface charge of lipid membranes in saline solution

    PubMed Central

    Magarkar, Aniket; Dhawan, Vivek; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Viitala, Tapani; Elmowafy, Mohammed; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is an important component of all biological membranes as well as drug delivery liposomes. We show here that increasing the level of cholesterol in a phospholipid membrane decreases surface charge in the physiological environment. Through molecular dynamics simulation we have shown that increasing the level of cholesterol decreases Na+ ion binding. Complementary experimental ? – potential measurements have shown a decreased ? – potential with increasing cholesterol content, indicative of reduced surface charge. Both experiments and simulations have been carried out on both saturated 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and monounsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) membranes. This result is particularly important because membrane surface charge plays an important role in the interactions of biomembranes with peripheral membrane proteins and drug delivery liposomes with the immune system. PMID:24845659

  9. How linear surface waves are affected by a current with constant vorticity

    E-print Network

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of surface waves with Couette-type current with uniform vorticity is a well suited problem for students approaching the theory of surface waves. The problem, although mathematically simple, contains rich physics, and is moreover important in several situations from oceanography and marine technology to microfluidics. We here lay out a simple two-dimensional theory of waves propagating upon a basic flow of uniform vorticity of constant depth. The dispersion relation is found, showing how the shearing current introduces different phase velocities for upstream and downstream propagating waves. The role of surface tension is discussed and applied to the case of a wave pattern created by a moving source, stationary as seen by the source. We conclude by discussing how the average potential and kinetic energies are no longer equal in the presence of shear.

  10. How subsurface patterns affect surface energy budget patterns: a sudanian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, D.; Cohard, J.; Descloitres, M.; Vandervaere, J.; Braud, I.; Vauclin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Fractured bedrock areas are still challenging for hydrological modeling because of their complex underground property distributions. The heterogeneity in soil hydraulic properties, for example, can control the subsurface water fluxes and create surface soil moisture pattern which becomes preferential areas for runoff production or evapotranspiration. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a bedrock topography, including outcropping, on subsurface water fluxes and the induced energy budget patterns at the surface. To deal with these ground water/surface water interactions, we run the Parflow-CLM distributed coupled land surface and groundwater model over the 12km2 Ara watershed (Northern Benin) for different bedrock configurations. The Ara catchment is submitted to a sudanian climate with 1200mm total rainfall per year. It is part of the AMMA-Catch project in which 3 meso sites have been documented along a south to north transect in West Africa. The geology of the Ara catchment is composed of metamorphic rocks. The main orientation of the geological structures (and of the gneiss foliation) is roughly north-south and the dip angle is 20° east. These structure create patterns in effective porosity distribution which is supposed to induce subsurface flow perpendicular to surface slope direction. Controlled Parflow-CLM simulation results are compared with energy budget data, including 3 net radiation measurements, eddy covariance station, scintillometric measurements to estimate evapotranspiration at different scales. The experimental device also include ground measurements like distributed surface soil moisture profile and piezometers. Parflow-CLM simulations are in good agreement with energy budget observations if observed Leaf Area Index time series are take into account. Then different hydraulic property distributions (effective porosity, hydraulic transmissivity, water retention curves) are evaluated through watershed dynamic differences.

  11. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wilson Jr, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:23983691

  12. Illinois­—Where Astronomical Photometry Grew Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaman, B. B.; Svec, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    In 1903 Dr. Joel Stebbins joined the University of Illinois faculty as an astronomy instructor and Director of the University of Illinois Observatory. In 1905 he and F. C. Brown began experimenting with selenium sell photometry and developed the equipment and many of the photometric practices used then. Those practices formed the foundation on which present day photometry processes are based. This paper will trace the history of Stebbins’ career and his development of photoelectric photometry from 1903 to 1922. This story explains how Stebbins’ wife, May, caused a change in astronomical observing that continues today.

  13. Factors affecting sorption of nitro explosives to biochar: pyrolysis temperature, surface treatment, competition, and dissolved metals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk

    2015-05-01

    The application of rice straw-derived biochar for removing nitro explosives, including 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), from contaminated water was investigated through batch experiments. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature from 250 to 900°C in general led to higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge, and C:O ratio of biochar. The maximum sorption capacity estimated by a mixed sorption-partition model increased when pyrolysis temperatures were elevated from 250 to 900°C, indicating that C content and aromaticity of biochar were strongly related to the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. Surface treatment with acid or oxidant increased the sorption capacity of biochar for the two strong ?-acceptor compounds (DNT and TNT) but not for RDX. However, the enhancement of sorption capacity was not directly related to increased surface area and CEC. Compared with single-sorption systems, coexistence of explosives or cationic metals resulted in decreased sorption of each explosive to biochar, suggesting that sorption of nitro explosives and cationic metals to electron-rich portions in biochar was competitive. Our results suggest that ?-? electron donor acceptor interactions are main sorption mechanisms and that changing various conditions can enhance or reduce the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. PMID:26024263

  14. Retention of potentially mobile radiocesium in forest surface soils affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Jun; Moriya, Koichi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The fate of (137)Cs derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident fallout and associated radiological hazards are largely dependent on its mobility in the surface soils of forest ecosystems. Thus, we quantified microbial and adsorptive retentions of (137)Cs in forest surface (0-3 cm) soils. The K(2)SO(4) extraction process liberated 2.1%-12.8% of the total (137)Cs from the soils. Two soils with a higher content of clay- and silt-sized particles, organic carbon content, and cation exchange capacity showed higher (137)Cs extractability. Microbial biomass was observed in all of the soils. However, the (137)Cs extractability did not increase after destruction of the microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation, providing no evidence for microbial retention of the Fukushima-fallout (137)Cs. The results indicate that uptake of (137)Cs by soil microorganisms is less important for retention of potentially mobile (137)Cs in the forest surface soils compared to ion-exchange adsorption on non-specific sites provided by abiotic components. PMID:23256039

  15. Surface variations affecting human dental enamel studied using nanomechanical and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Michelle Emma

    The enamel surface is the interface between the tooth and its ever changing oral environment. Cavity (caries) formation and extrinsic tooth staining are due, respectively, to degradation of the enamel structure under low pH conditions and interactions between salivary pellicle and dietary elements. Both of these occur at the enamel surface and are caused by the local environment changing the chemistry of the surface. The results can be detrimental to the enamel's mechanical integrity and aesthetics. Incipient carious lesions are the precursor to caries and form due to demineralisation of enamel. These carious lesions are a reversible structure where ions (e.g. Ca2+, F -) can diffuse in (remineralisation) to preserve the tooth's structural integrity. This investigation used controlled in vitro demineralisation and remineralisation to study artificial carious lesion formation and repair. The carious lesions were cross-sectioned and characterised using nanoindentation, electron probe micro-analysis and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mechanical and chemical maps showed the carious lesion had a significantly reduced hardness and elastic modulus, and the calcium and phosphate content was lower than in sound enamel. Fluoride based remineralisation treatments gave a new phase (possibly fluorohydroxyapatite) within the lesion with mechanical properties higher than sound enamel. The acquired salivary pellicle is a protein-rich film formed by the physisorption of organic molecules in saliva onto the enamel surface. Its functions include lubrication during mastication and chemical protection. However, pellicle proteins react with dietary elements such as polyphenols (tannins in tea) causing a brown stain. This study has used in vitro dynamic nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to examine normal and stained pellicles formed in vivo. The effects of polyphenols on the pellicle's mechanical properties and morphology have been studied. It was found that the initial adsorption of proteins occurred within 30 seconds of exposure to the oral cavity; fully mature pellicles develop in 2 hours. Polyphenol staining resulted in substantial changes in the morphology and mechanical properties of the pellicle. Specifically, staining gives pellicles consisting of large globules with high surface adhesion and a high loss tangent. These changes help explain why extrinsic stains are difficult to remove abrasively.

  16. BVRI PHOTOMETRY OF 53 UNUSUAL ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Q.-Z., E-mail: tom6740@gmail.com [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-02-15

    We present the results of BVRI photometry and classification of 53 unusual asteroids, including 35 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), 6 high eccentricity/inclination asteroids, and 12 recently identified asteroid-pair candidates. Most of these asteroids were not classified prior to this work. For the few asteroids that have been previously studied, the results are generally in agreement. In addition to observing and classifying these objects, we merge the results from severalphotometric/spectroscopic surveys to create the largest-ever sample with 449 spectrally classified NEAs for statistical analysis. We identify a 'transition point' of the relative number of C/X-like and S-like NEAs at H {approx} 18 {r_reversible} D {approx} 1 km with confidence level at {approx}95% or higher. We find that the C/X-like:S-like ratio for 18 {<=} H < 22 is about twice as high as that of H < 18 (0.33 {+-} 0.04 versus 0.17 {+-} 0.02), virtually supporting the hypothesis that smaller NEAs generally have less weathered surfaces (therefore less reddish appearance) due to younger collision ages.

  17. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury Survey: Resolved Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Dolphin, A. E.; Lang, D.; Weisz, D.; Seth, A. C.; Kalirai, J.; Lauer, T.; Rosema, K.

    2012-01-01

    The PHAT survey is collecting photometric data with 3 cameras aboard the Hubble Space Telescope covering about one quarter of the M31 inner disk and bulge. The observing strategy allows coverage of the full survey area in 6 broad bands from the Near-UV to the Near-IR. Initial survey photometry has been performed on the data from each camera separately, then the resulting catalogs have been matched to improve astrometry and provide our first 6-band catalogs. We provide a summary of our crowding-optimized point spread function measuring technique. We present color-magnitude diagrams showing our data quality in each camera for areas of varying surface brightness in M31, and we present color-color diagrams to show the quality of our current ability to match stars across all 6 bands. These data are samples of the survey's first public data release to the Hubble data archive. Finally we present preliminary results from simultaneous photometry across all 6 bands where matching is done at the pixel level, eliminating the need for catalog matching. This new ability provides optimal depth in overlapping fields and more reliable matching of all 6 bands. Future survey data releases will include such optimized 6-band photometry. PHAT is supported by HST GO-12055 administered by NASA.

  18. L' AND M' Photometry Of Ultracool Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, M. S.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Vrba, F. J.; Henden, A. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    We have compiled L' (3.4-4.1 microns) and M' (4.6- 4.8 microns) photometry of 63 single and binary M, L, and T dwarfs obtained at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope using the Mauna Kea Observatory filter set. This compilation includes new L' measurements of eight L dwarfs and 13 T dwarfs and new M' measurements of seven L dwarfs, five T dwarfs, and the M1 dwarf Gl 229A. These new data increase by factors of 0. 6 and 1.6, respectively, the numbers of ultracool dwarfs T (sub eff) photometry, and trigonometric parallaxes are available, and we estimate these quantities for nine other dwarfs whose parallaxes and flux-calibrated spectra have been obtained. BC(SUB K) is a well-behaved function of near-infrared spectral type with a dispersion of approx. 0.1 mag for types M6-T5 it is significantly more scattered for types T5-T9. T (sub eff) declines steeply and monotonically for types M6-L7 and T4-T9, but it is nearly constant at approx. 1450 K for types L7-T4 with assumed ages of approx. 3 Gyr. This constant T(sub eff) is evidenced by nearly unchanging values of L'-M' between types L6 and T3. It also supports recent models that attribute the changing near-infrared luminosities and spectral features across the L-T transition to the rapid migration, disruption, and/or thinning of condensate clouds over a narrow range of T(sub eff). The L' and M' luminosities of early-T dwarfs do not exhibit the pronounced humps or inflections previously noted in l through K bands, but insufficient data exist for types L6-T5 to assert that M(Sub L') and M(sub M') are strictly monotonic within this range of typew. We compare the observed K, L', and M' luminosities of L and T dwarfs in our sample with those predicted by precipitation-cloud-free models for varying surface gravities and sedimentation efficiencies.

  19. HU Protein Affects Transcription of Surface Polysaccharide Synthesis Genes in Porphyromonas gingivalis ? †

    PubMed Central

    Alberti-Segui, Christine; Arndt, Annette; Cugini, Carla; Priyadarshini, Richa; Davey, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    K-antigen capsule synthesis is an important virulence determinant of the oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis. We previously reported that the locus required for synthesis of this surface polysaccharide in strain W83 (TIGR identification PG0106 to PG0120) is transcribed as a large (?16.7-kb) polycistronic message. Through sequence analysis, we have now identified a 77-bp inverted repeat located upstream (206 bp) of the start codon of PG0106 that is capable of forming a large hairpin structure. Further sequence analysis just upstream and downstream of the capsule synthesis genes revealed the presence of two genes oriented in the same direction as the operon that are predicted to encode DNA binding proteins: PG0104, which is highly similar (57%) to DNA topoisomerase III, and PG0121, which has high similarity (72%) to DNA binding protein HU (?-subunit). In this report, we show that these two genes, as well as the 77-bp inverted repeat region, are cotranscribed with the capsule synthesis genes, resulting in a large transcript that is ?19.4 kb (based on annotation). We also show that a PG0121 recombinant protein is a nonspecific DNA binding protein with strong affinity to the hairpin structure, in vitro, and that transcript levels of the capsule synthesis genes are downregulated in a PG0121 deletion mutant. Furthermore, we show that this decrease in transcript levels corresponds to a decrease in the amount of polysaccharide produced. Interestingly, expression analysis of another polysaccharide synthesis locus (PG1136 to PG1143) encoding genes involved in synthesis of a surface-associated phosphorylated branched mannan (APS) indicated that this locus is also downregulated in the PG0121 mutant. Altogether our data indicate that HU protein modulates expression of surface polysaccharides in P. gingivalis strain W83. PMID:20889748

  20. Factors affecting survival of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli on abiotic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, T; Heir, E; Mo, K R; Habimana, O; Abdelgani, A; Langsrud, S

    2010-03-31

    Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes severe infections, and has been the cause of a number of foodborne outbreaks. Knowledge on the survival of STEC is crucial in order to limit the risk of cross contamination and transfer of STEC to food during processing. In this study survival of STEC and non-STEC on surfaces under various humidities, temperatures and in the presence of different types of soil was investigated. A model system with controlled relative humidity and temperature was established by using saturated salt solutions. All the 12 STEC strains had a reduction in viable count during incubation at 70% RH at 12 degrees C. The reduction was 2-3.5 log and 4.5-5.5 log after 1 and 7 days of incubation, respectively. Surviving cells were observed after 19 days of incubation. The STEC strains were more resistant to desiccation than non-STEC strains. STEC survived better at 12 degrees C, compared to 20 degrees C. The survival of STEC was much lower than the survival of a Staphylococcus simulans strain tested, which showed less than 1 log reduction until day 7 at 70% RH at 12 degrees C, while several STEC strains had comparable survival to a Salmonella Agona strain. The survival of two STEC strains tested was highest at 98% RH. The lowest survival was observed at 85% RH, with better survival at drier conditions. Presence of proteins and glucose protected the cells at dry conditions. Two commercial disinfectants tested at in-use concentration had limited effect (0.8-2.5 log reduction) against STEC on stainless steel, especially for cells incubated at high relative humidity (98% RH). STEC surviving on surfaces in the food industry may impose a risk for cross contamination. Cleaning and use of suitable disinfectants will reduce the survival of STEC, but surfaces should be allowed to dry completely since humid conditions will promote the survival and growth of STEC. PMID:20100628

  1. Pilot investigations of surface parts of three closed landfills and factors affecting them.

    PubMed

    Saarela, Jouko

    2003-05-01

    Aftercare of closed sanitary landfills in a major environmental problem. Rehabilitation of the landfill with vegetation and reducing leachate production are two issues that must be dealt. For this reason, Finnish Environment Institute has conducted several projects on closed landfills. This research aims at determining the physical and chemical properties of the soils at three closed landfills in Helsinki, Finland. Research was conducted to understand the impact by studying the following properties: Chemical, nutrient metal, gamma and radon analysis of surface soils of three closed landfills in Helsinki area. PMID:12733818

  2. UBVRI photoelectric photometry of ten southern galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, M.F.S.; Kepler, S.O. (Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal, Porto Alegre (Brazil))

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports UBVRI photoelectric photometry of ten southern spiral galaxies with diaphragms ranging from 7 to 77 arc seconds. Total B and V magnitudes calculated through standard aperture-magnitude curve fittings are also reported. 13 refs.

  3. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury Survey: UV-IR Photometry of 117 Million Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Lang, Dustin; Dalcanton, Julianne; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Johnson, Lent C.; Byler, Nell; Gregersen, Dylan; Seth, Anil; Girardi, Leo; PHAT Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    We have measured resolved stellar photometry using HST/WFC3 and HST/ACS imaging in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) with simultaneous point spread function fitting across all bands at all source positions. All images were aligned to 5-10 milliarcsecond relative accuracy and to 50 milliarcsec global accuracy. In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W~28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W~25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams that are up to 2.5 magnitudes deeper when compared with color-magnitude diagrams from WFC3/IR photometry alone. This stellar catalog is the largest ever produced for equidistant sources, and is publicly available for download by the community. The quality of the photometry catalog, as well as examples of some initial results from model fitting will be discussed. PHAT is supported by HST GO-12055 administered by NASA.

  4. Distortion of trichome morphology by the hairless mutation of tomato affects leaf surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Marks, M. David; Howe, Gregg A.

    2010-01-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal structures that function as physical and chemical deterrents against arthropod herbivores. Aerial tissues of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are populated by several morphologically distinct trichome types, the most abundant of which is the type VI glandular trichome that produces various specialized metabolites. Here, the effect of the hairless (hl) mutation on trichome density and morphology, chemical composition, and resistance to a natural insect herbivore of tomato was investigated. The results show that the major effect of hl on pubescence results from structural distortion (bending and swelling) of all trichome types in aerial tissues. Leaf surface extracts and isolated type VI glands from hl plants contained wild-type levels of monoterpenes, glycoalkaloids, and acyl sugars, but were deficient in sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds implicated in anti-insect defence. No-choice bioassays showed that hl plants are compromised in resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. These results establish a link between the morphology and chemical composition of glandular trichomes in cultivated tomato, and show that hl-mediated changes in these leaf surface traits correlate with decreased resistance to insect herbivory. PMID:20018901

  5. A new capture fraction method to map how pumpage affects surface water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Dickinson, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    All groundwater pumped is balanced by removal of water somewhere, initially from storage in the aquifer and later from capture in the form of increase in recharge and decrease in discharge. Capture that results in a loss of water in streams, rivers, and wetlands now is a concern in many parts of the United States. Hydrologists commonly use analytical and numerical approaches to study temporal variations in sources of water to wells for select points of interest. Much can be learned about coupled surface/groundwater systems, however, by looking at the spatial distribution of theoretical capture for select times of interest. Development of maps of capture requires (1) a reasonably well-constructed transient or steady state model of an aquifer with head-dependent flow boundaries representing surface water features or evapotranspiration and (2) an automated procedure to run the model repeatedly and extract results, each time with a well in a different location. This paper presents new methods for simulating and mapping capture using three-dimensional groundwater flow models and presents examples from Arizona, Oregon, and Michigan. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  6. A surface-exposed neuraminidase affects complement resistance and virulence of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Kurniyati, Kurni; Zhang, Weiyan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Chunhao

    2013-01-01

    Neuraminidases (sialidases) catalyze the removal of terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates. Bacterial pathogens often utilize neuraminidases to scavenge host sialic acid, which can be utilized either as a nutrient or as a decorating molecule to disguise themselves from host immune attacks. Herein, a putative neuraminidase (TDE0471) was identified in Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete associated with human periodontitis. TDE0471 is a cell surface-exposed exo-neuraminidase that removes sialic acid from human serum proteins; it is required for T. denticola to grow in a medium that mimics gingival crevice fluid, suggesting that the spirochete may use sialic acid as a nutrient in vivo. TDE0471 protects T. denticola from serum killing by preventing the deposition of membrane attack complexes on the bacterial cell surface. Animal studies revealed that a TDE0471-deficient mutant is less virulent than its parental wild-type strain in BALB/C mice. However, it causes a level of tissue damage similar to the wild type in complement-deficient B6.129S4-C3tm1Crr/J mice albeit the damage caused by both bacterial strains is more severe in these transgenic mice. Based on these results, we propose that T. denticola has evolved a strategy to scavenge host sialic acid using its neuraminidase, which allows the spirochete to acquire nutrients and evade complement killing. PMID:23808705

  7. Hyper: Hybrid photometry and extraction routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Pineda, J. E.; Pezzuto, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new hybrid photometry and extraction routine called Hyper. It is designed to do compact source photometry, allowing for varying spatial resolution and sensitivity in multi-wavelength surveys. Hyper combines multi-Gaussian fitting with aperture photometry to provide reliable photometry in regions with variable backgrounds and in crowded fields. The background is evaluated and removed locally for each source using polynomial fits of various orders. Source deblending is done through simultaneous multi-Gaussian fitting of the main source and its companion(s), followed by the subtraction of the companion(s). Hyper also allows simultaneous multi-wavelength photometry by setting a fixed aperture size independent of the map resolution and by evaluating the source flux within the same region of the sky at multiple wavelengths at the same time. This new code has been initially designed for precise aperture photometry in complex fields such as the Galactic plane observed in the far infrared (FIR) by the Herschel infrared survey of the Galactic plane (Hi-GAL). Hyper has been tested on both simulated and real Herschel fields to quantify the quality of the source identification and photometry. The code is highly modular and fully parameterisable, therefore it can be easily adapted to different experiments. Comparison of the Hyper photometry with the catalogued sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS), the 1.1 mm survey of the Galactic plane carried out with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, demonstrates the versatility of Hyper on different datasets. It is fast and light in its memory, and it is freely available to the scientific community.

  8. WFPC2 Stellar Photometry with HSTphot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2000-01-01

    HSTphot, a photometry package designed to handle the undersampled PSFs found in WFPC2 images, is introduced and described, as well as some of the considerations that have to be made in order to obtain accurate PSF-fitting stellar photometry with WFPC2 data. Tests of HSTphot's internal reliability are made using multiple observations of the same field, and tests of external reliability are made by comparing with DoPHOT reductions of the same data. Subject headz'ngs: techniques: photometric

  9. Errors In Short Distance Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. G.; Moermann, J. J. B.

    1982-02-01

    The errors involved in the short-distance photometry of projectors are evaluated and the same conclusions have been shown to apply to general purpose luminaires. The mathematical analysis from which the equations were derived has been published in Lighting Research and Technology (1981). The illuminance at a short distance from the projector does not follow the inverse square law; the errors depend on the angular subtense of the aperture of the projector relative to the divergence of the beam, and on the distribution of luminance across the aperture of the projector. At any particular distance, the errors are least in directions in which the curvature of the intensity distribution curve is least; the errors may therefore be greatest in the axial direction or in the direction of a shoulder on the curve, and they may change sign where the intensity distribution curve changes from convex to concave. In any particular direction, the error is greater if the outer zones of the projector have higher luminance or give a narrower relative spread; the worst case is a ring-shaped luminaire. If the relative error is less than 10 per cent, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of measurement. For general guidance, a nomogram relates the maximum likely percentage error to the beam divergence and to the relative distance of measurement; an empirical reference distance, to be known as the Beam Cross-over Distance, is suggested to replace the traditional 'cross-over distance' of a projector.

  10. Changes in soil DOC affect reconstructed history and projected future trends in surface water acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Moldan, Filip; Oulehle, Filip; Evans, Christopher D.; Wright, Richard F.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2013-04-01

    Over the last two decades there has been growing evidence of widespread increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters in several regions in Europe and North America. Two main drivers have been proposed to explain this observation: climate change entailing changed humidity and temperature which alter rates of microbial processes and reductions in acid deposition which lead to decreased concentrations of strong acid anions and alter rates of decomposition and solubility of organic matter in soil. The question of historical DOC concentrations is therefore important for quantifying present-day acidification and possible future recovery of the surface waters. Due to the paucity of historical data, estimates of pre-acidification chemical and biological status usually come from modeling applications. Lack of process-understanding and of consensus upon what has been driving the observed DOC trends makes modeling uncertain and model outcomes are subject to controversy. Here we apply the MAGIC model to the long-term observed soil and streamwater chemistry data from an anthropogenically acidified small Lysina catchment, Czech Republic, to illustrate the importance of choice of source of DOC during recovery from acidification. The annual mean streamwater DOC concentration increased from 15.6-16.9 mg L-1 (1993-1994) to 21.8-24.5 mg L-1 in 2010-2011, an average annual increase of 0.6 mg L-1 year-1 (p<0.001). Even stronger DOC trends were observed for soilwater draining the organic soil horizons. Mean annual DOC increased from 41-42 mg L-1 in 1993-1994 to 67-74 mg L-1 in 2010-2011 below the organic horizon (at 5 cm depth below the surface), an annual increase of 2.7 mg L-1 year-1 (p<0.001). At 15 cm depth below the surface, in the uppermost mineral horizon (E), the DOC concentrations increased from 31-34 mg L-1 to 68-73 mg L-1, an annual increase of 1.9 mg L-1 year-1 (p<0.005) Pre-industrial (1850´s) and future (2060) streamwater chemistry was estimated using the MAGIC model for three different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels and sources. The highest pH = 5.7 for 1850´s as well as for 2060 (pH = 4.4) was simulated given the assumption that streamwater DOC concentration was constant at the 1993 level. A scenario accounting for an increase of DOC as an inverse function of ionic strength (it has declined as a result of decreasing acidic deposition) of soilwater and streamwater resulted in much lower pre-industrial pH=4.9 and future recovery to pH=4.1 if only stream riparian zone was taken as a DOC source. If upland soilwater (where significant DOC increase was observed at -5 cm and -15 cm) was also included, DOC was partly neutralized by base cations within the soil and pre-industrial pH=5.3 and future pH = 4.2 were estimated. The observed DOC riverine flux was 2 - 4 times higher than the potential carbon production of the riparian zone. Thus modelling pre-industrial pH based on the assumption that stream DOC changes are solely attributable to changes in the riparian zone appears likely to result in a substantial under-estimate of pre-industrial and future steamwater pH.

  11. Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Pseudomonas putida Affects Utilization of Sugars and Growth on Root Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Cheol; Miller, Charles D.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the role of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in root colonization and oxidative stress, mutants of Pseudomonas putida lacking manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) (sodA), iron-superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) (sodB), or both were generated. The sodA sodB mutant did not grow on components washed from bean root surfaces or glucose in minimal medium. The sodB and sodA sodB mutants were more sensitive than wild type to oxidative stress generated within the cell by paraquat treatment. In single inoculation of SOD mutants on bean, only the sodA sodB double mutant was impaired in growth on root surfaces. In mixed inoculations with wild type, populations of the sodA mutant were equal to those of the wild type, but levels of the sodB mutant and, to a great extent, the sodA sodB mutant, were reduced. Confocal microscopy of young bean roots inoculated with green fluorescent protein-tagged cells showed that wild type and SOD single mutants colonized well predominantly at the root tip but that the sodA sodB double mutant grew poorly at the tip. Our results indicate that FeSOD in P. putida is more important than MnSOD in aerobic metabolism and oxidative stress. Inhibition of key metabolic enzymes by increased levels of superoxide anion may cause the impaired growth of SOD mutants in vitro and in planta. PMID:10742227

  12. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  13. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  14. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Aerosol Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In July 2010, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) effectuated two flights in two consecutive days over the region affected by the oil spill of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. Integrated on the NASA Langley B-200 aircraft, the instrument is deployed together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. We present a sensitivity study to illustrate the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, the Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) in the glint region does not depend on the surface roughness, while is severely affected by variations in the refractive index of the ocean surface. Exploiting the RSP channel at 2250nm, where virtually all the signal is generated by the Fresnel reflection at the surface, the DoLP at any angle well into the glint region can therefore be used to detect alterations in the ocean surface. More specifically, the glint profile at this wavelength is fitted to the Cox-Munk model with a routine which can optimally estimate wind speed and direction, while taking into account aircraft attitude variations in determining the viewing geometry. The surveyed area also presents a complex mix of aerosol types. At least one major urban layer originating in the US Southeast mixes in the central portion of the flight trajectory with smoke caused by controlled burns around the damaged platform. The constrain on surface reflectance provided by the SWIR RSP channel, together with the aerosol optical depth provided by the HSRL, are used in Radiative Transfer computations to model the channels at shorter wavelengths and retrieve aerosol descriptive parameters such as aerosol size distribution and refractive index. Finally, the presence of smoke is ground for a discussion on the possibility to infer aerosol absorption. In this respect, RSP retrieval can be aided by the HSRL unique capability of measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter independently.

  15. Mg2+ binds to the surface of thymidylate synthase and affects hydride transfer at the interior active site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Sapienza, Paul J.; Abeysinghe, Thelma; Luzum, Calvin; Lee, Andrew L.; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Stroud, Robert M.; Kohen, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TSase) produces the sole intracellular de novo source of thymidine (i.e. the DNA base T) and thus is a common target for antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Mg2+ has been reported to affect TSase activity, but the mechanism of this interaction has not been investigated. Here we show that Mg2+ binds to the surface of Escherichia coli TSase and affects the kinetics of hydride transfer at the interior active site (16 Å away). Examination of the crystal structures identifies a Mg2+ near the glutamyl moiety of the folate cofactor, providing the first structural evidence for Mg2+ binding to TSase. The kinetics and NMR relaxation experiments suggest that the weak binding of Mg2+ to the protein surface stabilizes the closed conformation of the ternary enzyme complex and reduces the entropy of activation on the hydride transfer step. Mg2+ accelerates the hydride transfer by ca. 7-fold but does not affect the magnitude or temperature-dependence of the intrinsic kinetic isotope effect. These results suggest that Mg2+ facilitates the protein motions that bring the hydride donor and acceptor together, but it does not change the tunneling ready state of the hydride transfer. These findings highlight how variations in cellular Mg2+ concentration can modulate enzyme activity through long-range interactions in the protein, rather than binding at the active site. The interaction of Mg2+ with the glutamyl-tail of the folate cofactor and nonconserved residues of bacterial TSase may assist in designing antifolates with poly-glutamyl substitutes as species-specific antibiotic drugs. PMID:23611499

  16. How do silanes affect the lubricating properties of cationic double chain surfactant on silica surfaces?

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Muriel; Serreau, Laurence; Heitz, Caroline; Barthel, Etienne

    2009-03-01

    The effect of an aminosilane on the lubricant properties of a C(18) double-chained cationic surfactant has been investigated in the context of glass fiber forming process. The surfactant adsorption was studied on silica by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflexion (ATR) mode as a function of the aminosilane concentration in an organic water based formulation (sizing) used to coat the glass fibers during the process. A reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer was used to compare friction properties of silica in contact with the aminosilane-surfactant mixture and in presence of each component of the sizing. Surface forces were measured between silica and an atomic force microscope (AFM) silicon nitride tip in the sizing and in the pure cationic surfactant solution. The aminosilane on its own has no lubricant property and reduces or even suppresses the cationic surfactant adsorption on silica. However, the silica-silica contact is lubricated even if the infrared spectroscopy does not detect any surfactant adsorption. The repeated contacts and shear due to the friction experiment itself induce accumulation, organization and compactness of surfactant bilayers. PMID:19059599

  17. Experiences with Opto-Mechanical Systems that Affect Optical Surfaces at the Sub-Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Taylor, J S

    2008-04-03

    Projection optical systems built for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) demonstrated the ability to produce, support and position reflective optical surfaces for achieving transmitted wavefront errors of 1 nm or less. Principal challenges included optical interferometry, optical manufacturing processes, multi-layer coating technology and opto mechanics. Our group was responsible for designing, building and aligning two different projection optical systems: a full-field, 0.1 NA, four-mirror system for 70 nm features and a small-field, 0.3 NA, two-mirror system for 30 nm features. Other than physical size and configuration, the two systems were very similar in the way they were designed, built and aligned. A key difference exists in the optic mounts, driven primarily by constraints from the metrology equipment used by different optics manufacturers. As mechanical stability and deterministic position control of optics will continue to play an essential role in future systems, we focus our discussion on opto-mechanics and primarily the optic mounts.

  18. Analytical solution describing pesticide volatilization from soil affected by a change in surface condition.

    PubMed

    Yates, S R

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution describing the fate and transport of pesticides applied to soils has been developed. Two pesticide application methods can be simulated: point-source applications, such as idealized shank or a hot-gas injection method, and a more realistic shank-source application method that includes a vertical pesticide distribution in the soil domain due to a soil fracture caused by a shank. The solutions allow determination of the volatilization rate and other information that could be important for understanding fumigant movement and in the development of regulatory permitting conditions. The solutions can be used to characterize differences in emissions relative to changes in the soil degradation rate, surface barrier conditions, application depth, and soil packing. In some cases, simple algebraic expressions are provided that can be used to obtain the total emissions and total soil degradation. The solutions provide a consistent methodology for determining the total emissions and can be used with other information, such as field and laboratory experimental data, to support the development of fumigant regulations. The uses of the models are illustrated by several examples. PMID:19141816

  19. Surface state of the dopamine RNA aptamer affects specific recognition and binding of dopamine by the aptamer-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Campos, Rui; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2015-06-21

    Specific monitoring of dopamine, in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters, is critical for diagnosis, treatment and mechanistic understanding of a variety of human neuropathologies, but nevertheless the proper tools are scarce. Recently, an electrochemical aptasensor for specific analysis of dopamine, exploiting dopamine biorecognition by the RNA aptamer electrostatically adsorbed onto a cysteamine-modified electrode, has been reported (Analytical Chemistry85 (2013) 121). However it was not clear which way dopamine biorecognition and binding by such aptamer layers proceed and if they can be improved. Here, we show that the aptamer surface state, in particular the aptamer surface density, in a bell-shaped manner affects the dopamine binding, being maximal for the 3.5 ± 0.3 pmol cm(-2) monolayer coverage of the aptamer molecules lying flat on the surface. Therewith, the aptamer affinity for dopamine increases one order of magnitude due to electrostatically regulated immobilization, with the aptamer-dopamine dissociation constant of 0.12 ± 0.01 ?M versus 1.6 ± 0.17 ?M shown in solution. Under optimal conditions, 0.1-2 ?M dopamine was specifically and 85.4 nA ?M(-1) cm(-2) sensitively detected, with no interference from structurally related catecholamines. The results allow improvement of the robustness of dopamine monitoring by aptamer-modified electrodes in biological systems, within the 0.01-1 ?M dopamine fluctuation range. PMID:25882962

  20. NAAP Variable Star Photometry 1/12 Variable Star Photometry Student Guide

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Name: NAAP ­ Variable Star Photometry 1/12 Variable Star Photometry ­ Student Guide Background of Variable Stars and Properties of CCDs. Question 1: The light variation from a variable star is shown in the figure to the right. a) Identify the type of variable star and explain your criteria for classifying

  1. Overexpressing sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase in transgenic mice affects multiple aspects of sperm-egg interactions

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Sperm surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase) mediates fertilization in mice by binding to specific O-linked oligosaccharide ligands on the egg coat glycoprotein ZP3. Before binding the egg, sperm GalTase is masked by epididymally derived glycosides that are shed from the sperm surface during capacitation. After binding the egg, sperm- bound oligosaccharides on ZP3 induce the acrosome reaction by receptor aggregation, presumably involving GalTase. In this study, we asked how increasing the levels of sperm surface GalTase would affect sperm-egg interactions using transgenic mice that overexpress GalTase under the control of a heterologous promoter. GalTase expression was elevated in many tissues in adult transgenic animals, including testis. Sperm from transgenic males had approximately six times the wild-type level of surface GalTase protein, which was localized appropriately on the sperm head as revealed by indirect immunofluorescence. As expected, sperm from transgenic mice bound more radiolabeled ZP3 than did wild-type sperm. However, sperm from transgenic animals were relatively unable to bind eggs, as compared to sperm from wild-type animals. The mechanistic basis for the reduced egg-binding ability of transgenic sperm was attributed to alterations in two GalTase-dependent events. First, transgenic sperm that overexpress surface GalTase bound more epididymal glycoside substrates than did sperm from wild-type mice, thus masking GalTase and preventing it from interacting with its zona pellucida ligand. Second, those sperm from transgenic mice that were able to bind the zona pellucida were hypersensitive to ZP3, such that they underwent precocious acrosome reactions and bound to eggs more tenuously than did wild-type sperm. These results demonstrate that sperm-egg binding requires an optimal, rather than maximal, level of surface GalTase expression, since increasing this level decreases sperm reproductive efficiency both before and after egg binding. Although sperm GalTase is required for fertilization by serving as a receptor for the egg zona pellucida, excess surface GalTase is counterproductive to successful sperm-egg binding. PMID:8089187

  2. Improving Kepler Pipeline Sensitivity with Pixel Response Function Photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Robert L.; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our investigation into the feasibility and expected benefits of implementing PRF-fitting photometry in the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. The Kepler Pixel Response Function (PRF) describes the expected system response to a point source at infinity and includes the effects of the optical point spread function, the CCD detector responsivity function, and spacecraft pointing jitter. Planet detection in the Kepler pipeline is currently based on simple aperture photometry (SAP), which is most effective when applied to uncrowded bright stars. Its effectiveness diminishes rapidly as target brightness decreases relative to the effects of noise sources such as detector electronics, background stars, and image motion. In contrast, PRF photometry is based on fitting an explicit model of image formation to the data and naturally accounts for image motion and contributions of background stars. The key to obtaining high-quality photometry from PRF fitting is a high-quality model of the system's PRF, while the key to efficiently processing the large number of Kepler targets is an accurate catalog and accurate mapping of celestial coordinates onto the focal plane. If the CCD coordinates of stellar centroids are known a priori then the problem of PRF fitting becomes linear. A model of the Kepler PRF was constructed at the time of spacecraft commissioning by fitting piecewise polynomial surfaces to data from dithered full frame images. While this model accurately captured the initial state of the system, the PRF has evolved dynamically since then and has been seen to deviate significantly from the initial (static) model. We construct a dynamic PRF model which is then used to recover photometry for all targets of interest. Both simulation tests and results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Longtime monitoring of groundwater levels and matric potentials in organic and inorganic soils affected by surface drainage and groundwater extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Iris; Fleige, Heiner; Horn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of organic soils leads to severe degradation of the soil matrix due to shrinkage, oxidation and development of hydrophobicity. Also, grassland vegetation on cultivated peatland soils is adapted to water supply through capillary rise from the groundwater to guarantee good yields. Monitoring of groundwater levels and soil matric potentials was performed in a period of ten years (2003-2013) at six investigation sites in a plain tract surrounded by Saalean deposits in south-west Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The area is under agricultural use; all monitoring sites are under grassland. The groundwater situation in the area has been strongly affected by surface drainage (since 1969) and groundwater extraction for industrial and private utilization (since 1977). Soil physical measurements on soil samples taken from six soil profiles in the investigation area (2003) showed an advanced degradation of the organic soil horizons as a result of the dewatering. Furthermore, in 2003 drainage and groundwater extraction resulted in a situation, where water supply in the root zone via capillary rise from the groundwater was no longer guaranteed on some of the investigation sites, leading to yield depressions in dry periods as the vegetation was dependent on precipitation events for water supply. In 2006 new regulations of the groundwater extraction lead to a continuously rise of the groundwater level, indicating an interaction between the surface aquifer and the deep aquifer where the groundwater was extracted, as the surface drainage management remained unchanged. Correlations between the extraction rate of the groundwater wells in the investigation area and the groundwater level in the surface aquifer were found.

  4. The Presence of VEGF Receptors on the Luminal Surface of Endothelial Cells Affects VEGF Distribution and VEGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Marianne O.; Wu, Florence T. H.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine that binds to specific receptors on the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. The signaling cascade triggered eventually leads to the formation of new capillaries, a process called angiogenesis. Distributions of VEGF receptors and VEGF ligands are therefore crucial determinants of angiogenic events and, to our knowledge, no quantification of abluminal vs. luminal receptors has been performed. We formulate a molecular-based compartment model to investigate the VEGF distribution in blood and tissue in humans and show that such quantification would lead to new insights on angiogenesis and VEGF-dependent diseases. Our multiscale model includes two major isoforms of VEGF (VEGF121 and VEGF165), as well as their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) and the non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1). VEGF can be transported between tissue and blood via transendothelial permeability and the lymphatics. VEGF receptors are located on both the luminal and abluminal sides of the endothelial cells. In this study, we analyze the effects of the VEGF receptor localization on the endothelial cells as well as of the lymphatic transport. We show that the VEGF distribution is affected by the luminal receptor density. We predict that the receptor signaling occurs mostly on the abluminal endothelial surface, assuming that VEGF is secreted by parenchymal cells. However, for a low abluminal but high luminal receptor density, VEGF binds predominantly to VEGFR1 on the abluminal surface and VEGFR2 on the luminal surface. Such findings would be pertinent to pathological conditions and therapies related to VEGF receptor imbalance and overexpression on the endothelial cells and will hopefully encourage experimental receptor quantification for both luminal and abluminal surfaces on endothelial cells. PMID:20041209

  5. Principles and scope of synthetic photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buser, R.

    1986-01-01

    The synthetic photometry algorithm and various applications for the algorithm are described. The synthetic photometry algorithm provides magnitudes and colors computed from a spectral energy flux distribution and the response functions of a photometric system. The principles of synthetic photometry which include the observed and theoretical stellar energy distributions and passbands of the photometric systems are discussed. The equations utilized in the algorithm to compute the magnitudes and color indices are provided. There is a need for an evaluation of the passbands and a correlation between the observed photometric and spectrophotometric data of the stars. The algorithm is used as a universal translator providing the communication channels between different reseach areas; it is applicable to clusters, faint star counts, and deep multicolor surveys of galaxies.

  6. INTEGRATED-LIGHT TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    E-print Network

    Metchev, Stanimir

    INTEGRATED-LIGHT TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS Judith surface brightness profiles in J, H, and Ks for 104 Galactic globular clusters. We fit these with King À Ks, J À H, and J À Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows a reasonably tight relation

  7. Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the unusual minor planet 5145 Pholus (1992AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. K.; Sykes, M. V.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1993-03-01

    Near-IR photometry and spectroscopy of 5145 Pholus reveals that the visual to IR colors are unusually red and appear to show evidence for complex organic solids and/or ices on the surface. No compelling match is found with any present measurements of single-component ice or tholin samples.

  8. DDO photometry on red giants in the open clusters NGC 2232, NGC 2287, and NGC 2451

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastoriza, M. G.; Ropke, U. O.

    1983-12-01

    From DDO photometry combined with U,B,V photometry of red stars in the open clusters NGC 2232, NGC 2287, and NGC 2451, the mean color excess E(B-V), the distance modulus, and the mean metal abundance [Fe/H] were derived for the clusters. The physical parameters, surface gravity, effective temperature, and spectral type were also obtained for the red stars. Estimation of age yielded 1.1×108yr for NGC 2287, and for NGC 2451, 4.8×108yr. The cluster NGC 2232 should be older than 109yr.

  9. Extrasolar planet transit photometry at Wallace Astrophysical Observatory

    E-print Network

    Fong, Wen-fai

    2008-01-01

    Extrasolar planet transit photometry is a relatively new astronomical technique developed over the past decade. Transit photometry is the measurement of a star's brightness as an orbiting planet passes in front of the star ...

  10. Processes affecting the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum and other persistent pathogens in surface- and ground-waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packman, A. I.; Lau, B. L.; Harter, T.; Atwill, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    Waterborne diseases are transmitted through numerous environmental pathways, and their migration is strongly mediated by interaction with a wide variety of sediments and other natural materials during transport. Here we provide an overview of factors that affect the fate of persistent water-borne pathogens, focusing particularly on the zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum as an example. While individual microbial cells are both small and have low specific gravity, suggesting that they should be highly mobile and remain suspended for long periods of time, attachment to a variety of background materials can substantially reduce pathogen mobility. Cryptosporidium oocysts readily associate with both inorganic and organic particles, resulting in the formation of aggregates. This process tends to increase the effective settling velocity of C. parvum in surface waters. Similarly, pathogens readily become associated with the solid matrix during transport in groundwater, resulting in removal by filtration. However, this process is reversible with C. parvum, resulting in a slow long-term release following the initial deposition. Pathogens also become associated with biofilms, which are surface-attached communities of microorganisms in a gelatinous matrix. The presence of biofilms increases the immobilization and retention of Cryptosporidium on solid surfaces. All of these processes influence pathogen transmission in surface waters such as rivers and water-supply canals. In these environments, pathogens can be immobilized by deposition into stable sediment beds by a combination of gravitational sedimentation and advection into pore waters followed by subsurface filtration. Association with background suspended matter tends to increase pathogen deposition by sedimentation, and the presence of benthic (sedimentary) biofilms also tends to increase pathogen retention. For pathogens that remain viable for long periods of time in natural aquatic systems, as is the case with Cryptosporidium and other cyst-and spore-forming organisms, then the sediments and sedimentary biofilms become an environmental reservoir of pathogens. Cysts retained in biofilms appear to be relatively difficult to resuspend, but slow, long-term biological release and high-flow events that mobilize streambed sediments both deliver pathogens into transport.

  11. Detecting Problematic Observer Offsets in Sparse Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderwood, T.

    2014-06-01

    A heuristic method, based upon histogram analysis, is presented for detecting offsets pervasive enough to be symptoms of problematic observing technique or calibration. This method is illustrated by a study of scatter in AAVSO photoelectric photometry (PEP) for five well-observed variable stars.

  12. BVRIc photometry of Stock 8 (Jose+, 2008)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jose; A. K. Pandey; D. K. Ojha; K. Ogura; W. P. Chen; B. C. Bhatt; S. K. Ghosh; H. Mito; G. Maheswar; S. Sharma

    2008-01-01

    We present UBVIc CCD photometry of the young open cluster Stock 8 with the aim of studying its basic properties such as the amount of interstellar extinction, distance, age, stellar contents and initial mass function (IMF). We also studied the star formation scenario in this region. From optical data, the radius of the cluster is found to be ~6arcmin (~3.6pc)

  13. Characterizing Atmospheric Absorption for Precision Photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chris Smith; David Burke; Christopher Stubbs; Tim Axelrod; Chuck Claver; William High; Stephan Blondin; Abi Saha; Patrick Kelly

    2008-01-01

    For the next generation of ground-based imaging surveys, many of which will be attempting to achieve better than 1% photometry, precise calibration of all aspects of the observations will be a necessity. This focus on calibration together with the detailed characterization and understanding of possible systematic effects crucial in order to reach the scientific goals of LSST, as well as

  14. TRIPP: Time Resolved Imaging Photometry Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Schuh, Sonja; Dreizler, Stefan; Deetjen, Jochen; Gleissner, Thomas; Risse, Patrick; Rauch, Thomas; Göhler, Eckart; Hügelmeyer, Simon; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Israel, Holger; Benlloch-Garcia, Sara; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Written in IDL, TRIPP performs CCD time series reduction and analysis. It provides an on-line check of the incoming frames, performs relative aperture photometry and provides a set of time series tools, such as calculation of periodograms including false alarm probability determination, epoc folding, sinus fitting, and light curve simulations.

  15. International Studies of Hazardous Groundwater/Surface Water Exchange in the Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami Affected Areas of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Titov, V. V.; Verstraeten, I. M.; Pinegina, T. K.; Tsadikovsky, E. I.; Heilweil, V. M.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    During the US-Russia Geohazards Workshop held July 17-19, 2012 in Moscow, Russia the international research effort was asked to identify cooperative actions for disaster risk reduction, focusing on extreme geophysical events. As a part of this recommendation the PIRE project was developed to understand, quantify, forecast and protect the coastal zone aquifers and inland water resources of Kamchatka (Russia) and its ecosystems affected by the November 4, 1952 Kamchatka tsunami (Khalatyrka Beach near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) and the January 2, 1996 Karymskiy volcano eruption and the lake tsunami. This project brings together teams from U.S. universities and research institutions located in Russia. The research consortium was briefed on recent technical developments and will utilize samples secured via major international volcanic and tsunami programs for the purpose of advancing the study of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected coastal areas and inland lakes of Kamchatka. We plan to accomplish this project by developing and applying the next generation of field sampling, remote sensing, laboratory techniques and mathematical tools to study groundwater-surface water interaction processes and SGD. We will develop a field and modeling approach to define SGD environment, key controls, and influence of volcano eruption and tsunami, which will provide a framework for making recommendations to combat contamination. This is valuable for politicians, water resource managers and decision-makers and for the volcano eruption and tsunami affected region water supply and water quality of Kamchatka. Data mining and results of our field work will be compiled for spatial modeling by Geo-Information System (GIS) using 3-D Earth Systems Visualization Lab. The field and model results will be communicated to interested stakeholders via an interactive web site. This will allow computation of SGD spatial patterns. In addition, thanks to the conceptual integrated approach, the mathematical tool will be transportable to other regions affected by volcanic eruption and tsunami. We will involve students in the work, incorporate the results into our teaching portfolio and work closely with the IUGG GeoRisk Commission and AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group to communicate our findings to the broader public, specifically local communities that will be most impacted. Under the PIRE education component, a cohort of U.S. and Russian post-doctoral researchers and students will receive training and contribute to the overall natural hazards SGD science agenda in cooperation with senior U.S. researchers and leading investigators from the Russian institutions. Overall, the extensive team of researchers, students and institutions is poised to deliver an innovative and broad spectrum of science associated with the study of SGD in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected areas, in a way not possible to achieve in isolation.

  16. Does the temperature of beverages affect the surface roughness, hardness, and color stability of a composite resin?

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Duygu; Karaman, Emel; Firat, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of beverages’ temperature on the surface roughness, hardness, and color stability of a composite resin. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens of the Filtek Z250 composite (3M ESPE, Dental Products, St.Paul, MN, USA) were prepared and initial roughness, microhardness, and color were measured. Then the specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 10 specimens each: Coffee at 70°C, coffee at 37°C, cola at 10°C, cola at 37°C, and artificial saliva (control). After the samples were subjected to 15 min × 3 cycles per day of exposure to the solutions for 30 days, the final measurements were recorded. Results: After immersion in beverages, the artificial saliva group showed hardness values higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.001) and the microhardness values were significantly different from the initial values in all groups except for the control group. Both cola groups showed roughness values higher than the baseline values (P < 0.05), while the other groups showed values similar to the baseline measurements. When ?E measurements were examined, the 70°C coffee group showed the highest color change among all the groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High-temperature solutions caused alterations in certain properties of composites, such as increased color change, although they did not affect the hardness or roughness of the composite resin material tested. PMID:24883021

  17. How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures? Activity C Can we Model an Atmosphere's Effect Upon a Planet's Surface Temperature?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students simulate the interaction of variables, including carbon dioxide, in a radiation balance exercise using a spreadsheet-based radiation balance model. Through a series of experiments, students attempt to mimic the surface temperatures of Earth, Mercury, Venus and Mars, and account for the influence of greenhouse gases in atmospheric temperatures. The activity supports inquiry into the real-world problem of contemporary climate change. Student-collected data is needed from activity A in the same module, "How do atmospheres interact with solar energy?" to complete this activity. Included in the resource are several student data sheets and a teacher's guide. This activity is part of module 4, "How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures?" in Earth Climate Course: What Determines a Planet's Climate? The course aims to help students to develop an understanding of our environment as a system of human and natural processes that result in changes that occur over various space and time scales.

  18. Galileo Photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Lee, P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Breneman, H.; Head, J.W.; Murchie, S.; Fanale, F.; Robinson, M.; Clark, B.; Granahan, J.; Garbeil, H.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Davies, M.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Wagner, R.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra make it possible for the first time to determine a main-belt asteroid's photometric properties accurately by providing surface-resolved coverage over a wide range of incidence and emission angles and by extending the phase angle coverage to phases not observable from Earth. We combine Earth-based telescopic photometry over phase angles 2?? ??? ?? ??? 25?? with Galileo whole-disk and disk-resolved data at 33?? ??? ?? ??? 51?? to derive average global photometric properties in terms of Hapke's photometric model. The microscopic texture and particle phase-function behavior of Gaspra's surface are remarkably like those of other airless rocky bodies such as the Moon. The macroscopic surface roughness parameter, ??? = 29??, is slightly larger than that reported for typical lunar materials. The particle single scattering albedo, ???0 = 0.36 ?? 0.07, is significantly larger than for lunar materials, and the opposition surge amplitude, B0 = 1.63 ?? 0.07, is correspondingly smaller. We determine a visual geometric albedo pv = 0.22 ?? 0.06 for Gaspra, in close agreement with pv = 0.22 ?? 0.03 estimated from Earth-based observations. Gaspra's phase integral is 0.47, and the bolometric Bond albedo is estimated to be 0.12 ?? 0.03. An albedo map derived by correcting Galileo images with our average global photometric function reveals subdued albedo contrasts of ??10% or less over Gaspra's northern hemisphere. Several independent classification algorithms confirm the subtle spectral heterogeneity reported earlier (S. Mottola, M. DiMartino, M. Gonano-Beurer, H. Hoffman, and G. Neukum, 1993, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, pp. 421-424; M. J. S. Belton et al., 1992, Science 257, 1647-1652). Whole-disk colors (0.41 ??? ?? ??? 0.99 ??m) vary systematically with longitude by about ??5%, but color differences as large as 30% occur locally. Colors vary continuously between end-member materials whose areal distribution correlates with regional topography. Infrared: violet (0.99:0.41-??m) color ratios on Gaspra are strongly correlated with local elevation, being largest at lower elevations and smaller at higher elevations. No correlation was detected between elevation and the green:violet (0.56:0.41-??m) color ratio. Bright materials with a strong 1-??m absorption occur primarily in association with craters along ridges, while darker materials with 30% weaker 1-??m signatures occur downslope. The variations of color and albedo cannot be easily explained by grain-size effects alone or by differences in photometric geometry. The trends observed are consistent with those revealed by laboratory studies of the effects of comminution, glass formation, and segregation of metal from silicate components in chondritic meteorites and also in some silicate mixtures. The relative importance of these various processes on Gaspra remains to be determined. ?? 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Pneumococcal Surface Protein A does not affect the immune responses to a combined diphtheria tetanus and pertussis vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Fernanda A; Miyaji, Eliane N; Quintilio, Wagner; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo L; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S

    2013-05-01

    The Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) is a promising candidate for the composition of a protein vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously shown that the whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine (wP) is a good adjuvant to PspA, inducing protective responses against pneumococcal infection in mice. In Brazil, wP is administered to children, formulated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTPw) and aluminum hydroxide (alum) as adjuvant. A single subcutaneous dose of PspA5-DTPlow (a formulation containing PspA from clade 5 and a new generation DTPw, containing low levels of B. pertussis LPS and Alum) induced high levels of systemic anti-PspA5 antibodies in mice and conferred protection against respiratory lethal challenges with two different pneumococcal strains. Here we evaluate the mucosal immune responses against PspA5 as well as the immune responses against the DTP antigens in mice vaccinated with PspA5-DTPlow. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with PspA5-DTPlow induced high levels of anti-PspA5 IgG in the airways but no IgA. In addition, no differences in the influx of cells to the respiratory mucosa, after the challenge, were observed in vaccinated mice, when compared with control mice. The levels of circulating anti-pertussis, -tetanus and -diphtheria antibodies were equivalent in mice vaccinated with DTPlow or PspA5-DTPlow. Antibodies induced by DTPlow or PspA5-DTPlow showed similar ability to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of the diphtheria toxin on Vero cells. Furthermore, combination with PspA5 did not affect protection against B. pertussis and tetanus toxin challenges in mice. Our results support the proposal for a combined PspA-DTP vaccine. PMID:23541622

  20. Television photometry - The Mariner 9 experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Television photometry is compared to conventional techniques. Reduced data from Mariner 9 cameras should, under optimum conditions, have been accurate to a few percent. However, a combination of unstable camera properties and various unfortunate circumstances produced serious nonlinearities and other systematic errors. The means of estimating these errors are described in detail; they lean heavily on the fortuitous presence of a few specks of dust on the faceplate of one vidicon. Crude corrections will probably improve the photometric quality for the two most-used filter positions of the A camera. It would be very difficult to improve the photometry further. In view of their low photometric accuracy and detective quantum efficiency vidicons do not seem likely to replace conventional photography, except for special applications.

  1. 2060 Chiron - CCD and electronographic photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bus, Schelte J.; Bowell, Edward; Harris, Alan W.; Hewitt, Anthony V.

    1989-01-01

    R-band observations conducted for 2060 Chiron using CCD photometry in November-December 1986 and March 1988 are discussed. While the 1986 observations exhibit neither periodic nor nonperiodic brightness changes ascribable to comet-like activity, the 1988 observations show an 0.6 + or - 0.1 mag brightening that confirms the Tholen et al. (1988) findings and is consistent with the 1978 electronographic photometry presented. The lightcurve amplitudes appear, however, to have remained unchanged from 1978 to 1988, and the image profiles from 1978 are indistinguishable from the stars in 1986 and 1988. It is suggested that Chiron has either been varying nonasteroidally of late, on a 1-2 month timescale, or its intrinsic brightness has been bistable over the past decade.

  2. Photometry of Variables from Dome A, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingzhi; Macri, L. M.; Wang, L.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Cui, X.; Feng, L. L.; Gong, X.; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Q.; Luong-Van, D.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Shang, Z.; Storey, J. W. V.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Yuan, X.; York, D. G.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth (Saunders et al. 2009). We used the CSTAR telescope (Yuan et al. 2008) to obtain time-series photometry of 104 stars with i>14.5 mag during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter season (Wang et al. 2011). During the 2010 season we observed 2 × 104 stars with i>15 mag for 183 days (Wang et al. 2012). We detected a total of 262 variables, a 6 × increase relative to previous surveys of the same area and depth carried out from temperate sites (Pojmanski 2004). Our observations show that high-precision, long-term photometry is possible from Antarctica and that astronomically useful data can be obtained during 80% of the winter season.

  3. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2015 July-September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  4. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2013 July-September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2013-07-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and have no or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  5. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2013 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and have no or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  6. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2014 April-June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  7. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2014 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  8. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2013 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2013-10-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and have no or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  9. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2015 January-March

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  10. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2014 July-September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2014-07-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  11. Far UV Stellar Photometry (Schmidt+ 1995)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Schmidt; G. R. Carruthers

    1995-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet photometry for 741 objects in a field in Sagittarius centered near M8 and 541 objects in a field centered near zeta Scorpii is presented. These data were extracted from electrographic images obtained with two cameras during a shuttle flight in 1991 April\\/May. The cameras provided band passes with lambda_eff = 1375 A and lambda_eff = 1781 A. Synthetic colors

  12. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2015 April-June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  13. Antimicrobial surfaces containing cationic nanoparticles: how immobilized, clustered, and protruding cationic charge presentation affects killing activity and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rotello, Vincent M; Santore, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    This work examines how the antimicrobial (killing) activity of net-negative surfaces depends on the presentation of antimicrobial cationic functionality: distributed versus clustered, and flat clusters versus raised clusters. Specifically, the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus by sparsely distributed 10 nm cationic nanoparticles, immobilized on a negative surface and backfilled with a PEG (polyethylene glycol) brush, was compared with that for a dense layer of the same immobilized nanoparticles. Additionally, sparsely distributed 10 nm poly-L-lysine (PLL) coils, adsorbed to a surface to produce flat cationic "patches" and backfilled with a PEG brush were compared to a saturated adsorbed layer of PLL. The latter resembled classical uniformly cationic antimicrobial surfaces. The protrusion of the cationic clusters substantially influenced killing but the surface concentration of the clusters had minor impact, as long as bacteria adhered. When surfaces were functionalized at the minimum nanoparticle and patch densities needed for bacterial adhesion, killing activity was substantial within 30 min and nearly complete within 2 h. Essentially identical killing was observed on more densely functionalized surfaces. Surfaces containing protruding (by about 8 nm) nanoparticles accomplished rapid killing (at 30 min) compared with surfaces containing similarly cationic but flat features (PLL patches). Importantly, the overall surface density of cationic functionality within the clusters was lower than reported thresholds for antimicrobial action. Also surprising, the nanoparticles were far more deadly when surface-immobilized compared with free in solution. These findings support a killing mechanism involving interfacial stress. PMID:25480668

  14. Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihong Ye; Alan J. M Baker; Ming-Hung Wong; Arthur J Willis

    1998-01-01

    The effects of iron plaque on the growth of Typha latifolia L. and its accumulation of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated under field conditions and in nutrient solution cultures in the laboratory. In the field, Zn concentrations (but not Cd) on the root surface were positively related to Fe concentrations on the root surface. In the

  15. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  16. Charles Nordmann and Multicolour Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2010-11-01

    Charles Nordmann (1881-1940), an astronomer at the Paris Observatory, was the first to determine the effective temperature of stars with his photometre heterochrome, simultaneously and independently of Rosenberg, Wilsing and Scheiner in Germany. He is also the remote precursor of the multicolour photometry of Johnson and Morgan. In spite of the quality of his temperature determinations, which were as good or better than those made by spectrophotometry, he rapidly fell into oblivion because of some failures in his scientific work. We examine his activity in the international context of the time, and explain why he has been forgotten, to be rediscovered only recently.

  17. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia I. Czimczik; Caroline M. Preston; Michael W. I. Schmidt; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

    2003-01-01

    In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor

  18. Growth temperature and OprF porin affect cell surface physicochemical properties and adhesive capacities of Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37.

    PubMed

    Hemery, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Sylvie; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonads adapt to various ecological niches by forming biofilms, which first requires bacterial adhesion on surfaces. We studied the influence of growth temperature on surface physicochemical properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37 and on its adhesive capacities onto inert surfaces. It presented a global hydrophilic character, measured by microbial adhesion to solvent (MATS), and showed a cell surface more hydrophilic at 8 and 28 degrees C than at 17 degrees C. Moreover, P. fluorescens MF37 was more adhesive at 17 degrees C. This critical temperature thus should be carefully taken into account in food safety. Adhesion onto inert surfaces is thus influenced by the growth temperature, which modifies the bacteria cell wall properties through changes in the outer membrane components. Therefore, we studied the effect of the loss of OprF, the major outer membrane protein, known to act as an adhesin (root, and endothelial cells). The OprF-deficient mutant was able to adhere to surfaces, but showed the same physicochemical and adhesion properties on abiotic surfaces whatever the growth temperature. OprF is thus not essential in this adhesion process. However, we suggest that OprF is involved in the bacterial environmental temperature sensing by P. fluorescens. PMID:16932888

  19. Quasar Selection using Optical Photometry and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Christina M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Ross, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    We used the Non-parametric Bayesian Classification Kernel Density Estimation (NBC KDE) quasar selection algorithm to identify 30,755 type 1 quasar candidates on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 using the combination of optical photometry and variability. Optical photometry is taken from the SDSS-I/II, while the variability parameters are calculated by fitting the structure function of the object with a power law. Selection was based on a training sample of 13,784 spectroscopically-confirmed type 1 quasars from the SDSS-I/II and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Using variability alone, colors alone, and combining variability and colors we achieve 85%, 90%, and 95% quasar completeness respectively, with particular improvement in the selection of quasars at 2.7

  20. Photometry Transforms Generation with PTGP (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, G.; Menzies, K.; Silvis, G.; Harris, B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Historically the development of photometry transformation coefficients required extensive manual effort and the use of large spreadsheets. A new release—version 5.0—of the Photometry Transformations Generation Program (PTGP) achieves the goal of generating transformation coefficients without the use of spreadsheets—saving considerable time and ensuring data accuracy. PTGP version 5.0 works directly with VSP to retrieve the most recent standard star reference magnitudes (currently for M67 and NGC7790). It then processes instrument magnitude file(s) downloaded from vphot or exported from AIP4WIN or MAXIM. Either AUID or “Boulder” star identifications can be used for AIP4WIN and MAXIM. When using VPHOT data or “Boulder” star identifications, PTGP determines the AUID names for each of the reference standard stars. All standard transforms are calculated. Plots of each transform's data can be reviewed, and individual star observations added/deleted. Transform sets can be saved for further use. Transform sets can be compared and selected sets averaged. The averaged sets can be exported in a file format compatible with the AAVSO TA tool. The presentation will provide a brief overview and demonstration of the tool. It will also discuss the implications of using PYTHON for the development—both benefits and potential problems. The program runs on both PCs and Macs. A subsequent presentation will discuss the use of VPHOT and PTGP to generate transforms and the testing of the impacts of varying key VPHOT and PTGP parameters.

  1. Multicolour photometry of EO Ceti (PB 8783)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu?kovi?, M.; Østensen, R. H.; Aerts, C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2010-10-01

    We present the first-look analysis of the high-speed multicolour photometry of the bright V361 Hya-type star EO Ceti ( m V=12.3). The observations were gathered with the three-channel ULTRACAM instrument attached to the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. The data set has a total time span of 6.2 d and consists of 31 h simultaneous three colour photometry. The main power regions in all three colours are the same as previously reported in the white light photometric campaigns on EO Ceti. We calculate the frequencies, amplitudes and phases of the significant modes in three colours of the SDSS system, r', g' and u'. The amplitudes of the detected modes are the highest in the u' lightcurve, and the phases are the same in all three colours within the measurement accuracy. The amplitudes of the highest signal-to-noise modes show time variability in all three colours. We analyse the amplitude and phase variations of the five highest signal-to-noise modes in different colours. Even though the amplitudes show variations from night to night, the amplitude ratios are found to be constant to within 2 ? level. This result is promising as it allows us to compare the observed amplitude ratios with theoretically calculated amplitude ratios. This may further constrain the mode identification of the highest amplitude modes in EO Ceti and let us test the proposed seismic and binary evolution models.

  2. Proton exchange membrane and electrode surface areas as factors that affect power generation in microbial fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Eun Oh; Bruce E. Logan

    2006-01-01

    Power generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is a function of the surface areas of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and\\u000a the cathode relative to that of the anode. To demonstrate this, the sizes of the anode and cathode were varied in two-chambered\\u000a MFCs having PEMs with three different surface areas (A\\u000a PEM=3.5, 6.2, or 30.6 cm2). For a fixed anode

  3. Penetrating the Surface: The Impact of Visual Format on Readers' Affective Responses to Authentic Foreign Language Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maun, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines visual and affective factors involved in the reading of foreign language texts. It draws on the results of a pilot study among students of post-compulsory school stage studying French in England. Through a detailed analysis of students' reactions to texts, it demonstrates that the use of "authentic" documents under currently…

  4. Time Series Photometry Data: Standard Access, Standard Formats

    E-print Network

    Holl, András

    Time Series Photometry Data: Standard Access, Standard Formats Andr#19; as Holl Konkoly Observatory should be able to locate time series photometry data on a given object stored at di#11;erent locations: Data stored at CDS Strasbourg, plotted with a software tool Standard access Time series photometric

  5. JHK photometry of selected Trojan and Hilda asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dale W.; Johnson, Paul E.; Buckingham, William L.; Shorthill, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    No entirely satisfactory match has been established between the present JHK photometry of selected Hilda and Trojan asteroids and photometry for both main belt asteroids and laboratory samples. It is noted that while the leading Trojans and Hildas exhibit similar and homogeneous JHK colors, the trailing Trojans appear to be more heterogeneous. Charcoal and magnetite provide the best match in terms of JHK colors.

  6. Wide-field stellar photometry in Piwnice Observatory

    E-print Network

    Gracjan Maciejewski

    2007-12-17

    In this paper research projects based on the wide-field CCD photometry performed in Piwnice Observatory are discussed. The used telescopes, as well as dedicated software pipeline for data reduction are presented. The prospects for collaboration between Polish and Bulgarian institutes in the field of wide-field photometry are also discussed.

  7. Ten Recent Enhancements To Aperture Photometry Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laher, Russ; Rebull, L. M.; Gorjian, V.

    2013-01-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool is free, multi-platform, easy-to-install software for astronomical research, as well as for learning, visualizing, and refining aperture-photometry analyses. This mature software has been under development for five years, and is a silent workhorse of the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program. Software version 2.1.5 is described by Laher et al., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, No. 917, pp. 737-763, (July 2012). Four software upgrades have been released since the publication, which include new capabilities, increased speed, more user-friendliness, and some minor bug fixes. Visit www.aperturephotometry.org to download the latest version. The enhancements are as follows: 1) Added new Tools menu option to write selected primary-image data to a comma-separated-value file (for importing into Excel); 2) Added a new display of the color-table levels on a separate panel; 3) Added a new tool to measure the angular separation between positions on the thumbnail image, via mouse-cursor drag and release; 4) Added a new tool to overlay an aperture at user-specified coordinates (in addition to aperture overlay via mouse click); 5) Speeded up the source-list tool with optional multithreading in its automatic mode (allowed thread number is user-specifiable); 6) Added a new “Number” column to the output aperture-photometry-table file in order to track the input source order (multithreading reorders the output); 7) Upgraded the source-list tool to accept input source lists containing positions in sexagesimal equatorial coordinates (in addition to decimal degrees, or, alternatively, pixel coordinates); 8) Added a new decimal/sexagesimal converter; 9) Upgraded the source-list creation tool to compute the detection threshold using robust estimates of the local background and local data dispersion, where the user can select the grid and window sizes for these local calculations; and 10) Modified the batch mode to optionally generate a source list. These upgrades increase the software's utility, and more improvements are planned for future releases.

  8. Dip coating assisted polylactic acid deposition on steel surface: Film thickness affected by drag force and gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Wei Fang; Kuo-Yen Li; Tai-Lun Su; Thomas Chun-Kuang Yang; Ji-Sheng Chang; Po-Liang Lin; Wen-Chung Chang

    2008-01-01

    Dip coating process has the potential of providing an easier and economical way to form a polylactic acid (PLA) layer on metal surface for various applications. The effects of dip coating operating parameters such as the withdrawal velocity, concentration, and viscosity of the solution on the film thickness were investigated in this study. Our experimental results show that the increase

  9. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  10. Spectral types from uvby-beta photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, T.

    1986-05-01

    New diagrams are presented for the assimilation of MK spectral types with uvby-beta photometry. Recently published mean uvby colors and beta indices for a wide selection of spectral types (Moon, 1985; Kilkenny and Whittet, 1985) are used for the revised diagram uvby values and the construction of a (c1), beta diagram for stars earlier than about AO. The Crawford and Mandwewala (1976) theoretical reddening ratios of E(ml)/E(b-y) equal to -0.33 and E(cl)E/(b-y) equal to 0.19 are used, and the supergiants are not displaced from the Main-Sequence band. The data provide estimations of the spectral types of normal stars and chemically peculiar stars, and show the separation of the luminosity classes.

  11. Simplified Color Photometry Using APASS Data (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, N.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) APASS, the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey, now contains 47 million stars and covers 97% of the Northern and Southern hemisphere sky. Its extraordinary coverage means that there are multiple APASS-calibrated stars available for color photometry in the field of view of virtually every amateur image. This paper presents a simplified spreadsheet-based procedure that combines raw photometric data with APASS data to calibrate target objects in the same field of view. The complete photometric equations are reviewed and a simplified form is obtained for use within a limited field of view. Raw photometric data and APASS data for that image from AAVSO are combined on a spreadsheet to produce calibrated photometric measurements of target objects within the field of view. The consistency of the fit to the data is shown graphically. Error terms are tracked through the equations to provide the standard deviation of each measurement.

  12. Photometry and Spectroscopy of 47 Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, H. L.; Etzel, P. B.

    1998-05-01

    The HIPPARCOS catalog lists the young rapidly rotating F0 V star 47 Cassiopeiae as a close visual binary. The orbit of the photocenter yields a semi-major axis of 39.3 mas and a period of 1616 days. Gudel et al. (1998, Tenth Cambridge Conference on Cool Stars and the Sun) discuss the puzzle of this system as evidenced by its high X-Ray flux (ROSAT All-Sky Survey), its strong radio flux (6 cm), and indications of rotational modulation in these bands with a period of about one day. Such signatures of coronal activity are not normally associated with early F-type main-sequence stars. Photometry (1996-1997) and spectroscopy (1994-1997) from SDSU's Mount Laguna Observatory will be presented and discussed in connection with the anomalous behavior of the system. Our photometry shows no evidence of rotational modulation, which might be consistent with large star-spot groups, nor any evidence of flaring events. Our spectroscopy does not show any evidence of emission or other forms of line variability at H-alpha that are normally associated with chromospheric activity. However, we do find evidence of radial velocity variations that are consistent with those expected from the HIPPARCOS orbit. Our preliminary orbit is consistent with the interpretation by Gudel et al. that the source of the anomalous X-Ray and radio flux is a very close, chromospherically active solar-type companion. This work was supported by NASA/AURA grant GO-06691 for HST and NSF grant AST94-17035.

  13. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571

  14. Microscopy of wear affected surface produced during sliding of Nimonic 80A against Stellite 6 at 20 °C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L Du; P. K Datta; I Inman; R Geurts; C Kübel

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of a wear induced surface glazed layer formed during sliding wear of Nimonic 80A against Stellite 6 at 20°C using a speed of 0.314 ms?1 under a load of 7 N have been investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)

  15. Occurrence of near-surface ozone depletion in the Arctic spring strongly affected by Northern-Hemispheric climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, T.; Deng, Y.; Oltmans, S. J.; Solberg, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the Arctic spring, near-surface ozone can decrease to extremely low levels due to chemical removal catalyzed by halogen radicals. These ozone depletion events (ODEs) are usually accompanied by greatly enhanced surface deposition of reactive gaseous mercury. Here we show the effects of regional climate variability on Arctic ODE frequencies by analyzing surface ozone measurements at three monitoring sites (Barrow, Alert, and Zeppelinfjellet) in the past 30 years. Among the various climate variability indices, the Western Pacific (WP) index has the most significant impact. In years with high ODE frequencies at Barrow and Alert in April, the WP teleconnection pattern tends to be in its negative phase with a weakened storm track from the western Pacific to the Arctic and a strengthened subtropical jet across the Pacific, reducing transport of ozone-rich air masses from mid-latitudes to the Arctic. Analysis of the observations at Zeppelinfjellet indicates a much stronger influence of WP pattern in the 2000s than 1990s. Consequently, the WP index may be used as a proxy to assess ODE frequencies and subsequent environmental impacts in future climate projections.

  16. Would the heat of an oil pipeline buried 4 feet underground affect ground or surface water temperature or the roots of typical Nebraska crops like corn, soybeans, alfalfa? Would

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Crops Would the heat of an oil pipeline buried 4 feet underground affect ground or surface water of the plant roots are close to the surface (say within a couple of feet); but a few roots do reach deeper temperatures throughout the rooting zone (from the surface to, say, 4-5 feet deep) then, yes, there would most

  17. Hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis failure and the presence of hepatitis B surface gene mutants in the affected children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Le Ye; Aw, Marion; Rauff, Mary; Loh, Kah-Sin; Lim, Seng Gee; Lee, Guan Huei

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is usually vertically transmitted from the mother to child during birth in Asian countries. Despite immunization, immunoprophylaxis failure is well-documented. The aim of the study was to study immunoprophylaxis failure rate in the cohort of infants delivered by chronic HBV-infected mothers and to determine risk factors for failure. This was an observational study involving chronic hepatitis B infected mothers seen at a tertiary care center in Singapore between June 2009 and December 2013. Infants born to these mothers were recruited after they had completed the recommended vaccination schedule. Serological testing for the children was performed 3 months after completion of the last dose of vaccine. HBV surface gene sequencing was carried out if HBV DNA was detectable in the children. Among the 161 mothers enrolled, most were HBeAg negative. HBeAg positive mothers were younger and had a significantly higher viral load (6.5?log) as compared to HBeAg negative mothers (1.35?log) (P?surface gene mutations were detected in most children (3 out of 4) with immunoprophylaxis failure. The overall effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccination program was high. High maternal viral load and presence of surface gene mutants may be potential contributors. J. Med. Virol. 87:1344-1350, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25782362

  18. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (<22.5 kg/m(2)) and high BMI (>27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces. PMID:24837217

  19. How do Atmospheres Affect Planetary Temperatures? Activity B How do Atmospheres Produce their Effect Upon Surface Temperatures?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this kinesthetic activity, the concept of energy budget is strengthened as students conduct three simulations using play money as units of energy, and students serve as parts of a planetary radiation balance model. Students will determine the energy budget of a planet by manipulating gas concentrations, energy inputs and outputs in the system in this lesson that supports the study of climate on Mars, Mercury, Venus and Earth. The lesson supports understanding of the real-world problem of contemporary climate change. The resource includes a teacher's guide and several student worksheets. This is the second of four activities in the lesson, How do Atmospheres affect planetary temperatures?, within Earth Climate Course: What Determines a Planet's Climate? The resource aims to help students to develop an understanding of our environment as a system of human and natural processes that result in changes that occur over various space and time scales.

  20. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  1. Surfaces

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  2. A New Look at Photometry of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Stone, T. C.; Kieffer, H. H.; Buratti, B. J.

    2010-10-01

    We test 2 very different models for light scattering by the lunar regolith: 1) TRLA - a Topographically Rough surface layer comprised of Low Albedo particles, and 2) RTE - a flat surface layer with the published size distribution and optical constants of Apollo soil particles, Mie calculation of the mean particle scattering matrix and rigorous solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation for all orders of scattering (Mishchenko et al 1999, JQRST 63, 409). For a typical lunar highland location (-17.21, 20.01), ROLO photometry (Kieffer & Stone 2005, Astron. J. 129, 2887) shows a distinct difference between the radiances measured before and after full moon (BFM, AFM) at the same 47.5 ± 2.5 degree phase angle, corresponding to incidence angles of 30 and 70 degrees, respectively. The TRLA model requires rms slopes of 34.1 ± 2.6 degrees to reproduce this BFM/AFM radiance difference, similar to previously published results. Analysis of Apollo ALSCC stereo images of in situ lunar regolith (Helfenstein and Shepard 1999, Icarus 141, 107) shows that such large rms slopes pertain to a sub-mm horizontal distance scale. The RTE model also reproduces the same BFM/AFM radiance difference, but as a direct consequence of multiple scattering between particles within the flat (zero topographic roughness) regolith layer. Approximately 80% of the radiance in the RTE model is contributed by photons scattered more than once. We conclude that topographic roughness of the regolith surface and multiple scattering between regolith particles can have a nearly identical effect on this BFM/AFM difference in the lunar radiance. Roughness and multiple scattering are strongly correlated parameters in the sense that any approximations regarding one of them will influence the value deduced for the other. A complete treatment of this work is published in Goguen et al 2010, Icarus 208, 548.

  3. The highly unusual outgassing of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 from narrowband photometry and imaging of the coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2013-02-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1991 through 2011. We acquired photoelectric photometry on two nights in 1991, four nights in 1997/1998, and 13 nights in 2010/2011. We observed a strong secular decrease in water and all other observed species production in 2010/2011 from the 1991 and 1997/1998 levels. We see evidence for a strong asymmetry with respect to perihelion in the production rates of our usual bandpasses, with peak production occurring ˜10 days post-perihelion and production rates considerably higher post-perihelion. The composition was "typical," in agreement with the findings of other investigators. We obtained imaging on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We find that, after accounting for their varying parentage and lifetimes, the C2 and C3 coma morphology resemble the CN morphology we reported previously. These species exhibited an hourglass shape in October and November, and the morphology changed with rotation and evolved over time. The OH and NH coma morphology showed hints of an hourglass shape near the nucleus, but was also enhanced in the anti-sunward hemisphere. This tailward brightness enhancement did not vary significantly with rotation and evolved with the viewing geometry. We conclude that all five gas species likely originate from the same source regions on the nucleus, but that OH and NH were derived from small grains of water and ammonia ice that survived long enough to be affected by radiation pressure and driven in the anti-sunward direction. We detected the faint, sunward facing dust jet reported by other authors, and did not detect a corresponding gas feature. This jet varied little during a night but exhibited some variations from night to night, suggesting it is located near the total angular momentum vector. Overall, our imaging results support the conclusions of other authors that Hartley 2's "hyperactivity" is caused by icy particles of various sizes that are lifted off the surface and break up in the coma to greatly increase the effective active surface area.

  4. Apatite formation on bioactive calcium-silicate cements for dentistry affects surface topography and human marrow stromal cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Taddei, Paola; Perut, Francesca; Tinti, Anna; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Prati, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    The effect of ageing in phosphate-containing solution of bioactive calcium-silicate cements on the chemistry, morphology and topography of the surface, as well as on in vitro human marrow stromal cells viability and proliferation was investigated. A calcium-silicate cement (wTC) mainly based on dicalcium-silicate and tricalcium-silicate was prepared. Alpha-TCP was added to wTC to obtain wTC-TCP. Bismuth oxide was inserted in wTC to prepare a radiopaque cement (wTC-Bi). A commercial calcium-silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) was tested as control. Cement disks were aged in DPBS for 5 h ('fresh samples'), 14 and 28 days, and analyzed by ESEM/EDX, SEM/EDX, ATR-FTIR, micro-Raman techniques and scanning white-light interferometry. Proliferation, LDH release, ALP activity and collagen production of human marrow stromal cells (MSC) seeded for 1-28 days on the cements were evaluated. Fresh samples exposed a surface mainly composed of calcium-silicate hydrates CSH (from the hydration of belite and alite), calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and ettringite. Apatite nano-spherulites rapidly precipitated on cement surfaces within 5 h. On wTC-TCP the Ca-P deposits appeared thicker than on the other cements. Aged cements showed an irregular porous calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coating, formed by aggregated apatite spherulites with interspersed calcite crystals. All the experimental cements exerted no acute toxicity in the cell assay system and allowed cell growth. Using biochemical results, the scores were: fresh cements>aged cements for cell proliferation and ALP activity (except for wTC-Bi), whereas fresh cements

  5. Performance of loblolly, Virginia, and shortleaf pine on a reclaimed surface mine as affected by Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizae and fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Amundsen, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of an induced Pisolithus tinctorius infection and broadcast fertilization were studied on the survival and growth of loblolly (Pinus taeda), Virginia (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine outplanted on a reclaimed east Tennessee coal surface mine site. The study site had been previously regraded and hydroseeded with a mixture of ground cover species. After six years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine with P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae were signficantly improved in comparison with control loblolly pine infected by other ectomycorrhizal symbionts. The response of the Virginia pine to the infection by P. tinctorius was negligible after five years. Fertilization at outplanting significantly reduced the survival of both loblolly and Virginia pine. Fertilization of the shortleaf pine at the start of the third growing season did not result in the drastic mortality exhibited by the loblolly pine, and to a lesser extent the Virginia pine, in response to fertilization at outplanting, but this treatment was still detrimental to the survival of the shortleaf pine after five years. There was a marginal improvement in the survival and growth of the shortleaf pine in response to the infection by P. tinctorius. The effect of fertilization on the growth of all three species was negligible, and the increase in mortality associated with this treatment appeared to be primarily the result of increased competition with the ground cover species. These results indicate that the magnitude of the response exhibited by pines on harsh sites to an ectomycorrhizal infection by P. tinctorius is species dependent. Also, broadcast fertilization is inefficient on surface-mined sites where a vegetative ground cover has been established. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for Precision Photometry of Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Rucinski, S. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleanski, P.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.

    2014-06-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, the brightness and temperature variations of stars generally brighter than mag(V) ? 4 with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of six nanosats (hence Constellation): two from Austria, two from Canada, and two from Poland. Each 7 kg nanosat carries an optical telescope of aperture 3 cm feeding an uncooled CCD. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other with a red filter. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (?24°), so up to about 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously, sampled in 32 × 32 pixels sub-rasters. Photometry of additional fainter targets, with reduced precision but thorough time sampling, will be possible through onboard data processing. The BRITE sample is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases. The goals of BRITE-Constellation are to (1) measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology; (2) look for varying spots on the stars surfaces carried across the stellar disks by rotation, which are the sources of co-rotating interaction regions in the winds of the most luminous stars, probably arising from magnetic subsurface convection; and (3) search for planetary transits.

  7. Accuracy of stellar parameters determined from multicolor photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    The development and application of new methods for intelligent analysis and extraction of information from digital sky surveys carried out in various spectral domains have now become a popular field in astrophysical research and, in particular, in stellar studies. Modern large-scale photometric surveys provide data for 105-106 relatively faint objects, and the lack of spectroscopic data can be compensated by the cross identification of the objects followed by an analysis of all catalogued photometric data. In this paper we investigate the possibility of determining the effective temperature, surface gravity, total extinction, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio based on the photometry provided in the 2MASS, SDSS, and GALEX surveys, and estimate the accuracy of the inferred parameters. We use a library of theoretical spectra to compute the magnitudes of stars in the photometric bands of the above surveys for various sets of input parameters. We compare the differences between the computed magnitudes with the errors of the corresponding surveys. We find that stellar parameters can be computed over a sizable domain of the parameter space. We estimate the accuracy of the resulting parameters. We show that the presence of far-ultraviolet data in the available set of observed magnitudes increases the accuracy of the inferred parameters.

  8. Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Webster, Larry; Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Showen, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge of other planetary systems that includes information on the number, size, mass, and spacing of the planets around a variety of star types is needed to deepen our understanding of planetary system formation and processes that give rise to their final configurations. Recent discoveries show that many planetary systems are quite different from the solar system in that they often possess giant planets in short period orbits. The inferred evolution of these planets and their orbital characteristics imply the absence of Earth-like planets near the habitable zone. Information on the properties of the giant-inner planets is now being obtained by both the Doppler velocity and the transit photometry techniques. The combination of the two techniques provides the mass, size, and density of the planets. For the planet orbiting star HD209458, transit photometry provided the first independent confirmation and measurement of the diameter of an extrasolar planet. The observations indicate a planet 1.27 the diameter of Jupiter with 0.63 of its mass (Charbonneau et al. 1999). The results are in excellent agreement with the theory of planetary atmospheres for a planet of the indicated mass and distance from a solar-like star. The observation of the November 23, 1999 transit of that planet made by the Ames Vulcan photometer at Lick Observatory is presented. In the future, the combination of the two techniques will greatly increase the number of discoveries and the richness of the science yield. Small rocky planets at orbital distances from 0.9 to 1.2 AU are more likely to harbor life than the gas giant planets that are now being discovered. However, new technology is needed to find smaller, Earth-like planets, which are about three hundred times less massive than Jupiter-like planets. The Kepler project is a space craft mission designed to discover hundreds of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone around a wide variety of stars. To demonstrate that the technology exists to find such small planets, our group has conducted an end-to-end system test. The results of the laboratory tests are presented and show that we are ready to start the search for Earth-size planets.

  9. The expected Gaia revolution in asteroid science: Photometry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellino, A.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is expected to produce a major revolution in our knowledge of the asteroids. Apart from a huge improvement in the accuracy of the orbital elements of these objects, something which is a ''natural'' consequence of the unprecedented astrometric accuracy of Gaia, we can also expect that the photometric and spectrophotometric performances of the Gaia detectors will be such to substantially move ahead the frontier of the domain of physical characterization of asteroids by means of remote observations. A list of physical properties, that will be derived from the analysis of the detections corresponding to different observed transits of each object in the Gaia focal plane during five years of operational activity, includes masses, sizes, average densities, spin properties, reflectance spectra, albedos, as well as a new taxonomic classification. In this review, the focus will be on Gaia photometry and spectrophotometry. The method of photometric inversion of sparse photometric data developed to reduce Gaia photometric data of asteroids will be described, and its expected performances will be discussed. In particular, the choice of assuming for the objects the shapes of ideal triaxial ellipsoids, fairly simplistic in an era in which much more refined shape models are currently used in photometric inversion methods, will be justified by the need of minimizing the CPU time needed to process data for hundreds of thousands of objects in a reasonable time. The processing of spectrophotometric data will be also described. These data will produce a huge data set of reflectance spectra of asteroids. A particular advantage of these data will be that of including also the blue part of the spectrum, which has been substantially lost since the epoch in which the CCD detectors have replaced the older photomultipliers used for UBVRI photometry. The big data set of new asteroid spectra will be also used to develop a new asteroid taxonomy, used new algorithms developed for this purpose. Coupled with the determination of reasonably accurate masses and bulk densities for the biggest 100 asteroids, Gaia data will open a new era in asteroid science, and will allow us to answer some fundamental questions, including the relation between internal structure and surface properties. The resulting post-Gaia scenario in asteroid science will be very much improved with respect to the current state of the art.

  10. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are merger candidates. Merger events may lead to anisotropic velocity distributions in systems of any luminosity, including dwarfs. The RSA sample of dwarf galaxies is more likely to contain mergers because, in contrast to earlier dwarf galaxy surveys that have focused on clusters and rich groups of galaxies, the RSA dwarfs are typically located in low density environments. The occurrence of mergers among dwarf galaxies is of interest in connection with the rapid evolution of faint blue galaxy counts at redshift z less than 1 which suggests that dwarf galaxies were about five times more numerous in the recent past. Finally, our sample contains several examples of late-type dwarfs and 'transition' types that are potential precursors of nucleated early-type dwarfs. All the above processes--mass loss, mergers, astration--are likely to have contributed to the formation of the current population of diffuse early-type dwarfs. A few new redshifts of dwarf galaxies are reported in this paper.

  11. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri photometry of Rave stars. I. Data, effective temperatures, and reddenings

    SciTech Connect

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-36012 Asiago (VI) (Italy); Henden, A. [AAVSO, Cambridge, MA (United States); Frigo, A. [ANS Collaboration, c/o Astronomical Observatory, Padova (Italy); Zwitter, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A. [Observatoire Astronomique, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 11 rue de l'université F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Freeman, K. C. [Mount Stromlo Observatory, RSAA, Australian National University, Weston Creek, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gibson, B. K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Helmi, A. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Levine, S. E. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Navarro, J. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Seabroke, G. M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-11-01

    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been ?{sup 2} fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T {sub eff} and E {sub B–V}, computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E{sub B?V}{sup poles} = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| ? 25°.

  12. UBVRI aperture photometry of southern Seyfert galaxies and related objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, H.; Payne, P.

    UBV(RI)c photometry for 36 southern galaxies (mostly Seyferts) is presented. The majority of these galaxies have never been observed photometrically. Their absolute magnitudes are calculated after correcting the measured magnitudes for interstellar extinction in our Galaxy.

  13. Subtle Change in the Charge Distribution of Surface Residues May Affect the Secondary Functions of Cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simanta Sarani; Sil, Pallabi; Haldar, Shubhasis; Mitra, Samaresh; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2015-06-01

    Although the primary function of cytochrome c (cyt c) is electron transfer, the protein caries out an additional secondary function involving its interaction with membrane cardiolipin (CDL), its peroxidase activity, and the initiation of apoptosis. Whereas the primary function of cyt c is essentially conserved, its secondary function varies depending on the source of the protein. We report here a detailed experimental and computational study, which aims to understand, at the molecular level, the difference in the secondary functions of cyt c obtained from horse heart (mammalian) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The conformational landscape of cyt c has been found to be heterogeneous, consisting of an equilibrium between the compact and extended conformers as well as the oligomeric species. Because the determination of relative populations of these conformers is difficult to obtain by ensemble measurements, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a method that offers single-molecule resolution. The population of different species is found to depend on multiple factors, including the protein source, the presence of CDL and urea, and their concentrations. The complex interplay between the conformational distribution and oligomerization plays a crucial role in the variation of the pre-apoptotic regulation of cyt c observed from different sources. Finally, computational studies reveal that the variation in the charge distribution at the surface and the charge reversal sites may be the key determinant of the conformational stability of cyt c. PMID:25873393

  14. TFIT: Mixed-resolution data set photometry package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidler, Victoria G.; Papovich, Casey; Grogin, Norman A.; Idzi, Rafal; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Clubb, Kelsey; Ravindranath, Swara

    2015-05-01

    TFIT measures galaxy photometry using prior knowledge of sources in a deep, high-resolution image (HRI) to improve photometric measurements of objects in a corresponding low-resolution image (LRI) of the same field, usually at a different wavelength. For background-limited data, this technique produces optimally weighted photometry that maximizes signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). For objects not significantly detected in the low-resolution image, it provides useful and quantitative information for setting upper limits.

  15. EMCCD Technology in High Precision Photometry on Short Timescales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall Smith; Alan Giltinan; Aidan O’Connor; Stephen O’Driscoll; Adrian Collins; Dylan Loughnan; Andreas Papageorgiou

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the advantages and limitations of Electron Multiplying CCD technology in high precision photometry on short timescales,\\u000a with special emphasis on probing the smallest structures in active galactic jets. Factors external to the EMCCD, rather than\\u000a the architecture of the EMCCD itself, most often limit the precision of photometry that can be reached with groundbased observations.\\u000a Although EMCCDs can

  16. FR Cnc Revisited: Photometry, Polarimetry and Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Golovin, A; Hernan-Obispo, M; Andreev, M; Barnes, J R; Montes, D; Pavlenko, E; Pandey, J C; Martinez-Arnaiz, R; Medhi, B J; Parihar, P S; Henden, A; Sergeev, A; Zaitsev, S V; Karpov, N

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the study of FR Cnc, a young, active and spotted star. We performed analysis of ASAS-3 (The All Sky Automated Survey) data for the years 2002-2008 and amended the value of the rotational period to be 0.826518 d. The amplitude of photometric variations decreased abruptly in the year 2005, while the mean brightness remained the same, which was interpreted as a quick redistribution of spots. BVRc and Ic broad band photometric calibration was performed for 166 stars in FR Cnc vicinity. The photometry at Terskol Observatory shows two brightening episodes, one of which occurred at the same phase as the flare of 2006 November 23. Polarimetric BVR observations indicate the probable presence of a supplementary source of polarization. We monitored FR Cnc spectroscopically during the years 2004-2008. We concluded that the RV changes cannot be explained by the binary nature of FR Cnc. We determined the spectral type of FR Cnc as K7V. Calculated galactic space-velocity components (U, V, W) indicate that FR...

  17. DOE-EMSP Final Report: Characterization of Changes in Colloid and DNAPL Affecting Surface Chemistry and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Susan E. Powers; Stefan J. Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2007-02-07

    The waste disposal to the M-area basin and A-14 outfall at the Savannah River Department of Energy facility in Aiken SC (USA) included a wide variety of inorganic aqueous flows and organic solvents in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The DNAPL has migrated through the subsurface resulting in widespread groundwater contamination. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify processes that could have affected the migration and remediation of the DNAPL in the subsurface. It was hypothesized that the variety of waste disposed at this site could have altered the mineral, microbial and DNAPL properties at this site relative to other DNAPL sites. The DNAPL was determined to have a very low interfacial tension and is suspected to be distributed in fine grained media, thereby reducing the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation efforts. Although the DNAPL is primarily comprised of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethane, it also contains organic acids and several heavy metals. Experimental results suggest that iron from the aqueous and DNAPL phases undergoes precipitation and dechlorination reactions at the DNAPL-water interface, contributing to the low interfacial tension and acidity of the DNAPL. Biological activity in the contaminated region can also contribute to the low interfacial tension. PCE degrading bacteria produce biosurfactants and adhere to the DNAPL-water interface when stressed by high tetrachloroethene or low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The presence of iron can reduce the interfacial tension by nearly an order of magnitude, while the PCE degraders reduced the interfacial tension by nearly 50%. Abiotic changes in the mineral characteristics were not found to be substantially different between contaminated and background samples. The research completed here begins to shed some insight into the complexities of DNAPL fate and migration at sites where co-disposal of many different waste products occurred. Quantifying the low interfacial tension of the SRS DNAPL helps to formulate a new conceptual picture of the subsurface DNAPL migration and provides an explanation of the limited effectiveness of remediation efforts. Alternative designs for remediation that are more effective for sites with DNAPL in fine grained media are required.

  18. Snow cover and ground surface temperature on a talus slope affected by mass movements. Veleta cirque, Sierra Nevada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Salvador-Franch, F.

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses the thermal ground behaviour on an alpine talus slope located at the foot of the north wall of the glacial cirque on the Pico del Veleta (3398 m, 37°03'21''N, 3°21'57''W, MAAT: -0,4°C) in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. There are frequent mass movements on this talus slope, particularly in its central section, caused by the abundant presence of fine-grained sediment and by the water from snowmelt and/or ice degradation in the ground or permafrost (Gómez et al., 2003). To determine the snowmelt pattern and ocurrence of permafrost, a continuous ground surface temperature was kept by installing 6 mini-loggers (HOBO Pendant) along the descending profile of the central talus, which is 170 m long with altitudes ranging from 3180 m at the higher end to 3085 m at the lower end. A thermal borehole was also installed at a depth of 2 m at the base of the slope on an active rock glacier. The results obtained for the period October 2008 - September 2009 show that, in contrast to alpine talus slopes (Luetschg et. al., 2004; Lambiel and Pieracci, 2008), the upper part of the slope is characterized by mean annual ground surface temperatures (MAGST) lower than at the base of the talus, possibly due to the effect of the shadow of the cirque wall. The MAGST oscillate between 0.592°C at the station near the slope apex (S2) and 1.836°C at the station near the base (S5). In winter-spring, when the talus slope is covered with snow, the GST are stabilized at all stations between mid-October and early November. The minimum GST, which express the BTS conditions, oscillate between 0.232 and 0.01°C, depending on the month, with lowest values recorded during the month of April. Only one station (S3, mid-slope) recorded negative values (max. value : - 0.549°C in December and - 0.211 in April ). In summer, the snow disappears fairly quickly between mid- and late July on the intermediate stretch of the talus slope (S3, S4, S6), where the majority of the flows detected occur. In the mid-upper part (S5, S2) the thaw occurs in mid-August. The GST data provide evidence of the current absence of permafrost along the talus slope profile, although some years ago it was detected using BTS methods (Gómez et al., 2003. Gómez-Ortiz, A., Palacios, D., Luengo, E., Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. and Ramos, M., 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relationship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografisca Annaler 85 A (2), 165-182. Lambiel, C. and Pieracci, K. 2008. Permafrost distribution in talus slopes located within the alpine periglacial belt, Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 19: 293-304 Luetschg, M.; Stoeckli, M.; Lehning, M.; Haeberli, W., and Ammann, W. 2004. Temperatures in two boreholes at Flüela Pass, Eastern Swiss Alps: the effect of snow redistribution on permafrost distribution patterns in high mountain areas. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 15: 283-297. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  19. NEW UBVRI PHOTOMETRY OF 234 M33 STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jun, E-mail: majun@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-04-15

    This is the second paper of our series. In this paper, we present UBVRI photometry for 234 star clusters in the field of M33. For most of these star clusters, there is photometry in only two bands in previous studies. The photometry of these star clusters is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements, and in particular that our photometry is in good agreement with that of Zloczewski and Kaluzny. Combined with star cluster photometry in previous studies, we present some results: none of the M33 youngest clusters ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) have masses approaching 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, and comparisons with models of simple stellar populations suggest a large range of ages for M33 star clusters and some as old as the Galactic globular clusters.

  20. How morphology and surface crystal texture affect thermal stability of a metallic nanoparticle: the case of silver nanobelts and pentagonal silver nanowires.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Rivers, Geoffrey; Peng, Peng; Zhao, Boxin; Zhou, Norman Y

    2015-01-01

    Thermal instability of metallic nanoparticles is typically attributed to chemical attack by contaminants. However, thermodynamic stability is independent of other affecting parameters. The importance of this will be clarified when the structural change toward a more stable thermodynamic condition may be followed by a chemical reaction with the surroundings, which may cause a wrong diagnosis. In this research, molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations were performed to investigate the effect of crystallography and surface texture on stability at high temperature using two closely related model nanoparticles: silver nanobelts and pentagonal nanowires. Previously, the instability of silver nanowires was associated with sulfidation of the wire at high temperature. However, we found that the silver nanowires are inherently unstable at high temperature, degrading due to the high-energy nature of the nanowire's predominately (100) crystallographic surface and pentagonal geometry. In contrast, the silver nanobelts resist thermal degradation up to 500 °C because of their predominately low-energy (111) crystallographic surfaces. In this case study, we successfully demonstrate that inherent thermodynamic stability driven by morphology is significant in metallic nanoparticles, and should be investigated when selecting a nanoparticle for high temperature applications. Moreover, we identify a new one-dimensional nanoparticle, the silver nanobelt, with inherent high-temperature stability. PMID:25372298

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies morphology and IR photometry III. (Gavazzi+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Boselli, A.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.

    1999-11-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity (2 data files).

  2. Three-color CCD photometry of the distant cluster of galaxies Cl 0024 + 1654

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, D. P.; Dressler, A.; Gunn, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Photometry of 265 galaxies in rich cluster Cl 0024 + 1654 (z = 0.39), based on CCD imaging in three filters, is presented. The luminosity of this system ranks it among the richest known clusters, and it has a blue mass-to-light ratio of about 210. The color-magnitude diagram has a prominent E/S0 sequence. There are essentially no blue cluster members brighter than r equals about 19.3, and only very red galaxies inhabit the central 30 arcsec of the cluster. The blue cluster members have sizes and surface brightnesses similar to spiral galaxies in nearby clusters.

  3. Surface Orientation Affects the Direction of Cone Growth by Leptolyngbya sp. Strain C1, a Likely Architect of Coniform Structures Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park)

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Kristina; Gonzalez, Nicolas I.; Stewart, Joshua; Ospino, Frank; Nguyen, Dickie; Cho, David T.; Ghahremani, Nahal; Spear, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminated, microbially produced stromatolites within the rock record provide some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. The chemical, physical, and biological factors that lead to the initiation of these organosedimentary structures and shape their morphology are unclear. Modern coniform structures with morphological features similar to stromatolites are found on the surface of cyanobacterial/microbial mats. They display a vertical element of growth, can have lamination, can be lithified, and observably grow with time. To begin to understand the microbial processes and interactions required for cone formation, we determined the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community of a coniform structure from a cyanobacterial mat at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and reconstituted coniform structures in vitro. The 16S rRNA clone library from the coniform structure was dominated by Leptolyngbya sp. Other cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were present in much lower abundance. The same Leptolyngbya sp. identified in the clone library was also enriched in the laboratory and could produce cones in vitro. When coniform structures were cultivated in the laboratory, the initial incubation conditions were found to influence coniform morphology. In addition, both the angle of illumination and the orientation of the surface affected the angle of cone formation demonstrating how external factors can influence coniform, and likely, stromatolite morphology. PMID:23241986

  4. CP2 stars in clusters: deep Delta a-photometry

    E-print Network

    H. M. Maitzen; M. Rode; E. Paunzen

    1998-05-05

    The search for chemically peculiar (CP) stars in open clusters using photoelectric photometry sampling the presence of the characteristic flux depression feature at 5200A via the Delta a-system (Maitzen 1976) has so far delivered data for objects usually no more distant than 1000 pc from the Sun. If one intends to study the presence of CP stars at larger distances from the Sun, classical photometry has to be replaced by CCD photometry. For the first time, our investigation presents the results of CCD-photometry in the Delta a-system for a rich open cluster which is at a distance clearly beyond hitherto studied objects, Melotte 105 (2 kpc, log age = 8.5). Comparison with published uvby-photometry yields the calibration of the colour index g_1-y of our system, which is necessary for deriving the peculiarity index Delta a. For this we achieve an average accuracy of 0.007 mag. Six objects with only marginally peculiar Delta a-values were found, but spectroscopic and additional photometric evidence is needed to substantiate their peculiarity.

  5. Inverse problems of NEO photometry: Imaging the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen1, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Photometry is the main source of information on NEOs (and other asteroids) en masse. Surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST will produce colossal photometric databases that can readily be used for mapping the physical characteristics of the whole asteroid population. These datasets are efficiently enriched by any additional dense photometric or other observations. Due to their quickly changing geometries with respect to the Earth, NEOs are the subpopulation that can be mapped the fastest. I review the state of the art in the construction of physical asteroid models from sparse and/or dense photometric data (that can also be combined with other data modes). The models describe the shapes, spin states, scattering properties and surface structure of the targets, and are the solutions of inverse problems necessarily involving comprehensive mathematical analysis. I sum up what we can and cannot get from photometric data, and how all this is done in practice. I also discuss the new freely available software package for solving photometric inverse problems (soon to be released). The analysis of photometric datasets will very soon become an automated industry, resulting in tens of thousands of asteroid models, a large portion of them NEOs. The computational effort in this is considerable in both computer and human time, which means that a large portion of the targets is likely to be analyzed only once. This, again, means that we have to have a good understanding of the reliability of our models, and this is impossible without a thorough understanding of the mathematical nature of the inverse problem(s) involved. Very important concepts are the uniqueness and stability of the solution, the parameter spaces, the so-called inverse crimes in simulations and error prediction, and the domination of systematic errors over random ones.

  6. DAOPHOT - A computer program for crowded-field stellar photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Peter B.

    1987-03-01

    The tasks of the DAOPHOT program, developed to exploit the capability of photometrically linear image detectors to perform stellar photometry in crowded fields, are discussed. Raw CCD images are prepared prior to analysis, and following the obtaining of an initial star list with the FIND program, synthetic aperture photometry is performed on the detected objects with the PHOT routine. A local sky brightness and a magnitude are computed for each star in each of the specified stellar apertures, and for crowded fields, the empirical point-spread function must then be obtained for each data frame. The GROUP routine divides the star list for a given frame into optimum subgroups, and then the NSTAR routine is used to obtain photometry for all the stars in the frame by means of least- squares profile fits. The process is illustrated with images of stars in a crowded field, and shortcomings and possible improvements of the program are considered.

  7. First time-series optical photometry from Antarctica

    E-print Network

    K. G. Strassmeier; R. Briguglio; T. Granzer; G. Tosti; I. DiVarano; I. Savanov; M. Bagaglia; S. Castellini; A. Mancini; G. Nucciarelli; O. Straniero; E. Distefano; S. Messina; G. Cutispoto

    2008-07-18

    Beating the Earth's day-night cycle is mandatory for long and continuous time-series photometry and had been achieved with either large ground-based networks of observatories at different geographic longitudes or when conducted from space. A third possibility is offered by a polar location with astronomically-qualified site characteristics. Aims. In this paper, we present the first scientific stellar time-series optical photometry from Dome C in Antarctica and analyze approximately 13,000 CCD frames taken in July 2007. We conclude that high-precision CCD photometry with exceptional time coverage and cadence can be obtained at Dome C in Antarctica and be successfully used for time-series astrophysics.

  8. Photometry Of The Semi-regular Variable Tx Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Spear, G.; McLin, K.; Cominsky, L.; Mankiewicz, L.; Reichart, D.; Ivarsen, K.

    2009-12-01

    We report V-band and I-band photometry for the SRA type variable TX Tau. Photometry was obtained using the robotic telescope GORT at the Hume Observatory (NASA funded through Sonoma State University) and the PROMPT robotic telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (NSF and NASA funded through the University of North Carolina). Photometry was also obtained using the PI of the Sky optical transient search system at Las Campanas Observatory developed by a consortium of institutions in Poland. Modern periods are determined, the V-band and I-band light curves are compared, and V-I colors are derived. It is possible that the classification for this variable should be reconsidered.

  9. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kami?ski, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, S?oneczna 36, 60-286 Pozna? (Poland); Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander, E-mail: chrisk@amu.edu.pl [Copernicus Astronomical Centre, ul. Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on ? Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  10. Photometry of Peculiar Type 1A Supernova SN2005HK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jessica C.; Leising, Mark

    2010-07-01

    BV RI photometry of the peculiar Type Ia supernova SN2005hk is presented, with emphasis on late-time observations. Results are derived by performing aperture photometry on images taken with the Bok and Mayall telescopes. Instrumental magnitudes are calibrated with published magnitudes of stars in the frames. The light curve presented demonstrates that this particular supernova is classified as "peculiar" due to its deviation from the standard light curve of Type Ia Supernovae. The late light curves appear quite flat, though some questions about our analysis, subtraction of the underlying galaxy in particular, remain.

  11. The Open Cluster NGC 2516. I. Optical Photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwankyung Sung; Michael S. Bessell; Bo-Won Lee; Sang-Gak Lee

    2002-01-01

    We present UBVI CCD photometry of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2516. From this new photometry we derive the cluster parameters [V0-MV=7.77+\\/-0.11 mag, E(B-V)=0.112+\\/-0.024 mag], age [log(age)=8.2+\\/-0.1], and a photometric abundance ([Fe\\/H]=-0.10+\\/-0.04) from a comparison with theoretical isochrones of the Padua group. We find that the X-ray bright stars [logLX(ergs s-1)>~29.0] are systematically bluer in B-V and U-B. It was

  12. Transit and secondary eclipse photometry in the near-infrared

    E-print Network

    Ignas Snellen

    2007-05-02

    Near-infrared photometry of transiting extrasolar planets can be of great scientific value. It is however not straightforward to reach the necessary millimagnitude precision. Here we report on our attempts to observe transits and secondary eclipses of several extrasolar planets at 2.2 micron. Best results have been obtained on OGLE-TR-113b using the SOFI near-infrared camera on ESO's New Technology Telescope. Its K-band transit shows a remarkably flat bottom indicating low stellar limb darkening. Secondary eclipse photometry has resulted in a formal 3 sigma detection, but residual systematic effects make this detection rather uncertain.

  13. Lunar Photometry and Composition of Ejecta Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pugacheva, S. G.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Daydou, Y.

    One scientific goal of the AMIE experiment to fly onboard the SMART-1 mission is to investigate, at low polar orbit, the South Pole regions of the Moon. The AMIE camera will observe the surface in nadir direction within a large phase angle interval, thus providing photometric investigation of selected regions, in particular the South Pole- Aitken basin. The view is taken here that information retrieved from the local surface photometric behaviour of the Moon could be used for guiding the remote sensing anal- yses of specific geological targets. In a preliminary investigation, we have compared the Lunar Prospector thorium contents for some regions of the lunar near side with surface roughness estimated by means of the local photometric function. The aver- age structure of the lunar surface consists in a porous upper layer with various small fragments. Reflecting properties of this layer gives the uniform shape of photometric function. The average integrated lunar indicatrix was used as a background photomet- ric model. Taken as a reference, it permits to intercompare in a uniform system the shape of the phase function of different areas located at different longitude and lati- tude on the Moon. If the observed surface is represented by significant fields of ejecta materials, with many fragments of rocks, a shadow-hiding mechanism is involved, showing up at low phase angles. Thus, the fast decrease of the brightness in the phase function curve should reveal the presence of fragments on the surface. The Saari and Shorthill catalog data were used as observed phase functions. Both kinds of photo- metric functions were converted to symmetric form. Then, the difference between the modeled and observed phase functions for phase angle about 18 degree was used as a photometric parameter of the surface roughness. In the areas under study, this pa- rameter (which can vary between 0 and 1) varies from 0.05 (smooth mare surface) to 0.25 (crater Tycho and its ejecta). Interestingly, a good correlation (-0.985) is ob- served between the local thorium content and the photometric roughness parameter, indicating a possible association of Th-rich materials with the rough structure of the regolith disturbed by the emplacement of ejecta materials and could indicate the sur- face distribution of KREEP materials. Similar photometric investigations conducted by AMIE/SMART-1 for other lunar regions such as the South Pole-Aitken basin would be an interesting and useful task. This work was supported by INTAS-ESA grant No. 00-00792.

  14. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  15. Platelet CD36 surface expression levels affect functional responses to oxidized LDL and are associated with inheritance of specific genetic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunima; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Chen, Kan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Qing; Febbraio, Maria; Anselmo, Rita Marie; Marchant, Kandice; Barnard, John

    2011-01-01

    CD36 modulates platelet function via binding to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), cell-derived microparticles, and thrombospondin-1. We hypothesized that the level of platelet CD36 expression may be associated with inheritance of specific genetic polymorphisms and that this would determine platelet reactivity to oxLDL. Analysis of more than 500 subjects revealed that CD36 expression levels were consistent in individual donors over time but varied widely among donors (200-14 000 molecules per platelet). Platelet aggregometry and flow cytometry in a subset of subjects with various CD36 expression levels revealed a high level of correlation (r2 = 0.87) between platelet activation responses to oxLDL and level of CD36 expression. A genome-wide association study of 374 white subjects from the Cleveland Clinic ASCLOGEN study showed strong associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CD36 with platelet surface CD36 expression. Most of these findings were replicated in a smaller subset of 25 black subjects. An innovative gene-based genome-wide scan provided further evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms in CD36 were strongly associated with CD36 expression. These studies show that CD36 expression on platelets varies widely, correlates with functional responses to oxLDL, and is associated with inheritance of specific CD36 genetic polymorphisms, and suggest that inheritance of specific CD36 polymorphisms could affect thrombotic risk. PMID:21478428

  16. Galileo photometry of Apollo landing sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Helfenstein; J. Veverka; James W. Head; C. Pieters; S. Pratt; J. Mustard; K. Klaasen; G. Neukum; H. Hoffmann; R. Jaumann

    1993-01-01

    As of December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft performed its second and final flyby (EM2), of the Earth-Moon system, during which it acquired Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera images of the lunar surface suitable for photometric analysis using Hapke's, photometric model. These images, together with those from the first flyby (EM1) in December 1989, provide observations of all of the Apollo

  17. A Laboratory of Photometry and Radiometry of Light Pollution (LPLAB)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Cinzano

    2003-01-01

    We present the Laboratory of Photometry and Radiometry of Light Pollution (LPLAB) that we set up to provide the Light Pollution Science and Technology Institute (ISTIL) of instruments and calibration services to support its scientific and technological research on light pollution and related environmental effects. The laboratory equipments are characterized by low light intensity measurement and calibration capabilities and by

  18. Blue band photometry of Cygnus X-1. [and Fourier analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    Results of blue band photometry of HDE 226868 in the years 1972-3-4 and provisional results for 1975 are presented. A mean light curve is obtained from the first three years observations which is based on 192 nights observations. Intercomparison of the results from the different years shows that the light curve is not constant.

  19. Far-ultraviolet stellar photometry: Fields in Sagittarius and Scorpius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward G. Schmidt; George R. Carruthers

    1995-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet photometry for 741 objects in a field in Sagittarius centered near M8 and 541 objects in a field centered near sigma Scorpii is presented. These data were extracted from electographic images obtained with two cameras during a shuttle flight in 1991 April\\/May. The cameras provided band passes with lambdaeff = 1375 A and lambdaeff = 1781 A. Synthetic colors

  20. BVR Photometry of Northern Galactic Plane Luminous Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cameron Reed; Patrick M. Carmody; David H. Landy

    1998-01-01

    CCD-based BVR photometry of 90 stars listed in Volumes II, III, and IV of the Case-Hamburg Catalog of Luminous Stars in the Northern Milky Way is reported. This research was performed at the Lowell Observatory 31 inch telescope, which, under an agreement with Northern Arizona University and the NURO Consortium, is operated 60% of the time as the National Undergraduate

  1. Photometry of Delta Serpentis: results of three campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobart, M. A.; De La Cruz, C.; Rolland, A.; Olivares, I.; Costa, V.; Rodríguez, E.; López de Coca, P.; García-Pelayo, J.M.; Parrao, L.; Peña, J. H.

    2002-02-01

    We present preliminary results derived from the data obtained during the three observing campaigns in 1984, 1996 (coordinated multisite campaigns in Mexico and Spain), and 1999 of the delta Sct type star delta Ser. In all cases, we have carried out simultaneous uvbybeta photometry. Data analysis in the v band, using the Fourier Transform method, shows five significant frequencies.

  2. Cousins BVRI photometry of high-proper-motion stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Dawson; Douglas Forbes

    1992-01-01

    Broadband BVRI photometry on the Cousins system is presented for 127 stars with annual proper motions greater than 1\\/2 arcsec. The sample includes three spectroscopically confirmed degenerate stars, and a considerable number of cool subdwarfs, several of which are discussed. Two stars with peculiar colors are identified, and the significance of certain of the Luyten color classes is briefly considered.

  3. UBVJHKLM photometry and modeling of R Coronae Borealis

    E-print Network

    B. F. Yudin; J. D. Fernie; N. R. Ikhsanov; V. I. Shenavrin; G. Weigelt

    2002-09-25

    We present the results of UBVJHKLM photometry of R CrB spanning the period from 1976 to 2001. Studies of the optical light curve have shown no evidence of any stable harmonics in the variations of the stellar emission. In the L band we found semi-regular oscillations with the two main periods of ~3.3 yr and 11.9 yr and the full amplitude of ~0.8 mag and ~0.6 mag, respectively. The colors of the warm dust shell (resolved by Ohnaka et al. 2001) are found to be remarkably stable in contrast to its brightness. This indicates that the inner radius is a constant, time-independent characteristic of the dust shell. The observed behavior of the IR light curve is mainly caused by the variation of the optical thickness of the dust shell within the interval \\tau(V)= 0.2-0.4. Anticorrelated changes of the optical brightness (in particular with P ~ 3.3 yr) have not been found. Their absence suggests that the stellar wind of R CrB deviates from spherical symmetry. The light curves suggest that the stellar wind is variable. The variability of the stellar wind and the creation of dust clouds may be caused by some kind of activity on the stellar surface. With some time lag, periods of increased mass-loss cause an increase in the dust formation rate at the inner boundary of the extended dust shell and an increase in its IR brightness. We have derived the following parameters of the dust shell (at mean brightness) by radiative transfer modeling: inner dust shell radius r_in ~ 110 R_*, temperature T_dust(r_in) ~ 860 K, dust density \\rho_dust(r_in) ~ 1.1x10^{-20} g cm^-3, optical depth \\tau(V) ~ 0.32 at 0.55 micron, mean dust formation rate [dM/dt]_dust ~ 3.1x10^-9 M_sun / yr, mass-loss rate [dM/dt]_gas ~ 2.1x10^-7 M_sun / yr, size of the amorphous carbon grains <(~) 0.01 micron, and B-V ~ -0.28.

  4. The impact of main belt asteroids on infrared--submillimetre photometry and source counts

    E-print Network

    Cs. Kiss; A. Pal; Th. G. Mueller; P. Abraham

    2007-11-28

    > Among the components of the infrared and submillimetre sky background, the closest layer is the thermal emission of dust particles and minor bodies in the Solar System. This contribution is especially important for current and future infrared and submillimetre space instruments --like those of Spitzer, Akari and Herschel -- and must be characterised by a reliable statistical model. > We describe the impact of the thermal emission of main belt asteroids on the 5...1000um photometry and source counts, for the current and future spaceborne and ground-based instruments, in general, as well as for specific dates and sky positions. > We used the statistical asteroid model (SAM) to calculate the positions of main belt asteroids down to a size of 1km, and calculated their infrared and submillimetre brightness using the standard thermal model. Fluctuation powers, confusion noise values and number counts were derived from the fluxes of individual asteroids. > We have constructed a large database of infrared and submillimetre fluxes for SAM asteroids with a temporal resolution of 5 days, covering the time span January 1, 2000 -- December 31, 2012. Asteroid fluctuation powers and number counts derived from this database can be obtained for a specific observation setup via our public web-interface. > Current space instruments working in the mid-infrared regime (Akari and Spitzer Space Telescopes) are affected by asteroid confusion noise in some specific areas of the sky, while the photometry of space infrared and submillimetre instruments in the near future (e.g. Herschel and Planck Space Observatories) will not be affected by asteroids. Faint main belt asteroids might also be responsible for most of the zodiacal emission fluctuations near the ecliptic.

  5. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2011 January - March

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Pravec, Petr; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2011-01-01

    For background on the program details for each of the opportunity lists, refer to previous issues, e.g., Minor Planet Bulletin 36, 188. As always, we urge observations of asteroids even if they have well-established lightcurve parameters, especially if they do not yet have good spin axis or shape models. Every lightcurve of sufficient quality provides valuable information in support of such efforts, which are needed to resolve a number of questions about the evolution of individual asteroids and the general population. Furthermore, data over many apparitions can help determine if an asteroid's rotation rate is being affected by the YORP effect, a thermal effect that can cause a smaller, irregularly-shaped asteroid to speed up or slow down. See Lowry et al. (2007) Science 316, 272- 274 and Kaasalainen et al. (2007) Nature 446, 420-422. Lightcurves, new or repeats, of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are also important for solving spin axis models, specifically the orientation of the asteroid's axis of rotation. Pole directions are known for only about 30 NEAs out of a population of 6800. This is hardly sufficient to begin analyses of pole alignments, including whether or not YORP is forcing pole orientations into a limited number of preferred directions (see La Spina et al., 2004, Nature 428, 400-401).

  6. HST Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo A. Ibata; Harvey B. Richer; Gregory G. Fahlman; Michael Bolte; Howard E. Bond; James E. Hesser; Carlton Pryor; Peter B. Stetson

    1998-05-14

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data-set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is available on the AAS CD-ROM (or email a request to RAI). The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main sequence population.

  7. ESSENCE Photometry and SN Light-Curve Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Jha, S.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; ESSENCE Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    We present and discuss the photometric measurements and analysis of SN Ia light curves from the first 3 years of the ESSENCE project. We have used and verified multiple photometric packages to thoroughly understand and cross-check our photometry. Using both deep-template and NN2-based frame-subtraction methods to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio lightcurves, we detail the complementarity of both approaches in minimizing systematics in the ESSENCE photometry. To understand our calibration of the relative luminosity distances to our SNe Ia, we compare the results of 3 different SN Ia lightcurve luminosity width-brightness packages: MLCS2k2, Dm15, and BATM. This work is partially supported by grant AST-0443378 from the US National Science Foundation.

  8. Optical Photometry of V404 Cyg (=GS2023+338)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C. R.; Starrfield, S. G.

    2000-03-01

    In response to the request by Hjellming et al. in ATEL #54, Rose Finn (Steward Observatory/U. Arizona) obtained for us two R-band CCD images of V404 Cyg (=GS2023+338) on 2000 Mar 3.52 UT with the Steward Observatory Bok 2.3-m telescope and direct CCD (scale = 0.3 arcsec/pixel, airmass = 1.8, seeing = 1.7 arcsec FWHM). Photometry of V404 Cyg was obtained with respect to the comparison stars C1, C4, and C5 of Udalski and Kaluzny (1991, PASP, 103, 198), Casares et al. (1993, MNRAS, 265, 834), and our own photometry of C1 (R = 12.39).

  9. Stellar Mass Function From SIM Astrometry/Photometry

    E-print Network

    Andrew Gould; Samir Salim

    1999-07-07

    By combining SIM observations with ground-based photometry, one can completely solve microlensing events seen toward the Galactic bulge. One could measure the mass, distance, and transverse velocity of ~100 lenses to ~5% precision in only ~500 hours of SIM time. Among the numerous applications are 1) measurement of the mass functions (MFs) of the bulge and disk 2) measurement of the relative normalizations of the bulge and disk MFs (and so their relative contribution to the Galactic potential), 3) measurement of the number of bulge white dwarfs and neutron stars (and so the initial MF well above the present turnoff). SIM astrometric measurements are simultaneously photometric measurements. SIM astrometry determines the angular size of the Einstein ring on the sky, and comparison of SIM and ground-based photometry determines the size of the Einstein ring projected onto the observer plane. Only by combining both of these measurements is it possible to completely solve the microlensing events.

  10. Galileo photometry of Apollo landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Head, James W.; Pieters, C.; Pratt, S.; Mustard, J.; Klaasen, K.; Neukum, G.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.

    1993-01-01

    As of December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft performed its second and final flyby (EM2), of the Earth-Moon system, during which it acquired Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera images of the lunar surface suitable for photometric analysis using Hapke's, photometric model. These images, together with those from the first flyby (EM1) in December 1989, provide observations of all of the Apollo landing sites over a wide range of photometric geometries and at eight broadband filter wavelengths ranging from 0.41 micron to 0.99 micron. We have completed a preliminary photometric analysis of Apollo landing sites visible in EM1 images and developed a new strategy for a more complete analysis of the combined EM1 and EM2 data sets in conjunction with telescopic observations and spectrogoniometric measurements of returned lunar samples. No existing single data set, whether from spacecraft flyby, telescopic observation, or laboratory analysis of returned samples, describes completely the light scattering behavior of a particular location on the Moon at all angles of incidence (i), emission (e), and phase angles (a). Earthbased telescopic observations of particular lunar sites provide good coverage of incidence nad phase angles, but their range in emission angle is limited to only a few degrees because of the Moon's synchronous rotation. Spacecraft flyby observations from Galileo are now available for specific lunar features at many photometric geometries unobtainable from Earth; however, this data set lacks coverage at very small phase angles (a less than 13 deg) important for distinguishing the well-known 'opposition effect'. Spectrogoniometric measurements from returned lunar samples can provide photometric coverage at almost any geometry; however, mechanical properties of prepared particulate laboratory samples, such as particle compaction and macroscopic roughness, likely differ from those on the lunar surface. In this study, we have developed methods for the simultaneous analysis of all three types of data: we combine Galileo and telescopic observations to obtain the most complete coverage with photometric geometry, and use spectrogoniometric observations of lunar soils to help distinguish the photometric effects of macroscopic roughness from those caused by particle phase function behavior (i.e., the directional scattering properties of regolith particles).

  11. Precise Photometry Mission -- Measuring Stellar Microvariability from Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Brown; W. Borucki; S. Frandsen; R. L. Gilliland; A. Jones; R. W. Noyes; T. Tarbell; R. K. Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric scintillation limits the precision attainable by ground-based photometry; this limitation is a major obstacle to progress in several fields, notably asteroseismology of Sun-like stars. A space-borne photometric telescope could operate near the shot noise limit, removing this obstacle and providing new opportunities for inquiry. As part of the program for New Mission Concepts in Astrophysics, we are studying the

  12. Astronomical Photometry and the Legacy of Arne Henden (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Arne Henden has helped provide a valuable resource to the photometric community with the publication of the 1982 book Astronomical Photometry. I will present a brief review of the topics covered in this handbook and recount some of the many times that it has been useful to myself and my students for answering a wide variety of questions dealing with the acquisition and reduction of photometric observations.

  13. An interactive modular design for computerized photometry in spectrochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive, top-down structured program design is described which produces a general flexible description of totally automatic photometry of emission spectra in an operating environment in which sample compositions and analysis procedures are low-volume and nonroutine. The use of this type of programming is illustrated by a project to computerize trace elemental determinations including the automated reading of spectrographic plates produced by a 3.4-m Ebert mount spectrograph using a dc-arc in an argon atmosphere.

  14. Blue-light imagery and photometry of sprites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Suszcynsky; Robert Roussel-Dupré; Walter A. Lyons; Russell A. Armstrong

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained blue (350–475 nm) video images and simultaneous high-time resolution narrow-band blue (415–435 nm) photometry records of four sprite events. The brightest blue images show a sustained tendril geometry and a nearly constant intensity of emission over the entire vertical extent of the sprite (from 35–90 km altitude). Photometer light curves display an exponential decay with a 0.3

  15. Luminosities and temperatures of M dwarf stars from infrared photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Bolometric magnitudes for a large number of M type dwarf stars, obtained by broadband infrared photometry at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.5 microns, are reviewed. The data obtained indicate that one parameter is sufficient to describe the blanketing in all of the UBVRI bands for all types of M dwarfs. In general, late M dwarfs seem to have lower effective temperatures than are predicted by theoretical models.

  16. Astrometry and Photometry for Two Dwarf Carbon Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh C. Harris; Conard C. Dahn; Richard L. Walker; Christian B. Luginbuhl; Alice K. B. Monet; Harry H. Guetter; Ronald C. Stone; Frederick J. Vrba; David G. Monet; Jeffrey R. Pier

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary trigonometric parallaxes and BVI photometry are presented for two dwarf carbon stars, LP 765-18 (=LHS 1075) and LP 328-57 (=CLS 96). The data are combined with the literature values for a third dwarf carbon star, G77-61 (=LHS 1555). All three stars have very similar luminosities (9.6 < MV < 10.0) and very similar broadband colors across the entire visual-to-near-IR

  17. Galileo photometry of asteroid 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Fanale, F.; Granahan, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.

    1996-01-01

    Galileo imaging observations over phase angles 19.5?? to 109.8?? are combined with near-opposition Earth-based data to derive the photometric properties of Ida. To first order these properties are uniform over the surface and well modeled at ?? = 0.55 ??m by Hapke parameters ????0 = 0.22, h = 0.020, B0 = 1.5, g = -0.33, and ?? = 18?? with corresponding geometric albedo p = 0.21??0.030.01 and Bond albedo AB = 0.081??0.0170.008. Ida's photometric properties are more similar to those of "average S-asteroids" (P. Helfenstein and J. Veverka 1989, Asteroids II, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) than are those of 951 Gaspra. Two primary color units are identified on Ida: Terrain A exhibits a spectrum with relatively shallower 1-??m absorption and a relatively steeper red spectral slope than average Ida, while Terrain B has a deeper 1-??m absorption and a less steep red slope. The average photometric properties of Ida and Terrain A are similar while those of Terrain B differ mostly in having a slightly higher value of ????0 (0.22 versus 0.21), suggesting that Terrain B consists of slightly brighter, more transparent regolith particles. Galileo observations of Ida's satellite Dactyl over phase angles 19.5?? to 47.6?? suggest photometric characteristics similar to those of Ida, the major difference being Dactyl's slightly lower albedo (0.20 compared to 0.21). ?? 1990 Academic Press, Inc.

  18. Transformed photometry of young stars in Cha requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Peter Abraham (Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary) requested the assistance of AAVSO observers in monitoring eight young stars in Chamaeleon in support of photometry he and his colleagues will be obtaining with the VLT/ISAAC (infrared) and Herschel Space Observatory (far-infrared) during January-February 2013. The targets are CR Cha, CT Cha, HP Cha (Glass I), VW Cha, VZ Cha, WW CHa, WX Cha, XX Cha. Calibrated, transformed VRI photometry is requested to precisely monitor changes in the optical brightness and colors of these objects. Calibration and transformation of the photometry is crucial - if all of the data are not on the same system and particularly if the colors are not transformed, it will be extremely difficult to correlate the data usefully. Previous observations indicate that the stars are highly variable. Brightness changes can be expected from a few tenths of a magnitude to up to 1-2 magnitudes on a timescale of a few days to a few weeks. Observers are asked to try to obtain one to two sets of VRI images per night. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  19. Aperture Photometry of Saturated Star Images from Digitised Photographic Plates

    E-print Network

    J. L. Innis; D. W. Coates; A. P. Borisova; M. K. Tsvetkov

    2005-02-21

    Saturated stellar images on digitised photographic plates are many times greater in area than the `seeing disk' seen in unsaturated CCD images. Indeed the flux profile of a bright star can be traced out for several degrees from the star's centre. The radius of the saturated stellar image can often be directly related to the magnitude of the star, a fact well known and exploited in iris photometry. In this work we compare the radial flux profile of stars in the approximate range B ~9 to ~13 mag, obtained from scans of plates from the Bamberg Sky Patrol archive, with a profile of the form measured by King. We show that simple aperture photometry of saturated stellar images, obtained from photo-positives of scanned photographic plates, yield data that are in agreement with simulations using a (saturated) synthetic stellar radius profile. Raw plate magnitudes from this aperture photometry can be easily and satisfactorily transformed to standard magnitudes, as demonstrated in a recent study carried out by the current authors.

  20. High speed low noise multiplexed three color absorbance photometry.

    PubMed

    Dadesh, Khaled M; Kurup, G K; Basu, Amar S

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral photometry is often required to distinguish samples in flow injection analysis and flow cytometry; however, the cost of multiple light detectors, filters, and optical paths contribute to the high cost of multicolor and spectral detection systems. This paper describes frequency division multiplexing (FDM), a simple approach for performing multi-wavelength absorbance photometry with a single light detector and a single interrogation window. In previous efforts, modulation frequencies were <10 KHz, resulting in a detector bandwidth of <20 Hz. This paper presents a high frequency FDM circuit which can increase the oscillation frequencies to several 100 KHz, improving the detection bandwidth by a factor of 10 while still maintaining low cost. Light from 3 different LED sources are encoded into unique frequency channels, passed through the detection cell, and later demodulated using phase-sensitive electronics. Electronic multiplexing couples all light sources into a single optical train without spectral filters. Theory and high frequency considerations are demonstrated. Simultaneous three color absorbance detection is demonstrated in solutions and in flowing droplet microreactors. This technique can potentially reduce the cost of multicolor photometry by replacing expensive optical components with low-cost electronics. PMID:22254245

  1. Precision multi-band photometry with a DSLR camera

    E-print Network

    Zhang, M; Penev, K; Csubry, Z; Hartman, J D; Bhatti, W; de Val-Borro, M

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATNet and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDs, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a digital single-lens reflex camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in 3 colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation (MA...

  2. Pushing the precision limit of ground-based eclipse photometry

    E-print Network

    M. Gillon; D. R. Anderson; B. -O. Demory; D. M. Wilson; C. Hellier; D. Queloz; C. Waelkens

    2008-06-30

    Until recently, it was considered by many that ground-based photometry could not reach the high cadence sub-mmag regime because of the presence of the atmosphere. Indeed, high frequency atmospheric noises (mainly scintillation) limit the precision that high SNR photometry can reach within small time bins. If one is ready to damage the sampling of his photometric time-series, binning the data (or using longer exposures) allows to get better errors, but the obtained precision will be finally limited by low frequency noises. To observe several times the same planetary eclipse and to fold the photometry with the orbital period is thus generally considered as the only option to get very well sampled and precise eclipse light curve from the ground. Nevertheless, we show here that reaching the sub-mmag sub-min regime for one eclipse is possible with a ground-based instrument. This has important implications for transiting planets characterization, secondary eclipses measurement and small planets detection from the ground.

  3. M2K Planet Search: Spectroscopic Screening and Transit Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Gaidos, E.; Fischer, D.; Lepine, S.

    2010-10-01

    The M2K project is a search for planets orbiting nearby early M and late K dwarf drawn from the SUPERBLINK catalog. M and K dwarfs are highly attractive targets for finding low-mass and habitable planets because (1) close-in planets are more likely to orbit within their habitable zone, (2) planets orbiting them induce a larger Doppler signal and have deeper transits than similar planets around F, G, and early K type stars, (3) planet formation models predict they hold an abundance of super-Earth sized planets, and (4) they represent the vast majority of the stars close enough for direct imaging techniques. In spite of this, only 10% of late K and early M dwarfs are being monitored by current Doppler surveys. As part of the M2K project we have obtained low-resolution spectra for more than 2000 of our sample of 10,000 M and K dwarfs. We vet our sample by screening these stars for high metallicity and low chromospheric activity. We search for transits on targets showing high RMS Doppler signal and photometry candidates provided by SuperWASP project. By using "snapshot” photometry have been able to achieve sub-millimag photometry on numerous transit targets in the same night. With further follow-up observations we will be able to detect planets smaller than 10 Earth masses.

  4. The Chandra COSMOS Survey: Source Detection and Photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Fiore, F.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Fruscione, A.; Lanzuisi, G.; Chandra COSMOS Team

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a multi-stage source detection process to deal with the heavily overlapped tiling of the C-COSMOS isurvey. The resulting method combines the ability to separate close pairs of sources with accurate positions and photometry, and so may be useful in other applications. In C-COSMOS every position on the sky was observed in typically 4 overlapping pointings, and so with a corresponding PSFs, in the central 0.5 sq.deg and in two overlapping pointings in most of the outer 0.4 sq.deg. area. To full yexploitthe C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the PSF changes so wildly among different observations of the same source (from few arcsec to 10 arcsec); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate accuracy. We made detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools using extensive simulations. Our final method consists of a procedure that takes advantage of the good positional accuracy and ability to separate close groups of sources of PWDETECT, and the accurate photometry and well-defined detection probability of EMLDETECT.

  5. BV photometry of five shell galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Rampazzo, R.

    2004-06-01

    Current views consider shell structures as bona fide signatures of a recent minor/major merging event though also weak interaction models (WIM) could produce long lasting shells on host galaxies possessing a stellar thick disc. We present a B V band photometric study of a sample of 5 shell galaxies belonging to the Malin & Carter (1983) compilation. The structural properties and colors of the galaxies, as well as the colors of their shells are examined in detail. We did not find signatures of the presence of double nuclei. NGC 7585 is the only E galaxy in the sample and has a moderately boxy structure. The other galaxies have either a discy structure or are mixed E/S0 type galaxies. NGC 474 is a true lenticular. NGC 6776 shows a diffuse asymmetric outer structure and a system of tails of the the same color of the galaxy body; but not clear shells. In general, the color of the shells in our sample is similar or slightly redder than that of the host galaxy, whose color, in turn, is typical of the early-type morphological class. One of the outer shells of NGC 474 is significantly bluer than the body of the galaxy. Since NGC 474 appears to be interacting with NGC 470, the color of this one shell could be explained as result of a recent acquisition of material through tidal interaction. The WIM hypothesis could explain both the red and the blue shells of NGC 474, this latter acquired from the fly-by of the nearby companion NGC 470, but the lack of the constancy of shell surface brightness as a ratio of the underlying galaxy brightness argues against WIM. We speculate about evidence, which also comes from different observations, that suggests a merging/accretion origin of the shells. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, CNRS, Saint Michel l'Observatoire, France and ESO, La Silla, Chile

  6. Multicolor CCD photometry of six lenticular and spiral galaxies. Stellar population of the galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. S.

    2006-03-01

    The results of multicolor surface photometry of the S0 galaxies NGC 524, NGC 1138, and NGC 7280 and the spiral galaxies NGC 532, NGC 783, and NGC 1589 are analyzed. UBVRI observations were acquired with the 1.5-m telescope of the Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan), while JHK data were taken from the 2MASS catalog. The brightness and color distributions in the galaxies are analyzed. Extinction in dust lanes in three spiral galaxies is estimated. The contributions of the radiation of the spherical and disk components in different photometric bands are estimated. Two-color diagrams are used to estimate the composition of the stellar populations in various galaxy components. The variations of the color characteristics in the S0 galaxies is due mostly to radial metallicity gradients.

  7. Multicolor CCD photometry of six lenticular and spiral galaxies. Structure of the galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. S.

    2006-03-01

    The results of multicolor surface photometry of the S0 galaxies NGC 524, NGC 1138, and NGC 7280 and the spiral galaxies NGC 532, NGC 783, and NGC 1589 are reported. U BV RI observations were acquired with the 1.5-m telescope of the Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan), while JHK data were taken from the 2MASS catalog. The overall structure of the galaxies is analyzed and the galaxy images decomposed into bulge and disk components. The parameters of the galaxy components—rings, bars, spiral arms, and dust lanes—are determined. The bulge/disk decompositions based on averaged one-dimensional photometric profiles yield incorrect parameters for the bulges of the S0-Sa galaxies with bars and/or rings, whose inner regions are dominated by the radiation of the bulge.

  8. A 3D extinction map of the northern Galactic plane based on IPHAS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, S. E.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Farnhill, H. J.; Raddi, R.; Barlow, M. J.; Eislöffel, J.; Vink, J. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Wright, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a 3D map of extinction in the northern Galactic plane derived using photometry from the INT/WFC Photometric H? Survey of the northern Galactic plane. The map has fine angular ( ˜ 10 arcmin) and distance (100 pc) sampling allied to a significant depth (?5 kpc). We construct the map using a method based on a hierarchical Bayesian model described in a previous article by Sale. In addition to mean extinction, we also measure differential extinction, which arises from the fractal nature of the interstellar medium, and show that it will be the dominant source of uncertainty in estimates of extinction to some arbitrary position. The method applied also furnishes us with photometric estimates of the distance, extinction, effective temperature, surface gravity, and mass for ˜38 million stars. Both the extinction map and the catalogue of stellar parameters are made publicly available via http://www.iphas.org/extinction.

  9. Photometry from Voyager 2 - Initial results from the Uranian atmosphere, satellites, and rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; West, R. A.; Nelson, R. M.; Wallis, B. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Horn, L. J.; Hord, C. W.; Esposito, L. W.; Simmons, K. E.; Graps, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Voyager 2 photopolarimetry (PPS) surveys of Uranus, the ring system, occultation experiments and observations of the Uranian moons are reported. Dual-channel photometry and polarimetry data obtained of the atmosphere at various emission and phase angles are delineated and compared with characteristics of the Saturn and Jupiter atmospheres. The results of temperature, UV absorption and density profile calculations are also discussed. Extensive ring dimensional data, based on two occultation experiments, are provided in tabular form noting that the rings contain no dust. Finally, the geometric albedos of the five major moons and the phase curve of the moon Titania are presented. The latter data indicate that Titanian surface features are not the result of recent events such as volcanism or ice slurry outflows.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies morphology and IR photometry II. (Gavazzi+ 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Randone, I.; Boselli, A.

    1996-05-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 297 galaxies (mostly) in the Coma Supercluster obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera, ARNICA, mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5mag/arcsec2 isophote, concentration indices, and total H magnitudes are derived. Combining these observations with those obtained similarly using the Calar Alto telescopes (Paper I, ) we find a strong positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity, and we analyze the consequent dependence of near-infrared growth-curves on H-band luminosity. For a description of the H band photometric system, see e.g. (2 data files).

  11. The effects of ultraviolet photometry and binary interactions on photometric redshift and galaxy morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Shan, Hongguang; Zhang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Using the HYPERZ code and a template spectral library, which consists of four observed galaxy spectra from Coleman, Wu & Weedman (CWW) and eight spectral families built with evolutionary population synthesis models, we present photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for a spectroscopic sample of 6531 galaxies. Spectroscopic redshifts are also available, and are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Data Release 4 (DR4). There are also morphologies for a morphological sample of 1502 bright galaxies, which are from the catalogue of Fukugita et al., and these are also matched with SDSS DR7 and GALEX DR4. We find that the inclusion of FUV or NUV, or both, decreases the number of catastrophic identifications (|zphot - zspec | > 1.0). If catastrophic identifications are removed, the inclusion of both FUV and NUV photometry mainly increases the number of non-catastrophic identifications in the low-redshift, and fainter r-magnitude regions. The inclusion of binary interactions mainly increases the number of non-catastrophic identifications and decreases the deviations in the region when only using optical photometry. Based on the morphological galaxy sample, we find that the inclusion of ultraviolet (UV) photometry decreases and increases the probability that early types are classified as burst and E types, respectively. This increases the probability that late types are classified as CWW-Sbc and CWW-Scd types. If catastrophic identifications are excluded, the inclusion of UV data mainly increases the identifications of late types in all redshift, bluer g-r and r >~ 14 regions. Moreover, binary interactions mainly affect the determinations of E and S0 types. In comparison, we find that the reliability and completeness for early- and late-type selection by the HYPERZ code are less than those by the concentration index C = 2.6, the profile likelihood Pexp - PdeV = 0 and colour criteria. Moreover, we find that and discriminators can be used as morphology selection indicators. These two criteria have comparable reliability and completeness for selecting early- and late-type galaxies to C = 2.6 criterion and higher completeness for early-type selection than the criterion.

  12. Adhesion of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris in co-culture to machined and anodized titanium surfaces as affected by atmosphere and pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the rising demand for osseointegrated titanium implants for replacing missing teeth, often in patients with a history of periodontitis, implant-related infections have become an issue of growing concern. Novel methods for treating and preventing implant-associated infections are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate if different pH, atmosphere and surface properties could restrict bacterial adhesion to titanium surfaces used in dental implants. Methods Titanium discs with machined or anodized (TiUnite™) surface were incubated with a co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris (early colonizers of oral surfaces) at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at aerobic or anaerobic atmosphere. The adhesion was analysed by counting colony forming (CFU) units on agar and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results The CFU analysis showed that a pH of 5.0 was found to significantly decrease the adhesion of S. mitis, and an aerobic atmosphere, the adhesion of A. oris. S. mitis was found in significantly less amounts on the anodized surface than the machined surface, while A. oris was found in equal amounts on both surfaces. The CLSM analysis confirmed the results from the CFU count and provided additional information on how the two oral commensal species adhered to the surfaces: mainly in dispersed clusters oriented with the groves of the machined surface and the pores of the anodized surface. Conclusions Bacterial adhesion by S. mitis and A. oris can be restricted by acidic pH and aerobic atmosphere. The anodized surface reduced the adhesion of S. mitis compared to the machined surface; while A. oris adhered equally well to the pores of the anodized surface and to the grooves of the machined surface. It is difficult to transfer these results directly into a clinical situation. However, it is worth further investigating these findings from an in vitro perspective, as well as clinically, to gain more knowledge of the effects acid pH and aerobic atmosphere have on initial bacterial adhesion. PMID:23298213

  13. Do H-bond features of silica surfaces affect the H2O and NH3 adsorption? Insights from periodic B3LYP calculations.

    PubMed

    Musso, Federico; Ugliengo, Piero; Sodupe, Mariona

    2011-10-20

    The adsorption of a single H(2)O and NH(3) molecule on different fully hydroxylated ?-quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite surfaces has been studied at the B3LYP level of theory, within a periodic approach using basis sets of polarized triple-? quality and accounting for basis set superposition error (BSSE). Fully hydroxylated crystalline silica exhibits SiOH as terminal groups whose distribution and H-bond features depend on both the considered silica polymorph and the crystallographic plane, which gives rise to isolated, H-bond interacting SiOH pairs or infinitely connected H-bond chains. A key point of the present study is to understand how the H-bond features of a dry crystalline silica surface influence its adsorption properties. Results reveal that the silica-adsorbate (H(2)O and NH(3)) interaction energy anticorrelates with the density of SiOH groups at the surface. This counterintuitive observation arises from the fact that pre-existing H-bonds of the dry surface need to be broken to establish new H-bonds between the surface and the adsorbate, which manifests in a sizable energy cost due to surface deformation. A simple method is also proposed to estimate the strength of the pre-existing H-bonds at the dry surfaces, which is shown to anticorrelate with the adsorbate interaction energy, in agreement with the above trends. PMID:21895017

  14. Comparison of ozone determinations by ultraviolet photometry and gas-phase titration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ozone determinations based on ultraviolet absorption photometry and gas-phase titration (GPT) shows good agreement between the two methods. Together with other results, these findings indicate that three candidate reference methods for ozone, UV photometry, IR photometry, and GPT are in substantial agreement. However, the GPT method is not recommended for routine use by air pollution agencies for calibration of ozone monitors because of susceptibility to experimental error.

  15. A Test of the Use of Hot DA White Dwarfs to Calibrate AB-Magnitude Photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Axelrod; Edward Olszewski; Abi Saha; Chuck Claver

    2007-01-01

    Proposed all-sky surveys wish to have photometry on an energy-based system (AB magnitudes, for instance). Two important projects requiring such photometry are luminosity distances of supernovae and high quality photometric redshifts. In order to achieve sub-1% energy-based photometry, hot DA White Dwarfs (WDs) with spectroscopically determined T_eff and log(g) and model-atmosphere spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) are needed as standards. What is

  16. How to reach sub-1% photometry in an all-sky survey such as LSST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Axelrod; Edward Olszewski; Abi Saha; Jay Holberg

    2008-01-01

    Proposed all-sky surveys wish to have photometry on an energy-based system (AB magnitudes, for instance). Two important projects requiring such photometry are luminosity distances of supernovae and high quality photometric redshifts. In order to achieve sub-1% energy-based photometry, hot DA White Dwarfs (WDs) with spectroscopically determined T_eff and log(g) and model-atmosphere spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) are needed as standards. What is

  17. Near-infrared photometry of carbon stars in the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy and DDO 210

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gullieuszik; M. Rejkuba; M. R. Cioni; H. J. Habing; E. V. Held

    2007-01-01

    Aims:We investigate the intermediate-age asymptotic giant branch stellar population of two Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies to characterize their carbon star population in near-infrared (IR). Methods: Our work is based on near-IR photometry complemented with optical ground based and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry. Near-IR photometry is based on our and archival J and K_s-band images from SOFI near-IR array

  18. Multicolor photometry of the merging galaxy cluster A2319: Dynamics and star formation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, Li [QuFu Education Bureau, QuFu 273100 (China); Zhou, Xu, E-mail: pfyan0822@sina.com, E-mail: yuanqirong@njnu.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622{sub ?70}{sup +91} km s{sup –1}, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ?10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ? 20 mag. A u-band (?3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h {sub BATC} = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have shorter SFR time scales, older stellar ages, and higher interstellar medium metallicities. For the merging cluster A2319, local surface density is a better environmental indicator rather than the cluster-centric distance. Compared with the well-relaxed cluster A2589, a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies is found in A2319, indicating that the galaxy-scale turbulence stimulated by the subcluster merger might have played a role in triggering the star formation activity.

  19. Cool White Dwarfs Revisited -- New Spectroscopy and Photometry

    E-print Network

    Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Brad M. Hansen; L. V. E. Koopmans; Ben R. Oppenheimer; Roger D. Blandford

    2003-10-08

    In this paper we present new and improved data on 38 cool white dwarfs identified by Oppenheimer et al. 2001 (OHDHS) as candidate dark halo objects. Using the high-res spectra obtained with LRIS, we measure radial velocities for 13 WDs that show an H alpha line. We show that the knowledge of RVs decreases the UV-plane velocities by only 6%. The radial velocity sample has a W-velocity dispersion of sig_W = 59 km/s--in between the values associated with the thick disk and the stellar halo. We also see indications for the presence of two populations by analyzing the velocities in the UV plane. In addition, we present CCD photometry for half of the sample, and with it recalibrate the photographic photometry of the remaining WDs. Using the new photometry in standard bands, and by applying the appropriate color-magnitude relations for H and He atmospheres, we obtain new distance estimates. New distances of the WDs that were not originally selected as halo candidates yield 13 new candidates. On average, new distances produce velocities in the UV plane that are larger by 10%, with already fast objects gaining more. Using the new data, while applying the same UV-velocity cut (94 km/s) as in OHDHS, we find a density of cool WDs of 1.7e-4 pc^-3, confirming the value of OHDHS. In addition, we derive the density as a function of the UV-velocity cutoff. The density (corrected for losses due to higher UV cuts) starts to flatten out at 150 km/s (0.4e-4 pc^-3), and is minimized (thus minimizing a possible non-halo contamination) at 190 km/s (0.3e-4 pc^-3). These densities are in a rough agreement with the estimates for the stellar halo WDs, corresponding to a factor of 1.9 and 1.4 higher values.

  20. How Does Multiple Scattering Affect the Spaceborne W-Band Radar Measurements at Ranges Close to and Crossing the Sea-Surface Range?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Battaglia; Clemens Simmer

    2008-01-01

    A radar simulator capable of treating multiple-breakscattering effects has been upgraded to include the interaction with a Kirchoff surface, which realistically reproduces the effect of water surfaces. Multiple-scattering effects explain in a straightforward way some peculiar features of the first images delivered by the 94-GHz cloud-profiling radar onboard the CloudSat, overpassing precipitating systems. The reflectivity profiles without the usual peaks

  1. Surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and compartmentalization of Pb(II) in batch-operated lagoons with Salvinia minima as affected by environmental conditions, EDTA and nutrients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia J. Olguín; Gloria Sánchez-Galván; Teresa Pérez-Pérez; Arith Pérez-Orozco

    2005-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors and nutrients on the various possible removal mechanisms (surface adsorption, intracellular\\u000a accumulation and precipitation to sediments) and partitioning of lead among various compartments (plant biomass, water column\\u000a and sediments) in Salvinia minima batch-operated lagoons, were evaluated. Surface adsorption was found to be the predominant mechanism for Pb(II) removal under\\u000a all environmental conditions tested in the

  2. Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies IV. B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the CVnI cloud

    E-print Network

    T. Bremnes; B. Binggeli; P. Prugniel

    1999-10-10

    We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 15 galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. Total magnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well as galaxy radii at various isophotal levels in both colors were determined. Best-fitting exponential parameters and color gradients are also given for these galaxies. The photometric parameters presented here will analyzed in a forthcoming paper, together with previously published data for nearby dwarf galaxies.

  3. LEMON: an (almost) completely automated differential-photometry pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrón, V.; Fernández, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present LEMON, the CCD differential-photometry pipeline, written in Python, developed at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (CSIC) and originally designed for its use at the 1.23 m CAHA telescope for automated variable stars detection and analysis. The aim of our tool is to make it possible to completely reduce thousands of images of time series in a matter of hours and with minimal user interaction, if not none at all, automatically detecting variable stars and presenting the results to the astronomer.

  4. CCD-photometry of comets at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Beatrice E. A.

    1992-01-01

    CCD imaging and time series photometry are used to determine the state of activity, nuclear properties and eventually the rotational motion of cometary nuclei. Cometary activity at large heliocentric distances and mantle evolution are not yet fully understood. Results of observations carried out at the 2.1 telescope on Kitt Peak April 10-12 and May 15-16, 1991 are discussed. Color values and color-color diagrams are presented for several comets and asteroids. Estimations of nuclear radii and shapes are given.

  5. UBV photometry of ten southern hemisphere active-chromosphere stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John; Quigley, Robert

    1986-01-01

    High-precision UBV photometry of ten southern hemisphere active-chromosphere stars with strong Ca II H and K and/or H-alpha emission has been obtained. Eight of these stars showed variability during June 1985. Complete or partial light curves are presented for the stars, and these data, as well as mean V magnitudes and colors, are compared with the results of other investigators. In a number of cases, significant changes in photometric amplitude are found, which may serve to track the formation and evolution of active regions on these stars.

  6. CCD-Delta a and BVR photometry of NGC 7296

    E-print Network

    M. Netopil; E. Paunzen; H. M. Maitzen; A. Claret; K. Pavlovski; E. Tamajo

    2005-07-25

    The first CCD photometric investigation of the open cluster NGC 7296 up to now was performed within the narrow band Delta a photometric system, which enables us to detect peculiar objects. A deeper investigation of that cluster followed, using the standard BVR-Bessel filter set. The age and E(B-V) was determined independently to log t= 8.0 and 0.15 respectively by using Delta a and broadband photometry. In total five Be/Ae objects and two metal-weak stars showing significant negative Delta a-values as well as one classical chemically peculiar star could be identified within that intermediate age open cluster.

  7. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  8. 15 colour photometry of Landolt SA95 standard star field

    E-print Network

    Xu Zhou; Zhaoji Jiang; Jun Ma; Suijian Xue; Hong Wu; Jiansheng Chen; Jin Zhu; Weihsin Sun; Rogier A. Windhorst

    2002-09-23

    In this paper, we present a set of photometric observations in 15 colors of stars in the Landolt covered by the system range from 300 nm to 1000 nm. Visual magnitudes of the stars being studied in the field are from 10th to 20th mag. The observational methodology and the data reduction procedures are described. The relationships between the BATC intermediate-band system and the Landolt UBVRI broad band system are obtained. A catalogue of the photometry has been produced which contains the SEDs of 3613 stars. The electronic form of this catalogue can be accessed at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr.

  9. Astrometry and Photometry for Two Dwarf Carbon Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh C. Harris; Conard C. Dahn; Richard L. Walker; Christian B. Luginbuhl; Alice K. B. Monet; Harry H. Guetter; Ronald C. Stone; Frederick J. Vrba; David G. Monet; Jeffrey R. Pier

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary trigonometric parallaxes and BVI photometry are presented for two\\u000adwarf carbon stars, LP765-18 (= LHS1075) and LP328-57 (= CLS96). The data are\\u000acombined with the literature values for a third dwarf carbon star, G77-61 (=\\u000aLHS1555). All three stars have very similar luminosities (9.6

  10. A digital imaging photometry system for cometary data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, K. S.; Benson, C. M.; Gary, G. A.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a digital imaging photometry system developed in the Space Science Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight center. The photometric system used for cometary data acquisition is based on an intensified secondary electron conduction (ISEC) vidicon coupled to a versatile data acquisition system which allows real-time interactive operation. Field tests on the Orion and Rosette nebulas indicate a limiting magnitude of approximately mv = 14 over the 40 arcmin field-of-view. Observations were conducted of Comet Giacobini-Zinner in August 1985. The resulting data are discussed in relation to the capabilities of the digital analysis system. The development program concluded on August 31, 1985.

  11. Broadband Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 2013 RH74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Ebelhar, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 2013 RH74 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey on September 15 2013 (MPEC 2013-S15) and has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. We obtained six partial nights of broadband Bessel BVRI photometry at the JPL Table Mountain 0.6-m telescope (TMO), as summarized in Table 1. This object was detected by planetary radar soon after discovery (http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/index.html).

  12. Broadband Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 251346 (2007 SJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Ebelhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 251346 (2007 SJ) was discovered by the LINEAR Sky Survey on September 17, 2007 (MPEC 2007-S17). With a Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) of 0.045 AU and an expected diameter between 1.3~2.8 km, this object has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. We obtained two partial nights of broadband Bessel BVRI photometry (October 10 and December 11, 2013) and one night (December 13, 2013) at the JPL Table Mountain 0.6-m telescope (TMO), as summarized in Table 1.

  13. Analysis of RGU Photometry in Selected Area 51

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bilir; S. Karaali; R. Buser

    2004-01-01

    A low-latitude anticenter field (l=189 °, b=+21 °) is investigated by using the full calibration tools of RGU photometry. The observed RGU data are reduced to the standard system and the separation of dwarfs and evolved stars is carried out by an empirical method. Stars are categorized into three metallicity classes, i.e. -0.25<[M\\/H]<=+0.50, $-1.00<[M\\/H]<=-0.25, and [M\\/H]<=-1.00 dex, and their absolute

  14. a necessary consequence of Titan's widely varying seasonal insola-tion, will affect the magnitude of the surface sensible heat flux

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    a necessary consequence of Titan's widely varying seasonal insola- tion, will affect the magnitude lapse rate is close to the boundary between stability and instability, as has been measured on Titan13 will not occur. At the time of our observations, Titan was approaching southern summer solstice, and, owing

  15. Optimal addition of images for detection and photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Philippe; Kochanski, Greg P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe weighting techniques used for the optimal coaddition of charge coupled devices (CCD) frames with differing characteristics. Optimal means maximum signal to noise (S/N) for stellar objects. We derive formulas for four applications: (1) object detection via matched filter, (2) object detection identical to DAOFIND, (3) aperture photometry, and (4) ALLSTAR profile-fitting photometry. We have included examples involving 21 frames for which either the sky brightness or image resolution varied by a factor of 3. The gains in S/N were modest for most of the examples, except for DAOFIND detection with varying image resolution which exhibited a substantial S/N increase. Even though the only consideration was maximizing S/N, the image resolution was seen to improve for most of the variable resolution examples. Also discussed are empirical fits for the weighting and the availability of the program, WEIGHT, used to generate the weighting for the individual frames. Finally, we include appendices describing the effects of clipping algorithms and a scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination. scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination.

  16. Optimal addition of images for detection and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Philippe; Kochanski, Greg P.

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we describe weighting techniques used for the optimal coaddition of charge coupled devices (CCD) frames with differing characteristics. Optimal means maximum signal to noise (S/N) for stellar objects. We derive formulas for four applications: (1) object detection via matched filter, (2) object detection identical to DAOFIND, (3) aperture photometry, and (4) ALLSTAR profile-fitting photometry. We have included examples involving 21 frames for which either the sky brightness or image resolution varied by a factor of 3. The gains in S/N were modest for most of the examples, except for DAOFIND detection with varying image resolution which exhibited a substantial S/N increase. Even though the only consideration was maximizing S/N, the image resolution was seen to improve for most of the variable resolution examples. Also discussed are empirical fits for the weighting and the availability of the program, WEIGHT, used to generate the weighting for the individual frames. Finally, we include appendices describing the effects of clipping algorithms and a scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination. scheme for star/galaxy and cosmic-ray/star discrimination.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy and photometry of Comet Austin 1990 V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Brooke, T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    3-micron and 10-micron spectra and IR photometry of the dynamically new Comet Austin 1990 V were obtained for March-May 1990. An unusual 9-11 micron emission feature 15-20 percent above the continuum is evident at 0.78 AU postperihelion. The shape, in particular a peak at 11.06 micron, differs from that seen in Halley and several other comets, suggesting a difference in the mineralogy of the silicate grains. The 3.1-7.7 micron spectrum at 0.35 AU shows no obvious feature; feature/continuum contrast of the 3.36 micron emission feature is less than about 5 percent. Based on the IR photometry and a dust model weighted toward small grains, the dust production rate on 6 May at 0.78 AU was about 3 x 10 exp 5 g/s. The corresponding dust/gas mass ratio was about 0.1, classifying Austin as a dust-poor comet. This designation refers only to the relative dust cross section, not to the total mass.

  18. Photometry of Variable Stars from Dome A, Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lingzhi; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C B; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W V; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2011-01-01

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth thanks to the excellent atmospheric conditions present at the site during the long polar winter night. We present high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 10,000 stars with i<14.5 mag located in a 23 square-degree region centered on the south celestial pole. The photometry was obtained with one of the CSTAR telescopes during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter. We used this photometric data set to derive site statistics for Dome A and to search for variable stars. Thanks to the nearly-uninterrupted synoptic coverage, we find 6 times as many variables as previous surveys with similar magnitude limits. We detected 157 variable stars, of which 55% are unclassified, 27% are likely binaries and 17% are likely pulsating stars. The latter category includes delta Scuti, gamma Doradus and RR Lyrae variables. One variable may be a transiting exoplanet.

  19. Manual matching of perceived surface orientation is affected by arm posture–Evidence of calibration between proprioception and visual experience in near space

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    Proprioception of hand orientation (orientation production using the hand) is compared with manual matching of visual orientation (visual surface matching using the hand) in two experiments. In Experiment 1, using self-selected arm postures, the proportions of wrist and elbow flexion spontaneously used to orient the pitch of the hand (20% and 80% respectively) are relatively similar across both manual matching tasks and manual orientation production tasks for most participants. Proprioceptive error closely matched perceptual biases previously reported for visual orientation perception, suggesting calibration of proprioception to visual biases. A minority of participants, who attempted to use primarily wrist flexion while holding the forearm horizontal, performed poorly at the manual matching task, consistent with proprioceptive error caused by biomechanical constraints of their self-selected posture. In Experiment 2, postural choices were constrained to primarily wrist or elbow flexion without imposing biomechanical constraints (using a raised forearm). Identical relative offsets were found between the two constraint groups in manual matching and manual orientation production. The results support two claims: (1) manual orientation matching to visual surfaces is based on manual proprioception and (2) calibration between visual and proprioceptive experiences guarantees relatively accurate manual matching for surfaces within reach despite systematic visual biases in perceived surface orientation. PMID:22086494

  20. The important role of surface ligand on CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals in affecting the efficiency of H? photogeneration from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Jie; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-03-19

    The use of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), especially those with a core/shell structure, for photocatalytic hydrogen (H?) production from water is currently one of the hottest research fields. Although the ligand on the semiconductor NC surface is crucial to the optical and optoelectronic properties of the NC, the study of the ligand effect on the photocatalytic activity of H? generation is rarely reported. Herein, we employ nearly monodispersed CdSe/CdS core/shell NCs as a model photocatalytic system, and three kinds of ligands with different numbers of functional thiol groups (i.e., poly(acrylic acid), 3-mercaptopropionic acid and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) are selected as the ligands to investigate the effect of ligand on the efficiency of H? photogeneration. The results show that the H? photogeneration efficiency is highly dependent on the surface ligand of the NCs, and it increases with the increase of the number of the functional thiol groups in the ligand, and correspondingly, the photoluminescence intensity and average fluorescence lifetime, which are measured by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, are decreased. The surface trap-related charge separation efficiency, which is mediated by surface coating with different ligands, is supposed to cause the distinct ligand-dependent performance in the H? evolution. PMID:25757912

  1. Large-Catalogue Optimisation of Quasar Differential Photometry Fields by Grid Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Creaner; E. Hickey; K. Nolan; Ta. Briain; N. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based studies of quasar variability on timescales of minutes have the potential to examine the smallest-scale structures. Since rapid variability in quasars results in millimagnitude variations it is imperative that the photometry be very precise. The standard approach is to use differential photometry, where the magnitude of the quasar is compared to that of selected reference stars in the instruments

  2. Image-Subtraction Photometry of Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster NGC 6934

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kaluzny; A. Olech; K. Z. Stanek

    2001-01-01

    We present CCD BVI photometry of 85 variable stars from the field of the globular cluster NGC 6934. The photometry was obtained with the image subtraction package ISIS. 35 variables are new identifications: 24 RRab stars, five RRc stars, two eclipsing binaries of W UMa-type, one SX Phe star, and three variables of other types. Both detected contact binaries are

  3. Retrievals of precipitable water vapor using star photometry: Assessment with Raman lidar and link to sun photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Lyamani, H.; Fernández-Gálvez, J.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    This work deals with the applicability of a star photometer to retrieve precipitable water vapor (W) at nighttime by means of direct irradiance from stars using a 940 nm narrowband filter. Retrievals are assessed with simultaneous data from a Raman lidar system and linked with daytime values from a sun photometer using measurements taken from March to May 2007 at an urban site. Calibration of both the star and sun photometers was performed by the Modified Astronomical Langley Method. The retrieval of W from photometers is based on a look up table using a simplified expression for the water vapor transmittance and the relative optical water vapor air mass. This methodology presents a systematic uncertainty in W below 3% and 6% for sun and star photometry, respectively. Retrievals of W from star photometry were 9% above those obtained from the Raman lidar technique, but with a great agreement in the temporal evolution from both instruments. The link of daytime and nighttime values of W using sun and star photometers for a more extended database showed a smooth continuity between consecutive periods.

  4. Deletion of the Hoc and Soc capsid proteins affects the surface and cellular uptake properties of bacteriophage T4 derived nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kelly; Furukawa, Yoko; Underwood, Alison; Black, Lindsay; Liu, Jinny L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the use of engineered viral scaffolds in biotechnology and medical applications has been increasing dramatically. T4 phage capsid derived nanoparticles (NPs) have potential advantages as sensors and in biotechnology. These applications require that the physical properties and cellular uptake of these NPs be understood. In this study we used a T4 deletion mutant to investigate the effects of removing both the Hoc and Soc proteins from the capsid surface on T4 tailless NPs. The surface charge, zeta potential, size, and cellular uptake efficiencies for both the T4 NP and T4?Hoc?Soc NP mutant were measured and compared using dynamic light scattering and flow cytometry and significant differences were detected. PMID:22285187

  5. Destabilization of olivine by 30keV electron irradiation: a possible mechanism of space weathering affecting interplanetary dust particles and planetary surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lemelle; L. Beaunier; S. Borensztajn; M. Fialin; F. Guyot

    2003-01-01

    Electron irradiation experiments were performed using a 30-keV electron beam on single crystals of olivine in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in an electron microprobe (EMP). We determined that, under certain conditions, structural damage is caused to the irradiated surface of iron-bearing olivines. The irradiated areas comprise spherules with sizes of hundreds of nanometers and micrometer-sized holes. In the

  6. A long-term survey of heavy metals and specific organic compounds in biofilms, sediments, and surface water in a heavily affected river in the Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate?ina Kohušová; Ladislav Havel; Petr Vlasák; Jaroslav Tonika

    2011-01-01

    To assess the long-term anthropogenic load of the Bílina River (Czech Republic), the concentrations of heavy metals and specific\\u000a organic compounds in different river ecosystem matrices (water, biofilms, and sediments) were determined. Although the current\\u000a concentrations of pollutants in surface water are low, frequently below the limits of the quantitative analytical methods\\u000a used, the river ecosystem is still heavily loaded

  7. Response Surface Plots for the Behavioral Pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica in Chocolate Milk as Affected by Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, a Spice Essential Oil Constituent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kattathara H. Divya; Mandyam Chakravarathy Varadaraj

    Response surface plots were generated to determine the behavior of a native food isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica CFR 2301 in chocolate milk with added trans-cinnamaldehyde, an active spice essential oil constituent. The minimum inhibitory\\u000a and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) for Y. enterocolitica in broth systems were 0.1 and 0.3?µl\\/ml, respectively, while in chocolate milk, the MBC was 0.9?µl\\/ml. In

  8. Spinocerebellar ataxia-13 Kv3.3 potassium channels: arginine-to-histidine mutations affect both functional and protein expression on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Thornhill, William B

    2013-09-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.3 is the causative gene of SCA13 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 13), an autosomal dominant neurological disorder. The four dominant mutations identified to date cause Kv3.3 channels to be non-functional or have altered gating properties in Xenopus oocytes. In the present paper, we report that SCA13 mutations affect functional as well as protein expression of Kv3.3 channels in a mammalian cell line. The reduced protein level of SCA13 mutants is caused by a shorter protein half-life, and blocking the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway increases the total protein of SCA13 mutants more than wild-type. SCA13 mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and the side chains of these residues play a critical role in the stable expression of Kv3.3 proteins. In addition, we show that mutant Kv3.3 protein levels could be partially rescued by treatment with the chemical chaperone TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) and to a lesser extent with co-expression of Kv3.1b. Thus our results suggest that amino acid side chains of SCA13 positions affect the protein half-life and/or function of Kv3.3, and the adverse effect on protein expression cannot be fully rescued. PMID:23734863

  9. Time series photometry of faint cataclysmic variables with a CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Timothy Mark Cameron

    1992-08-01

    I describe a new hardware and software environment for the practice of time-series stellar photometry with the CCD systems available at McDonald Observatory. This instrument runs suitable CCD's in frame transfer mode and permits windowing on the CCD image to maximize the duty cycle of the photometer. Light curves may be extracted and analyzed in real time at the telescope and image data are stored for later, more thorough analysis. I describe a star tracking algorithm, which is optimized for a timeseries of images of the same stellar field. I explore the extraction of stellar brightness measures from these images using circular software apertures and develop a complete description of the noise properties of this technique. I show that scintillation and pixelization noise have a significant effect on high quality observations. I demonstrate that optimal sampling and profile fitting techniques are unnecessarily complex or detrimental methods of obtaining stellar brightness measures under conditions commonly encountered in timeseries CCD photometry. I compare CCD's and photomultiplier tubes as detectors for timeseries photometry using light curves of a variety of stars obtained simultaneously with both detectors and under equivalent conditions. A CCD can produce useful data under conditions when a photomultiplier tube cannot, and a CCD will often produce more reliable results even under photometric conditions. I prevent studies of the cataclysmic variables (CV's) AL Com, CP Eri, V Per, and DO Leo made using the time series CCD photometer. AL Com is a very faint CV at high Galactic latitude and a bona fide Population II CV. Some of the properties of AL Com are similar to the dwarf nova WZ Sge and others are similar to the intermediate polar EX Hya, but overall AL Com is unlike any other well-studied cataclysmic variable. CP Eri is shown to be the fifth known interacting binary white dwarf. V Per was the first CV found to have an orbital period near the middle of the gap in the orbital period distribution of CV's. DO Leo is an eclipsing CV which can reasonably be included in a sample of Population II CV candidates.

  10. Rotationally Resolved Photometry of the V-type Near-Earth Asteroid 4055 Magellan (1985 DO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Karen; Truong, T.; Hicks, M. D.; Barajas, T.; Foster, J.

    2011-05-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 4055 Magellan was discovered by Glo Helin at Palomar Mountain (IAUC 4638) and was one of the first known minor planets with surface reflectance properties comparable to that of 4 Vesta (Tholen, 1988). Broad-band photometry and near-IR spectroscopy revealed strong 0.9 and 1.9 micron proxene bands, suggesting a compositional similarity of 4055 Magellan with that of 4 Vesta and the basaltic achondrite meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 1991). In anticipation of the Dawn mission to 4 Vesta we obtained 5 partial nights, 2010 August 9/10/12/13/14, of Bessel R photometry of 4055 Magellan at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain 0.6-m telescope (TMO). We measured a synodic period of 7.488+/-0.001 hr, similar to the 7.475+-0.001 hr period obtained by Pravec et al. (http://www.asu.cas.cz/ ppravec/newres.txt). Our object exhibited a large lightcurve amplitude (delta_M 0.8 mag) implying a highly elongated shape. We used our TMO photometry and the absolute magnitude as tabulated by the Minor Planet Center to construct a rudimentary solar phase curve. We derived a phase parameter g=0.30, similar to the phase behavior as measured by Pravec and colleagues (http://www.asu.cas.cz/ ppravec/neo.html). Our high g implies a shallow solar phase slope, consistent with the object's high albeldo (rho=0.31) obtained from thermal measurements (Delbo et al. 2003). The photometric properties of the V-type 4055 Magellan , such as shallow phase slope and high albedo, are consistent with 4 Vesta, giving us confidence in using NEA vestoids as photometric analogs for 4 Vesta.

  11. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (H?), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  12. Destabilization of olivine by 30-keV electron irradiation: a possible mechanism of space weathering affecting interplanetary dust particles and planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelle, L.; Beaunier, L.; Borensztajn, S.; Fialin, M.; Guyot, F.

    2003-05-01

    Electron irradiation experiments were performed using a 30-keV electron beam on single crystals of olivine in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in an electron microprobe (EMP). We determined that, under certain conditions, structural damage is caused to the irradiated surface of iron-bearing olivines. The irradiated areas comprise spherules with sizes of hundreds of nanometers and micrometer-sized holes. In the immediate vicinities of the irradiated areas, droplets with sizes of tens of nanometers and branching tracks are observed. With increasing total charge, the hundreds of nanometer-sized spherules become larger and more irregular in shape. The size and shape of the nanometer-sized droplets remain almost constant, but their surface density increases (in m -2). Chemical fractionations compared to the initial olivine were found: the irradiated areas are slightly enriched in MgO, whereas the deposits are enriched in SiO 2. Destabilization of olivine is not due to the dissipation of the implanted energy as heat, but results most probably from electrostatic discharges leading to the breakdown of the dielectric lattice. The possibility that such processes could be responsible for significant space weathering of interplanetary dust particles and regoliths of planetary surfaces should be taken into account. In the interplanetary medium, 10-keV range electrons are carried by the solar wind, whereas at 1 AU from the Sun, the lifetime of cometary dust and the exposure time of lunar regolith are, at least, 10 to 100 times greater than the duration required to accumulate the damaging electronic doses applied in this study. Moreover, the comparison of the microstructures of samples irradiated in the present study with features of lunar regolith grains reveals several chemical and structural similarities.

  13. L-Band Photometry of L and T Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    D. C. Stephens; M. S. Marley; K. S. Noll; N. Chanover

    2001-06-25

    We present K- and L-band photometry obtained with the Keck I telescope for a representative sample of L and T dwarfs. These observations were motivated in part by the dominant role water and methane play in shaping the flux near 2 and 3 microns and by the potential use of these bands as indicators of spectral class in the infrared. In addition, these observations aid the determination of the bolometric luminosity of L and T dwarfs. Here we report the K, L' and Ls magnitudes of our objects and the trends observed in the (K-L') and (K-Ls) colors as a function of L- and T-dwarf spectral class. We compare these colors with theoretical models, derive a relationship between effective temperature and L-spectral class, and compare our temperature estimates with others.

  14. Flaring on RS CVn systems: Results from EUVE Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, R. A.; Brown, A.; Ayres, T. R.

    We present broadband EUV photometry for a sample of RS CVn systems observed with the Deep Survey Spectrometer and Right Angle Program (RAP) Scanners on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). We have developed robust data analysis and light curve software for the interpretation of these data. Large-scale flaring activity is seen on 15 of the 18 systems studied. These binaries cover a range in orbital period of 0.7 days to 21 days and include a mixture of giant, subgiant, and dwarf luminosity classes. For many systems the photometric coverage extends over several orbital periods and flaring is unambiguously characterized. We present statistics on the distribution of variability in the survey. Correlations of flaring with binary properties are examined.

  15. Unveiling an exoplanetary Neptunian atmosphere through multiband transit photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbeni, V.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.

    2013-09-01

    The "effective" radius of a planet is a function of wavelength due to scattering and/or absorption processes, and we can exploit simultaneous multiband transit photometry to probe the atmospheric scale height and composition. We present new photometric data of the recently discovered "hot Uranus" GJ3470b [1, 2], gathered with the LBC camera at LBT. Light curves of unprecedented accuracy (0.0012 mag in U and 0.00028 mag in a narrow band centered at 972 nm; Fig. 1 and 2) allowed us to measure an increasingly larger planetary radius at shorter wavelengths, which we interpret as a signature of Rayleigh scattering by a large scale height atmosphere. Further follow-up observations to confirm this result and probe the presence of specific atomic and molecular species is ongoing.

  16. Unveiling an exoplanetary Neptunian atmosphere through multiband transit photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbeni, V.; Piotto, G.; Pagano, I.; Scandariato, G.

    2014-01-01

    The ``effective'' radius of a planet is a function of wavelength due to scattering and/or absorption processes, and we can exploit simultaneous multiband transit photometry to probe the atmospheric scale height and composition. We present new photometric data of the recently discovered ``hot Uranus'' GJ3470b, gathered with the LBC camera at LBT. Light curves of unprecedented accuracy (0.0012 mag in U and 0.00028 mag in a narrow band centered at 972 nm) allowed us to measure an increasingly larger planetary radius at shorter wavelengths, which we interpret as a signature of Rayleigh scattering by a large scale height atmosphere. Further follow-up observations to confirm this result and probe the presence of specific atomic and molecular species is ongoing.

  17. JHK photometry of candidate stars for occultation by Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Mink, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Hubbard et al. (1985) have observed the occultation of a star by a ring-like arc of Neptune. The semitransparent, incomplete ring was located at a distance of about 67,000 km from Neptune. In connnection with the program for the Voyager 2 deep space probe to fly past Neptune in 1989 at this distance from the planet, it is urgent to determine the nature of this ring arc or arcs. The best approach to obtain the required information is related to an observation of occultations of stars by Neptune. In this context, a study has been conducted of six stars which will be occulted by Neptune during 1986 and 1987, taking into account their JHK photometry. The obtained data are presented in a table.

  18. USING PHOTOMETRY TO PROBE THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF {delta} SCORPII

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C. E.; Wiegert, P. A.; Cyr, R. P.; Halonen, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tycner, C. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Henry, G. W.; Muterspaugh, M. W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box No 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We acquired Johnson BV photometry of the binary Be disk system {delta} Scorpii during its 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 observing seasons and used it to probe the innermost regions of the disk. We found that several disk building events have occurred during this time, resulting in an overall brightening in the V band and reddening of the system. In addition to these long-term trends, we found cyclical variability in each observing season on timescales between 60 and 100 days. We were able to reproduce the changes in the magnitude and color of {delta} Sco using our theoretical models and found that variable mass-loss rates in the range 2.5-7.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} over {approx}35 days can reproduce the observed increase in brightness.

  19. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    E-print Network

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  20. Recovering The Photometry Of Brighter Than Saturated Objects In SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahab, William

    2007-05-01

    We present the results of a technique that recovers the integrity of the SDSS photometry from bright (m < 15) and/or saturated objects in the SDSS. Bright objects saturate the CCD used by the SDSS, with overabundant electrons spilling over to nearby pixels, resulting in bleed trails. The photometric pipeline should, and indeed does, effectively process these bleed trails yielding usable data. This technique filters objects based on their specific flags, and recovers the stellar locus in color-color space. Objects as bright as g = 13 were extremely well recovered, as well as much of the data down to g = 11. We used these data to search for blue, saturated objects, hoping to find bright quasars. No new quasars were discovered, but several previously known objects, including 3C 273, were. We did discover a new cataclysmic variable, demonstrating the viability of this technique in the search for new, bright objects.

  1. Intrinsic Color Indices of Stars Obtained from 2MASS Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, W.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on JHKs magnitudes of 8 842 different spectral types stars obtained from 2MASS photometry. The mean intrinsic colors have been derived with the aid of two-color diagrams for stars of luminosity classes I-II, III and IV-V. The present results are based on samples of every Sp/L, reasonably larger than any other previously used for determining infrared colors. The smoothed infrared colors are compared with those obtained by other authors. Examples of several two-color diagrams and plots of the observed and smoothed intrinsic colors vs. spectral types of luminosity classes I-II, III and IV-V are presented. Generally the newly determined infrared intrinsic colors (V-J)0, (V-H)0 and (V-Ks)0 differ significantly from those available in literature.

  2. Infrared photometry of comet Wilson (1986l) at two epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Newburn, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    1-20 micron filter photometry of comet Wilson (1986l) was obtained on May 29 - June 2, 1987 (r = 1.36 AU) and January 11 -14, 1988 (r = 3.75 AU) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. The thermal emission at 1.36 AU has been fit with a model for a size distribution of small absorbing grains; the size and the optical properties of the dust (color, albedo, and thermal emission spectrum) appear typical of short period comets at similar r. No 10 micron silicate feature was evident. The dust-production rate on June 1 was about 5 x 10 to the 5th g/s. The geometric albedo of comet Wilson at r = 3.75 AU appears to be higher than that of comets measured at smaller r, after phase effects have been accounted for. Such albedos seem typical of comets at larger heliocentric distances.

  3. Intermediate-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Xiaofeng Wang; Xu Zhou; Tianmeng Zhang; Zongwei Li

    2004-09-15

    We present optical light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (2002er, 2002fk, 2003cg, 2003du, 2003fk). The photometric observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters. SNe 2002er, 2003du appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar light curve shapes, while SN 2003kf shows the behavior of a brighter SN Ia with slower decline rate after maximum. The light curves of SN 2003cg is unusual; they show a fast rise and dramatic decline near maximum and do not display secondary peak at longer wavelengths during 15-30 days after maximum light. This suggests that SN 2003cg is likely to be an intrinsically subluminous, 91bg-like SN Ia. Exploration of SN Ia feature lines through intermediate-band photometry is briefly discussed.

  4. The symbiosis of photometry and radial-velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    1994-01-01

    The FRESIP mission is optimized to detect the inner planets of a planetary system. According to the current paradigm of planet formation, these planets will probably be small Earth-sized objects. Ground-based radial-velocity programs now have the sensitivity to detect Jovian-mass planets in orbit around bright solar-type stars. We expect the more massive planets to form in the outer regions of a proto-stellar nebula. These two types of measurements will very nicely complement each other, as they have highest detection probability for very different types of planets. The combination of FRESIP photometry and ground-based spectra will provide independent confirmation of the existence of planetary systems in orbit around other stars. Such detection of both terrestrial and Jovian planets in orbit around the same star is essential to test our understanding of planet formation.

  5. Glory revealed in disk-integrated photometry of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Reflected light from a spatially unresolved planet yields unique insight into the overall optical properties of the planet cover. Glories are optical phenomena caused by light that is backscattered within spherical droplets following a narrow distribution of sizes; they are well known on Earth as localised features above liquid clouds. Aims: Here we report the first evidence for a glory in the disk-integrated photometry of Venus and, in turn, of any planet. Methods: We used previously published phase curves of the planet that were reproduced over the full range of phase angles with model predictions based on a realistic description of the Venus atmosphere. We assumed that the optical properties of the planet as a whole can be described by a uniform and stable cloud cover, an assumption that agrees well with observational evidence. Results: We specifically show that the measured phase curves mimic the scattering properties of the Venus upper-cloud micron-sized aerosols, also at the small phase angles at which the glory occurs, and that the glory contrast is consistent with what is expected after multiple scattering of photons. In the optical, the planet appears to be brighter at phase angles of ~11-13° than at full illumination; it undergoes a maximum dimming of up to ~10% at phases in between. Conclusions: Glories might potentially indicate spherical droplets and, thus, extant liquid clouds in the atmospheres of exoplanets. A prospective detection will require exquisite photometry at the small planet-star separations of the glory phase angles. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Visual and Near-Infrared Photometry of Nearby Dwarf Spheroidals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, F.; Nowotny, W.; Horn, J.; Schultheis, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is based on photometry from two different observational approaches. Both are of an explorative character and act as feasibility studies. First, results on broad-band photometry in Bessel V and I as well as narrow-band measurements in the Wing 778 nm and 812 nm filters of nearby dwarf spheroidals and galactic globular clusters using the new Austrian OEFOSC (OEsterreich Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera), a copy of the ESO Instrument EFOSC mounted on our 1.5-m telescope are presented. Whereas V and I are used as temperature indicators, Wing 778 nm and 812 nm measure TiO or CN band strengths in the case of O-rich or C-rich AGB stars, respectively. By such means these objects can be identified quite easily. By now we only have a few observations of some selected objects but for the future we plan long-term monitoring and follow up low-resolution spectroscopy of selected AGB stars. The second part of the contribution deals with the possibilities of using Gunn-I, J and KS measurements originating from the DENIS (DEep Near Infrared Survey of the southern sky) project on similar objects. A few southern dwarf spheroidals already observed within DENIS (covering now some 35% of the southern hemisphere) are selected. It turns out that with DENIS limiting magnitudes of about 18.5, 16.5, and 14.0 in I, J, and K, respectively, AGB stars situated in the most nearby galaxies like Sculptor, Sextans and Carina, with distance moduli between 19 and 20 are just within the limits of this survey. At such small distances, confusion because of the low resolution of DENIS plays a minor role, too.

  7. Uptake and bio-reactivity of polystyrene nanoparticles is affected by surface modifications, ageing and LPS adsorption: in vitro studies on neural tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Murali, Kumarasamy; Kenesei, Kata; Li, Yang; Demeter, Kornél; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Madarász, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the role of the chemical composition of particle surfaces in the in vitro interaction with different neural cell types. PS NPs within a size-range of 45-70 nm influenced the metabolic activity of cells depending on the cell-type, but caused toxicity only at extremely high particle concentrations. Neurons did not internalize particles, while microglial cells ingested a large amount of carboxylated but almost no PEGylated NPs. PEGylation reduced the protein adsorption, toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs. After storage (shelf-life >6 months), the toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs increased. The altered biological activity of "aged" NPs was due to particle aggregation and due to the adsorption of bioactive compounds on NP surfaces. Aggregation by increasing the size and sedimentation velocity of NPs results in increased cell-targeted NP doses. The ready endotoxin adsorption which cannot be prevented by PEG coating, can render the particles toxic. The age-dependent changes in otherwise harmless NPs could be the important sources for variability in the effects of NPs, and could explain the contradictory data obtained with "identical" NPs. PMID:25673096

  8. Factors affecting the fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA into surface waters of agricultural watersheds in the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used extensively in almost all agricultural and urban areas of the United States and Europe. Although, glyphosate is used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, it is predominately used in the United States on soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton that have been genetically modified to be tolerant to glyphosate. From 1992 to 2007, the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10,000 Mg to more than 80,000 Mg, respectively. The greatest areal use is in the midwestern United States where glyphosate is applied on transgenic corn and soybeans. Because of the difficulty and expense in analyzing for glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, a primary glyphosate degradate) in water, there have been only small scale studies on the fate and transport of glyphosate. The characterization of the transport of glyphosate and AMPA on a watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of 4 agricultural watersheds in studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States and at the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg. Two of these basins were located in the midwestern United States where the major crops are corn and soybean, the third is located the lower Mississippi River Basin where the major crops are soybean, corn, rice, and cotton, and the fourth was located near Strasbourg, France where the use of glyphosate was on a vineyard. The load as a percent of use ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and could be related to 3 factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however, those watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  9. Surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and compartmentalization of Pb(II) in batch-operated lagoons with Salvinia minima as affected by environmental conditions, EDTA and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria; Pérez-Pérez, Teresa; Pérez-Orozco, Arith

    2005-12-01

    The effects of environmental factors and nutrients on the various possible removal mechanisms (surface adsorption, intracellular accumulation and precipitation to sediments) and partitioning of lead among various compartments (plant biomass, water column and sediments) in Salvinia minima batch-operated lagoons, were evaluated. Surface adsorption was found to be the predominant mechanism for Pb(II) removal under all environmental conditions tested in the absence of nutrients (an average of 54.3%) and in a nutrient medium (modified Hutner 1/10 medium) free of EDTA and phosphates (54.41%) at "high" initial Pb(II) concentrations (in the range of 10.3+/-0.13 to 15.2+/-0.05 mg/L). Under these conditions, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were 2,431+/-276 and 2,065+/-35, respectively. Lead removal was very rapid during the first 4 h and reached 70% in the absence of nutrients at the "medium" light intensity and temperature (LIT) tested, 88% in nutrient medium free of EDTA and supplemented with synthetic wastewater (at the "lowest" LIT tested), and 85% in medium free of EDTA and phosphates. It was concluded that the mechanisms of lead removal by S. minima, and the compartmentalization of this metal in the microcosm of batch-operated lagoons, are primarily a function of the presence of certain nutrients and chelants, with secondary dependence on environmental conditions. In addition, the results indicate that the percentage of lead removed is only a gross parameter and that the complementary use of BCF and compartmentalization analysis is required to gain a full insight into the metal removal process. PMID:15959726

  10. Allotopic mRNA localization to the mitochondrial surface rescues respiratory chain defects in fibroblasts harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I or v subunits.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Crystel; Kaltimbacher, Valérie; Ellouze, Sami; Augustin, Sébastien; Bénit, Paule; Forster, Valérie; Rustin, Pierre; Sahel, José-Alain; Corral-Debrinski, Marisol

    2007-06-01

    The possibility of synthesizing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-coded proteins in the cytosolic compartment, called allotopic expression, provides an attractive option for genetic treatment of human diseases caused by mutations of the corresponding genes. However, it is now appreciated that the high hydrophobicity of proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome represents a strong limitation on their mitochondrial import when translated in the cytosol. Recently, we optimized the allotopic expression of a recoded ATP6 gene in human cells, by forcing its mRNA to localize to the mitochondrial surface. In this study, we show that this approach leads to a long-lasting and complete rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction of fibroblasts harboring the neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia and retinitis Pigmentosa T8993G ATP6 mutation or the Leber hereditary optic neuropathy G11778A ND4 mutation. The recoded ATP6 gene was associated with the cis-acting elements of SOD2, while the ND4 gene was associated with the cis-acting elements of COX10. Both ATP6 and ND4 gene products were efficiently translocated into the mitochondria and functional within their respective respiratory chain complexes. Indeed, the abilities to grow in galactose and to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in vitro were both completely restored in fibroblasts allotopically expressing either ATP6 or ND4. Notably, in fibroblasts harboring the ATP6 mutation, allotopic expression of ATP6 led to the recovery of complex V enzymatic activity. Therefore, mRNA sorting to the mitochondrial surface represents a powerful strategy that could ultimately be applied in human therapy and become available for an array of devastating disorders caused by mtDNA mutations. PMID:17518546

  11. STELLAR POPULATION PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTION ANALYSIS OF NGC 628 WITH PANCHROMATIC PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Zou Hu; Zhang Wei; Yang Yanbin; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Ma Jun; Wu Zhenyu; Wu Jianghua; Zhang Tianmeng; Fan Zhou, E-mail: zhouxu@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Panchromatic spectral energy distribution from the ultraviolet, optical to infrared photometry of NGC 628, combined with evolutionary stellar population synthesis, is used to derive the spatially resolved age, metallicity, and reddening maps. These parameter distributions show that the bulge of this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, which has a Sersic index close to the exponential law, rich gas, and a young circumnuclear ring structure. We also discover that the disk has two distinct regions with different radial age and metallicity gradients. The inner region is older and has a much steeper age gradient than the outer region of the disk. Both these two regions and the central young structure can be seen in the radial profile of the optical color. Based on the age and reddening distributions, we conclude that the pseudobulge and disk are likely to have grown via secular evolution, which is the redistribution of mass and energy through the angular momentum transport caused by the non-axisymmetric potential of the spirals. However, possible gas accretion events could affect the outer region of the disk due to abundant H I gas accumulating in the outer disk.

  12. EXTENDED PHOTOMETRY FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: A TESTBED FOR PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gwyn, Stephen D. J., E-mail: djm70@pitt.edu, E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu, E-mail: acoil@ucsd.edu, E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu, E-mail: Stephen.Gwyn@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes a new catalog that supplements the existing DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey photometric and spectroscopic catalogs with ugriz photometry from two other surveys: the Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each catalog is cross-matched by position on the sky in order to assign ugriz photometry to objects in the DEEP2 catalogs. We have recalibrated the CFHTLS photometry where it overlaps DEEP2 in order to provide a more uniform data set. We have also used this improved photometry to predict DEEP2 BRI photometry in regions where only poorer measurements were available previously. In addition, we have included improved astrometry tied to SDSS rather than USNO-A2.0 for all DEEP2 objects. In total this catalog contains {approx}27, 000 objects with full ugriz photometry as well as robust spectroscopic redshift measurements, 64% of which have r > 23. By combining the secure and accurate redshifts of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey with ugriz photometry, we have created a catalog that can be used as an excellent testbed for future photo-z studies, including tests of algorithms for surveys such as LSST and DES.

  13. Quantifying the uncertainty in surface energy fluxes of glacierised environments: How does the lack of information affect estimations of ablation amounts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, A.; Pellicciotti, F.; Burlando, P.

    2014-12-01

    Surface-atmosphere energy exchanges control the ablation of snow and ice dominated regions. Although some of the input variables for surface energy balance (SEB) models can be estimated with reasonable accuracy using extrapolated data, remote sensing or meteorological models, estimates of other variables are still difficult, especially across glacierised catchments and at high elevations. Despite the existence of large uncertainties in the forcing variables, ablation amounts are usually simulated by glacio-hydrological models using only deterministic inputs. This is the case for advanced SEB models, which use large amounts of input data, or conceptual models e.g. based on temperature index methods, which rely on the transferability in space and time of empirical parameters. In this work, we present an approach to explicitly calculate the uncertainty transferred from input variables to energy fluxes and ablation amounts of SEB simulations. For this, we parameterize the probability density functions (pdfs) of the SEB results. We code a point scale SEB model that calculates radiative, turbulent and internal heat fluxes. The model also includes a blowing snow sublimation module to determine mass losses to the atmosphere within the saltation and suspension layers. Using the SEB model, we perform extensive numerical simulations (>2*106 model runs) and obtain results of melt and sublimation within a-priori defined ranges of the input variables. These ranges are relatively wide in order to be representative of highly variable high-elevation conditions. After this, we fit theoretical pdfs to the input and outputs variables of the SEB model and obtain the distribution parameters. Using these results and a Bayesian scheme, we can compute the pdf of each output variable of the SEB as a function of the available (usually limited) information at a particular study site. In order to identify the most relevant information for each output variable, we also show the results of a global sensitivity analysis of the SEB model. The approach is tested using field measurements in the Chilean Andes and the Nepalese Himalaya. The presented method is shown to be effective on the calculation of energy fluxes, and melt and sublimation amounts, explicitly computing their uncertainty using a computationally parsimonious approach.

  14. The AAVSO Photoelectric Photometry Program in Its Scientific and Socio-Historic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, I review the work of the AAVSO in the area of photoelectric photometry (PEP). This work was influenced by several trends: in science, in technology, and in the sociology of amateur astronomy. Through the 1980s, the AAVSO photoelectric photometry program competed with other such programs and, in recent years, has been overshadowed by CCD photometry programs. Nevertheless, the AAVSO PEP program has, through careful organization, motivation, and feedback, produced extensive scientific results, and can continue to do so. In the case of my own research, AAVSO PEP observations have also contributed significantly to the education of my students.

  15. Factors affecting dissolved phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in ground and surface water for a valley dairy farm in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Flores-López, Francisco; Easton, Zachary M; Geohring, Larry D; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-02-01

    Agriculture often is considered to be a contributor of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate-N (NO3- -N) to surface waters. This research analyzed SRP and NO3- -N concentrations in groundwater and in a creek fed by groundwater on a valley dairy farm in the Cannonsville basin of the New York City (NYC) watershed. A total of 37 groundwater piezometers were installed to depths of 0.3 to 1.5 m. Water-table depth and concentrations of SRP, NO3- -N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved oxygen were measured at regular intervals over a three-year period. A multivariate mixed model analysis of variance indicated that the SRP and NO3- -N concentrations were controlled primarily by three classes of variables: environmental variables, including precipitation and water table depth; source variables, including manure applied and crop type; and chemical variables, including DOC and dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater. The highest groundwater concentrations of N03- -N and SRP were found at the shallowest water-table depths, which has implications for agricultural nutrient management in areas with shallow groundwater. PMID:21449473

  16. DDO Photometry of M71: Carbon and Nitrogen Patterns Among Evolving Giants

    E-print Network

    M. M. Briley; G. H. Smith; C. F. Claver

    2001-08-07

    We present V, B-V, and DDO C(41-42) and C(42-45) photometry for a sample of 75 red giants down to M_V = +2 in the relatively metal-rich Galactic globular cluster M71. The C(41-42) colors reveal a bimodal distribution of CN band strengths generally anticorrelated with CH band strength as measured by the C(42-45) color. Both DDO colors agree well with those found in 47 Tucanae -- a nearby globular cluster of similar metallicity -- and suggest nearly identical C and N abundance patterns among the giants of both clusters. A comparison with synthetic DDO colors demonstrates that little change in surface C or N abundance is required to match the colors of the M71 giants over the entire luminosity range observed. Apparently like 47 Tuc (a cluster of much greater mass and central concentration), M71 exhibits an abundance pattern which cannot be solely the result of internal mixing.

  17. Optical and near infrared photometry of Butcher-Oemler clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shier, Lisa M.; Rieke, Marcia J.

    1993-01-01

    Rich clusters of galaxies at moderate redshifts (z approx. .3) have a larger proportion of optically blue galaxies than their low redshift counterparts. Spectroscopic examination of the blue galaxies by various authors has shown that the blue galaxies are generally Seyferts, show evidence for recent star formation, or are foreground objects. Unfortunately, spectroscopy is too time consuming to be used on large samples. Thus, we have looked for a way to separate Seyferts, starbursts, ellipticals and nonmembers using photometry alone. Five moderate redshift clusters, Abell numbers 777, 963, 1758, 1961 and 2218, have been observed in the V, R and K bands. We model the spectral energy distributions of various kinds of galaxies found in clusters and derive observed colors. We have modeled the spectral energy distributions (SED) of several kinds of galaxies and compute their colors as a function of redshift. We expect to see ellipticals, spirals, starbursts, post-starburst and Seyfert galaxies. The SED of elliptical and Sbc galaxies was observed by Rieke and Rieke. The SEDs for the starburst galaxies was created by adding a reddened 10(exp 8) year old burst to a spiral galaxy SED. The post-starburst (E+A) galaxy SEDs are composed of a slightly reddened 10(exp 9) year old burst and elliptical galaxy SED. SEDs for the Seyferts were created by adding a v(exp -1.1) power law, and a hot dust thermal spectrum to the Sbc. From the SEDs the colors of galaxies at various redshifts with assorted filters were computed. Lilly & Gunn (1985) have optical and infrared photometry for a sample of galaxies in CL0024+1654 observed spectroscopically by Dressler, Gunn and Schneider (1985). We have used this data to choose the most appropriate SEDs for our starburst and post-starburst models. The most likely explanation for the optically blue colors in most cluster galaxies is star formation. Very few galaxies lie in the Seyfert locus. Abel 1758 has more Seyfert candidates than the other clusters, we observed. It seems possible to roughly sort types of galaxies in clusters by color alone. The cluster population seems to vary considerably between clusters, but our K selected sample has few Seyferts in any cluster.

  18. Near-Surface Factors Affecting Earthquake Ground-Motion Amplification Due to Basin Edges: Modeling of the Haifa Urban Basin, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Gvirtzman, Z.

    2007-12-01

    A fault-bounded basin up to 2 km deep underlies the low-elevation sections of the city of Haifa. Extensive seismic- reflection sections and an unusually dense H/V data set of single-station microtremor recordings define basin geometry and stratigraphy in detail and allow constraint of shear velocities. This basin appears as a contrast in shear velocity of 2:1 against surrounding older sedimentary rocks, even in its deeper reaches. We conducted 2-D and 3-D finite-difference modeling studies of the basin using S. Larsen's E3D code up to frequencies of 6 Hz. Our modeling included sensitivity studies using simple cross sections, and comparisons of 2-D results against 1-D modeling conducted in ProShake. A prominent 2-D effect not seen in the 1-D modeling is a narrow zone of high PGV amplification a few hundred meters inside the basin from its edges, which also appears in spectral accelerations at shorter periods. Spectral accelerations at longer periods are more amplified where the basin is deeper. Tracking wave propagation within the synthetic sections, this "basin-edge effect" appears where two wave phases interfere constructively: 1) the Rayleigh wave propagating slowly horizontally into the basin from the basin's edge, after conversion from the upgoing S wave outside the basin, at its edge; and 2) the upgoing S wave within the basin, delayed by the low shear velocities in the basin. This effect is not related to any upward refraction or propagation along the (often) steep wall of the basin, nor to any 1-D or 2-D resonances. The edge effect locates instead within the basin at the distance from the edge where the delay of slow, shallow Rayleigh-wave propagation equals the delay of the upgoing S wave in the basin, relative to the S arrival outside the basin. In Haifa, with 0.3 km/s shear velocities near the surface, the basin-edge effect locates to several hundred meters from the edge. With this explanation for the basin-edge effect, we surmise that it will appear only at periods T < t0, where t0 is the one-way vertical shear-wave travel time through the basin. Our synthetic spectral accelerations confirm this, with the basin-edge effect appearing only at periods T < 1.6 sec.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVI photometry in 3 globular clusters (Nardiello+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardiello, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Marino, A. F.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Astro-photometric catalogs of 3 different FORS2@VLT fields: NGC 6752, NGC 6397 and NGC 6121 (M 4). For each field we provide equatorial and FORS2 pixel coordinates, and UBVI photometry. (3 data files).

  20. Precision of a Low-Cost InGaAs Detector for Near Infrared Photometry

    E-print Network

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an InGaAs near-infrared camera to explore whether low-cost detectors can make small (?1 m) telescopes capable of precise (<1 mmag) infrared photometry of relatively bright targets. ...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV photometry of HD stars (Kilkenny+ 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Barrett, P. E.; Marang, F.; van Wyk, F.; Roberts, G.; Winkler, H.

    1997-03-01

    Photoelectric UBV photometry is presented for over 400 HD stars which lie within about a degree of selected cataclysmic variables. The data will be combined with polarimetry to determine the distances of the CVs. (1 data file).

  2. Pre-maximum photometry of the probable nova M31N 2015-06a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharov, E.; Minev, M.; Kurtenkov, A.; Nedialkov, P.; Valcheva, A.

    2015-06-01

    We report optical photometry of the probable nova M31N 2015-06a (ATel#7584). The observations were carried out two days before the discovery using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-104b and WASP-106b photometry (Smith+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hebrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Louden, T. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Montagnier, G.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rostron, J. W.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    The stars WASP-104 and WASP-106 were observed by SuperWASP-N from 2008 to 2011, and by WASP-South from 2009 to 2010. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using the TRAPPIST, Euler, Liverpool and Isaac Newton telescopes in 2013 and 2014. All these data are plotted in Figures 1 and 2. (1 data file).

  4. Analysis of RGU Photometry in Selected Area 51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Buser, R.

    2004-09-01

    A low-latitude anticenter field (l=189 °, b=+21 °) is investigated by using the full calibration tools of RGU photometry. The observed RGU data are reduced to the standard system and the separation of dwarfs and evolved stars is carried out by an empirical method. Stars are categorized into three metallicity classes, i.e. -0.25<[M/H]?+0.50, $-1.00<[M/H]?-0.25, and [M/H]?-1.00 dex, and their absolute magnitudes are determined by the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams. The unusually large scattering in the two-color diagrams is reduced by excluding 153 extra-galactic objects, identifying them compared with the charts of Basel Astronomical Institute and University of Minnesota, and by the criterion and algorithm of Gaidos et al. [1]. The local logarithmic space density for giants, D*(0)=6.75, lies within the local densities of Gliese and Gliese & Jahreiss. The local luminosity function in our work for the absolute magnitude interval 3

  5. Distance to NGC 1569 via Deep HST/ACS Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocholski, Aaron J.; Aloisi, A.; van der Marel, R. P.; Mack, J.; Annibali, F.; Sirianni, M.; Angeretti, L.; Romano, D.; Tosi, M.; Greggio, L.; Held, E. V.

    2008-05-01

    The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 is the closest and strongest starburst galaxy to the Milky Way, and contains three of the most massive super star clusters ever discovered. Using the ACS/WFC on the Hubble Space Telescope we have obtained the deepest optical photometry of this galaxy to date, yielding a V,I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with some 450,000 stars. These data have allowed us, for the first time, to unequivocally measure the brightness of the tip of the red giant branch and thereby determine the distance to NGC 1569. We find that this galaxy lies 40% farther away than what is typically assumed. The longer distance makes NGC 1569 an even more extreme starburst galaxy; previous estimates of the star formation shift to younger epochs and the rate of star formation becomes stronger by a factor of 2. In addition, with the new distance the dynamical masses of the super star clusters increase by 40% while their luminosities double. Preliminary results on the star formation history of NGC 1569 as inferred from the observed CMD will also be presented.

  6. Relative Photometry of HAT-P-1b Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Winn, Joshua N.; Noyes, Robert W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of two occultations of the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-1b. By measuring the planet to star flux ratio near opposition, we constrain the geometric albedo of the planet, which is strongly linked to its atmospheric temperature gradient. An advantage of HAT-P-1 as a target is its binary companion ADS 16402 A, which provides an excellent photometric reference, simplifying the usual steps in removing instrumental artifacts from HST time-series photometry. We find that without this reference star, we would need to detrend the lightcurve with the time of the exposures as well as the first three powers of HST orbital phase, and this would introduce a strong bias in the results for the albedo. However, with this reference star, we only need to detrend the data with the time of the exposures to achieve the same per-point scatter, therefore we can avoid most of the bias associated with detrending. Our final result is a 2? upper limit of 0.64 for the geometric albedo of HAT-P-1b between 577 and 947 nm.

  7. Mass determination for T Tauri stars from JHK Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Chico, T.; Salas, L.

    2007-04-01

    We present a method that uses disk models to determine stellar masses for Pre-Main sequence T Tauri stars from JHK photometry. We find that the infrared excess produced by the disk behaves in a similar way to the extinction vector when plotted on color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, but that it is linearly independent. Employing these vectors as a basis of a vector space we carry out a coordinate transformation that allows us to find the mass of a central star for a given age. To test this Principal Vectors (PV) method we compare the mass values (M_PV) obtained for 14 T Tauri objects in the Taurus-Auriga region with mass values known from dynamical methods. Furthermore, we analyze 4 systems with multiple components (GG Tau, FO Tau, FS Tau, and V773 Tau) and determine the mass for each component of the system. We analyze the effect of using different evolutionary models and other parameter values.

  8. Short-period Stellar Activity Cycles with Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2015-07-01

    We study the short-periodic component of stellar activity with a cycle period of {P}{cyc}\\lt {10}3 days using the Kepler mission photometry of fast-rotating (1\\lt P\\lt 4 days) stars with spectra of M4V to F3V. Applying the originally developed two non-spectral methods, we measured the effective period of stellar cycles in 462 objects. The obtained results are in accordance with previous measurements by Vida et al. and do not seem to result from a beating effect. The performed measurements of Pcyc cluster in a specific branch that covers the previously unstudied region in the Saar & Brandenburg diagram and connects the branch of inactive stars with the area populated by super-active objects. It is shown that the formation of the discovered branch is due to the ?-quenching effect, which saturates the magnetic dynamo and decreases the cycle periods with the increase of the inverted Rossby number. This finding is important in the context of the discussion on catastrophic quenching and other heuristic approximations of the nonlinear ?-effect.

  9. Performance of Electroluminescent Flats for Precision Light Curve Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, Ryan L.; Oberst, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    We measure of the quality of flat field frames (flats) taken using an electroluminescent (EL) panel versus both dome and sky flats for purposes of calibrating visual CCD images. Classic dome and sky flats can both suffer from overall gradients and local irregularities. EL panel flats have recently grown in popularity as a third alternative, based partly on their potential to be free of such defects. We assess the flats based on their contributions to the RMS noise of long-duration light curves constructed via differential aperture photometry. The noise levels explored range from ~ 1 - few mmag, as needed for the ground-based detection of transiting planets. The target and reference stars are deliberately permitted to drift across the CCD in order to probe pixel-to-pixel variations. Both the filter and focus are varied during the tests - the former to probe color variation in the flats, and the latter because defocusing tends to average out pixel-to-pixel variations that the flats are intended to remove. All tests were performed at the Westminster College Observatory (WCO), which belongs to the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North follow-up network.

  10. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  11. Glory revealed in disk-integrated photometry of Venus

    E-print Network

    Muñoz, A García; Sánchez-Lavega, A

    2014-01-01

    Context. Reflected light from a spatially unresolved planet yields unique insight into the overall optical properties of the planet cover. Glories are optical phenomena caused by light that is backscattered within spherical droplets following a narrow distribution of sizes; they are well known on Earth as localised features above liquid clouds. Aims. Here we report the first evidence for a glory in the disk-integrated photometry of Venus and, in turn, of any planet. Methods. We used previously published phase curves of the planet that were reproduced over the full range of phase angles with model predictions based on a realistic description of the Venus atmosphere. We assumed that the optical properties of the planet as a whole can be described by a uniform and stable cloud cover, an assumption that agrees well with observational evidence. Results. We specifically show that the measured phase curves mimic the scattering properties of the Venus upper-cloud micron-sized aerosols, also at the small phase angles ...

  12. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tholen, D. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Kuiper Space Science Bldg. 92, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Wright, E.; Watkins, J. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  13. New binary asteroid 809 Lundia. I. Photometry and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryszczy?ska, A.; Colas, F.; Descamps, P.; Bartczak, P.; Poli?ska, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Lecacheux, J.; Hirsch, R.; Fagas, M.; Kami?ski, K.; Micha?owski, T.; Marciniak, A.

    2009-07-01

    CCD photometry of 809 Lundia obtained between September 2005 and January 2006 at Borowiec and Pic du Midi Observatories demonstrates that this object is a synchronous binary system with an orbital period of 15.418 ± 0.001 h. In this paper, we present the results of photometric observations of Lundia from two oppositions in 2005/2006 and 2007, as well as the first modelling of the system. For simplicity we assumed a fluid-like nature for each component with a modified Roche model and a triaxial ellipsoid shape in kinematic models. Our models provided similar results. Poles of the orbit in ecliptic coordinates are ? = 119 ± 2°, ? = 28 ± 4° (modified Roche) or ? = 120 ± 5°, ? = 18 ± 12° (kinematic). Triaxial ellipsoid shape solutions and a separation between components of 15.8 km are given after taking an equivalent diameter of 9.1 km from H = 11.8 mag and assuming an albedo of 0.4. The orbital period of the Lundia system obtained from modelling is the same as from the lightcurve analysis i.e., 15.418 ± 0.001 h. The bulk density of both components is 1.64 or 1.71 ± 0.01 g/cm^3. The double system of Lundia probably originates from the fission process of a single body that could have been spun up by the YORP effect. The predicted lightcurves for future oppositions are also presented.

  14. Infrared photometry of the black hole candidate Sagittarius A*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Close, Laird M.; Mccarthy, Donald W. JR.; Melia, Fulvio

    1995-01-01

    An infrared source has been imaged within 0.2 +/- 0.3 arcseconds of the unique Galactic center radio source Sgr A* High angular resolution (averaged value of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) approximately 0.55 arcseconds) was achieved by rapid (approximately 50 Hz) real-time images motion compensation. The source's near-infrared magnitudes (K = 12.1 +/- 0.3, H = 13.7 +/- 0.3, and J = 16.6 +/- 0.4) are consistent with a hot object reddened by the local extinction A(sub v) approximately 27). At the 3 sigma level of confidence, a time series of 80 images limits the source variability to less than 50% on timescales from 3 to 30 minutes. The photometry is consistent with the emission from a simple accretion disk model for a approximately 1 x 10(exp 6) solar mass black hole. However, the fluxes are also consistent with a hot luminous (L approximately 10(exp 3.5) to 10(exp 4-6) solar luminosity) central cluster star positionally coincident with Sgr A*.

  15. Not Color Blind Using Multiband Photometry to Classify Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Poznanski, D; Maoz, D; Filippenko, A V; Leonard, D C; Matheson, T; Poznanski, Dovi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Matheson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Large numbers of supernovae (SNe) have been discovered in recent years, and many more will be found in the near future. Once discovered, further study of a SN and its possible use as an astronomical tool (e.g., a distance estimator) require knowledge of the SN type. Current classification methods rely almost solely on the analysis of SN spectra to determine their type. However, spectroscopy may not be possible or practical when SNe are faint, very numerous, or discovered in archival studies. We present a classification method for SNe based on the comparison of their observed colors with synthetic ones, calculated from a large database of multi-epoch optical spectra of nearby events. We discuss the capabilities and limitations of this method. For example, type Ia SNe at redshifts z 100 days) stages. Broad-band photometry through standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI filters can be useful to classify SNe up to z ~ 0.6. The use of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) u'g'r'i'z' filters allows extending our classification m...

  16. Optical Photometry of SN 1993J: Years 1995 to 2003

    E-print Network

    Tianmeng Zhang; Xiaofeng Wang; Xu Zhou; Weidong Li; Jun Ma; Zhaoji Jiang; Zongwei Li

    2004-06-29

    In this paper, the late-time optical photometry of supernova (SN) 1993J in M81 from Feburary 1995 to Janurary 2003 is presented. The observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters that have the advantage of tracing the strength variations of some spectral features. SN 1993J was found to fade very slowly at late times, declining only by $0.05\\pm0.02$ mag 100 d$^{-1}$ in most of the filters from 2 to nearly 10 yrs after discovery. Our data suggest that the circumstellar interaction provides most of the energy to power the late-time optical emission of SN 1993J. This is manifested by several flux peaks seen in the rough spectral energy distributions constructed from the multicolor light curves. The flux peaks near 6600 \\AA, 5800 \\AA{} and 4900 \\AA{} may correspond to the emission lines of H$\\alpha$, Na I D + He I $\\lambda$5876 and [O III] $\\lambda\\lambda$4959, 5007, respectively. The evolution of these emission lines suggest a power-law SN density model as proposed by \\citet{cf94}.

  17. Photon counting and fast photometry with L3 CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Simon M.

    2004-09-01

    The new L3 Technology CCDs from E2V allow detector read noise to be decoupled from readout speed. If operated at sufficiently high gain, the read noise drops to sub-electron levels and photon counting becomes possible. At ING we have incorporated CCD60 , CCD87 and CCD97 L3 detectors into cryogenic cameras coupled to SDSU controllers for a variety of tests both in the lab and on-sky using the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. These detectors have been operated in proportional and photon-counting mode using an in-house Linux based DAS. We have gained a number of insights into photon counting optimisation, how to cope with the effects of the L3 pipeline delay and the reduction of internal device-generated spurious charge. We have also discovered a statistical method for determining the gain of an L3 system from pulse height analysis of the individual photon events. Our on-sky test program has consisted to date of high frame rate photometry of the Crab Nebula Pulsar.

  18. BRITE-Constellation: nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    E-print Network

    Weiss, W W; Moffat, A F J; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Koudelka, O F; Grant, C C; Zee, R E; Kuschnig, R; Mochnacki, St; Matthews, J M; Orleanski, P; Pamyatnykh, A; Pigulski, A; Alves, J; Guedel, M; Handler, G; Wade, G A; Zwintz, K; CCD,

    2014-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, the brightness and temperature variations of stars generally brighter than mag(V) ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of six nanosats (hence Constellation): two from Austria, two from Canada, and two from Poland. Each 7 kg nanosat carries an optical telescope of aperture 3 cm feeding an uncooled CCD. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter, the other with a red filter. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~24 degrees), so up to about 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously, sampled in 32 pixel x 32 pixel sub-rasters. Photometry of additional fainter targets, with reduced precision but thorough time sampling, will be possible through onboard data processing. The BRITE sample is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all e...

  19. Analysis of RGU Photometry in Selected Area 51

    E-print Network

    S. Bilir; S. Karaali; R. Buser

    2004-07-02

    A low-latitude anticenter field (l=189, b=+21) is investigated by using the full calibration tools of RGU photometry. The observed RGU data are reduced to the standard system and the separation of dwarfs and evolved stars is carried out by an empirical method. Stars are categorized into three metallicity classes, i.e. -0.25<[M/H]<=+0.50, -1.00<[M/H]<=-0.25, and [M/H]<=-1.00$ dex, and their absolute magnitudes are determined by the corresponding colour-magnitude diagrams. The unusually large scattering in the two-colour diagrams is reduced by excluding 153 extra-galactic objects, identifying them compared with the charts of Basel Astronomical Institute and University of Minnesota, and by the criterion and algorithm of Gaidos et al. (1993). The local logarithmic space density for giants, D(0)=6.75, lies within the local densities of Gliese (1969) and Gliese & Jahreiss (1992). The local luminosity function for the absolute magnitude interval 3

  20. Photometry of supernovae in an image series: methods and application to the SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, P.; El Hage, P.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Betoule, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fourmanoit, N.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We present a technique to measure lightcurves of time-variable point sources on a spatially structured background from imaging data. The technique was developed to measure lightcurves of SNLS supernovae in order to infer their distances. This photometry technique performs simultaneous point spread function (PSF) photometry at the same sky position on an image series. Methods: We describe two implementations of the method: one that resamples images before measuring fluxes, and one which does not. In both instances, we sketch the key algorithms involved and present the validation using semi-artificial sources introduced in real images in order to assess the accuracy of the supernova flux measurements relative to that of surrounding stars. We describe the methods required to anchor these PSF fluxes to calibrated aperture catalogs, in order to derive SN magnitudes. Results: We find a marginally significant bias of 2 mmag of the after-resampling method, and no bias at the mmag accuracy for the non-resampling method. Given surrounding star magnitudes, we determine the systematic uncertainty of SN magnitudes to be less than 1.5 mmag, which represents about one third of the current photometric calibration uncertainty affecting SN measurements. The SN photometry delivers several by-products: bright star PSF flux measurements which have a repeatability of about 0.6%, as for aperture measurements; we measure relative astrometric positions with a noise floor of 2.4 mas for a single-image bright star measurement; we show that in all bands of the MegaCam instrument, stars exhibit a profile linearly broadening with flux by about 0.5% over the whole brightness range. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. Uncovering Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters with Washington Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Douglas; Cummings, Jeff; Villanova, Sandro; Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs), long considered as ideal Simple Stellar Populations, are now known to harbor a wide variety of chemical inhomogeneities. Multiple populations (MP) are being found in a growing number of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) via both photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Indeed, it has been suggested that a GC is an object that possesses MP. A definitive investigation of MP in GCs will undoubtedly provide a profound improvement in our understanding of their formation and evolution.However, most studies employ either high resolution VLT spectroscopy, HST photometry or inefficient filters from the ground. A ground-based photometric system which is both efficient and effective would be especially excellent for uncovering MP. We demonstrate that the Washington system meets these goals. The Washington C filter, in addition to being specifically designed for the purpose of detecting MPs, is both much broader and redder than competing UV filters, making it far more efficient at detecting MPs and much less sensitive to reddening and extinction.Our analysis of the well-studied GC NGC 1851 shows indeed that the C filter is both very efficient and effective at detecting its previously discovered MPs in the RGB and SGB, using relatively little telescope time on only a 1-meter telescope. Remarkably, we have also detected an intrinsically broad MS best characterized by two distinct but heavily overlapping populations that cannot be explained by binaries, field stars, or photometric errors. Detailed analysis shows that the MS distribution is in very good agreement with that seen on the RGB. This is the first time MPs in a MS have been discovered from the ground, and just as strikingly, using only a 1-meter telescope. The Washington system thus proves to be a very powerful tool for investigating MPs, and holds particular promise for extragalactic objects where photons are limited.

  2. Just the Photometry: Constraining exoplanet orbits by measuring stellar densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliski, David; Kipping, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    One unique trick in toolkit of astronomers studying transiting exoplanets, is that the mean stellar density may be determined using the shape of the light curve, under various idealized assumptions such as a circular orbit and the target star is unblended. “Asterodensity profiling” seeks to exploit this trick by comparing the light curve derived stellar density to that from some independent measurement. Any difference between the two measures indicates that one or more of the idealized assumptions are invalid. Therefore, the major challenge with single-planet systems (so-called “single-body asterodensity profiling” or SAP) is distinguishing whether the difference is due to a blend, orbital eccentricity or some combination. By careful consideration of the input priors, utilizing constraints from secondary eclipses and a Bayesian analysis of the system in question, the problem is tractable though, offering the chance to determine the underlying eccentricity distribution of exoplanets and even aid in validating planet candidates through blend analysis. In this talk, I will discuss single-body asterodensity profiling (SAP) for targets with asteroseismologically determined stellar densities, which is generally considered a gold-standard measure. We have investigated several targets with the largest apparent discrepancies between the transit-derived stellar density and that from asteroseismology. By independently detrending and fitting the transit light curves, we have calculated a revised value of this crucial ratio, with various priors tried. I will present the current results our work and discuss implications for the eccentricity and blend validation of these studied systems. I will finish by exploring the exciting potential of this technique in the TESS-era, where the fact our technique requires bright-star photometry alone, opens the door to constraints for hundreds/thousands of objects.

  3. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF WASP-4b WITH WARM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Beerer, Ingrid M.; Knutson, Heather A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-01-20

    We present photometry of the giant extrasolar planet WASP-4b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m taken with the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of Spitzer's extended warm mission. We find secondary eclipse depths of 0.319% {+-} 0.031% and 0.343% {+-} 0.027% for the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively, and show model emission spectra and pressure-temperature profiles for the planetary atmosphere. These eclipse depths are well fit by model emission spectra with water and other molecules in absorption, similar to those used for TrES-3 and HD 189733b. Depending on our choice of model, these results indicate that this planet has either a weak dayside temperature inversion or no inversion at all. The absence of a strong thermal inversion on this highly irradiated planet is contrary to the idea that highly irradiated planets are expected to have inversions, perhaps due the presence of an unknown absorber in the upper atmosphere. This result might be explained by the modestly enhanced activity level of WASP-4b's G7V host star, which could increase the amount of UV flux received by the planet, therefore reducing the abundance of the unknown stratospheric absorber in the planetary atmosphere as suggested in Knutson et al. We also find no evidence for an offset in the timing of the secondary eclipse and place a 2{sigma} upper limit on |ecos {omega}| of 0.0024, which constrains the range of tidal heating models that could explain this planet's inflated radius.

  4. Secondary Eclipse Photometry of WASP-4b with Warm Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerer, Ingrid M.; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    We present photometry of the giant extrasolar planet WASP-4b at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m taken with the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of Spitzer's extended warm mission. We find secondary eclipse depths of 0.319% ± 0.031% and 0.343% ± 0.027% for the 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands, respectively, and show model emission spectra and pressure-temperature profiles for the planetary atmosphere. These eclipse depths are well fit by model emission spectra with water and other molecules in absorption, similar to those used for TrES-3 and HD 189733b. Depending on our choice of model, these results indicate that this planet has either a weak dayside temperature inversion or no inversion at all. The absence of a strong thermal inversion on this highly irradiated planet is contrary to the idea that highly irradiated planets are expected to have inversions, perhaps due the presence of an unknown absorber in the upper atmosphere. This result might be explained by the modestly enhanced activity level of WASP-4b's G7V host star, which could increase the amount of UV flux received by the planet, therefore reducing the abundance of the unknown stratospheric absorber in the planetary atmosphere as suggested in Knutson et al. We also find no evidence for an offset in the timing of the secondary eclipse and place a 2? upper limit on |ecos ?| of 0.0024, which constrains the range of tidal heating models that could explain this planet's inflated radius.

  5. Near-Infrared Absolute Photometry of the Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momary, T. W.; Baines, K. H.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Golisch, W.; Kaminski, C.

    1998-09-01

    We report absolutely-calibrated photometry of the Saturnian satellites in canonical near-infrared filters, including the first such spectrum of the leading side of Enceladus. The satellites were observed during Ring Plane Crossing in August and September of 1995 with the NSFCAM instrument at the NASA/IRTF. These observations were also simultaneous with those of the Uranian system, taken with the same instrument and filters, and analyzed by Baines et al. (Icarus 132, 266-284, 1998). Results are reported for J, H, and K filters near 1.27, 1.62, and 2.20 mu m, and two 0.1 mu m-wide filters centered at 1.73 and 2.27 mu m. We find that Enceladus has a peak brightness at 1.27 mu m with a geometric albedo of 0.898 +/- 0.063, in contrast to the Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Titania, which are relatively dim at this wavelength (albedos of roughly 0.3). The J-H band depth of Enceladus is about 30%, characteristic of spectra of Rhea, Tethys, and the trailing side of Iapetus, taken from Clark et al. (Icarus 58, 265-281, 1984) and convolved with our filters. By contrast, the darker Uranian satellites display a J-H band depth of less than 10%. From H to 1.73 mu m, the full-disk albedo of Enceladus increases by 27%, similar to the Uranian satellites. The dip in the Enceladus spectrum from J to H, as well as the subsequent rise from H to 1.73 mu m, are an expected signature of water ice. Finally, preliminary results for the albedos of Tethys, Dione, Rhea, and Mimas, as well as Enceladus, at 2.27 mu m compare favorably with the visible albedos of Buratti and Veverka (Icarus, 58, 254-264, 1984).

  6. Spitzer Transit and Secondary Eclipse Photometry of GJ 436b

    E-print Network

    Drake Deming; Joseph Harrington; Gregory Laughlin; Sara Seager; Sarah B. Navarro; William C. Bowman; Karen Horning

    2007-07-18

    We report the results of infrared (8 micron) transit and secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Neptune exoplanet, GJ436b using Spitzer. The nearly photon-limited precision of these data allow us to measure an improved radius for the planet, and to detect the secondary eclipse. The transit (centered at HJD = 2454280.78149 +/-0.00016) shows the flat-bottomed shape typical of infrared transits, and it precisely defines the planet-to-star radius ratio (0.0839 +/-0.0005), independent of the stellar properties. However, we obtain the planetary radius, as well as the stellar mass and radius, by fitting to the transit curve simultaneously with an empirical mass-radius relation for M-dwarfs (M=R). We find Rs=Ms=0.47 +/-0.02 in solar units, and Rp=27,600 +/-1170 km (4.33 +/-0.18 Earth radii). This radius significantly exceeds the radius of a naked ocean planet, and requires a gasesous hydrogen-helium envelope. The secondary eclipse occurs at phase 0.587 +/-0.005, proving a significant orbital eccentricity (e=0.15 +/-0.012). The amplitude of the eclipse (5.7 +/-0.8e-4) indicates a brightness temperature for the planet of T=712 +/-36K. If this is indicative of the planet's physical temperature, it suggests the occurrence of tidal heating in the planet. An uncharacterized second planet likely provides ongoing gravitational perturbations, to maintain GJ436b's orbit eccentricity over long time scales.

  7. Not Color Blind: Using Multiband Photometry to Classify Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Dovi Poznanski; Avishay Gal-Yam; Dan Maoz; Alexei V. Filippenko; Douglas C. Leonard; Thomas Matheson

    2002-06-04

    Large numbers of supernovae (SNe) have been discovered in recent years, and many more will be found in the near future. Once discovered, further study of a SN and its possible use as an astronomical tool (e.g., as a distance estimator) require knowledge of the SN type. Current classification methods rely almost solely on the analysis of SN spectra to determine their type. However, spectroscopy may not be possible or practical when SNe are faint, numerous, or discovered in archival studies. We present a classification method for SNe based on the comparison of their observed colors with synthetic ones, calculated from a large database of multi-epoch optical spectra of nearby events. We discuss the capabilities and limitations of this method. For example, type Ia SNe at redshifts z colors. Type II-P SNe have distinct (very red) colors at late (t > 100 days) stages. Broadband photometry through standard Johnson-Cousins $UBVRI$ filters can be useful to classify SNe out to z ~ 0.6. The use of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ugriz filters allows the extension of our classification method to even higher redshifts (z = 0.75), and the use of infrared bands, to z = 2.5. We demonstrate the application of this method to a recently discovered SN from the SDSS. Finally, we outline the observational data required to further improve the sensitivity of the method, and discuss prospects for its use on future SN samples. Community access to the tools developed is provided by a dedicated website (http://wise-obs.tau.ac.il/~dovip/typing) .

  8. Improved mm-wave photometry for kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Roesch, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Ade, P.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Camus, P.; Cruciani, A.; Doyle, S.; Hoffmann, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Ponthieu, N.; Schuster, K. F.; Tucker, C.; Vescovi, C.

    2013-03-01

    Context. We have developed a dual-band (140 and 220 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera based on superconducting kinetic inductance detector (KID) arrays. Each array contains 132 superconducting resonators whose resonant frequencies are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. The read out is achieved with a single electronics chain per band, taking advantage of the intrinsic KID frequency-domain multiplexability. The arrays are easily scalable and well adapted for future large format focal plane instruments. NIKA (formerly Néel IRAM KID Array, now New IRAM KID Array) has been specifically designed for the IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, and is one of the first instruments using KIDs to have made measurements of astronomical sources. Aims: In this Letter we describe the solutions adopted to improve the calibration accuracy and the sensitivity of the instrument, and we report on the outcome of the 3rd NIKA observing run of October, 2011. Methods: We use a fast electronic modulation of the readout tone for each KID pixel in order to linearize the instrument calibration, which we track with measurements of planets. We also adopt a new design of the KIDs, sensitive to both polarizations, to increase the amount of radiation absorbed and thus the optical efficiency of the system. Results: We measured an average sensitivity on the sky of 21 mJys0.5 per beam at 140 GHz and 140 mJys0.5 at 220 GHz in the best observing conditions (?220 ? 0.2) after atmospheric noise decorrelation. The sensitivity at 220 GHz was limited by the atmospheric attenuation and loading as well as a reduction in the spectral bandwidth due to a misplaced filter. We found the repeatability in the photometry over the entire observing run to be better than 10% in both bands, thus demonstrating a significant improvement over the previous runs. We also find good agreement between NIKA measurements of faint astronomical sources and previous measurements of the same sources.

  9. A Remotely Operated Observatory for Minor Planet Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditteon, Richard

    2008-05-01

    In October of 2007 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana began operating the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory (E09) located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. The observatory houses a 0.5-m, f/8.4 Ritchey-Chretien telescope mounted on a Paramount ME, German equatorial mount. Attached to the telescope is an STL-1001E CCD camera which has 1024 by 1024, 24 µm pixels, a two-stage thermoelectric cooler, and built in color filter wheel with BVRI and clear filters. Image scale is 1.2 arcseconds per pixel. A cloud sensor is used to monitor sky conditions. The observatory has a roll-off roof with limit switches to detect when the roof is fully open and fully closed. In addition, a switch has been added to the mount to detect when the telescope is parked and that it is safe to open or close the roof. All of the hardware is controlled by a custom program which reads a simple text file containing the sequence of images and targets to be collected each night. The text file is loaded onto the control computer once each day, then the software waits until sunset to determine if the sky is clear. When conditions are favorable, power is turned on, the roof opens, twilight flats, dark and bias frames are recorded, and when it is fully dark data frames are recorded. Images are transferred via the Internet back to Rose-Hulman by another program running in the background. The observatory closes itself before dawn or if it gets cloudy. Currently we are using the observatory for photometry of minor planets. Students are responsible for selecting targets, processing the returned images, determining the period and light curve of each minor planet and writing a paper for publication. Recent results will be presented.

  10. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-luminous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen; Yan, Lin

    2012-11-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 ?m photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 ?m ~ 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (>20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of ~7.33 × 105 objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 ?m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  11. High-Quality Photometry of Asteroids at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Russell O.; Feldman, P. A.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-09-01

    Photometric observations with the JCMT at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths have been made for the asteroids 1 Ceres, 4 Vesta, 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 18 Melpomene, and 216 Kleopatra. The measurements reported here include a careful estimation of the possible systematic biases that may be present in the photometry. Whenever possible, the flux densities have been averaged over a complete rotational light curve to eliminate rotational phase as a source of uncertainty. Combining our measurements with those from the literature at other wavelengths, we present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the thermal emission from these asteroids spanning the infrared and radio ranges. The effective emissivity e_EFF is defined as the ratio of the observed flux density to that which would have been observed from a nonrotating, spherical blackbody with the same size, distance from the Earth, and distance from the Sun, as though viewed at opposition. The physical properties that influence e_EFF are discussed qualitatively, using our SEDs to illustrate the importance of each effect. In this way, the effective emissivity is demonstrated to be a useful means to present the SED of an asteroid over the whole range of wavelengths for which thermal emission dominates the observable flux density. The most important physical properties that distinguish the SEDs of the nonmetallic asteroids (Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Iris, and Melpomene) from each other appear to be (1) the optical depth through the layer of warm material that has been heated by the Sun on the day side of the asteroid; (2) the density of the surface materials; and (3) the rotation period of the asteroid. For Ceres the warm surface layer is partially opaque at wavelengths near 1 mm, while for Vesta it is transparent at all wavelengths longer than 0.35 mm. We attribute the transparency of Vesta's warm surface layer to its low density. In contrast, Iris appears to have relatively dense materials on its surface that transport heat effectively from its surface to its deeper layers, reducing the infrared beaming compared to Ceres and increasing the optical depth of its warm surface layer compared to Vesta. The effectiveness of rotation in suppressing the infrared beaming phenomenon is illustrated by Vesta, a rapid rotator with a weak infrared beaming effect, and by Melpomene, a slow rotator with a strong infrared beaming effect. The SEDs of the M-type (metallic) asteroids (Psyche and Kleopatra) have a distinctive shape, with a steep decrease from infrared to radio wavelengths. The effective emissivities at wavelengths near 1 mm are too low to correspond to physical temperatures in the asteroids' surfaces but are consistent with the presence of large metal fractions in their surface minerals, which would make their surfaces reflective rather than emissive at long wavelengths. This is the first clear mineralogical distinction that we have been able to make based on the shape of an asteroid's SED.

  12. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm. Of particular interest is the performance of pier and grade beam foundations which behaved more stiffly in comparison to typically observed shallow strip footing foundations.

  13. TIME-SERIES BVI PHOTOMETRY FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6981 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Amigo, P.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Smith, H. A., E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: mzoccali@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pia.amigo@dfa.uv.cl, E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present new BVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6981, based mostly on ground-based CCD archival images. We present a new color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that reaches almost four magnitudes below the turn-off level. We performed new derivations of metallicity and morphological parameters of the evolved sequences, in good agreement with the results of previous authors, and obtain a value of [Fe/H] ? –1.50 in the new UVES scale. We also identify the cluster's blue straggler population. Comparing the radial distribution of these stars with the red giant branch population, we find that the blue stragglers are more centrally concentrated, as found in previous studies of blue stragglers in globular clusters. Taking advantage of the large field of view covered by our study, we analyzed the surface density profile of the cluster, and find extratidal main sequence stars out to r ? 14.'1, or about twice the tidal radius. We speculate that the presence of these stars may be due to tidal disruption in the course of NGC 6981's orbit, in which case tidal tails associated with the cluster may exist. We also take a fresh look at the variable stars in the cluster, recovering all previously known variables, including three SX Phoenicis stars. We also add three previously unknown RR Lyrae (one c-type and two ab-type) to the total census. Finally, comparing our CMD with unpublished data for M3 (NGC 5272), a cluster with a similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, we found that both objects are essentially coeval.

  14. Diagnostics of stellar modelling from spectroscopy and photometry of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelou, George C.; D'Orazi, Valentina; Constantino, Thomas N.; Church, Ross P.; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2015-07-01

    We conduct a series of comparisons between spectroscopic and photometric observations of globular clusters and stellar models to examine their predictive power. Data from medium-to-high resolution spectroscopic surveys of lithium allow us to investigate first dredge-up and extra mixing in two clusters well separated in metallicity. Abundances at first dredge-up are satisfactorily reproduced but there is preliminary evidence to suggest that the models overestimate the luminosity at which the surface composition first changes in the lowest metallicity system. Our models also begin extra mixing at luminosities that are too high, demonstrating a significant discrepancy with observations at low metallicity. We model the abundance changes during extra mixing as a thermohaline process and determine that the usual diffusive form of this mechanism cannot simultaneously reproduce both the carbon and lithium observations. Hubble Space Telescope photometry provides turn-off and bump magnitudes in a large number of globular clusters and offers the opportunity to better test stellar modelling as function of metallicity. We directly compare the predicted main-sequence turn-off and bump magnitudes as well as the distance-independent parameter ? M_V ^{MSTO}_{bump}. We require 15 Gyr isochrones to match the main-sequence turn-off magnitude in some clusters and cannot match the bump in low-metallicity systems. Changes to the distance modulus, metallicity scale and bolometric corrections may impact on the direct comparisons but ? M_V ^{MSTO}_{bump}, which is also underestimated from the models, can only be improved through changes to the input physics. Overshooting at the base of the convective envelope with an efficiency that is metallicity dependent is required to reproduce the empirically determined value of ? M_V ^{MSTO}_{bump}.

  15. Broad-band BVRI photometry of isolated spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Ortega-Esbrí, S.

    2008-08-01

    Context: Uniform and high resolution observations in samples of isolated galaxies are required to estimate fundamental morphological and structural parameters for comparative studies of environmental effects and for confronting model predictions of galaxy evolution. A subsample of The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG), Karachentseva (1973), has been uniformly observed at San Pedro Mártir National Observatory in México and a photometric and morphological study of these galaxies has been carried out. Aims: We report multicolor broad band (BVRI) photometry for a subsample of 40 isolated spirals drawn from the CIG. Total magnitudes and colors at various circular apertures as well as a detailed morphological analysis that is extended into the NIR bands are presented. Some structural parameters are estimated from the global light distribution in the optical and NIR bands to complement our morphological analysis and several correlations between the photometric and structural parameters are explored. Emphasis was given to the detection of morphological distortions at high/low intensity levels. Methods: The observations, data reduction, and analysis are described. Morphology is reevaluated from a combination of optical logarithmically scaled R band images, filter-enhanced R band images, (B-I) color index maps, archived near IR {JHK} images from the TwoMicron Survey and optical-NIR ? and PA radial profiles after an isophotal analysis. {RGB} images from the SDSS database were retrieved when available to complement our analysis. The {CAS} structural parameters (Concentration, Asymmetry, and Clumpiness) were calculated from the images in each band. Results: The fraction of galaxies with well-identified optical/near-IR bars (SB) is 40%, while another 25% shows evidence of weak or suspected bars (SAB). The sample average value of the maximum bar ellipticity is ?_max? 0.35. 57.5% of the galaxies in the sample show rings. The {CAS} parameters change with the observed band, the morphological type and global color. We found 9 isolated galaxies with disturbed morphology. After reviewing their local number density and tidal strength parameters, we identified CIG 744 as a morphologically disturbed isolated galaxy having M_HI/LI > 1; a tentative candidate to interact with a dark gas-rich object. However, its loci in the ?0 ^I/log(M_HI/LI) diagram, suggests that CIG 744 is itself a gas-rich disturbed-isolated galaxy probably in a lengthy or ongoing process of formation, instead. Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. High-precision ground-based photometry of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-04-01

    High-precision photometry of transiting exoplanet systems has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of their atmospheres. The best targets are the bright exoplanet systems, for which the high number of photons allow very high signal-to-noise ratios. Most of the current instruments are not optimised for these high-precision measurements, either they have a large read-out overhead to reduce the readnoise and/or their field-of-view is limited, preventing simultaneous observations of both the target and a reference star. Recently we have proposed a new wide-field imager for the Observatoir de Mont-Megantic optimised for these bright systems (PI: Jayawardhana). The instruments has a dual beam design and a field-of-view of 17' by 17'. The cameras have a read-out time of 2 seconds, significantly reducing read-out overheads. Over the past years we have obtained significant experience with how to reach the high precision required for the characterisation of exoplanet atmospheres. Based on our experience we provide the following advice: Get the best calibrations possible. In the case of bad weather, characterise the instrument (e.g. non-linearity, dome flats, bias level), this is vital for better understanding of the science data. Observe the target for as long as possible, the out-of-transit baseline is as important as the transit/eclipse itself. A short baseline can lead to improperly corrected systematic and mis-estimation of the red-noise. Keep everything (e.g. position on detector, exposure time) as stable as possible. Take care that the defocus is not too strong. For a large defocus, the contribution of the total flux from the sky-background in the aperture could well exceed that of the target, resulting in very strict requirements on the precision at which the background is measured.

  17. Deepest Near-IR Surface Photometry of Galaxies in the Local Sphere of Influence

    E-print Network

    Emma Kirby; Helmut Jerjen; Stuart Ryder; Simon Driver

    2007-09-14

    We present near-IR, deep (4 mag deeper than 2MASS) imaging of 56 Local Volume galaxies. Global parameters such as total magnitudes and stellar masses have been derived and the new near-IR data combined with existing 21cm and optical B-band data. We present multiwavelength relations such as the HI mass-to-light ratio and investigate the maximum total baryonic mass a galaxy can have.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiband surface photometry of 21 BCGs (Micheva+ 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheva, G.; Ostlin, G.; Zackrisson, E.; Bergvall, N.; Marquart, T.; Masegosa, J.; Marquez, I.; Cumming, R. J.; Durret, F.

    2013-07-01

    The data consist of optical and NIR broadband imaging (UBVRIHKs), obtained during the period 2003-2007 with ALFOSC (at the Nordic Optical Telescope, NOT, La Palma), MOSCA (NOT), and EMMI (at the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, ESO NTT, La Silla) in the optical, and with NOTCAM (NOT) and SOFI (ESO NTT) in the NIR. Very deep observations are of a volume-limited sample of 21 Blue Compact Galaxies (Emission line galaxies). The images are reduced (bias correction, flatfielding, normalized, aligned, skysubtracted). Calibration to the Vega photometric system in the optical based on Landolt standard stars; in the NIR on 2MASS field stars found in each frame. Total exposure time (seconds) in each filter and galaxy is included in each FITS header as TOTALTIM. Cosmic rays have not been removed. (4 data files).

  19. CCD surface photometry of the edge-on galaxy NGC 6835

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, M.F.S.; Pastoriza, M.G.; Kepler, S.O. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ. Federal, Porto Alegre (Brazil))

    1990-06-01

    CCD frames in the B, V, R, and I passbands were obtained for the nearly edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 6835. The frames were analyzed to derive standard geometric and photometric parameters as well as luminosity and color distributions. The analysis of the luminosity profiles shows the existence of a flattened bulge and an exponential disk. The face-on parameters of the disk were obtained from a fit of an exponential disk seen edge-on to the observed data. The distribution of color indices along the major axis shows a pronounced blue gradient toward the nucleus, which is interpreted as a region of recent stellar formation. 23 refs.

  20. Photometry and surface mapping of asteroid (1) Ceres from HST observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-Y. Li; L. A. McFadden; J. Wm. Parker; E. F. Young; S. A. Stern; P. C. Thomas; C. T. Russell; M. V. Sykes

    2006-01-01

    The largest asteroid of the solar system and one of the two targets of NASA s Dawn mission 1 Ceres has been observed by Hubble Space Telescope HST with the Advanced Camera for Survey ACS at three wavelengths 535 nm 335 nm and 223 nm at a pixel scale of about 30 km pix The disk-resolved photometric analysis has been

  1. Halpha surface photometry of galaxies in nearby clusters. V: the survey completion

    E-print Network

    G. Gavazzi; A. Boselli; L. Cortese; I. Arosio; A. Gallazzi; P. Pedotti; L. Carrasco

    2005-11-25

    We present the Halpha imaging observations of 273 late-type galaxies in the nearby rich galaxy clusters Virgo, A1367, Coma, Cancer, Hercules and in the Great Wall, carried out primarily with the 2.1m telescope of the San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM) and with the ESO/3.6m telescope. We derived the Halpha+[NII] fluxes and equivalent widths. The Halpha survey reached completion for an optically selected sample of nearby galaxies in and outside rich clusters. Taking advantage of the completeness of the data set, the dependence of Halpha properties on the Hubble type was determined for late-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Differences in the gaseous content partly account for the large scatter of the Halpha E.W. within each Hubble-type class. We studied the radial distributions of the Halpha E.W. around Coma+A1367 and the Virgo clusters in two luminosity bins. Luminous galaxies show a decrease in their average Halpha E.W. in the inner 1 virial radius, while low-luminosity galaxies do not show this trend.

  2. Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Szymon Gladysz; Julian C. Christou

    2009-07-14

    We propose a complete framework for the detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions from a sequence of adaptive optics corrected short exposures. The algorithms exploit the difference in statistics between the on-axis and off-axis intensity. Using moderate-Strehl ratio data obtained with the natural guide star adaptive optics system on the Lick Observatory's 3-m Shane Telescope, we compare these methods to the standard approach of PSF fitting. We give detection limits for the Lick system, as well as a first guide to expected accuracy of differential photometry and astrometry with the new techniques. The proposed approach to detection offers a new way of determining dynamic range, while the new algorithms for differential photometry and astrometry yield accurate results for very faint and close-in companions where PSF fitting fails. All three proposed algorithms are self-calibrating, i.e. they do not require observation of a calibration star thus improving the observing efficiency.

  3. Optical BVRI photometry of common proper motion F/G/K+M wide separation binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77840 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V – R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V – I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  4. STAR CLUSTERS IN M33: UPDATED UBVRI PHOTOMETRY, AGES, METALLICITIES, AND MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); De Grijs, Richard, E-mail: zfan@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-01

    The photometric characterization of M33 star clusters is far from complete. In this paper, we present homogeneous UBVRI photometry of 708 star clusters and cluster candidates in M33 based on archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the galaxy's major axis. Our photometry includes 387, 563, 616, 580, and 478 objects in the UBVRI bands, respectively, of which 276, 405, 430, 457, and 363 do not have previously published UBVRI photometry. Our photometry is consistent with previous measurements (where available) in all filters. We adopted Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry for complementary purposes, as well as Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared JHK photometry where available. We fitted the spectral-energy distributions of 671 star clusters and candidates to derive their ages, metallicities, and masses based on the updated PARSEC simple stellar populations synthesis models. The results of our ?{sup 2} minimization routines show that only 205 of the 671 clusters (31%) are older than 2 Gyr, which represents a much smaller fraction of the cluster population than that in M31 (56%), suggesting that M33 is dominated by young star clusters (<1 Gyr). We investigate the mass distributions of the star clusters—both open and globular clusters—in M33, M31, the Milky Way, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Their mean values are log (M {sub cl}/M {sub ?}) = 4.25, 5.43, 2.72, and 4.18, respectively. The fraction of open to globular clusters is highest in the Milky Way and lowest in M31. Our comparisons of the cluster ages, masses, and metallicities show that our results are basically in agreement with previous studies (where objects in common are available); differences can be traced back to differences in the models adopted, the fitting methods used, and stochastic sampling effects.

  5. Precision of a Low-Cost InGaAs Detector for Near Infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2013-09-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an InGaAs near-infrared camera to explore whether low-cost detectors can make small (? 1 m) telescopes capable of precise (< 1 mmag) infrared photometry of relatively bright targets. The camera is constructed around the 640 × 512 pixel APS640C sensor built by FLIR Electro-Optical Components. We designed custom analog-to-digital electronics for maximum stability and minimum noise. The InGaAs dark current halves with every 7°C of cooling, and we reduce it to 840 e- s-1 pixel-1 (with a pixel-to-pixel variation of ± 200 e- s-1 pixel-1) by cooling the array to -20°C. Beyond this point, glow from the readout dominates. The single-sample read noise of 149 e- is reduced to 54 e- through up-the-ramp sampling. Laboratory testing with a star field generated by a lenslet array shows that two-star differential photometry is possible to a precision of 631 ± 205 ppm (0.68 mmag) hr-1/2 at a flux of 2.4 × 104 e- s-1. Employing three comparison stars and decorrelating reference signals further improves the precision to 483 ± 161 ppm (0.52 mmag) hr-1/2. Photometric observations of HD80606 and HD80607 (J = 7.7 and 7.8) in the Y band shows that differential photometry to a precision of 415 ppm (0.45 mmag) hr-1/2 is achieved with an effective telescope aperture of 0.25 m. Next-generation InGaAs detectors should indeed enable Poisson-limited photometry of brighter dwarfs with particular advantage for late-M and L types. In addition, one might acquire near-infrared photometry simultaneously with optical photometry or radial velocity measurements to maximize the return of exoplanet searches with small telescopes.

  6. Star Clusters in M33: Updated UBVRI Photometry, Ages, Metallicities, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhou; de Grijs, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The photometric characterization of M33 star clusters is far from complete. In this paper, we present homogeneous UBVRI photometry of 708 star clusters and cluster candidates in M33 based on archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg2 along the galaxy's major axis. Our photometry includes 387, 563, 616, 580, and 478 objects in the UBVRI bands, respectively, of which 276, 405, 430, 457, and 363 do not have previously published UBVRI photometry. Our photometry is consistent with previous measurements (where available) in all filters. We adopted Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry for complementary purposes, as well as Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared JHK photometry where available. We fitted the spectral-energy distributions of 671 star clusters and candidates to derive their ages, metallicities, and masses based on the updated PARSEC simple stellar populations synthesis models. The results of our ?2 minimization routines show that only 205 of the 671 clusters (31%) are older than 2 Gyr, which represents a much smaller fraction of the cluster population than that in M31 (56%), suggesting that M33 is dominated by young star clusters (<1 Gyr). We investigate the mass distributions of the star clusters—both open and globular clusters—in M33, M31, the Milky Way, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Their mean values are log (M cl/M ?) = 4.25, 5.43, 2.72, and 4.18, respectively. The fraction of open to globular clusters is highest in the Milky Way and lowest in M31. Our comparisons of the cluster ages, masses, and metallicities show that our results are basically in agreement with previous studies (where objects in common are available); differences can be traced back to differences in the models adopted, the fitting methods used, and stochastic sampling effects.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV(RI)c photometry of Stock 16 (Vazquez+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Feinstein, C.; Nunez, J. A.; Vergne, M. M.

    2005-02-01

    CCD UBV(RI)c imaging photometry was carried out in the field of Stock 16 along two observational runs at the University of Toronto Southern Observatory, Las Campanas, Chile, using the Hellen Sawyer Hogg 60-cm telescope: on the nights of 1994 April 13, 14 and 16, we obtained UBVRI photometry for four frames with the nitrogen-cooled detector PM METHACROME UV coated (0.45"/pix) covering 4' on a side; three more frames were exposed on the nights of 1996 February 25 and 26 in the UBV(I)c bands (this time, the detector was glycol-refrigerated). (1 data file).

  8. U - B - V photometry of the spectroscopic-visual triple HD 165590

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bruton; D. S. Hall; L. J. Boyd; R. M. Genet; R. D. Lines; H. C. Lines; C. D. Scarfe

    1989-01-01

    HD 165590 is a visual binary (dG0 + dG5,P = 20.y25,e = 0.96) whoseA component is an SB1 double (dG5 + dM:P = 0.d88,e˜0.0). TheA pair (Aa +Ab) undergoes partial eclipses. PhotoelectricUBV photometry from Lines and one of the Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes, andV photometry from Scarfe are examined here. The data are from the 1977, 1984, 1985, and 1986 observing

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of Cepheids in Magellanic Clouds (Moffett+ 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, T. J.; Gieren, W. P.; Barnes, T. G., III; Gomez, M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we present the new photometric data, demonstrate the consistency among the data obtained from CCD and aperture photometry, and determine improved periods for all of the variables. In follow-up papers we will use these observations to determine individual Cepheid distances and radii from the visual surface brightness technique and also from the infrared surface brightness technique (Welch 1994AJ....108.1421W; Fouque & Gieren 1997A&A...320..799F). Table 1 gives our final photometric results. All entries in Table 1 having B magnitudes are CCD observations (CTIO), and the ones lacking B magnitudes are photoelectric observations (ESO). The uncertainties in the CCD results are dominated by the uncertainty in the aperture correction. The standard deviation in the comparison stars on a particular image is typically +/-0.004 mag and always less than +/-0.01 mag. The aperture correction to the zero point of each frame is estimated to be better than +/-0.01 mag. We adopt +/-0.01 mag as the typical uncertainty in all magnitudes. For the photoelectric observations, we inferred the uncertainties from scatter in the observations of the Cepheids themselves, finding +/-0.010 mag in V and +/-0.012 mag in R and I. We combined our new photometry with existing photoelectric photometry from the literature to determine a new period for each Cepheid. This was greatly aided by the McMaster Cepheid Data Archive maintained by Doug Welch at http://www.physics.mcmaster.ca/Cepheid/. (The data reported here will be added to the McMaster archive.) Periods were found using an algorithm due to T. Deeming given in Bopp et al. (1970MNRAS.147..355B) and are listed in Table 2. The uncertainty of each period is reflected in the number of digits given in the table. For most of the Cepheids in our sample, the new periods lead to excellent light curves of very low scatter, which indicates that the periods for these variables are both correct and stable over the time of our observations. For the Cepheids with comments in Table 2, however, the periods appear to be changing in time. The existing data set is insufficient to describe fully the nature of these period changes. Also in Table 2 we compare our intensity mean V magnitudes with those from the literature, as represented by an extensive, private data base maintained by J.A.R. Caldwell (1997, private communication). The intensity means were determined from Fourier fits to the (intensity-converted) light curves. The agreement is very good. The mean difference between the data sets is -0.005 mag, and the standard deviation is 0.019 mag. For Cepheids with the best new data, we have listed a value to 0.001 mag, while for stars with less complete light curves, the values are listed to 0.01 mag only. Table 2: New Periods and Mean V Magnitudes for Magellanic Cloud Cepheids Period V(new) V(SAAO) Cepheid (days) Comment (mag) (mag) --------------------------------------------------------- LMC --------------------------------------------------------- HV 879... 36.827 13.332 13.35 HV 883... 133.585 12.14 HV 899... 31.0461 13.433 13.43 HV 900... 47.5085 12.766 12.78 HV 909... 37.5654 12.774 12.74 HV 2257... 39.3699 13.031 13.06 HV 2338... 42.1944 12.759 12.78 HV 2447... 118.3115 11.990 12.00 HV 2827... 78.77 Variable? 12.280 12.30 HV 2864... 10.9845 14.651 14.65 HV 2883... 108.968 12.41 HV 5497... 98.975 Variable? 11.92 11.94 HV 12815.. 26.1157 13.506 13.48 HV 12816.. 9.1089 14.500 14.52 --------------------------------------------------------- SMC --------------------------------------------------------- HV 821... 127.314 Variable? 11.93 11.94 HV 824... 65.8635 12.36 12.37 HV 829... 85.199 Variable? 11.93 11.91 HV 834... 73.639 Variable? 12.21 12.21 HV 837... 42.6954 13.24 13.23 HV 1338... 8.49503 15.12 15.16 HV 1365... 12.4117 Variable? 15.04 15.02 HV 11157.. 69.0872 12.93 12.94 (1 data file).

  10. Results of near-Earth-asteroid photometry in the frame of the ASPIN programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugly, Y.; Molotov, I.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Aivazyan, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Belskaya, I.; Golubaev, A.; Sergeev, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Slyusarev, I.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, S.; Elenin, L.; Voropaev, V.; Koupianov, V.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Baransky, A.; Irsmambetova, T.; Litvinenko, E.; Aliev, A.; Namkhai, T.

    2014-07-01

    Regular photometric observations aimed for obtaining physical properties of near-Earth asteroids (NEA) are carried out within the Asteroid Search and Photometry Initiative (ASPIN) of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON). At present, ISON project joins 35 observation facilities in 15 countries with 80 telescopes of different class. Photometric observations of NEAs are carried out at the telescopes with apertures from 20 cm up to 2.6 m equipped with CCD cameras. The obtained lightcurves in the Johnson-Cousins photometric system or in exceptional cases in the integral light (unfiltered photometry) have typical photometric accuracy of 0.01-0.03 mag. The main targets of these observations are near-Earth asteroids as hazardous objects pose a threat for the Earth civilization. The main purpose of the observations is to study characteristics of asteroids such as rotation period, size, and shape of the body, and surface composition. The observations are aimed toward searching binary asteroids, supporting the asteroid radar observations and investigation of the YORP effect. In 2013, we have observed 40 near-Earth asteroids in more than 200 nights. The rotation periods have been determined for 14 NEAs for the first time and, for 6 NEAs, rotation periods were defined more precisely. New rotation periods have been obtained for objects from Aten group: (137805) 1999 YK_5, (329437) 2002 OA_{22}, (367943) Duende (2012 DA_{14}); Apollo: (17188) 1999 WC_2, (137126) 1999 CF_9, (163249) 2002 GT, (251346) 2007 SJ, 2013 TV_{135}; Amor: (9950) ESA, (24445) 2000 PM_8, (137199) 1999 KX_4, (285263) 1998 QE_2, (361071) 2006 AO_4, 2010 XZ_{67}, and refined for (1943) Anteros, (3361) Orpheus, (3752) Camillo, (7888) 1993 UC, (53435) 1999 VM_{40}, (68216) 2001 CV_{26}. NEAs (7888) 1993 UC and (68216) 2001 CV_{26} were found to show signs of a binary nature. To detect possible binary asteroids, we observe the object during several consecutive nights and at several observatories located at different longitudes. In particular, to cover a long time interval and not to miss the eclipse/occultation minima, the binary NEA (285263) 1998 QE_2 has been observed in close dates in Ukraine, Georgia, Tajikistan, Mongolia, the Far East of Russia, and Mexico. To test an influence of the YORP effect on the spin rates, the lightcurves of NEAs (2100) Ra-Shalom, 88710 2001 SL_9, and (138852) 2000 WN_{10} have been obtained. The observations of small NEAs (with diameters smaller 200 m) have revealed very fast rotating NEAs with rotation periods smaller than 2.2 hours for (363305) 2002 NV_{16}, 2000 KA, and 2013 QR_1. Many of our targets were also the targets of the radar observations in the Arecibo and the Goldstone. The obtained results will be presented and the perspectives of the ASPIN programme will be discussed.

  11. 2MASS NIR photometry for 693 candidate globular clusters in M 31 and the Revised Bologna Catalogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Galleti; L. Federici; M. Bellazzini; F. Fusi Pecci; S. Macrina

    2004-01-01

    We have identified in the 2MASS database 693 known and candidate globular clusters in M 31. The 2MASS J, H, K magnitudes of these objects have been transformed to the same homogeneous photometric system of existing near infrared photometry of M 31 globulars, finally yielding J, H, K integrated photometry for 279 confirmed M 31 clusters, 406 unconfirmed candidates and

  12. Information limit optimisation techniques applied to recent photometry of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Timothy; Budding, Edwin

    1990-04-01

    An algebraic approach originally intended for the heuristic modeling of the maculation effects of chromospherically active stars has been used to model the rotational modulation of Pluto's light. Two dark spots were found to model the 1982.2 data of Binzel and Mulholland (1983) best. These parameters are in reasonable agreement with the other published models of Pluto's surface for the data; however, this model cannot be well reconciled with older data sets. A possible solution is dynamic behavior of the dark features themselves, increasing in radius as perihelion is approached. A minimum in the introduction of ad hoc surface feature hypothesis is stressed in this treatment.

  13. The X-shaped Milky Way bulge in OGLE-III photometry and in N-body models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, David M.; Udalski, Andrzej; Skowron, Jan; Szyma?ski, Micha? K.; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzy?ski, Grzegorz; Soszy?ski, Igor; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, ?ukasz; Poleski, Rados?aw; Athanassoula, E.; Ness, Melissa; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2015-02-01

    We model the split red clump of the Galactic bulge in OGLE-III photometry, and compare the results to predictions from two N-body models. Our analysis yields precise maps of the brightness of the two red clumps, the fraction of stars in the more distant peak, and their combined surface density. We compare the observations to predictions from two N-body models previously used in the literature. Both models correctly predict several features as long as one assumes an angle ?Bar ? 30° between the Galactic bar's major axis and the line of sight to the Galactic Centre. In particular that the fraction of stars in the faint red clump should decrease with increasing longitude. The biggest discrepancies between models and data are in the rate of decline of the combined surface density of red clump stars towards negative longitudes and of the brightness difference between the two red clumps towards positive longitudes, with neither discrepancy exceeding ˜25 per cent in amplitude. Our analysis of the red giant luminosity function also yields an estimate of the red giant branch bump parameters towards these high-latitude fields, and evidence for a high rate (˜25 per cent) of disc contamination in the bulge at the colour and magnitude of the red clump, with the disc contamination rate increasing towards sightlines further distant from the plane.

  14. CCD photometry of the Wolf Rayet galaxy Mink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Sanwal, B. B.; Stalin, C. S.

    2000-06-01

    We present here the results from B and V photometric observations of the Wolf Rayet galaxy Mink which was observed through the 104 cm telescope of U.P. State Observatory using 1K x 1K CCD. The surface brightness profiles in B and V filters and the contour map in B filter are given.

  15. Incorporating Watershed-Scale Groundwater/Surface Water Interactions to Better Understand How ENSO/PDO Teleconnections Affect Streamflow Variability in Geologically Complex, Semiarid, Snow-Dominated Mountainous Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In the Southwestern U.S., warm anomalies in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with increased probability of wetter than normal winter precipitation. For semiarid, snow-dominated mountainous watersheds, teleconnections, such as ENSO, may strongly affect the magnitude and timing of snowmelt pulses in streamflow. In examining stream-gage data, an implicit assumption is made that all the streamflow generation processes operative within the watershed are captured by the stream gage. However, zones of strong groundwater discharge to the stream alternating with zones of strong recharge from the stream may emerge in geologically complex watersheds. The spatial complexity of these groundwater/surface water interactions may not be captured in the stream-gage discharge data. This may not be a problem in watersheds where streamflow is generated primarily by shallow, fast runoff processes. In that case, changes associated with ENSO can be quickly apparent in streamflow (i.e., an increase in snowpack associated with warm ENSO anomalies will quickly translate to increases in daily and peak streamflow). However, the spatial complexity of groundwater/surface water interactions creates a problem in geologically complex watersheds where interactions with deep, regional groundwater are present. In this case, we test the hypothesis that the combined effect of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions creates phase shifts between peak snowpack, onset and peak of snowmelt pulses, and teleconnection indices. Using time-series analysis, the relationships between teleconnections, and metrics for snowpack and streamflow are evaluated for selected watersheds in New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. A phase shift (lag) is observed between the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) and onset and peak of snowmelt pulses in streamflow in snow-dominated watersheds with complex geology across scales of 50 to 1600 km2. Additionally, strong relationships between teleconnections and streamflow are not observed at larger snow-dominated watersheds with known significant deep groundwater contributions. We conclude that the effects of complex geology and deep groundwater interactions must be considered when quantifying the effects of ENSO and other teleconnections on the timing of the onset of the snowmelt pulse.

  16. AN UPDATED CATALOG OF M33 CLUSTERS AND CANDIDATES: UBVRI PHOTOMETRY AND SOME STATISTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jun, E-mail: majun@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-08-15

    We present UBVRI photometry for 392 star clusters and candidates in the field of M33, which are selected from the most recent star cluster catalog. In this catalog, the authors listed star clusters' parameters such as cluster positions, magnitudes, colors in the UBVRIJHK{sub s} filters, and so on. However, a large fraction of objects in this catalog do not have previously published photometry. Photometry is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements. Positions (right ascension and declination) for some clusters are corrected here. Combined with previous literature, ours constitute a large sample of M33 star clusters. Based on this cluster sample, we present some statistical results: none of the youngest M33 clusters ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) have masses approaching 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} ; roughly half the star clusters are consistent with the 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} mass models; the continuous distribution of star clusters along the model line indicates that M33 star clusters have been formed continuously from the epoch of the first star cluster formation until recent times; and there are {approx}50 star clusters which are overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters on the color-color diagram, and these clusters are old globular cluster candidates in M33.

  17. Physical studies of asteroids. XXV - Photoelectric photometry of asteroids obtained at ESO and Hoher List Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Magnusson, P.; Debehogne, H.; Hoffmann, M.; Erikson, A.; de Campos, A.; Cutispoto, G.

    1992-11-01

    Photoelectric photometry of 14 asteroids, carried out at ESO and the Hoher List Observatory during 1990 and 1991, are presented. Composite lightcurves were derived for the asteroids 140 Siwa, 238 Hypatia, 347 Pariana, 389 Industria and 1593 Fagnes. UBV colors are also given for ten of the asteroids.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI differential photometry of GW Gem (Lee+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Kim, H.-I.; Park, J.-H.; Park, S.-R.; Koch, R. H.

    2009-04-01

    Our CCD photometry of GW Gem was performed on 13 nights during the period 2007 December 20-2008 March 1 in order to obtain multicolor light curves. The observations were taken with a SITe 2K CCD camera and a BVRI filter set attached to the 61-cm reflector at Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. (1 data file).

  19. Major Features of the CCD Photometry Software Data Acquisition and Reduction Package Distributed by Optec, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Jon

    The CCD Photometry Software Data Acquisition and Reduction Package, by Optec Inc., is a three-program software package designed for collecting and analyzing images made by most commercially available CCD cameras. The software runs on any IBM AT-class computer with EGA or better graphics and a hard drive. Some of the important features of the programs are discussed.

  20. UBVRI Photometry of Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    In this study multi-aperture photo electric photometry in the five passbands UBVRI for 171 and 46 galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax clusters, respectively, are presented. New radial velocities and H I profiles for 17 galaxies in Fornax have been obtained. Total magnitudes and colours are derived for around 800 individual measurements using standard growth curves in B, U-B and

  1. Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve B. Howell; Kenneth J. Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    Differential photometric time series obtained from CCD frames are tested for intrinsic variability using a newly developed analysis of variance technique. In general, the objects used for differential photometry will not all be of equal magnitude, so the techniques derived here explicitly correct for differences in the measured variances due to photon statistics. Other random-noise terms are also considered. The

  2. Liverpool Telescope Optical Photometry Following the 2006 Outburst of RS Ophiuchi

    E-print Network

    M. J. Darnley; R. A. Hounsell; M. F. Bode

    2008-09-26

    We present a preliminary report on the broadband optical photometry of the 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. These data were obtained using the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope and cover the outburst from day 27 through day 548.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVRIJHK photometry of RR Lyrae in M4 (Stetson+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, P. B.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Neeley, J.

    2014-11-01

    Our optical observations of M4 consist of 5003 individual CCD images obtained during the course of 18 observing runs between 1994 and 2010. The infrared photometry for M4 consisted of 55 datasets from 18 observing runs between 2002 and 2012. (6 data files).

  4. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the ...

  5. The Gaia Mission and the Asteroids. A perspective from space astrometry and photometry

    E-print Network

    The Gaia Mission and the Asteroids. A perspective from space astrometry and photometry for asteroids studies and science. Daniel Hestroffer1 , Aldo dell'Oro2,1 , Alberto Cellino2 , Paolo Tanga3 1 clouds. Somewhat closer, Gaia will also provide major improvements in the science of asteroids, and more

  6. Analysis of Astrometry and Photometry Observations of Asteroids at the RTT150

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Analysis of Astrometry and Photometry Observations of Asteroids at the RTT150 Ivantsov, A.1 with unprecedented precision. Beside stars, the Gaia will observe asteroids with unprecedented precision from 0 asteroids with a relative precision better than 50% is expected in 5 years of Gaia operation (Mouret et al

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stroemgren photometry of V2109 Cyg (Rodriguez+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Costa, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, M. J.; Sareyan, J. P.

    2003-06-01

    The photometric observations were collected through the years 1999 to 2001 at Sierra Nevada Observatory (SNO), Spain (ubvy? measurements using the 0.9m telescope) and in 2000 at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPMO), Mexico (uvby photometry using the 1.5m telescope). (3 data files).

  8. Photometry and coherence: wave aspects of the theory of radiation transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L A Apresyan; Yu A Kravtsov

    1984-01-01

    The problem is discussed of the statistical and wave content of photometric concepts. The photometric and statistical definitions of the concept of radiance of illumination are treated. We stress that photometry describes the limiting case of a statistically quasihomogeneous and quasistationary wave field. The relationship of the phenomenological and statistical approaches to the theory of radiation transport is traced with

  9. Uvby-beta photometry of stars in the direction of the association Perseus OB 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydgren, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    The interstellar absorption in the direction of association Perseus OB 2 is studied by uvby-beta photometry of 35 early-type stars in four fields. Most of the obscuration seems to be concentrated between 100 and 200 parsecs from the sun, rather than between 200 and 300 parsecs as previously suggested by Lynds (1969).

  10. ASTROMETRY AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF NEPTUNE'S INNER SATELLITES AND RING ARCS

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Glenn

    ASTROMETRY AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF NEPTUNE'S INNER SATELLITES AND RING ARCS Christophe, and Despina) and ring arcs of Neptune, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and its near-infrared camera- ing within the ring region of Neptune have a near-infrared albedo consistently low, but higher than

  11. Review of "Multicolor Photometry of Long Period Variables" by Mendoza (1967)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2011-04-01

    I reflect on E. E. Mendoza, 1967, BOTT, 4, 28, 114 which is a landmark paper on UBVRIJHKLM photometry of a large and diverse sample of long period variables, including his observations and results. I briefly describe our present understanding of the nature and importance of these stars, and the relevant work of my group.

  12. Stellar angular diameters from infrared photometry - Application to Arcturus and other stars; with effective temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Blackwell; M. J. Shallis

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining stellar angular diameters from absolute infrared photometry is described, and an application made to Arcturus and 27 other stars. The accuracy of the method in the best conditions using present observations is about 5 per cent, although higher accuracy is possible. The diameter deduced for Arcturus is 0.0201 plus or minus 0.0010 arcsec, corresponding to an

  13. Towards using optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperature of O stars

    E-print Network

    J. Maíz Apellániz; A. Sota

    2007-02-20

    It has been traditionally stated that it is not possible to use optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperatures of O stars. In this contribution we describe the steps required to overcome the hurdles that have prevented this from happening in the past and we present our preliminary results for the low-extinction case.

  14. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    SciTech Connect

    Torgomyan, Heghine [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia)] [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Trchounian, Armen, E-mail: Trchounian@ysu.am [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia)] [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. {yields} Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. {yields} EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. {yields} EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. {yields} The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm{sup -2}) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12({lambda}). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  15. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  16. AMUSE-VIRGO. III: mid-infrared photometry of early-type galaxies and limits on obscured nuclear emission

    E-print Network

    Leipski, Christian; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Miller, Brendan P; Antonucci, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We complete our census of low-level nuclear activity in Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies by searching for obscured emission using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared (MIR) imaging at 24mu. Of a total sample of 95 early-type galaxies, 53 objects are detected, including 16 showing kiloparsec-scale dust in optical images. One dimensional and two dimensional surface photometry of the 37 detections without extended dust features reveals that the MIR light is more centrally concentrated than the optical light as traced by Hubble Space Telescope F850LP-band images. No such modeling was performed for the sources with dust detected in the optical images. We explore several possible sources of the MIR excess emission, including obscured nuclear emission. We find that radial metallicity gradients in the stellar population appear to be a natural and most likely explanation for the observed behavior in a majority of the sources. Alternatively, if the concentrated MIR emission were due to nuclear activity, it would imply...

  17. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxies. 1: Observations, discussion, and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Walter; Ford, Holland C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bosch, Frank C. Van Den; Ferrarese, Laura

    1994-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope we have observed at 10 pc resolution the nuclei of a luminosity-limited sample of 14 E and E/SO galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with magnitudes B(sub T) = 9.4 to 13.4. In this paper we present the images, and discuss the results of the detailed analysis of the surface photometry given in two companion papers. We find that the nuclear and near-nuclear morphologies confirm and strengthen the previously recognized dichotomy of 'E' galaxies into 'true' and 'disky' subtypes. The latter, usually classified E4 or later, often show a bright nuclear disk of radius approximately 100 pc. Essentially all early-type galaxies with -18 greater than M(sub B) greater than -20 are disky. Most true E galaxies are classified E4 or earlier. Most galaxies of both types show dust in the nuclear regions, the most remarkable example being a compact dust disk in NGC 4261. Other than dust, no anomalies were detected in the centers of the three galaxies in our sample which show clear kinematic evidence for a decoupled component.

  18. Affective Learning — A Manifesto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R W Picard; S Papert; W Bender; B Blumberg; C Breazeal; D Cavallo; T Machover; M Resnick; D Roy; C Strohecker

    2004-01-01

    The use of the computer as a model, metaphor, and modelling tool has tended to privilege the 'cognitive' over the 'affective' by engendering theories in which thinking and learning are viewed as information processing and affect is ignored or marginalised. In the last decade there has been an accelerated flow of findings in multiple disciplines supporting a view of affect

  19. Newly Identified Star Clusters in M33. I. Integrated Photometry and Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    E-print Network

    Ata Sarajedini; M. K. Barker; Doug Geisler; Paul Harding; Robert Schommer

    2006-09-30

    We present integrated photometry and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 24 star clusters in M33, of which 12 were previously uncataloged. These results are based on Advanced Camera for Surveys observations from the Hubble Space Telescope of two fields in M33. Our integrated V magnitudes and V-I colors for the previously identified objects are in good agreement with published photometry. We are able to estimate ages for 21 of these clusters using features in the CMDs, including isochrone fitting to the main sequence turnoffs for 17 of the clusters. Comparisons of these ages with the clusters' integrated colors and magnitudes suggest that simple stellar population models perform reasonably well in predicting these properties.

  20. Multicolour time series photometry of the T Tauri star CVSO 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, C.

    2015-07-01

    Five consecutive runs of at least five hours, and two shorter runs, of V(RI)C time series photometry of CVSO 30 are presented. No evidence could be seen for planetary transits, previously claimed in the literature for this star. The photometry described in this paper, as well as earlier observations, can be modelled by two non-sinusoidal periodicities of 8 and 10.8 h (frequencies 3 and 2.23 d-1) or their 1 d-1 aliases. The possibility is discussed that star-spots at different latitudes of a differentially rotating star is responsible for the brightness modulations. The steep wavelength dependence of the variability amplitudes is best described by hot star-spots.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV(RI)c photometry of HIP red stars (Koen+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, C.; Kilkenny, D.; van Wyk, F.; Cooper, D.; Marang, F.

    2002-09-01

    We present homogeneous and standardized UBV(RI)c photomet nearly 550 M stars selected from the Hipparcos satellite data base (Cat. ) using the following selection criteria: lack of obvious variability (no Hipparcos variability flag); {delta}<+10{deg}, (V-I)>1.7; and V magnitude fainter than about 7.6. Comparisons are made between the current photometry, other ground-based data sets and Hipparcos photometry. We use linear discriminant analysis to determine a luminosity segregation criterion for late-type stars, and principal component analysis to study the statistical structure of the colour indices and to calibrate absolute magnitude in terms of (V-I) for the dwarf stars. Various methods are used to determine the mean absolute magnitude of the giant stars. We find 10 dwarf stars, apparently previously unrecognized (prior to Hipparcos) as being within 25pc, including five within 20pc. (3 data files).

  2. Time Series Photometry of the Cataclysmic Variable Systems VY Aquarii and V2491 Cygni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan T. Piwowar; M. A. Wood; E. Schwieterman; J. Patterson; B. Monard; R. Rea; D. Starkey; G. Roberts

    2009-01-01

    We present times series photometry on VY Aquarii and V2491 Cygni. We produced a lightcurve for VY Aquarii during its superoutburst and calculated a superhump period of 92.81 minutes. The decline of the superoutburst was also examined in VY Aquarii. The new classical nova V2491 Cygni was examined. Fourier analysis revealed no orbital period. The V2491 Cygni data was used

  3. In Pursuit of LSST Science Requirements: A Comparison of Photometry Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Andrew C. Becker; Nicole M. Silvestri; Russell E. Owen; Zeljko Ivezic; Robert H. Lupton

    2007-12-05

    We have developed an end-to-end photometric data processing pipeline to compare current photometric algorithms commonly used on ground-based imaging data. This testbed is exceedingly adaptable, and enables us to perform many research and development tasks, including image subtraction and co-addition, object detection and measurements, the production of photometric catalogs, and the creation and stocking of database tables with time-series information. This testing has been undertaken to evaluate existing photometry algorithms for consideration by a next-generation image processing pipeline for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We outline the results of our tests for four packages: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey's (SDSS) Photo package, Daophot and Allframe, DoPhot, and two versions of Source Extractor (SExtractor). The ability of these algorithms to perform point-source photometry, astrometry, shape measurements, star-galaxy separation, and to measure objects at low signal-to-noise is quantified. We also perform a detailed crowded field comparison of Daophot and Allframe, and profile the speed and memory requirements in detail for SExtractor. We find that both Daophot and Photo are able to perform aperture photometry to high enough precision to meet LSST's science requirements, and less adequately at PSF-fitting photometry. Photo performs the best at simultaneous point and extended-source shape and brightness measurements. SExtractor is the fastest algorithm, and recent upgrades in the software yield high-quality centroid and shape measurements with little bias towards faint magnitudes. Allframe yields the best photometric results in crowded fields.

  4. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Southworth; T. C. Hinse; U. G. Jørgensen; M. Dominik; D. Ricci; M. J. Burgdorf; A. Hornstrup; P. J. Wheatley; T. Anguita; V. Bozza; S. Calchi Novati; K. Harpsøe; P. Kjærgaard; C. Liebig; L. Mancini; G. Masi; M. Mathiasen; S. Rahvar; G. Scarpetta; C. Snodgrass; J. Surdej; C. C. Thöne; M. Zub

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread function approximated an annulus of diameter 40 pixel (16 arcsec). Data reduction was undertaken using standard aperture

  5. Infrared photometry of periodic comets Encke, Chernykh, Kearns-Kwee, Stephan-Oterma, and Tuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, H.; Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous photometry of the reflected and thermal infrared spectra of periodic comets Encke, Chernykh, Kearns-Kwee, Stephan-Oterma, and Tuttle are presented. The 10-micron silicate emission feature has been detected for the first time in periodic comets and was observed in three of these objects. The albedo of the dust particles in the comae of these comets is calculated and compared to that of Comet Kohoutek. The peculiar behavior of the dust in Comet Encke is discussed.

  6. Deep Wide Field BVI CCD Photometry of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung Gyoon Lee; Hong Soo Park; Jang-Hyun Park; Young-Jong Sohn; Seung Joon Oh; In-Soo Yuk; Soo-Chang Rey; Sang-Gak Lee; Young-Wook Lee; Ho-Il Kim; Wonyong Han; Won-Kee Park; Joon Hyeop Lee; Young-Beom Jeon; Sang Chul Kim

    2003-01-01

    We present deep wide field $VI$ CCD photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) in the Local Group, covering a field of 42' x 28' located at the center of the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of the Sextans dSph show well-defined red giant branch (RGB), blue horizontal branch (BHB), prominent red horizontal branch (RHB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), about 120

  7. Image-Subtraction Photometry of Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster NGC 6934

    E-print Network

    J. Kaluzny; A. Olech; K. Z. Stanek

    2000-10-17

    (Abridged) We present CCD BVI photometry of 85 variable stars from the field of the globular cluster NGC 6934. The photometry was obtained with the image subtraction package ISIS. 35 variables are new identifications: 24 RRab stars, 5 RRc stars, 2 eclipsing binaries of W UMa-type, one SX Phe star, and 3 variables of other types. Both detected contact binaries are foreground stars. The SX Phe variable belongs most likely to the group of cluster blue stragglers. Large number of newly found RR Lyr variables in this cluster, as well as in other clusters recently observed by us, indicates that total RR Lyr population identified up to date in nearby galactic globular clusters is significantly (>30%) incomplete. Fourier decomposition of the light curves of RRc variables was used to estimate the basic properties of these stars: M=0.63 M_odot, log(L/L_odot)=1.72, T_eff=7300 and Y=0.27. Using RRab variables we obtain: M_V=0.81, [Fe/H]=-1.53 and T_eff=6450. From the B-V color at minimum light of the RRab variables we obtained E(B-V)=0.09+-0.01. Different calibrations of absolute magnitudes of RRab and RRc available in literature were used to estimate apparent distance modulus of the cluster: (m-M)_V= 16.09+-0.06. We note a likely error in the zero point of the HST-based V-band photometry of NGC 6934 recently presented by Piotto et al. Among analyzed sample of RR Lyr stars we have detected a short period and low amplitude variable which possibly belongs to the group of second overtone pulsators (RRe subtype variables). The BVI photometry of all variables is available electronically via anonymous ftp. The complete set of the CCD frames is available upon request.

  8. FIRST MICROLENS MASS MEASUREMENT: PLANET PHOTOMETRY OF EROS BLG-2000-5 Jin H. An,1

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    FIRST MICROLENS MASS MEASUREMENT: PLANET PHOTOMETRY OF EROS BLG-2000-5 Jin H. An,1 M. D. Albrow,2,3 J.-P. Beaulieu,4 J. A. R. Caldwell,5 D. L. DePoy,1 M. Dominik,6 B. S. Gaudi,7,8 A. Gould,1 J-crossing binary lens microlensing event, EROS BLG-2000-5, and find that modeling the observed light curve requires

  9. Multicolour photometry of the M0V+M5V eclipsing binary V405 And

    E-print Network

    K. Vida; K. Olah; Zs. Kovari; J. Bartus

    2010-05-14

    We present multicolour photometry and modelling of the active eclipsing binary star V405 And. The components of 0.2 and 0.5 solar masses are just below and above the theoretical limit of the full convection, that is thought to be around 0.3 solar mass. The light curves are compositions of constant and variable features: the distorted shape of the components (about 25%), a small eclipse, and mainly of spots (about 75%) and flares.

  10. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E. (Ministerio de Educacion de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    1990-06-01

    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs.

  11. uvby-beta photometry of metal-poor stars. VIII. (Schuster+ 1996)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Schuster; P. E. Nissen; L. Parrao; T. C. Beers; L. P. Overgaard

    1997-01-01

    A catalogue of uvby-{beta} photometry for 87 of the turn-off and subgiant stars from the HK survey of Beers et al. (1992AJ....103.1987B, BPSII) is given. Most of these stars have [Fe\\/H]<=2.5. These photometric data have been taken and reduced using the same techniques as in our previous two uvby-{beta} catalogues (Schuster et al., 1989, Cat. and Schuster et al., 1993,

  12. Instrument development for high-speed infrared and optical photometry and observational studies of pulsars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Sik Moon

    2004-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first hart, we present the development of instruments for high-speed infrared and optical photometry optimized for pulsar observations. In the second part, we present observational studies of pulsars, mainly on accretion- powered pulsars but also on rotation-powered pulsars. For the instrument development, we first built the Cornell High-Speed Data Acquisition System (CHISDAS)

  13. Performance of absorption photometry microchip for blood hemoglobin measurement integrated with processing circuits and Si(1 1 0) 45° mirrors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Noda; Hidekuni Takao; Kazunori Yoshioka; Narihiro Oku; Mitsuaki Ashiki; Kazuaki Sawada; Koichi Matsumoto; Makoto Ishida

    2006-01-01

    In this study, advantages of optical path extension in absorption photometry microchip for highly sensitive hemoglobin measurement have been demonstrated. Stability in repetitive measurement is evaluated with real blood samples. Long optical path (5mm) is realized on the microchip for highly sensitive absorption photometry. Two 45° mirrors are fabricated in ‘Multi-layered smart-MEMS structure’ to form a long optical path. Different

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR photometry in VVV CL08 (Ramirez Alegria+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Alegria, S.; Borissova, J.; Chene, A. N.; O'Leary, E.; Amigo, P.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Geisler, D.; Kurtev, R.; Hempel, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Fierro, C.; Bonatto, C.; Catelan, M.

    2014-03-01

    Near infrared (J, H and Ks) photometry for the cluster most probable members. We use the VVV-SkZ pipeline (Mauro et al. 2013RMxAA..49..189M), to measure the photometry over the VVV stacked images. We determine the most probable members using the decontamination algorithm from Bonatto & Bica (2010A&A...516A..81B), as described by Borissova et al. (2011, Cat. J/A+A/532/A131). (1 data file).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer photometry of globulars in 2 galaxies (Spitler+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. R.; Forbes, D. A.; Beasley, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    Catalogues are described in Spitler et al. (2008MNRAS.389.1150S) All photometry is corrected for Galactic dust extinction and are on the Vega photometric system. NGC 5128 optical photometry is from Peng et al. (2004ApJS..150..367P), as compiled in Woodley et al. (2007AJ....134..494W). Globular cluster identification numbers are from Woodley et al. (2007, Cat. J/AJ/134/494). NGC 4594 optical photometry is from Spitler et al. (2006AJ....132.1593S) updated with new aperture corrections as described in Harris et al. (2010MNRAS.401.1965H). Identification number, globular cluster half-light radii and the assumed distance modulus for the half-light radii are from Spitler et al. (2006, Cat. J/AJ/132/1593). A ultra-compact dwarf galaxy is included in this catalogue with ID="ucd" (see also Hau et al. 2009MNRAS.394L..97H). (2 data files).

  16. Spectral photometry of extreme helium stars: Ultraviolet fluxes and effective temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Heber, U.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the extremely helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broad band photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective temperatures are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broad band photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict temperatures around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric temperatures of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new temperature scale for extreme helium stars extends to lower effective temperatures than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K.

  17. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Photometry of 500 - 750 K Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Burningham, B.; Delfosse, X.; Delorme, P.; Forveille, T.; Lucas, P. W.; Marley, M. S.; Pinfield, D. J.; Reylé, C.; Saumon, D.; Smart, R. L.; Warren, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (Teff) drops from 800 K to 400 K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3?m increases rapidly, from about 40% to >75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon & Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5]>3.2 and Teff ?500 K to 750 K. Note: This is an updated version of Leggett et al. (2010a); a photometry compilation is available at www.gemini.edu/staff/sleggett.

  18. New 1982-1990 photometry of Lambda Andromedae and its 11-year cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Henry, Gregory W.; Boehme, Dietmar; Brooks, Peter A.; Chang, Sandy; Dolzan, Ales; Fortier, George L.; Fried, Robert E.; Genet, Russell M.; Grim, Bruce S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents photoelectric photometry of Lambda And never before published, obtained between February 1982 and December 1990 at 29 different observatories. Then it is combined with all other photometry available (previously published, contained in the I.A.U. Commission 27 Archives, and obtained with the Vanderbilt 16-inch automatic telescope but not yet published), to yield a 14.8-year data base. Analysis reveals a long-term cycle in mean brightness, with a full range of 0.15 m and a period of 11.4 +/- 0.4 years. Because most of the new photometry was concentrated in the 1983-1984 observing season, this one well-defined light curve is analyzed with a two-spot model. Spot A keeps a 0.04 m amplitude throughout four rotation cycles whereas the amplitude of spot B diminishes from 0.09 m down almost to 0.03 m. The spot rotation periods were 55.9 d +/- 0.6 d and 52.8 d +/- 1.0 d, respectively.

  19. Properties of the Young Milky Way globular cluster Whiting 1 from near-infrared photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcheva, A. T.; Ovcharov, E. P.; Lalova, A. D.; Nedialkov, P. L.; Ivanov, V. D.; Carraro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Whiting 1 is a member of the fast-growing group of young globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. Preliminary estimates of its fundamental parameters have been provided using optical photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. In an attempt to strengthen our knowledge of Whiting 1, in this study we employ a complementary approach. Isochrone fitting method was applied on the near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram and yields an age t = 5.7 ± 0.3 Gyr, metallicity z = 0.006 ± 0.001 ([Fe/H] = -0.5 ± 0.1) and distance modulus (m - M)0 = 17.48 ± 0.10. Our results confirm that Whiting 1 is a young and moderately metal-rich globular cluster. It is one of the youngest from the Sgr dSph. We fitted an Elson, Fall and Freeman (EFF) profile to the near-infrared number counts, and measured cluster core radius rc = 9.1 arcsec ± 3.9 arcsec. Two probable eclipsing variables in the cluster were found from multi-epoch V-band photometry. Finally, an unknown galaxy cluster was identified on our K versus (J - K) colour-magnitude diagram. It has a redshift z ˜ 1, and it is located at about 1 arcmin from the centre of Whiting 1 at ? _J2000 = 02^h 02^m 56 {.^{{s}}}6, ?J2000 = -03°16'09'', contaminating the cluster photometry.

  20. DIS2002 | 87 affective computation, affective interaction,

    E-print Network

    Höök, Kristina

    ] Affective computation, or the development of computational systems which can be aware of and respond-used integrative cognitive theory of emotion of Ortony, Clore and Collins, for example, defines emotions in terms of emotions [15]. Ark's Emotion Mouse extends a normal computer mouse to deduce users' emotional states from

  1. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  2. The AAVSO Photoelectric Photometry Program in its Scientific and Socio-Historic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, John R.

    2011-05-01

    Photoelectric photometry began in the 1900s through the work of Guthnick, Stebbins, and others who constructed and used photometers based on the recently-discovered photoelectric effect. The mid 20th century saw a confluence of several areas of amateur interest: astronomy, telescope making, radio and electronics, and general interest in space. This is the time when AAVSO photoelectric photometry (PEP) began, with observers using mostly hand-built photometers on hand-built telescopes. The 1980s brought a revolution: affordable off-the-shelf solid-state photometers, and infrastructure such as the International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry (IAPPP) conferences, books, and journal. The AAVSO developed a formal PEP program in the early 1980s. Its emphasis was on long-term monitoring of pulsating red giants. It was competing, not always successfully, with programs such as active sun-like binaries (RS CVn stars) which offered "instant gratification" in the form of publicity and quick publications. Nevertheless, the AAVSO PEP program has, through careful organization, motivation, and feedback to observers, produced extensive scientific results. In this presentation, I shall describe, as examples, my own work, its scientific significance, its educational benefit to dozens of my students, and its satisfaction to the observers. To some extent, the AAVSO PEP program has been superceded by its CCD program, but there is still a useful place for ongoing PEP observations of thousands of variable stars. Reference: http://www.aavso.org/sites/default/files/newsletter/PEP/lastpepnl.pdf Acknowledgements: I thank NSERC Canada for research support, my students, and AAVSO staff and observers, especially Howard Landis.

  3. Predicting spectral features in galaxy spectra from broad-band photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Mateus, A.; Santos, W. A.; Sodrè, L., Jr.; Ferreras, I.; Lahav, O.

    2008-07-01

    We explore the prospects of predicting emission-line features present in galaxy spectra given broad-band photometry alone. There is a general consent that colours, and spectral features, most notably the 4000 Å break, can predict many properties of galaxies, including star formation rates and hence they could infer some of the line properties. We argue that these techniques have great prospects in helping us understand line emission in extragalactic objects and might speed up future galaxy redshift surveys if they are to target emission-line objects only. We use two independent methods, Artificial Neural Networks (based on the ANNz code) and Locally Weighted Regression (LWR), to retrieve correlations present in the colour N-dimensional space and to predict the equivalent widths present in the corresponding spectra. We also investigate how well it is possible to separate galaxies with and without lines from broad-band photometry only. We find, unsurprisingly, that recombination lines can be well predicted by galaxy colours. However, among collisional lines some can and some cannot be predicted well from galaxy colours alone, without any further redshift information. We also use our techniques to estimate how much information contained in spectral diagnostic diagrams can be recovered from broad-band photometry alone. We find that it is possible to classify active galactic nuclei and star formation objects relatively well using colours only. We suggest that this technique could be used to considerably improve redshift surveys such as the upcoming Fibre Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) survey and the planned Wide Field Multi Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) survey.

  4. Using Narrowband Photometry to Detect Young Brown Dwarfs in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A. K.; McLean, Ian S.

    2003-11-01

    We report the discovery of a population of young brown dwarf candidates in the open star cluster IC 348 and the development of a new spectroscopic classification technique using narrowband photometry. Observations were made using FLITECAM, the First Light Camera for SOFIA, at the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. FLITECAM is a new 1-5 ?m camera with an 8' field of view. Custom narrowband filters were developed to detect absorption features of water vapor (at 1.495 ?m) and methane (at 1.66 ?m) characteristic of brown dwarfs. These filters enable spectral classification of stars and brown dwarfs without spectroscopy. FLITECAM's narrow- and broadband photometry was verified by examining the color-color and color-magnitude characteristics of stars whose spectral type and reddening was known from previous surveys. Using our narrowband filter photometry method, it was possible to identify an object measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 or better to within +/-3 spectral class subtypes for late-type stars. With this technique, very deep images of the central region of IC 348 (H~20.0) have identified 18 sources as possible L or T dwarf candidates. Out of these 18, we expect that between 3 and 6 of these objects are statistically likely to be background stars, the remainder being true low-mass members of the cluster. If confirmed as cluster members, then these are very low mass objects (~5MJup). We also describe how two additional narrowband filters can improve the contrast between M, L, and T dwarfs as well as provide a means to determine the reddening of an individual object.

  5. Weighing the Giants - II. Improved calibration of photometry from stellar colours and accurate photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Allen, Mark T.; Allen, Steven W.; Burchat, Patricia R.; Burke, David L.; Ebeling, Harald; Capak, Peter; Czoske, Oliver; Donovan, David; Mantz, Adam; Morris, R. Glenn

    2014-03-01

    We present improved methods for using stars found in astronomical exposures to calibrate both star and galaxy colours as well as to adjust the instrument flat-field. By developing a spectroscopic model for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) stellar locus in colour-colour space, synthesizing an expected stellar locus, and simultaneously solving for all unknown zero-points when fitting to the instrumental locus, we increase the calibration accuracy of stellar locus matching. We also use a new combined technique to estimate improved flat-field models for the Subaru SuprimeCam camera, forming `star flats' based on the magnitudes of stars observed in multiple positions or through comparison with available measurements in the SDSS catalogue. These techniques yield galaxy magnitudes with reliable colour calibration (?0.01-0.02 mag accuracy) that enable us to estimate photometric redshift probability distributions without spectroscopic training samples. We test the accuracy of our photometric redshifts using spectroscopic redshifts zs for ˜5000 galaxies in 27cluster fields with at least five bands of photometry, as well as galaxies in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, finding ?((zp - zs)/(1 + zs)) ? 0.03 for the most probable redshift zp. We show that the full posterior probability distributions for the redshifts of galaxies with five-band photometry exhibit good agreement with redshifts estimated from thirty-band photometry in the COSMOS field. The growth of shear with increasing distance behind each galaxy cluster shows the expected redshift-distance relation for a flat ? cold dark matter (?-CDM) cosmology. Photometric redshifts and calibrated colours are used in subsequent papers to measure the masses of 51 galaxy clusters from their weak gravitational shear and determine improved cosmological constraints. We make our PYTHON code for stellar locus matching publicly available at http://big-macs-calibrate.googlecode.com; the code requires only input catalogues and filter transmission functions.

  6. Track compliance does not affect sprinting performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sawas Stafilidis; Adamantios Arampatzis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that sprint performance (time over a given distance) would be affected by track compliance, with better performances on the more compliant surface. Ten sprinters participated in the study. The athletes performed maximal sprints (60 m) on three different track configurations (hard, 5500 kN · m; soft, 2200 kN · m; spring, 550 kN · m). A 60-m single-lane running surface

  7. Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Leo A: Suprime-Cam Wide-field Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonkut?, Rima; Arimoto, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narbutis, Donatas; Tamura, Naoyuki; Vansevi?ius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    We have surveyed a complete extent of Leo A—an apparently isolated gas-rich low-mass dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The B, V, and I passband CCD images (typical seeing ~0.''8) were obtained with the Subaru Telescope equipped with the Suprime-Cam mosaic camera. The wide-field (20' × 24') photometry catalog of 38,856 objects (V ~ 16-26 mag) is presented. This survey is also intended to serve as "a finding chart" for future imaging and spectroscopic observation programs of Leo A. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing. III. The transiting planetary system WASP2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Southworth; L. Mancini; S. Calchi Novati; M. Dominik; M. Glitrup; T. C. Hinse; U. G. Jorgensen; M. Mathiasen; D. Ricci; G. Maier; F. Zimmer; V. Bozza; P. Browne; I. Bruni; M. Burgdorf; M Dall'Ora; F. Finet; K. Harpsoe; M. Hundertmark; C. Liebig; S. Rahvar; G. Scarpetta; J. Skottfelt; B. Smalley; C. Snodgrass; J. Surdej

    2010-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of three transits of the extrasolar\\u000aplanetary system WASP-2, obtained by defocussing the telescope, and achieving\\u000apoint-to-point scatters of between 0.42 and 0.73 mmag. These data are modelled\\u000ausing the JKTEBOP code, and taking into account the light from the\\u000arecently-discovered faint star close to the system. The physical properties of\\u000athe WASP-2 system are derived

  9. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XI - The 1971 eclipse of 32 Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.; Mcnall, J. F.; Holm, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    We observed the 1971 eclipse of 32 Cyg at regular intervals from November 1 to 15 with the wide-band filter photometers aboard OAO-2. Data have been reduced for seven filter bands with effective wavelengths between 4250 and 1430 A. Both the constancy of the light near mid-eclipse for the shorter wavelengths, and the derived energy distribution of the B component over all of these wavelengths indicate that the eclipse was total. The spectral types determined from the photometry of the two components are B5 and K4 Ib, after correction for interstellar reddening of 0.10 mag in B-V.

  10. Local constraints on cosmic string loops from photometry and pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Tuntsov, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    We constrain the cosmological density of cosmic string loops using two observational signatures—gravitational microlensing and the Kaiser-Stebbins effect. Photometry from RXTE and CoRoT space missions and pulsar timing from Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes allow us to probe cosmic strings in a wide range of tensions G?/c2=10-16÷10-10. We find that pulsar timing data provide the most stringent constraints on the abundance of light strings at the level ?s˜10-3. Future observational facilities such as the Square Kilometer Array will allow one to improve these constraints by orders of magnitude.

  11. Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Warnock, Archibald, III; Mitchell, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Differential photometric time series obtained from CCD frames are tested for intrinsic variability using a newly developed analysis of variance technique. In general, the objects used for differential photometry will not all be of equal magnitude, so the techniques derived here explicitly correct for differences in the measured variances due to photon statistics. Other random-noise terms are also considered. The technique tests for the presence of intrinsic variability without regard to its random or periodic nature. It is then applied to observations of the variable stars ZZ Ceti and US 943 and the active extragalactic objects OQ 530, US 211, US 844, LB 9743, and OJ 287.

  12. Early Optical and NIR Photometry and Optical Spectroscopy of SN 2012cg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Mandel, K.; Meyer, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Foley, R. J.; Friedman, A.; Irwin, J.; Brown, W.; Calkins, M. L.; Wood-Vasey, M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.

    2012-06-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Supernova Group reports photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012cg (ATEL #4115). Figures displaying these data are posted at http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/supernova/sn12cg.html Photometry of SN 2012cg was obtained between May 18 - June 2 UT with the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.2m telescope (+KeplerCam) in uBVri bands and between May 19 - June 5 with the Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) in JHKs bands.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: uvby-beta photometry in SA 203 (Franco 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G. A. P.

    1994-04-01

    Results are presented of Stromgren uvby(beta) photometry for 213 stars earlier than G0 and brigher than mpg of about 10.7mag in Selected Area 203. The observed area lies close to the geometric center of the Chamaeleon-Musca dark clouds complex. The results yield V, (b-y), m1, c1, and beta on the standard systems, with overall rms errors for one observation of one star of 0.010, 0.004, 0.007, 0.009, and 0.011, respectively. (1 data file).

  14. DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY LEO A: SUPRIME-CAM WIDE-FIELD STELLAR PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Stonkut?, Rima; Narbutis, Donatas; Vansevi?ius, Vladas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu, 231, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 69720 (United States); Hasegawa, Takashi [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, 6860-86 Nakayama, Takayama-mura, Agatsuma-gun, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Tamura, Naoyuki, E-mail: vladas.vansevicius@ff.vu.lt [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We have surveyed a complete extent of Leo A—an apparently isolated gas-rich low-mass dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The B, V, and I passband CCD images (typical seeing ?0.''8) were obtained with the Subaru Telescope equipped with the Suprime-Cam mosaic camera. The wide-field (20' × 24') photometry catalog of 38,856 objects (V ? 16-26 mag) is presented. This survey is also intended to serve as ''a finding chart'' for future imaging and spectroscopic observation programs of Leo A.

  15. Empirical Calibration of Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 F606W and F814W Photometry

    E-print Network

    Samir Salim; Andrew Gould

    1998-09-30

    Using the ground-based V and I photometry of a sample of stars from the Groth Strip, we obtain the first empirical calibration of the F606W and F814W Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 filters for 0.5

  16. Infrared photometry of the RS CVn short-period systems - XY UMa and WY Cnc

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, M.J.; Lazaro, C. (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna (Spain))

    1990-03-01

    Infrared J and K light curves of two RS CVn short-period systems, XY UMa and WY Cnc, are presented. Both systems show similar variability in the infrared to that observed in the visual. From the colors an infrared excess is inferred for the primary component of both systems. A new determination of their geometrical elements is presented and the resulting parameters are compared to those previously obtained from visible photometry. The light curves show peculiarities that may indicate the presence of gas streams in the systems. 27 refs.

  17. Physical parameters of NGC6705 (M11) open cluster using Strömgren photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.

    2015-05-01

    NGC 6705 (M11) is a middle-age well-studied open cluster. Its location in an area where the interstellar extinction is relatively low, its exceptional stellar density and richness, and the presence of both early type and evolved stars makes this cluster an interesting target for many scientific issues. Although NGC 6705 has been widely studied, Strömgren photometry was missing. The observations by our team have yielded uvbyH photometry for 51293 stars in an area of 34'×34' and with V_{lim}˜21. Observed stars with complete photometry (9308) are classified into photometric regions and their physical parameters are determined using standard relations among color indices for each of the photometric regions of the HR diagram. That allows us to provide an astrophysical characterization of the cluster: E(b-y)=0.31±0.05 (E(B-V)=0.42); V_{0}-M_{V}=11.9±0.7 (d˜2000pc); [Fe/H]=-0.2±0.4 (Z=0.009). In addition, we discuss the accuracy of the physical parameters through comparison with those recently determined by Beaver et al. (2013) with Strömgren photometry. We find mean systematic differences of ? V=-0.015±0.038, ? (b-y)=-0.017±0.046, ? m_{1}=-0.014±0.092, ? c_{1}=+0.014±0.131, and ? ?=-0.036±0.042. These are caused by different selection of reference stars for the instrumental-to-standard transformation. We also compare our results with those from the spectroscopic Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) to assess the quality of the photometric determinations. This work can be useful to give input astrophysical parameters to the spectral analyses being made by GES. We find out clear different trends for the stars bluer and redder than (b-y)=0.4 (T_{eff}˜8000 K), due to the different instrumental setups used for the GIRAFFE observations (HR3 and HR15N). We find that mean differences in effective temperatures and gravities for both works are compatible within the errors. However, mean difference in metallicity for stars with (b-y)>0.4 is discrepant by -0.65 dex.

  18. Review of "Multicolor Photometry of Stellar Aggregates" paper by Mendoza (1967)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, D. L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper review of "Multicolor Photometry of Stellar Aggregates" by E. E.. Mendoza V., 1967, BOTT, 4, 29, 149 on stellar aggregates contains a huge amount of high quality data, as have his other papers on stars in the general field and on specific types of objects. It is first class in both precision and accuracy, and it has stood the test of time. The data have been used by many other astronomers in their own work and due to that fact that it includes data over such a wide wavelength range. Its citation record proves that fact.

  19. Broadband Photometry of the Large Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 138095 (2000 DK79)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Ebelhar, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA)138095 (2000 DK79) was discovered by the LINEAR Sky Survey on February 26, 2010 (MPEC 2000-E42). With a Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) of 0.049 AU and an expected diameter between 1.8 km and 3 km, this object has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. We obtained two partial nights of broadband Bessel BVRI photometry at the JPL Table Mountain 0.6-m telescope (TMO) on November 16 and 17, 2013, as summarized in Table 1.

  20. Broadband Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 329614 (2003 KU2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Dombroski, D.; Davtyan, T.; Teague, S.; Strojia, C.

    2012-07-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 329614 (2003 KU2) was discovered by A. F. Tubbiolo on May 05 2003 (MPEC 2003-K26). Due to its large size (D~1km) and Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance MOID=0.0285 AU, the object has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the IAU Minor Planet Center. We took advantage of the PHA's excellent 2012 apparition to obtain 3 nights of time-resolved Bessel BVRI photometry at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) 0.6-m telescope, as summarized in Table 1.

  1. Broadband Photometry of 2007 LE: A Binary Near-Earth Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Smythe, W.; Dombroski, D.; Davtyan, T.; Teague, S.; Strojia, C.

    2012-06-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2007 LE was discovered on June 2, 2007 by the LINEAR NEO survey (MPEC 2007-L21). The object passed within 0.048 AU of the Earth on June 02 2012 and has been designated as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) my the Minor Planet Center. We obtained 3 nights of time-resolved photometry at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) 0.6-m telescope, as summarized in Table 1, and included one night of BVRI imaging [Figure 1].

  2. To what extent do current and projected increases in surface ozone affect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees? A meta-analytic review of the last three decades of experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface concentration of ozone has risen from less than 10 ppb prior to the industrial revolution to a daytime mean concentration of approximately 40 ppb over much of the northern temperate zone. It is projected to rise a further 50% over this century, with larger increases in many locations in...

  3. AMUSE-Virgo. III. Mid-infrared Photometry of Early-type Galaxies and Limits on Obscured Nuclear Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipski, Christian; Gallo, Elena; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Miller, Brendan P.; Antonucci, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We complete our census of low-level nuclear activity in Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies by searching for obscured emission using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared (MIR) imaging at 24 ?m. Of a total sample of 95 early-type galaxies, 53 objects are detected, including 16 showing kiloparsec-scale dust in optical images. One-dimensional and two-dimensional surface photometry of the 37 detections without extended dust features reveals that the MIR light is more centrally concentrated than the optical light as traced by Hubble Space Telescope F850LP-band images. No such modeling was performed for the sources with dust detected in the optical images. We explore several possible sources of the MIR excess emission, including obscured nuclear emission. We find that radial metallicity gradients in the stellar population appear to be a natural and most likely explanation for the observed behavior in a majority of the sources. Alternatively, if the concentrated MIR emission were due to nuclear activity, it would imply a MIR-to-X luminosity ratio ~5-10 for the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) detected in X-rays by our survey. This ratio is an order of magnitude larger than that of typical low-luminosity AGNs and would imply an unusual spectral energy distribution. We conclude that the black holes found by our survey in quiescent early-type galaxies in Virgo have low bolometric Eddington ratios arising from low accretion rates and/or highly radiatively inefficient accretion.

  4. Asteroseismological Studies of Long-Period Variable Subdwarf B Stars. II. Two-Color Photometry of PG 1338+481

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. K.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Terndrup, D. M.; Brown, N.; Fontaine, M.; Zacharias, P.; Chayer, P.

    2006-07-01

    We present the results of an observational campaign for the long-period variable subdwarf B star PG 1338+481. Seven continuous weeks of observing time at the Steward Observatory 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow, Arizona, and the 1.3 m MDM telescope at Kitt Peak rendered ~250 hr of simultaneous U/R time series photometry, as well as an extra ~70 hr of R-band-only data. The analysis of the combined light curves resulted in the extraction of 13 convincing periodicities in the 2100-7200 s range, with amplitudes up to ~0.3% and ~0.2% in the U and R, respectively. Comparing the ratios of amplitudes in the two wave bands to those predicted from theory suggests the presence of dipole modes, a notion that is further supported by the period spacing between the highest amplitude peaks. If confirmed, this poses a challenge to current nonadiabatic theory. At the quantitative level, we find that the distribution of the observed period spectrum is highly nonuniform and much sparser than that predicted from a representative model. We provide a possible interpretation in the text. The asteroseismological analysis attempted for PG 1338+481 on the basis of six observed periodicities believed to constitute consecutive dipole modes renders encouraging results. Fixing the effective temperature and surface gravity to the spectroscopic estimates, we successfully isolate just one family of optimal models that can reproduce the measured periods to better than 1%. While the stellar parameters thus inferred must be regarded as preliminary, the achieved fit bodes well for future asteroseismic analyses of long-period variable subdwarf B stars. Some of the observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  5. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Stephen J; Gawinski, Barbara; Pierce, Deborah; Rousseau, Sally J

    2006-11-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder have episodes of major depression that tend to recur during specific times of the year, usually in winter. Like major depression, seasonal affective disorder probably is underdiagnosed in primary care settings. Although several screening instruments are available, such screening is unlikely to lead to improved outcomes without personalized and detailed attention to individual symptoms. Physicians should be aware of comorbid factors that could signal a need for further assessment. Specifically, some emerging evidence suggests that seasonal affective disorder may be associated with alcoholism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Seasonal affective disorder often can be treated with light therapy, which appears to have a low risk of adverse effects. Light therapy is more effective if administered in the morning. It remains unclear whether light is equivalent to drug therapy, whether drug therapy can augment the effects of light therapy, or whether cognitive behavior therapy is a better treatment choice. PMID:17111890

  6. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  7. Affective forecasting under uncertainty 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Mei

    2012-11-28

    Affective forecasting denotes the ability to predict one’s own future emotions. Past research indicates that the predictions are generally not precise and people either overestimate or underestimate their emotions. People ...

  8. Photoelectric photometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H J J Braddick

    1960-01-01

    The development of photoelectric devices has occasioned considerable changes in all types of instrument in which intensities are measured or compared. These devices are directly sensitive to flux and the optical systems used with them must be designed accordingly. At very low intensities the photomultiplier cell allows a light flux of only a few quanta per second to be measured

  9. Simple Photometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given of a visual photometer based on Joly's paraffin block apparatus of 1888. It is readily constructed from a couple of ordinary candles and a piece of aluminum foil, but enables two luminous sources to be compared to plus or minus 15-20%; this is much better than the eye alone can do. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. A PETAL OF THE SUNFLOWER: PHOTOMETRY OF THE STELLAR TIDAL STREAM IN THE HALO OF MESSIER 63 (NGC 5055)

    SciTech Connect

    Chonis, Taylor S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Martinez-Delgado, David [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gabany, R. Jay [BlackBird Observatory, Mayhill, NM (United States); Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hill, Gary J. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1402, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gralak, Ray [Sirius Imaging Observatory, Mayhill, NM (United States); Trujillo, Ignacio, E-mail: tschonis@astro.as.utexas.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea, s/n, E38205 - La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    We present deep surface photometry of a very faint, giant arc-loop feature in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 (M63) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. This faint feature was first detected in early photographic studies by van der Kruit; more recently, in the study of Martinez-Delgado and as presented in this work, from the loop has been realized to be the result of a recent minor merger through evidence obtained by wide-field, deep images taken with a telescope of only 0.16 m aperture. The stellar stream is clearly confirmed in additional deep images taken with the 0.5 m telescope of the BlackBird Remote Observatory and the 0.8 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory. This low surface brightness ({mu}{sub R} Almost-Equal-To 26 mag arcsec{sup -2}) arc-like structure around the disk of the galaxy extends 14.'0 ({approx}29 kpc projected) from its center, with a projected width of 1.'6 ({approx}3.3 kpc). The stream's morphology is consistent with that of the visible part of a giant, 'great-circle' type stellar stream originating from the recent accretion of a {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} dwarf satellite in the last few Gyr. The progenitor satellite's current position and final fate are not conclusive from our data. The color of the stream's stars is consistent with dwarfs in the Local Group and is similar to the outer faint regions of M63's disk and stellar halo. From our photometric study, we detect other low surface brightness 'plumes'; some of these may be extended spiral features related to the galaxy's complex spiral structure, and others may be tidal debris associated with the disruption of the galaxy's outer stellar disk as a result of the accretion event. We are able to differentiate between features related to the tidal stream and faint, blue extended features in the outskirts of the galaxy's disk previously detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. With its highly warped H I gaseous disk ({approx}20 Degree-Sign ), M63 represents one of the several examples of an isolated spiral galaxy with a warped disk showing recently discovered strong evidence of an ongoing minor merger.

  11. Improved Photometry of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Crowded-Field Images: Structure and Dark Matter Content in the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Leo I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol?i?, V.; Zucker, D. B.; Bell, E. F.; Coleman, M. G.; Rix, H. W.; Schinnerer, E.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Kniazev, A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore how well crowded-field point-source photometry can be accomplished with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. For this purpose, we present a photometric pipeline based on DoPHOT and tuned for analyzing crowded-field images from the SDSS. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the completeness of source extraction is above 80% to an i-band AB magnitude of lesssim21 and a stellar surface density of ~200 arcmin-2. Hence, a specialized data pipeline can be efficiently used for, e.g., nearby resolved galaxies in SDSS images, where the standard SDSS photometric package Photo, when applied in normal survey mode, gives poor results. We apply our pipeline to an area of ~3.55 deg2 around the dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Leo I and construct a high signal-to-noise ratio star count map of Leo I via an optimized filter in color-magnitude space (g, r, i). This filter reduces the foreground contamination by ~80% and enhances the central stellar surface density contrast of the dwarf by a factor of gtrsim4, making this study the deepest wide-field study of the Leo I dSph based on accurate CCD photometry. Although the radial surface density profile deviates from the best-fit empirical King model toward outer radii, we find no evidence for tidal debris out to a stellar surface density of 4 × 10-3 of the central value. We determine the total luminosity of Leo I and model its mass using the spherical and isotropic Jeans equation. Assuming that mass follows light, we constrain a lower limit on the total mass of the dSph to be (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 Modot. On the other hand, if the mass in Leo I is dominated by a constant-density dark matter (DM) halo, then the mass within the central 12? is (2 ± 0.6) × 108 Modot. This leads to a mass-to-light ratio of Gt6 in I-band solar units, and possibly >75 if the DM halo dominates the mass and extends further out than 12?. In summary, our results show that Leo I is a symmetric, relaxed, and bound system; this supports the idea that Leo I is a DM-dominated system.

  12. ALTAIR: Calibrated Balloon-Borne Light Sources for High-Precision Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.; Brown, Y.; Fagin, M.; Stubbs, C.; Thanjavur, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Dobbs, M.; Cramer, C.; Deustua, S.

    2013-09-01

    Deeper understanding of the accelerating expansion of the universe, and the mysterious dark energy that causes it, will require unprecedented photometric precision, as photometry is presently the limiting uncertainty on our knowledge of dark energy and the universe's resulting acceleration. Laboratory and solar photometry and radiometry regularly achieve precisions on the order of parts in ten thousand, but photometric calibration for non-solar astronomy presently remains stuck at the percent or greater level. We discuss ALTAIR, the project to erase this discrepancy, and the steps to achieving dramatically-improved laboratory-level photometric precision for Pan-STARRS, LSST, and other major astronomical surveys both this decade and next. In particular, we show initial results from the first flights of our NIST-calibrated balloon-borne light source, as well as ground-based and near-field calibration of the source. Our technique is additionally applicable to microwave astronomy. Observation of gravitational waves in the polarized cosmic microwave background will similarly require unprecedented polarimetric and radiometric precision, and we briefly discuss our current development of a calibrated microwave source above the atmosphere as well.

  13. Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry of 500-750 brown dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Albert, Loic [CFH TELESCOPE; Artigau, Etienne [U OF MONTREAL; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Delfosse, Xavier [OBS. GRENOBLE; Delorme, Philippe [ST. ANDREWS U.; Forveille, Thierry [OBS. GRENOBLE; Lucas, Philip W [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Pinfield, David J [HERTFORDSHIRE U.; Reyle, Celine [OBS. BESANCON; Smart, Richard L [OSS. ASTRON, TORINO; Warren, Stephen J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

    2010-10-26

    Mid-infrared data, including Spitzer warm-IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry, is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature (T{sub eff}) drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3 {mu}m increases rapidly, from about 40% to > 75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity- and metallicity-sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties, which in turn gives us mass and age for these slowly cooling objects. Determination of mid-infrared color trends also allows better exploitation of the WISE mission by the community. We use new Spitzer Cycle 6 IRAC photometry, together with published data, to present trends of color with type for L0 to T10 dwarfs. We also use the atmospheric and evolutionary models of Saumon and Marley to investigate the masses and ages of 13 very late-type T dwarfs, which have H-[4.5] > 3.2 and T{sub eff} {approx} 500K to 750K.

  14. Multiaperture U BV RIzJHK Photometry of Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhardt, P R; De Propris, R; Gonzalez, A H; Stanford, S A; Dickinson, M; Wang, M C

    2006-12-05

    We present a set of UBV RIzJHKs photometry for 745 J +H band selected objects in a 22:5{prime} x 29:2{prime} region centered on the core of the Coma cluster. This includes 516 galaxies and is at least 80% complete to H = 16, with a spectroscopically complete sample of 111 cluster members (nearly all with morphological classification) for H < 14:5. For each object we present total Kron (1980) magnitudes and aperture photometry. As an example, we use these data to derive color-magnitude relations for Coma early-type galaxies, measure the intrinsic scatter of these relations and its dependence on galaxy mass, and address the issue of color gradients. We find that the color gradients are mild and that the intrinsic scatter about the color-magnitude relation is small ({approx} 0:05 mag in U-V and less than {approx} 0:03 in B-R, V-I, or J-K). There is no evidence that the intrinsic scatter varies with galaxy luminosity, suggesting that the cluster red sequence is established at early epochs over a range of {approx} 100 in stellar mass.

  15. ANALYSIS OF KEPLER'S SHORT-CADENCE PHOTOMETRY FOR TrES-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, David; Bakos, Gaspar, E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2011-05-20

    We present an analysis of 18 short-cadence (SC) transit light curves of TrES-2b using quarter 0 (Q0) and quarter 1 (Q1) from the Kepler Mission. The photometry is of unprecedented precision, 237 ppm minute{sup -1}, allowing for the most accurate determination of the transit parameters yet obtained for this system. Global fits of the transit photometry, radial velocities, and known transit times are used to obtain a self-consistent set of refined parameters for this system, including updated stellar and planetary parameters. Special attention is paid to fitting for limb darkening and eccentricity. We place an upper limit on the occultation depth to be <72.9 ppm to 3{sigma} confidence, indicating TrES-2b has the lowest determined geometric albedo for an exoplanet, of A{sub g} < 0.146. We also produce a transit timing analysis using Kepler's SC data and demonstrate exceptional timing precision at the level of a few seconds for each transit event. With 18 fully sampled transits at such high precision, we are able to produce stringent constraints on the presence of perturbing planets, Trojans, and extrasolar moons. We introduce the novel use of control data to identify phasing effects. We also exclude the previously proposed hypotheses of short-period transit time variation and additional transits but find that the hypothesis of long-term inclination change is neither supported nor refuted by our analysis.

  16. Vetting Kepler Planet Candidates in the Sub-Jovian Desert with Multi-Band Photometry

    E-print Network

    Colón, Knicole D; Ford, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    We present new multi-band transit photometry of three small (R$_{p}$ planet candidates acquired with the Gran Telescopio Canarias. These observations supplement the results presented in Col\\'on & Ford (2011) and Col\\'on et al. (2012), where we used multicolor transit photometry of five Kepler planet candidates to search for wavelength-dependent transit depths and either validate planet candidates or identify eclipsing binary false positives within our sample. In those previous studies, we provided evidence that three targets were false positives and two targets were planets. Here, we present observations that provide evidence supporting a planetary nature for KOI 439.01 and KOI 732.01, and we find that KOI 531.01, a 6 R$_{\\oplus}$ planet candidate around an M dwarf, is likely a false positive. We also present a discussion of the purported "sub-Jovian desert" in the orbital period-planet radius plane, which cannot be easily explained by observationa...

  17. Single and Composite Hot Subdwarf Stars in the Light of 2MASS Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, M. A.; Wade, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    Utilizing the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Second Incremental Data Release Catalog, we have retrieved near-IR magnitudes for several hundred hot subdwarfs (sdO and sdB stars) drawn from the Catalogue of Spectroscopically Identified Hot Subdwarfs by Kilkenny et al. This sample size greatly exceeds that of previous studies of hot subdwarfs. Examining 2MASS photometry alone or in combination with visual photometry (Johnson BV or Strömgren uvby) available in the literature, we show that it is possible to identify hot subdwarf stars that exhibit atypically red IR colors, which can be attributed to the presence of an unresolved late-type companion. Utilizing this large sample, we attempt for the first time to define an approximately volume-limited sample of hot subdwarfs. We discuss the considerations, biases, and difficulties in defining such a sample. We find that, of the hot subdwarfs in Kilkenny et al., about 40% in a magnitude-limited sample have colors that are consistent with the presence of an unresolved late-type companion. Binary stars are overrepresented in a magnitude-limited sample. In an approximately volume-limited sample the fraction of composite-color binaries is about 30%.

  18. An analytic model for rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-12-01

    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. In the Kepler-era, there now exists precise, continuous photometry of ˜150 000 stars presenting an unprecedented opportunity for statistical analyses of these modulations. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding and Dorren, who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. In this work, we extend the model to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry, such as that by Kepler. Our new freely available FORTRAN code, macula, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalizations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. Through numerical testing, we find that the inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren, for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well suited for inference problems.

  19. Asteroids in GALEX: Near-ultraviolet photometry of the major taxonomic groups

    E-print Network

    Waszczak, Adam; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet photometry (NUV band, 180--280 nm) of 405 asteroids observed serendipitously by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) from 2003--2012. All asteroids in this sample were detected by GALEX at least twice. Unambiguous visible-color-based taxonomic labels (C type versus S type) exist for 315 of these asteroids; of these, thermal-infrared-based diameters are available for 245. We derive NUV-V color using two independent models to predict the visual magnitude V at each NUV-detection epoch. Both V models produce NUV-V distributions in which the S types are redder than C types with more than 8-sigma confidence. This confirms that the S types' redder spectral slopes in the visible remain redder than the C types' into the NUV, this redness being consistent with absorption by silica-containing rocks. The GALEX asteroid data confirm earlier results from the International Ultraviolet Explorer, which two decades ago produced the only other sizeable set of UV asteroid photometry. The GALEX-derived NUV...

  20. A laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry for an undergraduate optics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Robert D.

    2014-07-01

    The bachelor's degree in Physics at Loyola University Chicago requires both an upper-division course in Optics as well as a companion Optics Laboratory course. Recently, the laboratory course has undergone dramatic changes. Traditional weekly laboratories have been replaced with three laboratory modules, where students focus on a single topic over several weeks after which the students submit a laboratory report written in the style of a journal article following American Institute of Physics style manual. With this method, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of the specific topic areas of radiometry, photometry and colorimetry, lens design and aberrations, and polarization and interference while using industry-standard equipment and simulation software. In particular, this work will provide the details of the laboratory module on radiometry, photometry and colorimetry where students use a photoradiometer and integrating sphere to characterize the optical properties of an LCD monitor, light bulb and a fiber optic light source calculating properties such as luminous flux, luminous intensity, luminance, CIE color coordinates, NTSC ratio, color temperature and luminous efficacy.

  1. Characterizing Transiting Extrasolar Planets with Narrow-Band Photometry and GTC/OSIRIS

    E-print Network

    Colon, Knicole D; Lee, Brian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Blake, Cullen H

    2010-01-01

    We report the first extrasolar planet observations from the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), currently the world's largest, fully steerable, single-aperture optical telescope. We used the OSIRIS tunable filter imager on the GTC to acquire high-precision, narrow-band photometry of the transits of the giant exoplanets, TrES-2b and TrES-3b. We obtained near-simultaneous observations in two near-infrared (NIR) wavebands (790.2 and 794.4 +/- 2.0 nm) specifically chosen to avoid water vapor absorption and skyglow so as to minimize the atmospheric effects that often limit the precision of ground-based photometry. Our results demonstrate a very-high photometric precision with minimal atmospheric contamination despite relatively poor atmospheric conditions and some technical problems with the telescope. We find the photometric precision for the TrES-2 observations to be 0.343 and 0.412 mmag for the 790.2 and 794.4 nm light curves, and the precision of the TrES-3 observations was found to be 0.470 and 0.424 mmag ...

  2. Orion Project: A Photometry and Spectroscopy Project for Small Observatories (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Orion, the hunter, is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination is such that it is visible from most of the civilized world. In addition, most of the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. Originally this project was called the Betelgeuse Campaign, but four more stars were added so the name was changed to the Orion Project. The project now includes Betelgeuse, Rigel, and the three stars of Orion’s belt, Mintaka, Alnilam, and Alnitak. Both photometry and spectroscopy provide data for the project. The project has several goals, the first of which is to help beginners with photometry and spectroscopy. The second goal is to obtain the actual observations and data. Because these stars are very bright, they are seldom observed in detail. Their brightness also poses a problem for most professional observatories. It is hoped that by having observations over a long time, interesting changes can be seen that will warrant closer investigation. As a third goal it is hoped that the procedures refined in the project for spectroscopic data may help promote a similar system for the AAVSO, which has an excellent archive of photometric data, but is still lacking a means of handling spectroscopic data.

  3. Multicolor photometry of 145 of the HII regions in M33

    E-print Network

    Linhua Jiang; Jun Ma; Xu Zhou; Jiansheng Chen; Hong Wu; Zhaoji Jiang; Suijian Xue; Jin Zhu

    2002-09-11

    This paper is the first in a series presenting CCD multicolor photometry for 145 HII regions, selected from 369 candidate regions from Boulesteix et al. (1974), in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. The observations, which covered the whole area of M33, were carried out by the Beijing Astronomical Observatory 60/90 cm Schmidt Telescope, in 13 intermediate-band filters, covering a range of wavelength from 3800 to 10000 A. This provides a series of maps which can be converted to a multicolor map of M33, in pixels of 1.7''*1.7''. Using aperture photometry we obtain the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these HII regions. We also give their identification charts. Using the relationship between the BATC intermediate-band system used for the observations and the UBVRI broad-band system, the magnitudes in the B and V bands are then derived. Histograms of the magnitudes in V and in B-V are plotted, and the color-magnitude diagram is also given. The distribution of magnitudes in the V band shows that the apparent magnitude of almost all the regions is brighter than 18, corresponding to an absolute magnitude of -6.62 for an assumed distance modulus of 24.62, which corresponds to a single main sequence O5 star, while the distribution of color shows that the sample is blue, with a mode close to -0.05 as would be expected from a range of typical young clusters.

  4. Lightcurve, Color and Phase Function Photometry of the OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergenrother, Carl W.; Nolan, Michael C.; Binzel, Richard P.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.; d'Aubigny, Christian Drouet; Lazzaro, Daniela; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Clark, Beth E.; Rizk, Bashar; Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA OSIRIS-REx mission will retrieve a sample of the carbonaceous near-Earth Asteroid (101955) Bennu and return it to Earth in 2023. Photometry in the Eight Color Asteroid Survey (ECAS) filter system and Johnson-Cousins V and R filters were conducted during the two most recent apparitions in 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. Lightcurve observations over the nights of September 14-17, 2005 yielded a synodic rotation period of 4.2905 ± 0.0065 h, which is consistent with the results of Nolan et al. (2013). ECAS color measurements made during the same nights confirm the B-type classification of Clark et al. (Clark, B.E., Binzel, R.P., Howell, E.S., Cloutis, E.A., Ockert-Bell, M., Christensen, P., Barucci, M.A., DeMeo, F., Lauretta, D.S., Connolly, H., Soderberg, A., Hergenrother, C., Lim, L., Emery, J., Mueller, M. [2011]. Icarus 216, 462-475). A search for the 0.7 ?m hydration feature using the method of Vilas (Vilas, F. [1994]. Icarus 111, 456-467) did not reveal its presence. Photometry was obtained over a range of phase angles from 15° to 96° between 2005 and 2012. The resulting phase function slope of 0.040 magnitudes per degree is consistent with the phase slopes of other low albedo near-Earth asteroids (Belskaya, I.N., Shevchenko, V.G. [2000]. Icarus 147, 94-105).

  5. BVRI CCD-Photometry of comparison stars in the fields of galaxies with active nuclei. V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Sergeev, S. G.; Efimov, Yu. S.; Borman, G. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Pulatova, N. G.; Nazarov, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Observations of 79 comparison stars in the fields of seven Seyfert galaxies (Akn 79, Mrk 374, Mrk 382, Mrk 478, Mrk 493, Mrk 618, and Mrk 1513) and a single quasar (CTA 102) are reported. The observations were made with CCD photometry in the B, V, R, and I bands. The stellar magnitudes of these stars in the V band range from 12m.9 to 18m.4. The typical photometric uncertainties for magnitude 15 stars are 0m.008, 0m.011, 0m.009 and 0m.015 in the BVRI bands, respectively. For most of these stars the B, V, R, and I magnitudes have not been known previously. A variable star with brightness variations over a period of P = 0.1705 d was found in the field of the galaxy Mrk 478 and the sampled stars in the field of the galaxy Mrk 1513 include a variable with a period of P = 0.2211 d. These stars may be type W UMa contact binary systems with orbital periods of 0.341 and 0.4422 d, respectively. Finding charts for the comparison stars are included. These results can be used for differential photometry of the AGNs.

  6. The Chandra Survey of the COSMOS Field. II. Source Detection and Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Vignali, C.; Cappelluti, N.; Fiore, F.; Zamorani, G.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Miyaji, T.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Damiani, F.; Fruscione, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that covers the central contiguous ~0.92 deg2 of the COSMOS field. C-COSMOS is the result of a complex tiling, with every position being observed in up to six overlapping pointings (four overlapping pointings in most of the central ~0.45 deg2 area with the best exposure, and two overlapping pointings in most of the surrounding area, covering an additional ~0.47 deg2). Therefore, the full exploitation of the C-COSMOS data requires a dedicated and accurate analysis focused on three main issues: (1) maximizing the sensitivity when the point-spread function (PSF) changes strongly among different observations of the same source (from ~1 arcsec up to ~10 arcsec half-power radius); (2) resolving close pairs; and (3) obtaining the best source localization and count rate. We present here our treatment of four key analysis items: source detection, localization, photometry, and survey sensitivity. Our final procedure consists of a two step procedure: (1) a wavelet detection algorithm to find source candidates and (2) a maximum likelihood PSF fitting algorithm to evaluate the source count rates and the probability that each source candidate is a fluctuation of the background. We discuss the main characteristics of this procedure, which was the result of detailed comparisons between different detection algorithms and photometry tools, calibrated with extensive and dedicated simulations.

  7. Binary Star Differential Photometry Using the Adaptive Optics System at Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brummelaar, Theo; Mason, Brian D.; McAlister, Harold A.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Turner, Nils H.; Hartkopf, William I.; Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.

    2000-05-01

    We present photometric and astrometric results for 36 binary systems observed with the natural guide star adaptive optics system of the Mount Wilson Institute on the 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. The measurements consist of differential photometry in U, B, V, R, and I filters along with astrometry of the relative positions of system components. Magnitude differences were combined with absolute photometry found in the literature of the combined light for systems to obtain apparent magnitudes for the individual components at standard bandpasses, which in turn led to color determinations and spectral types. The combination of these results with Hipparcos parallax measurements yielded absolute magnitudes and allowed us to plot the components on an H-R diagram. To further examine the reliability and self-consistency of these data, we also estimated system masses from the spectral types. Based on observations made at Mount Wilson Observatory, operated by the Mount Wilson Institute under an agreement with the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  8. Evaluating multimodal affective fusion using physiological signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Gilroy; Marc O. Cavazza; Valentin Vervondel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of an affective multimodal fusion approach utilizing dimensional representations of emotion. The evaluation uses physiological signals as a reference measure of users' emotional states. Surface electromyography (EMG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) signals are known to be correlated with specific dimensions of emotion (Pleasure and Arousal) and are compared here to real time

  9. Weather affects us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimmy

    2009-11-09

    2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

  10. Factors Affecting Friction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Based on what they have already learned about friction, students formulate hypotheses concerning the effects of weight and contact area on the amount of friction between two surfaces. In the Associated Activities (Does Weight Matter? and Does Area Matter?), students design and conduct simple experiments to test their hypotheses, using procedures similar to those used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction). An analysis of their data will reveal the importance of weight to normal friction (the friction that occurs as a result of surface roughness) and the importance of surface area to the friction that occurs between smooth surfaces due to molecular attraction. Based on their data, students will also be able to calculate coefficients of friction for the materials tested, and compare these to published values for various materials.

  11. An analysis of the stability and transport of carbon dioxide on Mars and Iapetus: Increasing accuracy via experiments and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, David Garrison

    Volatile transport of carbon dioxide is most relevant on two planetary bodies in our solar system: Mars and Iapetus. We experimentally measured the sublimation rate of CO2 ice under simulated martian conditions and developed a model based on our experimental results. We experimentally verified that solar irradiance is the primary control for the sublimation of CO2 ice on the martian poles with the amount of radiation striking the surface being controlled by variations in the optical depth, ensuring the formation and sublimation of the seasonal cap. Our model, supported by comparison of MGS-MOC and MRO-HiRISE images, shows that ?0.4 m is currently being lost from the south perennial cap per martian year. In order to build a similar model for Iapetus, one key parameter was needed: the bolometric Bond albedo. We used photometry of Cassini VIMS observations of Iapetus to produce the first phase integrals calculated directly from solar phase curves of Iapetus for the leading hemisphere and to estimate the phase integrals for the trailing hemisphere. Our phase integrals, which are lower than previous results, have profound implications for the analyses of the energy balance and volatile transport on this icy satellite. We also utilized Cassini VIMS and ISS and Voyager ISS observations of Iapetus to produce the first bolometric Bond albedo map of Iapetus; the average albedo values for the leading and trailing hemispheres are 0.25 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.01 respectively. On Iapetus, which has no detectable atmosphere, any carbon dioxide sublimating from the dark material, where it was discovered by reflectance spectroscopy, would either escape the body or migrate on ballistic trajectories to a possible polar cold trap. However, through proof by contradiction, we show that if dry ice is the source of the detected signal in the dark material, it produces an impossible scenario where an extensive polar cap is produced along with incorrect temperatures for the dark material at equatorial latitudes. After ruling out surface dry ice as the source, we set upper limits on the amount of CO 2 transport that can occur on Iapetus without forming a polar cap.

  12. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

  13. Forces Affecting Educational Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Neil V.

    This speech begins with a discussion of broad social and political patterns and trends that are currently developing and continues to the specific unresolved social issues which will affect the nature and structure of educational systems. Those issues seen by the author is most likely to produce the greatest amount of activity are integration, the…

  14. Affect and altruism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert S. Moore; Bill Underwood; D. L. Rosenhan

    1973-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between affect and altruism in 7- and 8-yr-old middle-class white children (N = 48 males and 24 females). Ss were asked to think of things that made them happy or sad, or they were assigned to control conditions. Ss were then given an opportunity to donate money to other children in the E's absence. In accord with

  15. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  16. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  17. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  18. Cholesterol and affective morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jess G. Fiedorowicz; Narasimha M. Palagummi; Ole Behrendtsen; William H. Coryell

    2010-01-01

    Depression and mania have been linked with low cholesterol though there has been limited prospective study of cholesterol and subsequent course of affective illness. We studied the relationship between fasting total cholesterol and subsequent depressive and manic symptoms. A total of 131 participants from a prospective cohort study were identified as having had a fasting total cholesterol evaluation at intake.

  19. Structure and stellar content of dwarf galaxies. III: B and R photometry of dwarf galaxies in the M101 group and the nearby field

    E-print Network

    T. Bremnes; B. Binggeli; P. Prugniel

    1999-03-23

    We have carried out CCD photometry in the Cousins B and R bands of 21 dwarf galaxies in and around the M101 group. Eleven are members and suspected members of the group and ten are field galaxies in the projected vicinity of the group. We have derived total magnitudes, effective radii, effective surface brightnesses, as well as galaxy diameters at various isophotal levels in both colours. Best-fitting exponential parameters and colour gradients are also given for these galaxies. Some of the galaxies show a pronounced luminosity excess above the best-fitting exponential at large radii, or surface brightnesses fainter than approx 26 mag/sq_arcsec in R. This feature, while non-significant for a single case and technically difficult to interpret, might be an indication of the existence of an extended old stellar halo in dwarf irregulars. The photometric parameters of the galaxies presented here will be combined with previously published data for nearby dwarf galaxies and statistically analysed in a forthcoming paper.

  20. A Catalog of Photometry for Las Campanas Redshift Survey Galaxies on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards-Emmerd, David; Smith, J. Allyn; McKay, Timothy A.; Sheldon, Erin; Tucker, Douglas L.; Castander, Francisco J.

    2000-06-01

    We present high-quality photometry in the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters, u', g', r', i', and z', for 2195 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts measured by the Las Campanas Redshift Survey. In addition, a polynomial photometric redshift estimator is derived, with an uncertainty of 0.035 out to z = 0.25. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.