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Sample records for affects surface photometry

  1. Stellar Populations Surface photometry

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Stellar Populations Surface photometry Luminosity distributions Component separation Surface photometry Luminosity distributions Component separation Photometric parameters Elliptical photometry Luminosity distributions Bulge luminosity laws Luminosity distributions in disks Component

  2. Surface photometry STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Surface photometry Dynamics Formation STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 9. Elliptical galaxies Piet van van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Elliptical galaxies #12;Outline Surface photometry Dynamics Formation Outline Surface photometry Luminosity distributions Shells and ripples Color gradients

  3. Galaxy surface photometry

    E-print Network

    Bo Milvang-Jensen; Inger Jorgensen

    2000-04-04

    We describe galaxy surface photometry based on fitting ellipses to the isophotes of the galaxies. Example galaxies with different isophotal shapes are used to illustrate the process, including how the deviations from elliptical isophotes are quantified using Fourier expansions. We show how the definitions of the Fourier coefficients employed by different authors are linked. As examples of applications of surface photometry we discuss the determination of the relative disk luminosities and the inclinations for E and S0 galaxies. We also describe the color-magnitude and color-color relations. When using both near-infrared and optical photometry, the age-metallicity degeneracy may be broken. Finally we discuss the Fundamental Plane where surface photometry is combined with spectroscopy. It is shown how the FP can be used as a sensitive tool to study galaxy evolution.

  4. Surface photometry of NGC 3077

    E-print Network

    Hamed Abdel-Hamid; Peter Notni

    2000-11-03

    We present surface photometry of the irregular galaxy NGC 3077 using two data sets: photographic plates and CCD images. Isophotal contours, luminosity and colour distributions as well as position angle and ellipticity curves show that NGC 3077 is similar to an elliptical galaxy in the outer regions with a disturbed blue centre. The outer isophotes 22-25 mag/arcsec^2 are approximately centred on the dynamical centre, the inner ones are disturbed by the dominant contribution of a reddened young population.

  5. Surface photometry of WINGS galaxies with GASPHOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Bindoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Fritz, J.; Gullieuszik, M.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moretti, A.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Varela, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We present the B, V, and K band surface photometry catalogs obtained by running the automatic software GASPHOT on galaxies from the WINGS cluster survey with isophotal areas larger than 200 pixels. The catalogs can be downloaded at the Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg. Methods: The luminosity growth curves of stars and galaxies in a given catalog relative to a given cluster image were obtained simultaneously by slicing the image with a fixed surface brightness step in several SExtractor runs. Then, using a single Sersic law convolved with a space-varying point spread function (PSF), GASPHOT performed a simultaneous ?2 best-fit of the major- and minor-axis luminosity growth curves of galaxies. We outline the GASPHOT performances and compare our surface photometry with that obtained by SExtractor, GALFIT, and GIM2D. This analysis is aimed at providing statistical information about the accuracy that is generally achieved by the softwares for automatic surface photometry of galaxies. Results: The GASPHOT catalogs provide the parameters of the Sersic law that fit the luminosity profiles for each galaxy and for each photometric band. They are the sky coordinates of the galaxy center (RA, Dec), the total magnitude (m), the semi-major axis of the effective isophote (Re), the Sersic index (n), the axis ratio (b/a), and a flag parameter (QFLAG) that generally indicates the fit quality. The WINGS-GASPHOT database includes 41 463 galaxies in the B band, 42 275 in the V band, and 71 687 in the K band. The bright early-type galaxies have higher Sersic indices and larger effective radii, as well as redder colors in their center. In general, the effective radii increase systematically from the K to the V and B band. Conclusions: The GASPHOT photometry agrees well with the surface photometry obtained by GALFIT and GIM2D, and with the aperture photometry provided by SExtractor. In particular, the direct comparison of structural parameters derived by different softwares for common galaxies indicates that the systematic differences are small in general. The only significant deviations are most likely due to the peculiar (and very accurate) image processing adopted by WINGS for large galaxies. The main advantages of GASPHOT with respect to other tools are (i) the automatic finding of the local PSF; (ii) the short CPU execution time; and (iii) the remarkable stability against the choice of the initial-guess parameters. All these characteristics make GASPHOT an ideal tool for blind surface photometry of large galaxy samples in wide-field CCD mosaics. Catalogs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A87

  6. Automated surface photometry for the Coma Cluster galaxies: The catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Tarusawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A homogeneous photometry catalog is presented for 450 galaxies with B(sub 25.5) less than or equal to 16 mag located in the 9.8 deg x 9.8 deg region centered on the Coma Cluster. The catalog is based on photographic photometry using an automated surface photometry software for data reduction applied to B-band Schmidt plates. The catalog provides accurate positions, isophotal and total magnitudes, major and minor axes, and a few other photometric parameters including rudimentary morphology (early of late type).

  7. Deep Intermediate-Band Surface Photometry of NGC 5907

    E-print Network

    BATC Collaboration; Z. Y. Zheng; Z. H. Shang; H. J. Su; D. Burstein; J. S. Chen

    1999-02-19

    We obtained very deep exposures of NGC 5907 with a Schmidt telescope, large-format CCD, and intermediate-band filters centered at 6660A and 8020A. These two filters, part of a 15-filter set, are custom-designed to avoid the brightest (and most variable) night sky lines, with the result that our images go deeper, with lower sky noise, than those taken with broad-band filters. Our errors of observation reach 1 mag/arcsec^2 at 29.00 mag/arcsec-2 in the 6660A image (= 28.7 in R-band), and 27.4 mag/arcsec^ in the 8020A image (same zero point as I-band). Fainter than R = 27 mag arcsec^, the surface brightness around NGC 5907 is strongly asymmetric, being mostly brighter the NW side of the galaxy midplane. This asymmetry rules out a halo for the origin of the faint surface brightness we see. Rather, this asymmetry is likely an artifact due to a combination of light from a faint ring around this galaxy (as described in Shang et al. 1998, ApJL 504, 23) and residual surface brightness at faint levels from stars that our star-masking procedure cannot completely eliminate. Good agreement with the surface photometry of NGC 5907 by Morrison et al. and other workers lead us to conclude that their data are similarly affected at faint levels by ring light and residual effects from their star masking procedures. Inspection of the images published by Morrison et al. and Sackett et al. confirm this to be the case. Thus, we conclude that NGC 5907 does not have a faint, extended halo.

  8. Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    E-print Network

    Baltic Astronomy, vol. 8, 535{574, 1999. GALAXY SURFACE PHOTOMETRY Bo Milvang-Jensen 1;2 and Inger@gemini.edu Received March 3, 2000 Abstract. We describe galaxy surface photometry based on #12;tting ellipses. As examples of applications of surface photometry we discuss the determination of the relative disk

  9. Changes on Pluto's Surface Revealed with Long Timebase Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Erin; Buie, M.

    2013-10-01

    We are continuing to monitor the long-term photometric behavior of Pluto in order to constrain volatile surface migration. As Pluto passes near the center of the galaxy, the fields are too crowded for normal aperture photometric techniques. We approached this problem with a combination of point-spread function (PSF) photometry and optimal image subtraction (OIS). Our data are from the 0.8-m robotic telescope at Lowell Observatory, the 1-m robotic telescope at New Mexico State Observatory, and the Faulkes 2-m robotic telescope at Siding Spring, part of Las Cumbres Observatory. Our latest results add photometric data up through 2012 to the data collected since discovery. Our new reduction scheme consists of background catalogs, image subtraction using deep templates, and Pluto photometry extraction. We also use the known photometric properties of Charon determined with HST to remove Charon's contribution from old and new data and compare these results with the HST data where Pluto is measured by itself. Data since 2002 show marked departures from the behavior prior to that time. These results provide clear evidence for time evolution of Pluto's surface albedo. We will present these results along with implications for present-day processes that are altering the surface of Pluto. This work also provides crucial insight into the effort required to provide ground-based support observations for the upcoming New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. Support for this work was provided by NASA Planetary Astronomy Program, grant number NNX09AB43G.

  10. Surface Photometry of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205

    E-print Network

    Sang Chul Kim; Myung Gyoon Lee

    1998-06-02

    We present BVRI CCD surface photometry for the central (6'.35 X 6'.35) regions of the dwarf elliptical galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205 in the Local Group. Surface brightness profiles of NGC 185 (R = 25". The colors of NGC 205 get bluer inward at 1" photometry, supplemented by the photometry based on the far-ultraviolet and visual images of the HST archive data, shows that there is an inversion of color at the very nucleus region (at about 1"). The implications of the redder color of the core part of the nucleus compared with neighboring regions are discussed. The amount of the excess components in the central regions of these galaxies is estimated to be ~10^5 solar luminosity. Distributions of dust clouds in the central regions of the two galaxies are also investigated.

  11. Planetary surface photometry and imaging: progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goguen, Jay D

    2014-10-01

    Spacecraft have visited and returned many thousands of images and spectra of all of the planets, many of their moons, several asteroids, and a few comet nuclei during the golden age of planetary exploration. The signal in each pixel of each image or spectral channel is a measurement of the radiance of scattered sunlight into a specific direction. The information on the structure and composition of the surface that is contained in variation of the radiance with scattering geometry and wavelength, including polarization state, has only just begun to be exploited and is the topic of this review. The uppermost surfaces of these bodies are mainly composed of particles that are continuously generated by impacts of micrometeoroids and larger impactors. Models of light scattering by distributions of sizes and irregular shapes of particles and by closely packed particles within a surface are challenging. These are active topics of research where considerable progress has recently been made. We focus on the surfaces of bodies lacking atmospheres.These surfaces are diverse and their morphologies give evidence of their evolution by impacts and resurfacing by a variety of processes including down slope movement and electrostatic transport of particles, gravitational accumulation of debris, volatile outgassing and migration, and magnetospheric interactions. Sampling of scattering geometries and spatial resolution is constrained by spacecraft trajectories. However, the large number of archived images and spectra demand more quantitative interpretation. The scattering geometry dependence of the radiance is underutilized and promises constraints on the compositions and structure of the surface for materials that lack diagnostic wavelength dependence. The general problem is considered in terms of the lunar regolith for which samples have been returned to Earth. PMID:25313169

  12. Deep Intermediate-Band Surface Photometry of NGC 5907

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Z Y; Su, H J; Burstein, D; Chen, J S

    1999-01-01

    We obtained very deep exposures of NGC 5907 with a Schmidt telescope, large-format CCD, and intermediate-band filters centered at 6660A and 8020A. These two filters, part of a 15-filter set, are custom-designed to avoid the brightest (and most variable) night sky lines, with the result that our images go deeper, with lower sky noise, than those taken with broad-band filters. Our errors of observation reach 1 mag/arcsec^2 at 29.00 mag/arcsec-2 in the 6660A image (= 28.7 in R-band), and 27.4 mag/arcsec^ in the 8020A image (same zero point as I-band). Fainter than R = 27 mag arcsec^, the surface brightness around NGC 5907 is strongly asymmetric, being mostly brighter the NW side of the galaxy midplane. This asymmetry rules out a halo for the origin of the faint surface brightness we see. Rather, this asymmetry is likely an artifact due to a combination of light from a faint ring around this galaxy (as described in Shang et al. 1998, ApJL 504, 23) and residual surface brightness at faint levels from stars that ou...

  13. Balloon-borne infrared telescope for absolute surface photometry of the night sky.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Lemke, D; Thum, C

    1977-12-01

    A dry ice cooled 15-cm ir telescope was used on board the balloon-borne gondola THISBE for absolute surface photometry of the Milky Way, the zodiacal light, and the airglow in the PbS wavelength region. The mechanical, optical, electronical, and thermal design of the instrument is described. The efficiency of the baffle system for suppression of stray light from earth and balloon is discussed in detail. Recent airglow measurements are presented. PMID:20174314

  14. Surface Photometry of Star Clusters in the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205

    E-print Network

    Sang Chul Kim; Myung Gyoon Lee; Doug Geisler; Ata Sarajedini; Taft E. Armandroff; Gary S. Da Costa

    2001-09-14

    We present the surface photometry of star clusters in the nearby dwarf elliptical galaxies NGC 185 and NGC 205, obtained from deep HST WFPC2 F555W (V) and F814W (I) images. We have obtained surface brightness and color profiles of six star clusters in NGC 185, seven star clusters in NGC 205, and one recently discovered non-stellar object in NGC 205. The surface brightness profiles of ten star clusters are fitted well by the King model, and those of four star clusters are fitted well by the power-law. Three out of ten star clusters fitted well with King model show signs of tidal tails.

  15. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on Titan, has been decomposed into a MySQL relational database in order to perform the present study looking at both spatial and temporal (seasonal) aspects.

  16. Radiative transfer in the surfaces of atmosphereless bodies. III - Interpretation of lunar photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumme, K.; Irvine, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Narrowband and UBV photoelectric phase curves of the entire lunar disk and surface photometry of some craters have been interpreted using a newly developed generalized radiative transfer theory for planetary regoliths. The data are well fitted by the theory, yielding information on both macroscopic and microscopic lunar properties. Derived values for the integrated disk geometric albedo are considerably higher than quoted previously, because of the present inclusion of an accurately determined opposition effect. The mean surface roughness, defined as the ratio of the height to the radius of a typical irregularity, is found to be 0.9 + or - 0.1, or somewhat less than the mean value of 1.2 obtained for the asteroids. From the phase curves, wavelength-dependent values of the single scattering albedo and the Henyey-Greenstein asymmetry factor for the average surface particle are derived.

  17. Near infrared surface photometry of late-type Virgo cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Tuffs, R. J.; Gavazzi, G.; Hippelein, H.; Pierini, D.

    1997-03-01

    Near Infrared (K' band) surface photometry has been obtained for 102 (88 late-type) Virgo cluster galaxies. A subset of 20 galaxies was also imaged in the H band. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5 and 22.0 mag arcsec$^{-2}$ isophote, concentration indices and total H and K' magnitudes are derived. Basic statistical properties of a complete sample of spiral galaxies spanning the range 6.3 < K'_T < 13.5 are given. Tables 3, 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html} Based on observations taken at the Calar Alto Observatory, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  18. Disk Galaxies in the Outer Local Supercluster: Optical CCD Surface Photometry and Distribution of Galaxy Disk Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, N. Y.

    1998-01-01

    We report new B-band CCD surface photometry on a sample of 76 disk galaxies brighter than BT = 14.5 mag in the Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies, which are confined within a volume located in the outer part of the Local Supercluster.

  19. HST observations of globular clusters in M 31. 1: Surface photometry of 13 objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecci, F. Fusi; Battistini, P.; Bendinelli, O.; Bonoli, F.; Cacciari, C.; Djorgovski, S.; Federici, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Parmeggiani, G.; Weir, N.

    1994-01-01

    We present the initial results of a study of globular clusters in M 31, using the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The sample of objects consists of 13 clusters spanning a range of properties. Three independent image deconvolution techniques were used in order to compensate for the optical problems of the HST, leading to mutually fully consistent results. We present detailed tests and comparisons to determine the reliability and limits of these deconvolution methods, and conclude that high-quality surface photometry of M 31 globulars is possible with the HST data. Surface brightness profiles have been extracted, and core radii, half-light radii, and central surface brightness values have been measured for all of the clusters in the sample. Their comparison with the values from ground-based observations indicates the later to be systematically and strongly biased by the seeing effects, as it may be expected. A comparison of the structural parameters with those of the Galactic globulars shows that the structural properties of the M 31 globulars are very similar to those of their Galactic counterparts. A candidate for a post-core-collapse cluster, Bo 343 = G 105, has been already identified from these data; this is the first such detection in the M 31 globular cluster system.

  20. DEEP K{sub s} -NEAR-INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF 80 DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, Robin L.; McCall, Marshall L.; Argote, Mauricio; Cluver, Michelle E.; Nishiyama, Shogo; Rekola, Rami T. F.; Richer, Michael G.; Vaduvescu, Ovidiu; Woudt, Patrick A. E-mail: mccall@yorku.c E-mail: mcluver@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: rareko@utu.f E-mail: ovidiuv@ing.iac.e

    2010-06-10

    We present deep near-infrared (K{sub s}) images and surface photometry for 80 dwarf irregular galaxies (dIs) within {approx}5 Mpc of the Milky Way. The galaxy images were obtained at five different facilities between 2004 and 2006. The image reductions and surface photometry have been performed using methods specifically designed for isolating faint galaxies from the high and varying near-infrared sky level. Fifty-four of the 80 dIs have surface brightness profiles which could be fit to a hyperbolic-secant (sech) function, while the remaining profiles could be fit to the sum of a sech and a Gaussian function. From these fits, we have measured central surface brightnesses, scale lengths, and integrated magnitudes. This survey is part of a larger study of the connection between large-scale structure and the global properties of dIs, the hypothesized building-blocks of more massive galaxies.

  1. Surface photometry of plasma tail of comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, V.; Velichko, F.

    During 2001 Aug. 1-5 at the out-of-town observation station of the Astronomical Institute of Kharkov National University (AI KhNU) about 100 CCD-images of comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR) had been obtained with 70-cm reflector AZT-8 using CCD-camera ST-6 and V, R filters. Distribution of surface brightness in the plasma tail of this comet had been studied by software package "IRIS", designed at the AI KNU. Diffusion model, proposed by L.M.Shulman, is used to interpret the results of relative surface photometry of this comet. Using this model, the physical parameters of comet's plasma tail (mean values of induction of magnetic field, acceleration and life's time of fluorescent particles, lengthwise and transverse diffusion coefficients et al.) are estimated. The temporal variations of these parameters during our observations are investigated. Obtained values of physical parameters of the tail of comet C/2001 A2 are comparing with values of similar parameters of plasma tails of other comets (1P/Halley (1982 U1), 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Austin (C/1982 M1)).

  2. Stellar populations in edge-on galaxies from deep CCD surface photometry, 1: NGC 5907

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Boroson, Todd A.; Harding, Paul

    1994-01-01

    We present extremely deep charge coupled device (CCD) surface photometry of the edge-on Sc galaxy NGC 5907. Our data reach reliably to a surface brightness of R=27 mag/sq arcsec, some two magnitudes fainter than any previous work. We obtained this improvement using a 2048X2048 CCD with a wide (approximately 24 min) field, which made it possible to sky subtract directly from the galaxy frame, and by taking many dark sky flatfields. Our analysis of these data, using a full 2D model fitting procedure with a detailed error model, confirm the thin disk parameters of van der Kruit & Searle (1981). In particular, we confirm that the galaxy's disk has a radial cutoff and a constant scale height with radius. We find evidence for a stellar warp in this system, which has the same orientation as the H I warp. Our deep data also confirm that NGC 5907 has no thick disk. This suggests that theories of thick disk formation from star formation in the early stages of disk collapse, or by secular heating mechanisms, are unlikely to be correct, because they would predict that every galaxy would have a thick disk. Thick disk formation from the accretion of satellite galaxies is more likely.

  3. UIT: Ultraviolet surface photometry of the spiral galaxy M74 (NGC 628)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Robert H.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Greason, Michael R.; Offenberg, Joel D.; Angione, Ronald J.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cheng, K. P.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    Ultraviolet photometry, obtained from Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) images at 1520 A (far-UV; magnitudes m(152)) and 2490 A (near-UV; magnitudes m(249)), of the spiral galaxy M74 (NGC 628) is compared with H-alpha, R, V, and B surface photometry and with models. M74's surface brightness profiles have a central peak with an exponential falloff; the exponential scale lengths of the profiles increase with decreasing wavelength for the broad-band images. The slope of the continuum-subtracted H-alpha profile is intermediate between those of far-UV and near-UV profiles, consistent with the related origins of H-alpha and UV emission in extreme Population I material. M74's color profiles all become bluer with increasing radius. The (m(152) - m(249)) color as measured by UIT averages near 0.0 (the color of an A0 star) over the central 20 sec radius and decreases from approximately -0.2 to approximately -0.4 from 20 sec to 200 sec. The spiral arms are the dominant component of the surface photometry colors; interarm regions are slightly redder. In the UV, M74's nuclear region resembles its disk/spiral arm material in colors and morphology, unlike galaxies such as M81. No UV 'bulge' is apparent. The m(152) - m(249) colors and models of M74's central region clearly demonstrate that there is no significant population of O or B stars present in the central 10 sec. M74's UV morphology and (m(152) - m(249)) color profiles are similar to those of M33, although M74 is approximately 0.5 mag redder. M81 has a smooth UV bulge which is much redder than the nuclear regions of M74 and M33. M74 is approximately 0.4 mag bluer than M81 in its outer disk, although M81 has bright UV sources only in spiral arms more than 5 kpc from its center. We investigate possible explanations for the color profiles of the galaxies and the differences among the galaxies: abundances; reddening due to internal dust; interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations, and the history of formation of the dominant generations of stars. Abundance and IMF variations do not produce large enough m(152) - m(249) or UV - V color differences. Comparing model UV/optical colors with those of M74 shows that M74's disk has undergone significant star formation over the past 500 Myr, and that either the star-formation history or the extinction varies systematically across M74's disk. Comparison of M74, M33, and M81 (UV - V) colors shows that M74 colors range from the bluest of M33's colors to the bluest of M81's. The failure of reddening models to cover the range of colors, and the known abundance range in such material, leads to the conclusion that star-formation history varies significantly as a function of radius in these galaxies, and that such variation is required to explain the range of colors observed in M74, M33, and M81.

  4. The Mid-infrared Tully-Fisher Relation: Spitzer Surface Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 ?m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45° from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  5. THE MID-INFRARED TULLY-FISHER RELATION: SPITZER SURFACE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Courtois, Helene M.; Tully, R. Brent

    2012-11-01

    The availability of photometric imaging of several thousand galaxies with the Spitzer Space Telescope enables a mid-infrared calibration of the correlation between luminosity and rotation in spiral galaxies. The most important advantage of the new calibration in the 3.6 {mu}m band, IRAC Channel 1, is photometric consistency across the entire sky. Additional advantages are minimal obscuration, observations of flux dominated by old stars, and sensitivity to low surface brightness levels due to favorable backgrounds. Roughly 3000 galaxies have been observed through Spitzer cycle 7 and images of these are available from the Spitzer archive. In cycle 8, a program called Cosmic Flows with Spitzer was initiated, which will increase the available sample of spiral galaxies with inclinations greater than 45 Degree-Sign from face-on that are suitable for distance measurements by 1274. This paper describes procedures, based on the photometry package Archangel, that are being employed to analyze both the archival and new data in a uniform way. We give results for 235 galaxies, our calibrator sample for the Tully-Fisher relation. Galaxy magnitudes are determined with uncertainties held below 0.05 mag for normal spiral systems. A subsequent paper will describe the calibration of the [3.6] luminosity-rotation relation.

  6. LROC NAC Photometry as a Tool for Studying Physical and Compositional Properties of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Stopar, J. D.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.

    2014-10-01

    LROC NAC photometry has been used to study the effects of rocket exhaust on lunar soil properties, and here we apply the same photometric methods to place compositional constraints on regions of silicic volcanism and pure anorthosite on the Moon.

  7. Near infrared H and K' surface photometry of three Tully-Fisher calibrators: NGC 2366, NGC 2403 and NGC 4236

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, D.; Gavazzi, G.; Boselli, A.; Tuffs, R.

    1997-10-01

    Near Infrared H and K' surface photometry of the three nearby galaxies NGC 2366, NGC 2403 and NGC 4236, used as local calibrators of the Tully-Fisher relation, was obtained using the 256^2 NICMOS3 IR array MAGIC attached to the 2.2 m telescope of Calar Alto. The present measurements are compared with the aperture photometry available in the literature. Surface brightness profiles and integrated magnitudes are given. The tables are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract t.html Based on observations taken at the Calar Alto Observatory, operated by the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  8. Photometric calibration of NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC plates using the NOAO PDS measuring engine. II - Surface photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutri, Roc M.; Low, Frank J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to calibrate surface photometry of faint sources measured from direct photographic plates, such as those of the NGS/POSS and ESO/SRC Sky Survey. This calibration procedure does not require scanning sensitometer spots on the plates, but instead uses measurements of the brightness profiles of many faint stars of known brightness to fit a linearized approximation to the characteristic curve. The approximation is valid for only low- to medium-density emulsions, so this technique is appropriate only for relatively faint emission. Comparison between measurements of representative extended sources on the NGS/POSS and CCD images indicates that surface photometry can be obtained from the Sky Survey plates accurate to 0.1-0.3 mag in the range mu(B) between 23 and 27 and mu(R) between 22 and 26 mag/sq arcsec.

  9. Surface photometry of spiral galaxies. I. theoretical color variation and surface brightness across spiral arms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, C.; Grosbol, P.

    1981-01-15

    A method is developed for the construction of the color variation and surface brightness across a spiral arm by using the ideas and results of the density-wave theory. An application of this method to the Milky Way shows that the surface brightness across a spiral arm is smooth and symmetric with these dependence on the galactocentric distance. The color variation measured by the index Q varies with the ratio of the light of young stars to that of the old stars, the initial mass function, and varies with the ratio of the light of young stars to that of the olds stars, the initial mass function, and the pattern speed W/sub p/. The color profiles are in general smooth and symmetric in the inner parts of the galaxy and become more asymmetric toward the corotation region. The results are in good agreement with the recent optical observations of Schweizer and of Talbot, Jensen, and Dufour. The fact that the variation of the brightness and the color across a spiral arm is relatively smooth and symmetric instead of sharp as in the galactic shock picture is due simply to two smearing-out effects: the continuous processes of star formation inside a cloud in the regions behind the galactic shock, and the tendency of new stars to fall back to small galactocentric distances after their formation because of their lower angular velocity at birth. Both effects arise naturally in the context of the density-wave theory.

  10. Surface photometry of spiral galaxies. I - Theoretical color variation and surface brightness across spiral arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, C.; Grosbol, P.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the construction of color variations and surface brightness across a galactic spiral arm, using the concepts and results of the density-wave theory, is developed. The color variation measured by the index Q varies with the ratio of the light of young stars to that of the old stars, the initial mass function, and the pattern speed. The fact that the variation of brightness and color across a spiral arm is relatively smooth and symmetrical and not sharp as in the galactic shock picture is due to the smearing-out effects of star formation inside a cloud in the regions behind the galactic shock, and the tendency of new stars to fall back to small galactocentric distances after their formation because of their lower angular velocity at birth. Both effects arise naturally in the context of the density-wave theory.

  11. Multicolor surface photometry of a sample of low luminosity radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sheetal Kumar; Pandey, S. K.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Baburao Pandge, Mahadev

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed multiband photometric study of five galaxies, selected from a sample of low luminosity early-type galaxies from B2 sample, which have mpg = 15.7, mV = 16.5, redshifts up to 0.2, radio powers P408 = 1023 - 1026.5 W Hz-1 and between 1022 - 1025 W Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz. We have used observed BVR and H? images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India) and 2m HCT, Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO Hanle, India), and archival multiband data from SDSS (ugriz), 2MASS (JHKs ), WISE, Spitzer (mid-IR), XMM, CHANDRA (X-ray), UV (GALEX) and radio from VLA, IRAM for this study.We used standard technique of surface photometry by fitting ellipses to the isophotes for studying the distribution of light in the galaxies by studying their surface brightness profiles, ellipticity profiles, position angle profiles, variation of center of isophotes along semi-major axis, shapes of isophotes, radial color gradients, twists in isophotes and fine structure variations from smooth light profile. The obtained surface brightness profiles are fitted to the core-Sersic model for decomposing the galaxy light profiles and quantify the radial stellar distributions of the sample galaxies.The multiband color index profiles, e.g. u-g, g-r, r-i, i-z, B-R, B-V, J-Hs , J-Ks , H-Ks , R-Ks , 3.4-4.6 ?m, 4.6-12 ?m (mid-IR) and FUV-NUV(UV), are obtained and combined with various maps e.g . unsharp-masked images, residual maps, quotient maps, dust extinction maps, H? emission maps, CO intensity maps, diffuse X-ray emission maps and extinction curves of the galaxies to study the morphology, properties and physical correlations of different phases (e.g cool gas, dust, ionized gas and hot gases) of Inter Stellar Medium and to examine various star formation related processes in the galaxies.

  12. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. I. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J. E-mail: agpaz@astrax.fis.ucm.e

    2009-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C {sub 42}), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M-bar{sub 20}). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C {sub 42}-A-G-M-bar{sub 20} parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 {mu}m and very hot dust at 24 {mu}m). In an accompanying paper by Munoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial distribution of dust properties in the SINGS galaxies, providing a detailed analysis of the radial variation of the attenuation, the dust column density, the dust-to-gas ratio, the abundance of PAHs, and the intensity of the heating starlight.

  13. VEGAS: A VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey. I. Presentation, wide-field surface photometry, and substructures in NGC 4472

    E-print Network

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrichetta; Limatola, Luca; Napolitano, Nicola R; Cantiello, Michele; Paolillo, Maurizio; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A; Puzia, Thomas H; Raimondo, Gabriella; Schipani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    We present the VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey (VEGAS), which is designed to obtain deep multiband photometry in g, r, i, of about one hundred nearby galaxies down to 27.3, 26.8, and 26 mag/arcsec^2 respectively, using the ESO facility VST/OmegaCAM.} The goals of the survey are 1) to map the light distribution up to ten effective radii, r_e, 2) to trace color gradients and surface brightness fluctuation gradients out to a few r_e for stellar population characterization, and 3) to obtain a full census of the satellite systems (globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) out to 20% of the galaxy virial radius. The external regions of galaxies retain signatures of the formation and evolution mechanisms that shaped them, and the study of nearby objects enables a detailed analysis of their morphology and interaction features. To clarify the complex variety of formation mechanisms of early-type galaxies (ETGs), wide and deep photometry is the primary observational step, which at the moment has been pursued with only a few d...

  14. Configurational Equilibrium of Cracks Affected by Surface Stress and

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chien H.

    Configurational Equilibrium of Cracks Affected by Surface Stress and Crack-Tip Point Load Chien H cwucwucwucwuUIC = Potential Energy Configuration b g b g 0 Effect of Surface Stress and Crack-Tip Load 062999 Then Stretch 1 11 1+ 1+ 1+ 062999-03 Surface Stress #12;cwucwucwucwuUIC 1 1+ a f: Surface Energy per Unit

  15. UBVR AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MID-ULTRAVIOLET AND NEAR-INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND RADIAL COLOR GRADIENTS OF LATE-TYPE, IRREGULAR,

    E-print Network

    Hibbard, John

    UBVR AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MID-ULTRAVIOLET AND NEAR-INFRARED SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND RADIAL of a larger data set obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST ), we also analyze the color gradients-based telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST ) have expanded our view of the universe to higher redshifts

  16. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus; 1, H-band surface photometry of 174 spirals

    E-print Network

    Moriondo, G; Casertano, S; Chincarini, G L; Gavazzi, G; Giovanardi, C; Hunt, L K; Pierini, D; Sperandio, M; Trinchieri, G

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 um), surface photometry of 174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. The images, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes, are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities, and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-band magnitudes and diameters. The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and the B-band D_{25} implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than 3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D_{25} depends on (global) color and absolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometric parameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and disk scale length of about 3.5 and a mean disk central brightness of 17.5 H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration index C_{31} with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, with morphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetric structures on the radial profiles and on the der...

  17. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus: I. H-band surface photometry of 174 spirals

    E-print Network

    G. Moriondo; C. Baffa; S. Casertano; G. Chincarini; G. Gavazzi; C. Giovanardi; L. K. Hunt; D. Pierini; M. Sperandio; G. Trinchieri

    1999-05-06

    We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 um), surface photometry of 174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. The images, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes, are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities, and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-band magnitudes and diameters. The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and the B-band D_{25} implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than 3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D_{25} depends on (global) color and absolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometric parameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and disk scale length of about 3.5 and a mean disk central brightness of 17.5 H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration index C_{31} with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, with morphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetric structures on the radial profiles and on the derived parameters.

  18. Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VEGAS: A VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey. I. Presentation, wide-field surface photometry, and substructures in NGC 4472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Spavone, Marilena; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrichetta; Limatola, Luca; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Cantiello, Michele; Paolillo, Maurizio; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Schipani, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present the VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey (VEGAS), which is designed to obtain deep multiband photometry in g,r,i, of about one hundred nearby galaxies down to 27.3, 26.8, and 26 mag/arcsec2 respectively, using the ESO facility VST/OmegaCAM. Aims: The goals of the survey are 1) to map the light distribution up to ten effective radii, re; 2) to trace color gradients and surface brightness fluctuation gradients out to a few re for stellar population characterization; and 3) to obtain a full census of the satellite systems (globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) out to 20% of the galaxy virial radius. The external regions of galaxies retain signatures of the formation and evolution mechanisms that shaped them, and the study of nearby objects enables a detailed analysis of their morphology and interaction features. To clarify the complex variety of formation mechanisms of early-type galaxies (ETGs), wide and deep photometry is the primary observational step, which at the moment has been pursued with only a few dedicated programs. The VEGAS survey has been designated to provide these data for a volume-limited sample with exceptional image quality. Methods: In this commissioning photometric paper we illustrate the capabilities of the survey using g- and i-band VST/OmegaCAM images of the nearby galaxy NGC 4472 and of smaller ETGs in the surrounding field. Results: Our surface brightness profiles reach rather faint levels and agree excellently well with previous literature. Genuine new results concern the detection of an intracluster light tail in NGC 4472 and of various substructures at increasing scales. We have also produced extended (g - i) color profiles. Conclusions: The VST/OmegaCAM data that we acquire in the context of the VEGAS survey provide a detailed view of substructures in the optical emission from extended galaxies, which can be as faint as a hundred times below the sky level. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. The photometric functions of Phobos and Deimos. III - Surface photometry of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noland, M.; Veverka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Phobos are used to study the uniformity of a certain photometric scattering parameter over the surface of the satellite, assuming that the scattering law for Phobos can be represented by the Hapke-Irvine equation. Ways of avoiding topographically irregular areas are discussed, phase functions for Phobos are obtained from scans along the photometric equator, and the photometric behavior of selected areas not along this equator is examined. Searches are conducted for anomalously bright areas and evidence of solid rock on the surface. The results indicate that: (1) at least three large regions on the surface of Phobos are covered by a dark material of complex texture which scatters light according to the Hapke-Irvine law; (2) the average intrinsic phase coefficient of this material is 0.020 mag/deg over the phase-angle range from 20 to 80 deg; (3) even the topographically irregular areas have photometric properties similar to those of the three smooth regions; (4) the surface of Phobos is rougher than that of Deimos on the largest scale; and (5) apparent bright patches are most likely caused by local tilts of the surface.

  1. Lunar Eclipse of June, 15, 2011: Three-color umbra surface photometry

    E-print Network

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S; Korotkiy, Stanislav A

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains the preliminary result description of the photometric observations of the Moon surface during the total lunar eclipse of June, 15, 2011 conducted in southern Russia and Ukraine in three narrow spectral bands with effective wavelengths equal to 501, 673, and 867 nm. The photometric maps of umbra are built, the radial dependencies of relative brightness are compared with the theoretical ones for gaseous atmosphere. Dark anomalies of umbra are shown and related with the aerosol air pollution of the definite regions above the surface of Earth.

  2. Surface Photometry of Celestial Sources from a Space Vehicle: Introduction and Observational Procedures*

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Franklin E.; Carroll, Benjamin; Aller, Lawrence H.; Smith, Leroi

    1972-01-01

    Diffuse celestial sources of relatively low surface brightness such as the Milky Way, zodiacal light, and gegenschein (or contre lumière) can be studied most reliably from above the earth's atmosphere with equipment flown in artificial satellites. We review the techniques used and some of the difficulties encountered in day-time observations from satellites by the use of a special photometer and polarimeter flown in the orbiting skylab observatory, OSO-6. PMID:16591970

  3. Surface photometry of celestial sources from a space vehicle - Introduction and observational procedures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, F. E.; Carroll, B.; Aller, L. H.; Smith, L.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the possibility of studying diffuse celestial sources of relatively low surface brightness such as the Milky Way, zodiacal light, and gegenschein from above the earth's atmosphere with equipment flown in artificial satellites. The techniques used for this purpose are reviewed, and some of the difficulties encountered in daytime observations from satellites by the use of a special photometer and polarimeter flown in the orbiting skylab observatory, OSO-6, are cited.

  4. The photometric functions of Phobos and Deimos. II - Surface photometry of Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noland, M.; Veverka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Deimos are used to study the uniformity of a certain photometric scattering parameter over the surface of the satellite. It is shown that the photometric data considered satisfy the reciprocity principle and that the Hapke-Irvine scattering law is adequate for describing the surface. Phase functions for Deimos are obtained from scans along the photometric equator, and the photometric behavior of the brightest and darkest areas on the satellite's disk is examined. The results indicate that the surface of Deimos is covered uniformly by a dark and texturally complex material whose photometric behavior is well-represented by the Hapke-Irvine law, that the intrinsic phase coefficient of this material is about 0.017 mag/deg over the phase-angle range from 20 to 80 deg, and that slightly brighter material is present near some craters. Since enhanced brightening was not observed at the specular point of the photometric equator in any of the pictures studied, it is concluded that large exposures of solid rock are absent from the Mars-facing side of Deimos.

  5. Photometry of Triton 1992-2004: Surface volatile transport and discovery of a remarkable opposition surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Bauer, J. M.; Hicks, M. D.; Hillier, J. K.; Verbiscer, A.; Hammel, H.; Schmidt, B.; Cobb, B.; Herbert, B.; Garsky, M.; Ward, J.; Foust, J.

    2011-04-01

    Triton, the large satellite of Neptune, was imaged by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1989 with dark plumes originating in its volatile-rich south polar region. Southern summer solstice, a time when seasonal volatile transport should be at a maximum, occurred in 2001. Ground-based observations of Triton's rotational light curve obtained from Table Mountain Observatory in 2000-2004 reveal volatile transport on its surface. When compared with a static frost model constructed from Voyager images, the light curve shows an increase in total amplitude. An earlier light curve obtained in 1992 from Mauna Kea Observatory is consistent with the static frost model. This movement of volatiles on the surface agrees with recent imaging results from the Hubble Space Telescope (Bauer, J.M., Buratti, B.J., Li, J.-Y., Mosher, J.A., Hicks, M.D., Schmidt, B.E., Goguen, J.D. [2010]. Astrophys. J. 723, L49-L52). The changes in the light curve can be explained by the transport of nitrogen frost on the surface or by the uncovering of bedrock of less volatile methane. We also find that Triton exhibits a large opposition surge at solar phase angles less than 0.1°. This surge cannot be entirely explained by the effects of coherent backscatter.

  6. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. I. vec H-band surface photometry of 174 spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriondo, G.; Baffa, C.; Casertano, S.; Chincarini, G.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Pierini, D.; Sperandio, M.; Trinchieri, G.

    1999-05-01

    We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 $() ?m), surface photometry of 174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. The images, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes, are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities, and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-band magnitudes and diameters Radial profiles in tabular form and images FITS files are also available upon request from gmorio@arcetri.astro.it.}. The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and the B-band D25 implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than 3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D25 depends on (global) color and absolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometric parameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and disk scale length of ~ m3.5 and a mean disk central brightness ~ meq 17.5 H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration index C31$ with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, with morphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetric structures on the radial profiles and on the derived parameters. Based on observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO (Gornergrat, CH) is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (La Palma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic Observatory Scientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, Az) is operated by VORG, the Vatican Observatory Research Group Table 3 and Fig. 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

  7. A radiation-transfer analysis of the effects of dust on the surface photometry of a sample of nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrav, Bogdan Adrian; Rushton, Mark T.; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Intrinsic scale lengths, inclinations and bulge-to-disk ratios of galaxies are critical inputs for radiation-transfer modelling of the panchromatic (UV/optical-MIR/FIR/submm) broadband spectral energy distribution of spiral galaxies. Although these quantities can be derived from analysis of surface photometry of optical images of targets, the effect of the dust on the measured brightness distributions in the optical must be taken into account if a fully self-consistent analysis incorporating the panchromatic and surface photometry is to be achieved. Here we give results of a careful analysis of surface photometry for a benchmark sample ofwell resolved nearby spiral galaxies. We then show how the results can be used in conjunction with aradiation transfer analysis of the panchromatic output of the same objects and the library of morphological corrections for dust given by Pastrav et al.(2013a,b) to provide self-consistent corrections for the morphological and photometric parameters of the disk and bulge components of the target galaxies.

  8. Near-Infrared Surface Photometry of Bulges and Disks of Spiral Galaxies. The Data

    E-print Network

    R. F. Peletier; M. Balcells

    1997-01-09

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness and colour profiles,in bands ranging from U to K, for the disk and bulge components of a complete sample of 30 nearby S0 to Sbc galaxies with inclinations larger than 50 degrees. We describe in detail the observations and the determination of colour parameters. Calibrated monochromatic and real-colour images are presented, as well as colour index maps. This data set, tailored for the study of the population characteristics of galaxy bulges, provides useful information on the colours of inner disks as well. In related papers, we have used them to quantify colour gradients in bulges, and age differentials between bulge and inner disk.

  9. Surface photometry of brightest cluster galaxies and intracluster stars in ?CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A. P.; Gao, L.; Guo, Q.; Frenk, C. S.; Jenkins, A.; Springel, V.; White, S. D. M.

    2015-08-01

    We simulate the phase-space distribution of stellar mass in nine massive ? cold dark matter galaxy clusters by applying the semi-analytic particle tagging method of Cooper et al. to the Phoenix suite of high-resolution N-body simulations (M200 ? 7.5-33 × 1014 M?). The resulting surface brightness (SB) profiles of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) match well to observations. On average, stars formed in galaxies accreted by the BCG account for ?90 per cent of its total mass (the remainder is formed in situ). In circular BCG-centred apertures, the superposition of multiple debris clouds (each ?10 per cent of the total BCG mass) from different progenitors can result in an extensive outer diffuse component, qualitatively similar to a `cD envelope'. These clouds typically originate from tidal stripping at z ? 1 and comprise both streams and the extended envelopes of other massive galaxies in the cluster. Stars at very low SB contribute a significant fraction of the total cluster stellar mass budget: in the central 1 Mpc2 of a z ˜ 0.15 cluster imaged at SDSS-like resolution, our fiducial model predicts 80-95 per cent of stellar mass below a SB of ?V ˜ 26.5 mag arcsec-2 is associated with accreted stars in the envelope of the BCG. The ratio of BCG stellar mass (including this diffuse component) to total cluster stellar mass is ˜30 per cent.

  10. Basics of Photometry Photometry: Basic Questions

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Basics of Photometry #12;Photometry: Basic Questions · How do you identify objects in your image type of object you're studying? #12;#12;#12;Topics 1. General Considerations 2. Stellar Photometry 3. Galaxy Photometry #12;I: General Considerations 1. Garbage in, garbage out... 2. Object Detection 3

  11. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  12. The Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, IThe Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, I Surface photometry of a representative sample of nearby galaxies

    E-print Network

    Jansen, Rolf Arthur

    . Franx, D.G. Fabricant, N. Caldwell Our U,B,R photometry was obtained with the CCD camera at the 4810042+4716 051 Im NGC1298 033 E.. IC692 083 E NGC3605 080 S0- A11476+4220 096 S0 NGC4308 117 S0 A11392

  13. Context affects lightness at the level of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Marianne; Wichmann, Felix A; Shapley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception of object attributes such as surface lightness is crucial for successful interaction with the environment. How the visual system assigns lightness to image regions is not yet understood. It has been shown that the context in which a surface is embedded influences its perceived lightness, but whether that influence involves predominantly low-, mid-, or high-level visual mechanisms has not been resolved. To answer this question, we measured whether perceptual attributes of target image regions affected their perceived lightness when they were placed in different contexts. We varied the sharpness of the edge while keeping total target flux fixed. Targets with a sharp edge were consistent with the perceptual interpretation of a surface, and in that case, observers perceived significant brightening or darkening of the target. Targets with blurred edges rather appeared to be spotlights instead of surfaces; for targets with blurred edges, there was much less of a contextual effect on target lightness. The results indicate that the effect of context on the lightness of an image region is not fixed but is strongly affected by image manipulations that modify the perceptual attributes of the target, implying that a mid-level scene interpretation affects lightness perception. PMID:25589299

  14. Autosomal mutations affecting adhesion between wing surfaces in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Prout, M; Damania, Z; Soong, J; Fristrom, D; Fristrom, J W

    1997-05-01

    Integrins are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane alpha,beta heterodimeric receptors involved in cell-to-matrix and cell-to-cell adhesions. In Drosophila the position-specific (PS) integrins mediate the formation and maintenance of junctions between muscle and epidermis and between the two epidermal wing surfaces. Besides integrins, other proteins are implicated in integrin-dependent adhesion. In Drosophila, somatic clones of mutations in PS integrin genes disrupt adhesion between wing surfaces to produce wing blisters. To identify other genes whose products function in adhesion between wing surfaces, we conducted a screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. We isolated 76 independent mutations in 25 complementation groups, 15 of which contain more than one allele. Chromosomal sites were determined by deficiency mapping, and genetic interactions with mutations in the beta PS integrin gene myospheroid were investigated. Mutations in four known genes (blistered, Delta, dumpy and mastermind) were isolated. Mutations were isolated in three new genes (piopio, rhea and steamer duck) that affect myo-epidermal junctions or muscle function in embryos. Mutations in three other genes (kakapo, kiwi and moa) may also affect cell adhesion or muscle function at hatching. These new mutants provide valuable material for the study of integrin-dependent cell-to-cell adhesion. PMID:9136017

  15. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James

    2011-07-01

    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determinationframe cleaningellipse fittingprofile fittingtotal and isophotal magnitudes The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  16. 1.65 micrometers (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies; 3, observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope

    E-print Network

    Gavazzi, G; Scodeggio, M; Boselli, A; Pierini, D; Baffa, C; Lisi, F; Hunt, L K

    1999-01-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 micron) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity. (Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form upon request to gavazzi@uni.mi.astro.it)

  17. 1.65 micrometers (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III: observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5m telescope

    E-print Network

    G. Gavazzi; P. Franzetti; M. Scodeggio; A. Boselli; D. Pierini; C. Baffa; F. Lisi; L. K. Hunt

    1999-11-22

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 micron) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity. (Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form upon request to gavazzi@uni.mi.astro.it)

  18. 1.65 ?m (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Boselli, A.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.

    2000-02-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 ?m ) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO (Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  19. 1.65?m (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. II. Observations of 297 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5m telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Randone, I.; Boselli, A.

    1996-12-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 297 galaxies (mostly) in the Coma Supercluster obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera, ARNICA, mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5mag/arcsec^2^ isophote, concentration indices, and total H magnitudes are derived. Combining these observations with those obtained similarly using the Calar Alto telescopes (Paper I, 1996A&AS..120..489G) we find a strong positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity, and we analyze the consequent dependence of near-infrared growth-curves on H-band luminosity.

  20. Sky background uncertainty causes errors in surface photometry. BM98 fig. 4.16. NGC 1700 is accurately fit by a deVaucouleurs law. BM98 fig 4.25.

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Sky background uncertainty causes errors in surface photometry. BM98 fig. 4.16. #12;NGC 1700 is accurately fit by a deVaucouleurs law. BM98 fig 4.25. #12;1987IAUS..127...89T Surface brightness vs radius luminosities. BM98 fig 4.26. Luminosity profile of the cD galaxy in Abell 1413. BM98 fig 4.28. #12;Effect

  1. Colloid Surface Chemistry Critically Affects Multiple Particle Tracking Measurements of Biomaterials

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    Colloid Surface Chemistry Critically Affects Multiple Particle Tracking Measurements they probe. We here show that colloid surface chemistry can profoundly affect multiple particle tracking present a simple protocol to render the surface of colloidal probe particles protein-resistant by grafting

  2. GHASP: an H? kinematic survey of spiral galaxies - X. Surface photometry, decompositions and the Tully-Fisher relation in the Rc band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Ferrari, F.; Russeil, D.; Epinat, B.; Perret, V.; Adami, C.; Marcelin, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present Rc-band surface photometry for 170 of the 203 galaxies in GHASP, the Gassendi H-alpha survey of spirals, a sample of late-type galaxies for which high-resolution Fabry-Perot H? maps have previously been obtained. Our data set is constructed using new Rc-band observations taken at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, supplemented with Sloan Digital Sky Survey archival data, obtained with the purpose of deriving homogeneous photometric profiles and parameters. Our results include Rc-band surface brightness profiles for 170 galaxies and ugriz profiles for 108 of these objects. We catalogue several parameters of general interest for further reference, such as total magnitude, effective radius and isophotal parameters (magnitude, position angle, ellipticity and inclination). We also perform a structural decomposition of the surface brightness profiles using a multi-component method to separate discs from bulges and bars, and to observe the main scaling relations involving luminosities, sizes and maximum velocities. We determine the Rc-band Tully-Fisher relation using maximum velocities derived solely from H? rotation curves for a sample of 80 galaxies, resulting in a slope of -8.1 ± 0.5, zero-point of -3.0 ± 1.0 and an estimated intrinsic scatter of 0.28 ± 0.07. We note that, unlike the Tully-Fisher relation in the near-infrared derived for the same sample, no change in the slope of the relation is seen at the low-mass end (for galaxies with Vmax < 125 km s-1). We suggest that this different behaviour of the Tully-Fisher relation (with the optical relation being described by a single power law while the near-infrared has two), may be caused by differences in the stellar mass-to-light ratio for galaxies with Vmax < 125 km s-1.

  3. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ?0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  4. 1.65 ^mum (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. IV. observations of 170 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Pierini, D.; Scodeggio, M.

    2000-02-01

    We present near-infrared (H band) surface photometry of 170 galaxies, obtained in 1997 using the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope equipped with the NICMOS3 camera MAGIC. The majority of our targets are selected among bright members of the Virgo cluster, however galaxies in the A262 and Cancer clusters and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are also included. This data set is aimed at complementing the NIR survey in the Virgo cluster discussed in \\cite[Boselli et al. (1997)]{B97} and in the Coma Supercluster, presented in Papers I, II and III of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived Tables 1 and 2 (full version) are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Based on observations taken at the Calar Alto Observatory, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  5. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  6. Surface composition and orientation interact to affect subtidal epibiota.

    PubMed

    Glasby

    2000-05-31

    Settlement panels were used to evaluate the effects of composition of the substratum (sandstone, concrete, wood) and orientation (vertical, horizontal undersides) on subtidal epibiota. It was predicted that both factors would influence the development of epibiotic assemblages, but that differences due to composition would be less marked on horizontal undersides compared to vertical panels. Differences in assemblages among sandstone, concrete and wooden panels orientated vertically were predicted to be similar to those described previously among vertical surfaces of sandstone rocky reefs and concrete and wooden urban structures (pilings and pontoons). Multivariate analyses indicated that assemblages were influenced greatly by orientation, whereas the effects of surface composition differed for the two orientations and among sites. Assemblages on wood were always significantly different from those on sandstone or concrete - patterns between the latter two surfaces depended on the orientation of the panels. The taxa that dominated these surfaces were not similar in identity nor abundance to those on urban structures of the same composition. The covers of most taxa were influenced by orientation alone or by surface composition for just one orientation. This study demonstrates the need for caution in generalizing about effects of orientation and surface composition because they may interact with each other and/or with other factors and they are certainly quite different for different taxa and among sites. PMID:10771301

  7. 1.65 ?m (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Boselli, A.; Pierini, D.

    2000-09-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 ?m) surface brightness profile decomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies: Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma and A1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg? 16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD, except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning from isolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surface brightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), with an exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D). From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surface brightness (?e) and radius (re) of each component, the asymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration index C31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Elliptical galaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is best represented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pure exponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong function of the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubble classification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositions decreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases with luminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity range LH<1010 L\\odot and become dominant above 1011 L\\odot . Based on observations taken at TIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4 are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  8. Free-surface stability criterion as affected by velocity distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng-Lung, Chen

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines how the velocity distribution of flow in open channels affects the kinematic and dynamic wave velocities, from which the various forms of the Vedernikov number V can be formulated. When V >1, disturbances created in open-channel flow will amplify in the form of roll waves; when V <1, some (though not all) disturbances will attenuate. A study of the Vedernikov stability criterion reveals that it can be readily deduced within the framework of the kinematic and dynamic wave theories by comparing the kinematic wave velocity to the corresponding dynamic wave velocity. -from Author

  9. Human actions affect Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orwig, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    A new study that combines a model of glacial surface mass balance with a global climate model determines how much of the current and future increase in marginal melting and interior accumulation of the Greenland Ice Sheet is due to human activity rather than natural forces. The Greenland Ice Sheet, the largest continental glacier in the world, is shrinking at an increasing rate, but scientists are unsure how much of this shrinkage is due to natural versus human-driven climate change.

  10. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. III. LENS MODELS, SURFACE PHOTOMETRY, AND STELLAR MASSES FOR THE FINAL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Suyu, Sherry H.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.

    2013-11-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) near-infrared ground-based images for the final sample of 56 candidate galaxy-scale lenses uncovered in the CFHT Legacy Survey as part of the Strong Lensing in the Legacy Survey project. The new images are used to perform lens modeling, measure surface photometry, and estimate stellar masses of the deflector early-type galaxies (ETGs). Lens modeling is performed on the HST images (or CFHT when HST is not available) by fitting the spatially extended light distribution of the lensed features assuming a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile and by reconstructing the intrinsic source light distribution on a pixelized grid. Based on the analysis of systematic uncertainties and comparison with inference based on different methods, we estimate that our Einstein radii are accurate to ?3%. HST imaging provides a much higher success rate in confirming gravitational lenses and measuring their Einstein radii than CFHT imaging does. Lens modeling with ground-based images, however, when successful, yields Einstein radius measurements that are competitive with space-based images. Information from the lens models is used together with spectroscopic information from companion Paper IV to classify the systems, resulting in a final sample of 39 confirmed (grade A) lenses and 17 promising candidates (grade B,C). This represents an increase of half an order of magnitude in sample size with respect to the sample of confirmed lenses studied in Papers I and II. The Einstein radii of the confirmed lenses in our sample span the range 5-15 kpc and are typically larger than those of other surveys, probing the mass in regions where the dark matter contribution is more important. Stellar masses are in the range 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub ?}, covering the range of massive ETGs. The redshifts of the main deflector span a range 0.3 ? z{sub d} ? 0.8, which nicely complements low-redshift samples like the Sloan Lens ACS survey and thus provides an excellent sample for the study of the cosmic evolution of the mass distribution of ETGs over the second half of the history of the universe.

  11. Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters

    E-print Network

    Krishnamoorthy, Bala

    Neck Muscle Paths and Moment Arms are Significantly Affected by Wrapping Surface Parameters.S.A. *Corresponding author. Email: vasavada@wsu.edu We have studied the effects of wrapping surfaces on muscle paths and moment arms of the semispinalis capitis muscle, one of the major extensors of the neck. Sensitivities

  12. Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

    1956-01-01

    As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

  13. Nutrient losses in runoff from feedlot surfaces as affected by unconsolidated surface materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface materials (USM) (loose manure pack) that accumulate within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. The effects of varying amounts of USM on feedlot runoff water quality are not well defined. The objectives of this field investigation were to: a) compa...

  14. X-ray photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    I describe a method for synthesizing photometric passbands for use with current and future X-ray instruments. The method permits the standardization of X-ray passbands and thus X-ray photometry between different instruments and missions. The method is illustrated by synthesizing a passband in the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera pn which is similar to the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter 0.5-2 keV band.

  15. Third Workshop on Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J. (Editor); Lasher, Lawrence E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The discoveries of extrasolar planets by Wolszczan, Mayor and Queloz, Butler et al., and others have stimulated a widespread effort to obtain a body of data sufficient to understand their occurrence and characteristics. Doppler velocity techniques have found dozens of extrasolar planets with masses similar to that of Jupiter. Approximately ten percent of the stars that show planets with orbital periods of a few days to a week are expected to show transits. With the mass obtained from Doppler velocity measurements and the size from transit photometry, the densities of the planets can be determined. Theoretical models of the structure of "hot Jupiters" (i.e., those planets within a tenth of an astronomical unit (AU) of the parent star) indicate that these planets should be substantially larger in size and lower in density than Jupiter. Thus the combination of transit and Doppler velocity measurements provide a critical test of the theories of planetary structure. Furthermore, because photometry can be done with small-aperture telescopes rather than requiring the use of much larger telescopes, transit photometry should also reduce the cost of discovering extrasolar planets.

  16. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  17. THE IMPACT OF CONTAMINATED RR LYRAE/GLOBULAR CLUSTER PHOTOMETRY ON THE DISTANCE SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Lane, D.; Gieren, W.

    2012-06-10

    RR Lyrae variables and the stellar constituents of globular clusters are employed to establish the cosmic distance scale and age of the universe. However, photometry for RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters M3, M15, M54, M92, NGC 2419, and NGC 6441 exhibit a dependence on the clustercentric distance. For example, variables and stars positioned near the crowded high-surface brightness cores of the clusters may suffer from photometric contamination, which invariably affects a suite of inferred parameters (e.g., distance, color excess, absolute magnitude, etc.). The impetus for this study is to mitigate the propagation of systematic uncertainties by increasing awareness of the pernicious impact of contaminated and radial-dependent photometry.

  18. Surface roughness and packaging tightness affect calcium lactate crystallization on Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, P; Kindstedt, P S

    2014-01-01

    Calcium lactate crystals that sometimes form on Cheddar cheese surfaces are a significant expense to manufacturers. Researchers have identified several postmanufacture conditions such as storage temperature and packaging tightness that contribute to crystal formation. Anecdotal reports suggest that physical characteristics at the cheese surface, such as roughness, cracks, and irregularities, may also affect crystallization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of surface roughness and packaging tightness on crystal formation in smoked Cheddar cheese. Four 20-mm-thick cross-section slices were cut perpendicular to the long axis of a retail block (~300g) of smoked Cheddar cheese using a wire cutting device. One cut surface of each slice was lightly etched with a cheese grater to create a rough, grooved surface; the opposite cut surface was left undisturbed (smooth). The 4 slices were vacuum packaged at 1, 10, 50, and 90kPa (very tight, moderately tight, loose, very loose, respectively) and stored at 1°C. Digital images were taken at 1, 4, and 8 wk following the first appearance of crystals. The area occupied by crystals and number of discrete crystal regions (DCR) were quantified by image analysis. The experiment was conducted in triplicate. Effects of storage time, packaging tightness, surface roughness, and their interactions were evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA. Surface roughness, packaging tightness, storage time, and their 2-way interactions significantly affected crystal area and DCR number. Extremely heavy crystallization occurred on both rough and smooth surfaces when slices were packaged loosely or very loosely and on rough surfaces with moderately tight packaging. In contrast, the combination of rough surface plus very tight packaging resulted in dramatic decreases in crystal area and DCR number. The combination of smooth surface plus very tight packaging virtually eliminated crystal formation, presumably by eliminating available sites for nucleation. Cut-and-wrap operations may significantly influence the crystallization behavior of Cheddar cheeses that are saturated with respect to calcium lactate and thus predisposed to form crystals. PMID:24485685

  19. Lunar Mare Photometry from SMART-1/AMIE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkman, Olli; Muinonen, K.; Parviainen, H.; Näränen, J.; Videen, G.; Josset, J.; Beauvivre, S.; SMART-1 AMIE Team

    2012-10-01

    The SMART-1 spacecraft pioneered European lunar exploration with its orbiting mission in 2004-2006. Among its instruments was the optical/near-infrared camera AMIE which mapped the lunar surface with a resolution between 40 to 200 metres per pixel. We have taken a sample of over eight hundred AMIE frames, representing most of the mare regions of the near side. We extracted multi-angular photometry from the images by sampling the brightness of the surface and estimating the local observational geometry (the directions to the camera and the Sun compared to the surface normal). We assume that the photometric properties of mare surfaces are similar in all the regions studied and consider the entire data set as representing "average" mare properties. Mare surfaces were chosen because they are smooth, making the estimation of the observational geometry simple, and also because they are dark, justifying the use of the Lommel-Seeliger scattering law. Using a numerical ray-tracing code with a simulated regolith medium we compute the effect of mutual shadowing of surface particles. This simulation considers the full observational geometry and includes azimuthal shadowings effects. The contribution of shadowing can then be removed from the data, resulting in a phase function for the lunar mare surfaces. In all cases, the reduced phase function shows a significant opposition effect, indicating that the lunar opposition effect is not explainable through shadowing effects only. Physical properties of the surface such as porosity and surface roughness affect the shadowing function. By varying these properties in the ray-tracing simulation, some information of the corresponding properties of the lunar surface may be gained. Research supported, in part, by the Academy of Finland (contract 127461) and by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research Program (contract NNX11AB25G).

  20. DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE TRANSPORT AFFECTED BY SURFACE REACTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    Modeling transport of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of transport models can aid in this choice. For cases of transport affected by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to transport behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.

  1. Hemi resurfacing of the humeral head for an osteochondral lesion affecting the entire head surface.

    PubMed

    Howard, Anthony; Smith, Matthew; Hughes, Peter; Bale, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    An osteochondral lesion of the entire articular surface of the humeral head has not previously been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman with a huge osteochrondal lesion which affected virtually the whole articular surface of the humeral head, caused by an unusal mechanism of injury. Clinical examination revealed a stiff, weak, painful shoulder. Radiographs were unremarkable and an ultrasound scan suggested a supraspinatus tear with retraction. At arthroscopy the lesion was identified but the lesion was to large for arthroscopic removal. A humeral head hemi-resurfacing as a treatment for this lesion produced excellent results, the patient returned to her pre-injury level of function with no pain. PMID:19774825

  2. BVR photometry of a newly identified RS CVn binary star HD 61396

    E-print Network

    Sudhanshu Barway; S. K. Pandey; Padmakar Singh Parihar

    2004-08-10

    BVR photometry of a recently identified RS CVn binary star HD61396, carried out during 2001, is presented. The new photometry reveal significant evolution in the shape and amplitude of light curve when compared with those reported earlier by Padmakar etal (2000). The traditional two-starspot model has been used to obtain the spot parameters from the observed light curve. Changes in the spot area and their location on the stellar surface are discernible from the extracted parameters from the new photometry.

  3. Optimized Structure and Vibrational Properties by Error Affected Potential Energy Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zen, Andrea; Zhelyazov, Delyan; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The precise theoretical determination of the geometrical parameters of molecules at the minima of their potential energy surface and of the corresponding vibrational properties are of fundamental importance for the interpretation of vibrational spectroscopy experiments. Quantum Monte Carlo techniques are correlated electronic structure methods promising for large molecules, which are intrinsically affected by stochastic errors on both energy and force calculations, making the mentioned calculations more challenging with respect to other more traditional quantum chemistry tools. To circumvent this drawback in the present work, we formulate the general problem of evaluating the molecular equilibrium structures, the harmonic frequencies, and the anharmonic coefficients of an error affected potential energy surface. The proposed approach, based on a multidimensional fitting procedure, is illustrated together with a critical evaluation of systematic and statistical errors. We observe that the use of forces instead of energies in the fitting procedure reduces the statistical uncertainty of the vibrational parameters by 1 order of magnitude. Preliminary results based on variational Monte Carlo calculations on the water molecule demonstrate the possibility to evaluate geometrical parameters and harmonic and anharmonic coefficients at this level of theory with an affordable computational cost and a small stochastic uncertainty (<0.07% for geometries and <0.7% for vibrational properties). PMID:24093004

  4. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  5. One Percent Strömvil Photometry in M 67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. D.; Boyle, R. P.; Janusz, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham is being used in a program of CCD photometry of open and globular clusters. We are using the Ströomvil System (Straižys et al. 1996), a combination of the Strömgren and Vilnius Systems. This system allows stars to be classified as to temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and reddening from the photometric measures alone. However, to make accurate estimates of the stellar parameters the photometry should be accurate to 1 or 1.5 percent. In our initial runs on the VATT we did not achieve this accuracy. The problem turned out to be scattered light in the telescope and this has now been reduced so we can do accurate photometry. Boyle has written a routine in IRAF which allows us to correct the flats for any differences. We take rotated frames and also frames which are offset in position by one third of a frame, east-west and north-south. Measures of the offset stars give us the corrections that need to be made to the flat. Robert Janusz has written a program, the CommandLog, which allows us to paste IRAF commands in the correct order to reduce measures made on a given observing run. There is an automatic version where one can test various parameters and get a set of solutions. Now we have a set of Strömvil frames in the open cluster, M 67 and we compare our color-magnitude diagram with those of BATC (Fan et al. 1996) and Vilnius (Boyle et al. 1998). A preliminary report of the M 67 photometry will be found in Laugalys et al. (2004). Here we report on a selected set of stars in the M 67 frames, those with errors 1 percent or less.

  6. Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry

    E-print Network

    Pinfield, David J.

    Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry Ro Parviainen Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry #12;Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results 1 Introduction The light curve Defocused PSF 2 Observations Observations 3 PSF fitting Photometry PSF model 1 PSF

  7. Precision photometry for planetary transits

    E-print Network

    Frederic Pont; Claire Moutou

    2007-02-06

    We review the state of the art in follow-up photometry for planetary transit searches. Three topics are discussed: (1) Photometric monitoring of planets discovered by radial velocity to detect possible transits (2) Follow-up photometry of candidates from photometric transit searches to weed out eclipsing binaries and false positives (3) High-precision lightcurves of known transiting planets to increase the accuracy on the planet parameters.

  8. Elucidating Sources and Factors Affecting Delivery of Nitrogen to Surface Waters of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Boyer, E. W.; Burns, D. A.; Elliott, E.; Kendall, C.; Butler, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid changes in power generation, transportation, and agriculture have appreciably altered nitrogen (N) cycling at regional scales, increasing N inputs to landscapes and surface waters. Numerous studies have linked this surplus N to a host of concerns, including eutrophication and violations in drinking water standards. Inputs of N nation-wide have increased during recent decades, primarily from the production and use of fertilizers, the planting of N-fixing crops, and the combustion of fossil fuels. The role of atmospheric N sources is of particular concern in New York, as rates of atmospheric N deposition in the northeast are among the highest in the nation. Our work aims to quantify nitrogen sources and fate in watersheds throughout the state. Further, we intend to elucidate factors controlling the retention and release of N to surface waters. We quantify nitrogen inputs through both measurement data (e.g., from wet and dry atmospheric deposition, precipitation, streamflow, water quality, and isotopic tracers) and from synoptic spatial databases (e.g., of terrain, land use, and fertilizer inputs). We present preliminary results from large catchments in contrasting spatial settings across the state (different land use configurations and atmospheric deposition gradients), illustrating the contribution of nitrogen sources to each region and factors affecting delivery to surface waters. Further, we present 30 years of temporal data from a large watershed (Fall Creek) in the Finger Lakes region of the state to demonstrate how hydrological and biogeochemical factors, over seasons and under varying hydrological regimes, combine to control N dynamics in surface waters. Our collective work provides information that is necessary to develop sound strategies for understanding and managing nutrients at regional scales.

  9. The RINGS Survey: Optical Broadband Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Mitchell, Carl; Spekkens, Kristine; Sellwood, Jerry; Williams, Ted

    2016-01-01

    We have targeted a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS), for detailed study of their mass distributions. We have obtained Fabry-Perot Halpha velocity fields using the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), 21-cm HI observations using the Very Large Array (VLA), and optical broadband BVRI photometry using the CTIO 0.9m and KPNO 2.1m telescopes. We present the results of the photometric component of the survey including multicolor images, surface brightness profiles, and DiskFit structural models.

  10. Water-Induced Reconstruction that Affects Mobile Ions on the Surface of Calcite Treavor A. Kendall and Scot T. Martin*

    E-print Network

    Water-Induced Reconstruction that Affects Mobile Ions on the Surface of Calcite Treavor A. Kendall-sequenced contact-force micrographs show that the (101h4) calcite cleavage surface reconstructs in humid air through loosely bound water and may therefore be a hydrated calcium carbonate phase stabilized by the calcite

  11. Photometric Redshifts and Photometry Errors

    E-print Network

    D. Wittman; P. Riechers; V. E. Margoniner

    2007-09-21

    We examine the impact of non-Gaussian photometry errors on photometric redshift performance. We find that they greatly increase the scatter, but this can be mitigated to some extent by incorporating the correct noise model into the photometric redshift estimation process. However, the remaining scatter is still equivalent to that of a much shallower survey with Gaussian photometry errors. We also estimate the impact of non-Gaussian errors on the spectroscopic sample size required to verify the photometric redshift rms scatter to a given precision. Even with Gaussian {\\it photometry} errors, photometric redshift errors are sufficiently non-Gaussian to require an order of magnitude larger sample than simple Gaussian statistics would indicate. The requirements increase from this baseline if non-Gaussian photometry errors are included. Again the impact can be mitigated by incorporating the correct noise model, but only to the equivalent of a survey with much larger Gaussian photometry errors. However, these requirements may well be overestimates because they are based on a need to know the rms, which is particularly sensitive to tails. Other parametrizations of the distribution may require smaller samples.

  12. Properties of Young Massive Cluster Derived from Photometry

    E-print Network

    U. Fritze-v. Alvensleben

    2004-08-25

    I will show that photometry -- if extending over a reasonable choice of passbands -- can give fairly precise information about young star clusters and their evolutionary state. Optical colors alone are known to leave severe ambiguities due to degeneracies between age, metallicity and extinction. High quality photometry including $U, B, V$ or $I$, and a NIR band, however, in combination with an extensive grid of evolutionary synthesis models for star clusters and a dedicated tool to analyse spectral energy distributions allows to assess and largely disentangle star cluster ages, metallicities, extinction values and, hence, to derive their masses. Gaseous emission contributions sensibly affect broad band colors during the youngest stages, depending on metallicity. Mass functions of young star cluster systems may considerably differ in shape from luminosity functions. An ESO ASTROVIRTEL project provides multi-color photometry for a large number of young, intermediate age and old star cluster systems. As a first example I show results obtained for NGC 1569.

  13. Detection by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A periodic sequence of planetary transits provides a valid detection of an orbiting planet and provides the relative size of the planet and its orbital period. Ancillary measurements of the stellar spectrum and the variations of the star's radial velocity or position combined with stellar models allow the absolute size of the planet and its mass to be obtained. The results of this approach have already shown that the planet orbiting HD209458 has only 70% of the mass of Jupiter, but is nearly 50% larger in radius. Based on models of planetary structure, these results imply that the planet must have spent most of its lifetime so close to the star that it has not been able to cool and contract as have the giant planets in our Solar System. Thus its density is much less than Jupiter and Saturn and is actually less than that of water; i.e., about 0.4 gr/cu cm. If more sensitive measurements of the light curve of stars with closely orbiting planets can be made that provide the varying amplitude of the light reflected by the planet at various phases in its orbit, then characteristics of the planetary atmosphere can be obtained. Potentially, these data can identify major molecular species present in the atmosphere and tell us if clouds are present and yield the phase function of the aerosols. Although such detail cannot be obtained for Earth-size planets because their signal amplitudes are too small, it is possible to get data critical to the determination of the structure of extrasolar planetary systems. In particular, the size distributions and their orbital distributions can be measured by the transit photometry missions now in development. The COROT mission should be able to find large terrestrial planets in short-period orbits while the more ambitious Kepler and Eddington missions should be able to detect planets even smaller than the Earth and at orbital distances that place them in the habitable zone of their stars.

  14. Light-induced heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on indoor surfaces: How they affect the balance of nitrous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Alvarez, E.; Soergel, M.; Bassil, S.; Zetzsch, C.; Gligorovski, S.; Wortham, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important indoor pollutant. The adverse health effects due to the formation of nitrosamines are well known. HONO acts as a nitrosating agent after wall reactions of HONO with nicotine [Sleiman et al., 2010]. Indoor air can be surprisingly rich in HONO (homes with fireplaces, stoves, gas heating and cooking) and also surfaces are abundant. High HONO concentrations have been measured in indoor environments, from the direct emissions and heterogeneous reactions of NO2 in darkness. However, the measured HONO concentrations do not correspond to the HONO levels determined by the models [Carslaw, 2007]. We have tested in a flow tube reactor on-line coupled to a NOx analyzer and a sensitive Long Path Absorption Photometry instrument, the behaviour of various indoor surfaces towards NO2 under simulated solar light irradiation (?= 300-700 nm). Our study has allowed us to obtain a deeper knowledge on the mechanisms of heterogeneous formation of HONO, quantifying the dependence of HONO formation on behalf of NO2 concentration and relative humidity and the enhancement of HONO formation in the presence of light. Pyrex, acidic detergent, alkaline detergent, paint and lacquer were tested on behalf of their heterogeneous reactivity towards NO2 in the absence and in presence of light. The results obtained demonstrated that indoor surfaces are photo-chemically active under atmospherically relevant conditions. The strongly alkaline surfaces (such as certain types of detergent) show a strong long-term uptake capacity. However, other surfaces such as detergents with a more acidic character released HONO. In some cases such as paint and varnish, a strong HONO release with light was detected, which was significantly higher than that obtained over clean glass surfaces. Certain organics present on their composition could exert a photo-sensitizing effect that may explain their increased reactivity. Unfortunately, the final balance points towards an important net production of HONO from organics usually applied on different indoor surfaces that add to the very powerful HONO production simply due to heterogeneous reactivity on bare indoor surfaces. The results of this study add to the increasing concern over the reactivity in indoor environments and in particular from the point of view of HONO formation kinetics.

  15. UBVR and Hubble Space Telescope Mid-Ultraviolet and Near-Infrared Surface Photometry and Radial Color Gradients of Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Violet A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Odewahn, Stephen C.; Hibbard, John E.

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a data set of 142 mostly late-type spiral, irregular, and peculiar (interacting or merging) nearby galaxies observed in UBVR at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), and we present an analysis of their radial color gradients. We confirm that nearby elliptical and early- to mid-type spiral galaxies show either no or only small color gradients, becoming slightly bluer with radius. In contrast, we find that late-type spiral, irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies become on average redder with increasing distance from the center. The scatter in radial color gradient trends increases toward later Hubble type. As a preliminary analysis of a larger data set obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we also analyze the color gradients of six nearby galaxies observed with NICMOS in the near-IR (H) and with WFPC2 in the mid-UV (F300W) and red (F814W). We discuss the possible implications of these results on galaxy formation and compare our nearby galaxy color gradients to those at high redshift. We present examples of images and UBVR radial surface brightness and color profiles, as well as of the tables of measurements; the full atlas and tables are published in the electronic edition only. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 8645, 9124, and 9824.

  16. Second Workshop on Improvements to Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings show that a major effort is under way to improve all aspects of photometry. Astronomical multichannel photometry, photodiodes, analog-to-digital converters, data reduction techniques, interference filters and optical fibers are discussed.

  17. PSF Photometry Lecture April XX 2004

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    PSF Photometry Lecture April XX 2004 Vitaliy Fadeyev Why do PSF-fitting The simple aperture photometry has an assumption of linearly-varying background in the aperture's vicinity. Choice of (optimal Photometry Lecture April XX 2004 Vitaliy Fadeyev Crowded field example Even when nominally well separated

  18. HD 52452: New BVRI Photometry

    E-print Network

    Sudhanshu Barway; S. K. Pandey

    2004-08-19

    In this paper we report the multi-band BVRI photometry of HD 52452. The comparison of our data with previous observations reported by Messina et al. (2001) shows that there is a variation in amplitude, but the phases of the two minima, thus the positions of the spot, are quite stable during our observations.

  19. Photometry of 40 LMC Cepheids

    E-print Network

    N. R. Tanvir; A. Boyle

    1999-07-01

    We present V and I_c CCD photometry for 40 LMC Cepheids at 1 to 3 epochs. This represents a significant increase in the number of LMC Cepheids with $I$-band data, and, as we show, is a useful addition to the sample which can be used to calibrate the period--luminosity relations in these important bands.

  20. Ground and Surface Water Quality of Tsunami Affected Southwestern Coastal Area of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardana, D.; Ishiga, H.; Pitawala, H.

    2007-12-01

    The major tsunami of December 2004 hit many South Asian countries bordering the Bay of Bengal and severely devastated the coastal region of Sri Lanka. In the coastal areas of south western Sri Lanka the majority of the population, relies on groundwater for their domestic and agricultural activities, predominantly through traditional private shallow open-dug wells. The study area is located 100 km south of the capital city of Colombo, and was greatly affected by flood waves. The coastal plain is characterized by shallow natural lagoons. Analyses of major parameters (NO3-, PO43-, F-, NH4+, Fe, As, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and electric conductivity) in 40 randomly selected dug wells and surface lagoon water samples were made using field pack test method. Lagoon water parameters (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solid (TDS) oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and salinity) were tested at 18 different locations at varying depths. Soil and tsunami sediment samples where analyzed using XRF for major oxides and trace elements. Results showed that some wells were contaminated with NO3- and many wells had higher COD and salinity. Lagoon water parameters showed High salinity and low DO. ORP of the lagoon water showed reduced conditions occurred even in shallow water depth with more negative values for lagoon sediment samples. The XRF analyses showed that high concentrations of Cl, Br and I in lagoon sediments. The results show that dug-wells can be further contaminated with lagoon water, Water from mash lands and by tsunami sediments. Halogen compounds in lagoon sediments are also released in to the groundwater and increase salinity. Contamination is highly dependent on local and regional flow conditions of the groundwater. Key words: Sri Lanka, tsunami, groundwater, dug-wells

  1. Surface Physicochemistry and Ionic Strength Affects eDNA’s Role in Bacterial Adhesion to Abiotic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Regina, Viduthalai R.; Lokanathan, Arcot R.; Modrzy?ski, Jakub J.; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important structural component of biofilms formed by many bacteria, but few reports have focused on its role in initial cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of eDNA in bacterial adhesion to abiotic surfaces, and determine to which extent eDNA-mediated adhesion depends on the physicochemical properties of the surface and surrounding liquid. We investigated eDNA alteration of cell surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential, and subsequently quantified the effect of eDNA on the adhesion of Staphylococcus xylosus to glass surfaces functionalised with different chemistries resulting in variable hydrophobicity and charge. Cell adhesion experiments were carried out at three different ionic strengths. Removal of eDNA from S. xylosus cells by DNase treatment did not alter the zeta potential, but rendered the cells more hydrophilic. DNase treatment impaired adhesion of cells to glass surfaces, but the adhesive properties of S. xylosus were regained within 30 minutes if DNase was not continuously present, implying a continuous release of eDNA in the culture. Removal of eDNA lowered the adhesion of S. xylosus to all surfaces chemistries tested, but not at all ionic strengths. No effect was seen on glass surfaces and carboxyl-functionalised surfaces at high ionic strength, and a reverse effect occurred on amine-functionalised surfaces at low ionic strength. However, eDNA promoted adhesion of cells to hydrophobic surfaces irrespective of the ionic strength. The adhesive properties of eDNA in mediating initial adhesion of S. xylosus is thus highly versatile, but also dependent on the physicochemical properties of the surface and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. PMID:25122477

  2. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 ?g/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 ?g/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lower values up to 7500 ng/g, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant in Larymna bay. The examination of PAH molecular indices revealed that in Antikyra and Larymna bays more than 80% of the PAHs have pyrolytic origin coming from various combustion sources. On the contrary, in Aliveri bay about 60% of the PAHs are related to petrogenic/petroleum inputs. With respect to ecotoxicological effects, mean quotient Effect-Range Median (m-ERM) values, higher than 1.5, were calculated in Antikyra bay, indicating a high probability (76%) of toxicity. In Aliveri and Larymna bays the m-ERM values were between 0.11 and 0.5 bay suggesting a lower probability (21%) of toxicity. Overall, the results of our study reveal that high quantities of PAHs produced from land point sources such as the industrial units can enter into small coastal marine areas supporting activities such as aquaculture and fishing. Thus, desirable and permitted uses must be well defined and regulatory frameworks must be established.

  3. Voyager photometry of Io

    SciTech Connect

    Simonelli, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometric studies of the Jovian moon Io were carried out using Voyager images. Disk-integrated properties derived from the Voyager data, such as phase curves, rotation curves, geometric albedos, phase integrals, and the Bond albedo, are generally consistent with earth-based estimates. Near-opposition limb-darkening behavior, as parameterized by the Minnaert photometric function, has been accurately measured for regions on the surface of Io in three distinct color classes: Bright (white), Average (orange), and Polar (brown). The limb-darkening results allow derivation of accurate near-opposition disk-resolved phase curves, revealing substantial differences in opposition surge among the color classes. Modeling of the phase curves using the Hapke photometric function supports the contention that the uppermost layer of the Ionian surface is on average extremely porous, and suggests that this layer is substantially more porous in Average and Polar areas than in the Bright regions, a difference consistent with models of Io's surface layer. Combination of limb-darkening and phase information leads to determination of accurate normal reflectance spectra for the color classes; careful comparison with laboratory data supports earlier claims that the spectra of Ionian materials can be explained by mixtures of sulfur and SO/sub 2/ frost, although this is not a unique diagnostic identification.

  4. Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    forms because the Moon absorbs the supersonic solar wind on the dayside, leaving a trailing voidLoss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator; published 13 March 2008. [1] As the solar wind is absorbed on the lunar dayside, a clear and obvious plasma

  5. Photometry of compact galaxies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.; Usher, P. D.; Barrett, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric histories of the N galaxies 3C 390.3 and PKS 0521-36. Four other compact galaxies, Markarian 9, I Zw 92, 2 Zw 136, and III Zw 77 showed no evidence of variability. The photometric histories were obtained from an exhaustive study of those plates of the Harvard collection taken with large aperture cameras. The images of all galaxies reported were indistinguishable from stars due to the camera f-ratios and low surface brightness of the outlying nebulosities of the galaxies. Standard techniques for the study of variable stars are therefore applicable.

  6. Dynamics between fruit cuticles and surface microflora can affect sanitizing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms held together by substances such as polysaccharides which form on surfaces. These communities do not need to be on living tissue but form on any available surface such as rocks in a stream, interior of pipes and on teeth. On surfaces, including fruit, these...

  7. Analysing Thermal Response Test Data Affected by Groundwater Flow and Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Imitazione, Gianmario; Chiozzi, Paolo; Orsi, Marco; Armadillo, Egidio

    2014-05-01

    Tests that record the underground temperature variation due to a constant heat injected into a borehole (or extracted from it) by means of a carrier fluid are routinely performed to infer subsurface thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which are needed to size geothermal heat pump systems. The most popular model to analyse temperature-time curves obtained from these tests is the infinite line source (ILS). This model gives appropriate estimations of thermal parameters only if particular hydro-geological conditions are fulfilled. Several flaws can however affect data interpretation with ILS, which is based on strong assumptions like those of a purely conductive heat transfer regime in a homogeneous medium, no vertical heat flow and infinite length of the borehole. Other drawbacks can arise from the difficulty in the proper thermal insulation of the test equipment, and consequently with oscillations of the carrier fluid temperature due to surface temperature changes. In this paper, we focused on the treatment of thermal response test data when both advection and periodic changes of surface temperature occur. We used a moving line source model to simulate temperature-time signals under different hypothesis of Darcy velocity and thermal properties. A random noise was added to the signal in order to mimic high frequency disturbances, possibly caused by equipment operating conditions and/or geological variability. The subsurface thermal conductivity, the Darcy velocity and the borehole thermal resistance were inferred by minimising the root mean square error between the synthetic dataset and the theoretical model. The optimisation was carried out with the Nelder-Mead algorithm, and thermal and hydraulic properties were determined by iterative reprocessing according to a trial-and-error procedure. The inferred thermal and hydraulic parameters are well consistent with the 'a priory' values, and the presence of noise in the synthetic data does not produce instability. The same optimisation procedure was also applied to interpret the synthetic signal with the ILS model. In case of Darcy velocity of the order of 10-6 m s-1, ILS largely overestimates thermal conductivity. The optimisation analysis was then applied to real thermal response tests carried out in boreholes drilled in sedimentary formation aquifers, whose volume heat capacity was assumed to be known. These data showed a periodic offset in the recorded temperature-time series. A Fourier analysis allowed the recognition of harmonic contributions with period of about 12 and 24 hours. These oscillations appeared to be coherent with the data of air temperature change recorded at the test sites. The temperature-time curves were then filtered to remove the disturbing spectral components associated to a non-optimal thermostatic behaviour of the apparatus. This produced reliable estimates of thermal conductivity, Darcy velocity and borehole thermal resistance. The magnitude of the inferred groundwater flow was also checked by means of an independent method based on the analysis of temperature-depth logs recorded prior to the thermal tests, under thermal equilibrium conditions.

  8. Difference image photometry with bright variable backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerins, E.; Darnley, M. J.; Duke, J. P.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Newsam, A.; Park, B. G.; Street, R.

    2010-11-01

    Over the last two decades the Andromeda galaxy (M31) has been something of a test-bed for methods aimed at obtaining accurate time-domain relative photometry within highly crowded fields. Difference imaging methods, originally pioneered towards M31, have evolved into sophisticated methods, such as the optimal image subtraction (OIS) method of Alard & Lupton, that today are most widely used to survey variable stars, transients and microlensing events in our own Galaxy. We show that modern difference image analysis (DIA) algorithms such as OIS, whilst spectacularly successful towards the Milky Way bulge, may perform badly towards high surface brightness targets such as the M31 bulge. Poor results can occur in the presence of common systematics which add spurious flux contributions to images, such as internal reflections, scattered light or fringing. Using data from the Angstrom Project microlensing survey of the M31 bulge, we show that very good results are usually obtainable by first performing careful photometric alignment prior to using OIS to perform point spread function (PSF) matching. This separation of background matching and PSF matching, a common feature of earlier M31 photometry techniques, allows us to take full advantage of the powerful PSF matching flexibility offered by OIS towards high surface brightness targets. We find that difference images produced this way have noise distributions close to Gaussian, showing significant improvement upon results achieved using OIS alone. We show that with this correction light curves of variable stars and transients can be recovered to within ~10arcsec of the M31 nucleus. Our method is simple to implement and is quick enough to be incorporated within real-time DIA pipelines. We also demonstrate that OIS is remarkably robust even when, as in the case of the central regions of the M31 bulge, the sky density of variable sources approaches the confusion limit.

  9. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  10. Nutrient concentrations of runoff as affected by the diameter of unconsolidated material from feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated material that accumulates on the feedlot surface during a feeding cycle. This study was conducted to measure the effects of varying diameters of unconsolidated surface material and varying flow rates on nutrient concentrations in runoff. Unconsolidated sur...

  11. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    PubMed

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. PMID:26032318

  12. Visual and radiometric photometry of 1580 Betulia. [asteroid infrared observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Lebofsky, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Broadband visual and 10.6-micron photometry of 1580 Betulia was obtained during its close approach to earth in May 1976. The photometry was analyzed by using the 'radiometric method' to derive the radius (2.10 + or - 0.40 km) and albedo (0.108 + or - 0.012) of Betulia. Radar and polarimetric results indicate a radius greater than 3.0 km and a geometric albedo of about 0.05. To be compatible with these results, Betulia was also modeled as having a surface with the thermal characteristics of bare rock rather than those of the 'lunar' regolith model used for previous analysis of radiometry of other asteroids. A 3.7-km radius and a geometric albedo of about 0.04 are compatible with all available observations. Betulia is the first Mars-crossing asteroid found to have such a low albedo, which may be indicative of carbonaceous surface material.

  13. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. PMID:26454721

  14. Biogenic nanoparticulate UO2: Synthesis, characterization, and factors affecting surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, D. M.; Farges, F.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The surface reactivity of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 with respect to sorption of aqueous Zn(II) and particle annealing is different from that of bulk uraninite because of differences in particle size and the presence of surface-associated organic matter on the biogenic UO2. Synthesis of biogenic UO2 was accomplished by reduction of aqueous uranyl ions, UO22+ by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and the resulting nanoparticles were washed using one of two protocols: (1) 10 percent NaOH, followed by 4 mM KHCO3/KCl (particles referred to as NAUO2) to remove surface-associated organic matter and soluble uranyl species, or (2) 4 mM KHCO3-KCl (particles referred to as BIUO2) to remove only soluble uranyl species. A suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques was used to examine bulk and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 as a function of particle size and surface-associated organic matter. The N2-BET surface areas of the two biogenic UO2 samples following the washing procedures are 128.63 m2g-1 (NAUO2) and 92.56 m2g-1 (BIUO2), and the average particle sizes range from 5-10 nm based on TEM imaging. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the surface charge behavior of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 over the pH range 3-9 is the same as that of bulk uraninite (avg. diameter = 500 nm) (pHpzc = 5.6±0.03) and that there is no observed effect on surface charge caused by surface-associated organic matter for sample BIUO2. Both XPS and U LIII-edge XANES spectroscopy revealed that the uranium oxidation state of the biogenic, nanoparticulate samples is 4+, which is consistent with stoichiometric UO2. The EXAFS spectra for biogenic UO2 were best fit with half the number of second-shell uranium neighbors compared to bulk uraninite, and no oxygen neighbors were detected beyond the first shell around U(IV) in the biogenic UO2. At pH 7, sorption of Zn(II) onto both finely ground, bulk uraninite (500 nm average particle diameter) and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 is independent of electrolyte concentration, suggesting that Zn(II) sorption complexes are dominantly inner-sphere. The maximum surface area-normalized Zn(II) sorption loadings for the three substrates were 3.00±0.20 mmoles m-2 UO2 (bulk uraninite), 2.34±0.12 mmoles m-2 UO2 (NAUO2), and 2.57±0.10 mmoles m-2 UO2 (BIUO2), corresponding to 0.33, 0.26, and 0.27 effective monolayers of Zn(II) sorption complexes, respectively. Fits of Zn K-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 indicate that Zn(II) sorption is dependent on the washing protocol. Zn-U pair correlations were observed at 2.8±0.1 Å for NAUO2 and bulk uraninite; however, they were not observed for sample BIUO2. The derived Zn-U distance, coupled with an average Zn-O distance of 2.09±0.02 Å, indicates that Zn(O,OH)6 sorbs as bidentate, edge-sharing complexes to UO8 polyhedra at the surface of NAUO2 nanoparticles and bulk uraninite. The absence of Zn-U pair correlations in sample BIUO2 suggests that Zn(II) binds preferentially to the organic matter coating rather than the UO2 surface. Surface-associated organic matter on the biogenic UO2 particles also inhibited particle annealing at 90oC under anaerobic conditions. These results suggest that surface-associated organic matter decreases the reactivity of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO2 surfaces relative to aqueous Zn(II) and possibly other environmental contaminants.

  15. Abiotic factors affecting the persistence of avian influenza virus in surface waters of waterfowl habitats.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Shamus P; Dalton, Melinda S; Cressler, Alan M; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E

    2014-05-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-?m filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  16. Abiotic Factors Affecting the Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus in Surface Waters of Waterfowl Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Cressler, Alan M.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) virus can remain infectious in water for months, and virus-contaminated surface water is considered to be a source of infection within wild waterfowl populations. Previous work has characterized the effects of pH, salinity, and temperature on viral persistence in water, but most of that work was done with modified distilled water. The objective of this study was to identify the abiotic factors that influence the duration of AI virus persistence in natural surface water. Surface water samples were collected from 38 waterfowl habitats distributed across the United States. Samples were submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for chemical analysis and the University of Georgia for viral reduction time analysis. Samples were filtered with 0.22-?m filters, and the durations of persistence of three wild-bird-derived influenza A viruses within each water sample at 10, 17, and 28°C were determined. The effects of the surface water physicochemical factors on the duration of AI viral persistence in laboratory experiments were evaluated by multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors. The duration of AI virus persistence was determined to be longest in filtered surface water with a low temperature (<17°C), a neutral-to-basic pH (7.0 to 8.5), low salinity (<0.5 ppt), and a low ammonia concentration (<0.5 mg/liter). Our results also highlighted potential strain-related variation in the stability of AI virus in surface water. These results bring us closer to being able to predict the duration of AI virus persistence in surface water of waterfowl habitats. PMID:24584247

  17. CCD Photometry of M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; Sánchez, L. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present Johnson B and V photometry for the galactic globular cluster M92. Photometric results for a total of ~30000 stars are obtained and are plotted on a V vs (B - V) diagram. We fit theoretical isochrones to this diagram in order to get an estimate for the age of M92. The age which we find is ~16×10^9 years with the following values for the metallicity and He-abundance: [Fe/H]=-2.03, Y = 0.235. The distance modulus to this cluster turns out to be m - M = 14.6, in accordance with that obtained by Stetson & Harris (1988).

  18. Manual anchoring biases in slant estimation affect matches even for near surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Dennis M; McManama, Eric; Durgin, Frank H

    2015-12-01

    People verbally overestimate hill slant by ~15°-25°, whereas manual estimates (e.g., palm board measures) are thought to be more accurate. The relative accuracy of palm boards has contributed to the widely cited theoretical claim that they tap into an accurate, but unconscious, motor representation of locomotor space. Recently, it was shown that a bias that stems from anchoring the hand at horizontal prior to the estimate can quantitatively account for the difference between manual and verbal estimates of hill slant. The present work extends this observation to manual estimates of near-surface slant, to test whether the bias derives from manual or visual uncertainty. As with far surfaces, strong manual anchoring effects were obtained for a large range of near-surface slants, including 45°. Moreover, correlations between participants' manual and verbal estimates further support the conclusion that both measures are based on the same visual representation. PMID:26350762

  19. How linear surface waves are affected by a current with constant vorticity

    E-print Network

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of surface waves with Couette-type current with uniform vorticity is a well suited problem for students approaching the theory of surface waves. The problem, although mathematically simple, contains rich physics, and is moreover important in several situations from oceanography and marine technology to microfluidics. We here lay out a simple two-dimensional theory of waves propagating upon a basic flow of uniform vorticity of constant depth. The dispersion relation is found, showing how the shearing current introduces different phase velocities for upstream and downstream propagating waves. The role of surface tension is discussed and applied to the case of a wave pattern created by a moving source, stationary as seen by the source. We conclude by discussing how the average potential and kinetic energies are no longer equal in the presence of shear.

  20. Cobalt and chromium exposure affects osteoblast function and impairs the mineralization of prosthesis surfaces in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shah, Karan M; Wilkinson, Jeremy Mark; Gartland, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) ions and nanoparticles equivalent to those released through tribo-corrosion of prosthetic metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings and taper junctions are detrimental to osteoblast activity and function in vitro when examined as individual species. Here we examined the effects of Co(2) (+) :Cr(3) (+) and Co(2) (+) :Cr(6) (+) combinations on osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cellular activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization to better reflect clinical exposure conditions in vivo. We also assessed the effect of Co(2) (+) :Cr(3) (+) combinations and Co:Cr nanoparticles on SaOS-2 cell osteogenic responses on grit-blasted, plasma-sprayed titanium-coated, and hydroxyapatite-coated prosthesis surfaces. Cellular activity and ALP activity were reduced to a greater extent with combination treatments compared to individual ions. Co(2) (+) and Cr(3) (+) interacted additively and synergistically to reduce cellular activity and ALP activity, respectively, while the Co(2) (+) with Cr(6) (+) combination was dominated by the effect of Cr(6) (+) alone. Mineralization by osteoblasts was greater on hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces compared to grit-blasted and plasma-sprayed titanium-coated surfaces. Treatments with Co(2) (+) :Cr(3) (+) ions and Co:Cr nanoparticles reduced the percentage mineralization on all surfaces, with hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces having the least reduction. In conclusion, our data suggests that previous studies investigating individual metal ions underestimate their potential clinical effects on osteoblast activity. Furthermore, the data suggests that hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces may modulate osteoblast responses to metal debris. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1663-1670, 2015. PMID:25929464

  1. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by prohibitive variability in atmospheric conditions (very inhomogeneous aerosol distribution and cloud cover). Although the results presented for the surface are essentially unaffected, we discuss the results obtained by typing algorithms in sorting the complex mix of aerosol types, and show evidence of oriented ice in cirrus clouds present in the area. In this context, polarization measurements at 1880 nm were used to infer ice habit and cirrus optical depth, which was found in the subvisual/threshold-visible regime, confirming the utility of the aforementioned RSP channel for the remote sensing of even thin cold clouds.

  2. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. X. Ultraviolet to Infrared Photometry of 117 Million Equidistant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Lang, Dustin; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Byler, Nell; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Girardi, Léo; Gordon, Karl; Gregersen, Dylan; Johnson, L. C.; Kalirai, Jason; Lauer, Tod R.; Monachesi, Antonela; Rosenfield, Philip; Seth, Anil; Skillman, Eva

    2014-11-01

    We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point-spread function (PSF) fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 mas accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W ~ 28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W ~ 25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest-resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) that are up to 2.5 mag deeper when compared with CMDs from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We present extensive analysis of the data quality including comparisons of luminosity functions and repeat measurements, and we use artificial star tests to quantify photometric completeness, uncertainties and biases. We find that the largest sources of systematic error in the photometry are due to spatial variations in the PSF models and charge transfer efficiency corrections. This stellar catalog is the largest ever produced for equidistant sources, and is publicly available for download by the community.

  3. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. X. ULTRAVIOLET TO INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF 117 MILLION EQUIDISTANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Byler, Nell; Johnson, L. C. E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu; and others

    2014-11-01

    We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point-spread function (PSF) fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 mas accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W ? 28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W ? 25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest-resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) that are up to 2.5 mag deeper when compared with CMDs from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We present extensive analysis of the data quality including comparisons of luminosity functions and repeat measurements, and we use artificial star tests to quantify photometric completeness, uncertainties and biases. We find that the largest sources of systematic error in the photometry are due to spatial variations in the PSF models and charge transfer efficiency corrections. This stellar catalog is the largest ever produced for equidistant sources, and is publicly available for download by the community.

  4. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  5. Role of surface recombination in affecting the efficiency of nanostructured thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured light trapping is a promising way to improve the efficiency in thin-film solar cells recently. In this work, both the optical and electrical properties of thin-film solar cells with 1D periodic grating structure are investigated by using photoelectric coupling model. It is found that surface recombination plays a key role in determining the performance of nanostructured thin-film solar cells. Once the recombination effect is considered, the higher optical absorption does not mean the higher conversion efficiency as most existing publications claimed. Both the surface recombination velocity and geometric parameters of structure have great impact on the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Our simulation results indicate that nanostructured light trapping will not only improve optical absorption but also boost the surface recombination simultaneously. Therefore, we must get the tradeoffs between optical absorption and surface recombination to obtain the maximum conversion efficiency. Our work makes it clear that both the optical absorption and electrical recombination response should be taken into account simultaneously in designing the nanostructured thin-film solar cells. PMID:24514926

  6. Surface kinetics and subplantation phenomena affecting the texture, morphology, stress, and growth evolution of titanium nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsalas, P.; Gravalidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.

    2004-12-01

    We present a thorough study of the microstructure, texture, intrinsic stress, surface, and interface morphology of transition metal nitride (mainly TiN but also CrN) films grown on Si by reactive sputter deposition, with emphasis to the mechanisms of adatom migration on the surface and subplantation of energetic species. In order to study the effects of adatom mobility and the subplantation probability we vary the ion energy and growth temperature. For the experimental part of this work we used nondestructive, statistically reliable x-ray techniques (diffraction, reflectivity, scattering). The x-ray results are compared and correlated with supporting data of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the irradiation effects and surface diffusion of adatoms. We found that the texture and the surface and interface morphology are sensitive to the mechanism of dissipation of the impinging ions. If the energy is enough to overcome the subplantation threshold (˜50eV), then the films are highly compressed and exhibit ultrasmooth surfaces and rough interfaces. In this case, the texture of the films is not affected much by the ion energy, since the energy is dissipated in the bulk and contributes less to the surface mobility of adatoms. On the other hand, when the ion energy is below the subplantation threshold the texture of the films strongly depends on the ion energy and flux, the interfaces are atomically sharp and the surface morphology depends on the mobility and surface diffusion length of adatoms. However, in both cases these effects are dominant at the homogeneous growth. At the initial stages of nucleation and island growth the differences in the growth due to irradiation conditions are not pronounced and the thermodynamics of wetting of TiN on Si are prevailing factors.

  7. Development and characterization of integrating sphere for photometry and radiometry measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Mujahid, Abdul Al; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made; Siregar, Rustam Efendi

    2013-09-01

    Integrating Sphere (IS) is an instrument formed a cavity sphere with its inner surface act as a Lambertian reflector. IS is needed in many optical measurements which involves a high diffused reflection. In addition, IS very essential in photometry and radiometry measurement system. However, currently, IS is still an imported product which considered very expensive. The material for the sphere and inner surface coating affect the performance of the IS systems. Therefore, the main challenges in designing IS are the material engineering for the sphere and the procedure for the inner surface coating. The inner surface was coated using BaSO4 which has a low absorption and high diffuse reflection. Spectral responses of the IS system was characterized using USB2000+ and calibrated using a standard Spectralon from ocean optic. The obtained IS system used an inner surface coating from a mixed 80% Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) and 20% Nippon Elastex paint which yield a reflection factor ? = 0.955 and amplification factor M=10.69. The validation was conducted using an emitter with known specification from Luxeon of LXHL-DW01 which produced light flux 40.5 lumen with injection current 350 mA and junction temperature Tj 25°C.

  8. Atmospheric scintillation in astronomical photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, J.; Föhring, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Wilson, R. W.

    2015-09-01

    Scintillation noise due to the Earth's turbulent atmosphere can be a dominant noise source in high-precision astronomical photometry when observing bright targets from the ground. Here we describe the phenomenon of scintillation from its physical origins to its effect on photometry. We show that Young's scintillation-noise approximation used by many astronomers tends to underestimate the median scintillation noise at several major observatories around the world. We show that using median atmospheric optical turbulence profiles, which are now available for most sites, provides a better estimate of the expected scintillation noise and that real-time turbulence profiles can be used to precisely characterize the scintillation-noise component of contemporaneous photometric measurements. This will enable a better understanding and calibration of photometric noise sources and the effectiveness of scintillation correction techniques. We also provide new equations for calculating scintillation noise, including for extremely large telescopes where the scintillation noise will actually be lower than previously thought. These equations highlight the fact that scintillation noise and shot noise have the same dependence on exposure time and so if an observation is scintillation limited, it will be scintillation limited for all exposure times. The ratio of scintillation noise to shot noise is also only weakly dependent on telescope diameter and so a bigger telescope may not yield a reduction in fractional scintillation noise.

  9. Induction effects for heterochromatic brightness matching, heterochromatic flicker photometry,

    E-print Network

    Dobkins, Karen R.

    Induction effects for heterochromatic brightness matching, heterochromatic flicker photometry flicker photometry (HFP), and minimally distinct border (MDB). For HBM, subjects varied the relative compared with those obtained on two other tasks: hetero- chromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and minimally

  10. Gold nanoparticles induce surface morphological transformation in polyurethane and affect the cellular response.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Tang, Cheng-Ming; Tseng, Hsiang-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposites from a hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-based polyester-type waterborne polyurethane (PU) containing different amounts (17.4-174 ppm) of gold (Au) nanoparticles (approximately 5 nm) were prepared. The microstructure and physiochemical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized. The cell attachment and proliferation, platelet activation, and bacterial adhesion on the nanocomposites were evaluated. Gold nanoparticles in small amounts induced significant changes in surface morphology and domain structures, from hard segment lamellae to soft segment micelles. These changes resembled the morphological transformation among different mesophases occurred in diblock copolymers. Better cellular proliferation, lower platelet activation, and reduced bacterial adhesion were demonstrated for the PU nanocomposite with 43.5 or 65 ppm of Au than the pure PU or the nanocomposite containing a different amount of Au. The different cellular response on PU-Au nanocomposites was attributed to the extensively modified surface morphology and phase separation in the presence of a small amount of Au nanoparticles. PMID:18163574

  11. N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

    2003-08-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. PMID:12902275

  12. Retention of potentially mobile radiocesium in forest surface soils affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Koarashi, Jun; Moriya, Koichi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The fate of 137Cs derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident fallout and associated radiological hazards are largely dependent on its mobility in the surface soils of forest ecosystems. Thus, we quantified microbial and adsorptive retentions of 137Cs in forest surface (0–3 cm) soils. The K2SO4 extraction process liberated 2.1%–12.8% of the total 137Cs from the soils. Two soils with a higher content of clay- and silt-sized particles, organic carbon content, and cation exchange capacity showed higher 137Cs extractability. Microbial biomass was observed in all of the soils. However, the 137Cs extractability did not increase after destruction of the microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation, providing no evidence for microbial retention of the Fukushima-fallout 137Cs. The results indicate that uptake of 137Cs by soil microorganisms is less important for retention of potentially mobile 137Cs in the forest surface soils compared to ion-exchange adsorption on non-specific sites provided by abiotic components. PMID:23256039

  13. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  14. Factors affecting sorption of nitro explosives to biochar: pyrolysis temperature, surface treatment, competition, and dissolved metals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk

    2015-05-01

    The application of rice straw-derived biochar for removing nitro explosives, including 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), from contaminated water was investigated through batch experiments. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature from 250 to 900°C in general led to higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge, and C:O ratio of biochar. The maximum sorption capacity estimated by a mixed sorption-partition model increased when pyrolysis temperatures were elevated from 250 to 900°C, indicating that C content and aromaticity of biochar were strongly related to the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. Surface treatment with acid or oxidant increased the sorption capacity of biochar for the two strong ?-acceptor compounds (DNT and TNT) but not for RDX. However, the enhancement of sorption capacity was not directly related to increased surface area and CEC. Compared with single-sorption systems, coexistence of explosives or cationic metals resulted in decreased sorption of each explosive to biochar, suggesting that sorption of nitro explosives and cationic metals to electron-rich portions in biochar was competitive. Our results suggest that ?-? electron donor acceptor interactions are main sorption mechanisms and that changing various conditions can enhance or reduce the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. PMID:26024263

  15. Visible and Infrared Photometry of Six Centaurs

    E-print Network

    Davies, John Keith

    Visible and Infrared Photometry of Six Centaurs John K. Davies Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N A. Centaurs, Kuiper Belt, Photometry, Infrared, Visible. \\Lambda Present address: Institute of Astronomy Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N A'ohoku Pl., Hilo, Hawaii, 96720, USA Simon F. Green Unit for Space

  16. Surface variations affecting human dental enamel studied using nanomechanical and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Michelle Emma

    The enamel surface is the interface between the tooth and its ever changing oral environment. Cavity (caries) formation and extrinsic tooth staining are due, respectively, to degradation of the enamel structure under low pH conditions and interactions between salivary pellicle and dietary elements. Both of these occur at the enamel surface and are caused by the local environment changing the chemistry of the surface. The results can be detrimental to the enamel's mechanical integrity and aesthetics. Incipient carious lesions are the precursor to caries and form due to demineralisation of enamel. These carious lesions are a reversible structure where ions (e.g. Ca2+, F -) can diffuse in (remineralisation) to preserve the tooth's structural integrity. This investigation used controlled in vitro demineralisation and remineralisation to study artificial carious lesion formation and repair. The carious lesions were cross-sectioned and characterised using nanoindentation, electron probe micro-analysis and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mechanical and chemical maps showed the carious lesion had a significantly reduced hardness and elastic modulus, and the calcium and phosphate content was lower than in sound enamel. Fluoride based remineralisation treatments gave a new phase (possibly fluorohydroxyapatite) within the lesion with mechanical properties higher than sound enamel. The acquired salivary pellicle is a protein-rich film formed by the physisorption of organic molecules in saliva onto the enamel surface. Its functions include lubrication during mastication and chemical protection. However, pellicle proteins react with dietary elements such as polyphenols (tannins in tea) causing a brown stain. This study has used in vitro dynamic nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to examine normal and stained pellicles formed in vivo. The effects of polyphenols on the pellicle's mechanical properties and morphology have been studied. It was found that the initial adsorption of proteins occurred within 30 seconds of exposure to the oral cavity; fully mature pellicles develop in 2 hours. Polyphenol staining resulted in substantial changes in the morphology and mechanical properties of the pellicle. Specifically, staining gives pellicles consisting of large globules with high surface adhesion and a high loss tangent. These changes help explain why extrinsic stains are difficult to remove abrasively.

  17. Theory of wide-angle photometry from standard stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1989-01-01

    Wide angle celestial structures, such as bright comet tails and nearby galaxies and clusters of galaxies, rely on photographic methods for quantified morphology and photometry, primarily because electronic devices with comparable resolution and sky coverage are beyond current technological capability. The problem of the photometry of extended structures and of how this problem may be overcome through calibration by photometric standard stars is examined. The perfect properties of the ideal field of view are stated in the guise of a radiometric paraxial approximation, in the hope that fields of view of actual telescopes will conform. Fundamental radiometric concepts are worked through before the issue of atmospheric attenuation is addressed. The independence of observed atmospheric extinction and surface brightness leads off the quest for formal solutions to the problem of surface photometry. Methods and problems of solution are discussed. The spectre is confronted in the spirit of standard stars and shown to be chimerical in that light, provided certain rituals are adopted. After a brief discussion of Baker-Sampson polynomials and the vexing issue of saturation, a pursuit is made of actual numbers to be expected in real cases. While the numbers crunched are gathered ex nihilo, they demonstrate the feasibility of Newton's method in the solution of this overdetermined, nonlinear, least square, multiparametric, photometric problem.

  18. Lifetimes of photogenerated electrons on a GaAs surface affected by nanostructural defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Keiki; Yamada, Yuki; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Onda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers on temporal and spatial scales of 100 fs and 100 nm, respectively, on an inhomogeneous GaAs surface with structural defects was investigated using time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy with femtosecond laser pulses. The observed photocarrier lifetimes (?) ranged from subpicoseconds to picoseconds at isolated structural defects and were inversely proportional to the photoemission intensity at each defect. We concluded that ? corresponds to the carrier trapping time to midgap defect states and estimated the density of the midgap states at each defect on the basis of the relation between ? and the photoemission intensity.

  19. Factors Affecting P Loads to Surface Waters: Comparing the Roles of Precipitation and Land Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface water quality is a major concern in the Yahara watershed (YW) of southern Wisconsin, home to a thriving dairy industry, the city of Madison, and five highly valued lakes that are eutrophic. Despite management interventions to mitigate runoff, there has been no significant trend in P loading to the lakes since 1975. Increases in manure production and heavy rainfall events over this time period may have offset any effects of management. We developed a comprehensive, integrated modeling framework that can simulate the effects of multiple drivers on ecosystem services, including surface water quality. The framework includes process-based representation of terrestrial ecosystems (Agro-IBIS) and groundwater flow (MODFLOW), hydrologic routing of water and nutrients across the landscape (THMB), and assessment of lake water quality (YWQM). Biogeochemical cycling and hydrologic transport of P have been added to the framework to enable detailed simulation of P dynamics within the watershed, including interactions with climate and management. The P module features in-soil cycling of organic, inorganic, and labile forms of P; manure application, decomposition, and subsequent loss of dissolved P in runoff; loss of particulate-bound P with erosion; and transport of dissolved and particulate P within waterways. Model results will compare the effects of increased heavy rainfall events, increased manure production, and implementation of best management practices on P loads to the Yahara lakes.

  20. Affecting the morphology of silver deposition on carbon nanotube surface: from nanoparticles to dendritic (tree-like) nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Forati-Nezhad, Mohsen; Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Gity; Yaghmaie, Frank; Alimohammadi, Farbod

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reduction was used to synthesize silver crystals on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the presence of acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and isopropyl alcohol as solvent. DMF and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as a reducing and a stabilizing agent, respectively. The structure and nature of hybrid MWCNT/silver were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The presence of silver crystals on the nanotubes was confirmed by XRD. The results show the formation of silver crystals on the MWCNT surface and indicate that the morphology of silver crystals can be control by changing the solvent. The type of solvent is an effective parameter that affects the particle size and morphological transition from nanoparticles to silver trees. PMID:25491982

  1. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  2. How does the spaceborne radar blind zone affect derived surface snowfall statistics in polar regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maahn, Maximilian; Burgard, Clara; Crewell, Susanne; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Kneifel, Stefan; Lhermitte, Stef; Van Tricht, Kristof; Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Global statistics of snowfall are currently only available from the CloudSat satellite. But CloudSat cannot provide observations of clouds and precipitation within the so-called blind zone, which is caused by ground-clutter contamination of the CloudSat radar and covers the last 1200 m above land/ice surface. In this study, the impact of the blind zone of CloudSat on derived snowfall statistics in polar regions is investigated by analyzing three 12 month data sets recorded by ground-based Micro Rain Radar (MRR) at the Belgian Princess Elisabeth station in East Antarctica and at Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen in Svalbard, Norway. MRR radar reflectivity profiles are investigated in respect to vertical variability in the frequency distribution, changes in the number of observed snow events, and impacts on total precipitation. Results show that the blind zone leads to reflectivity being underestimated by up to 1 dB, the number of events being altered by ±5% and the precipitation amount being underestimated by 9 to 11 percentage points. Besides investigating a blind zone of 1200 m, the impacts of a reduced blind zone of 600 m are also analyzed. This analysis will help in assessing future missions with a smaller blind zone. The reduced blind zone leads to improved representation of mean reflectivity but does not improve the bias in event numbers and precipitation amount.

  3. Experiences with Opto-Mechanical Systems that Affect Optical Surfaces at the Sub-Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Taylor, J S

    2008-04-03

    Projection optical systems built for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) demonstrated the ability to produce, support and position reflective optical surfaces for achieving transmitted wavefront errors of 1 nm or less. Principal challenges included optical interferometry, optical manufacturing processes, multi-layer coating technology and opto mechanics. Our group was responsible for designing, building and aligning two different projection optical systems: a full-field, 0.1 NA, four-mirror system for 70 nm features and a small-field, 0.3 NA, two-mirror system for 30 nm features. Other than physical size and configuration, the two systems were very similar in the way they were designed, built and aligned. A key difference exists in the optic mounts, driven primarily by constraints from the metrology equipment used by different optics manufacturers. As mechanical stability and deterministic position control of optics will continue to play an essential role in future systems, we focus our discussion on opto-mechanics and primarily the optic mounts.

  4. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  5. Surface Features Analysis in Salt-Affected Area Using Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study in the Zone of Chotts, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Moncef; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Bouaziz, Samir; Gloaguen, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are most affected by Salinity. Chotts regions in southern Tunisia are such an area, where the excessive content of salt in the soil is a hard faced problem. Soil salinity in this area enforces several environmental problems such as limiting plant growth, reducing crop productivity, degrading soil quality and leads to accelerated rates rill and gully erosion . Remote sensing analysis by the mean of spectral analysis, geomorphologic aspect from digital elevation models and distribution of rainfall intensity from satellite data are used in this study to discern features and patterns of areas affected by salt. Correlation between these remote sensing indicators is made in order to assess the contribution of each indicator to identify the salt-affected area. The approach followed in this study was applied on Hyperspectral data from EO-1 Mission. Hyperion data are promoted due to their very high spectral resolution and wide enhanced spatial information. The present study highlighted the high correlation between the flat surfaces and the high content of salt in the soil (from soil salinity indices) on one hand and a low correlation between the high intensity of rainfall distribution and indicators of low salt content in the soil on the other hand.

  6. Subglacial drainage of surface melt water affects ice motion: Application of a modeling study to West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, W.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Subglacial hydrology is one of the main controlling factors in the spatial and temporal evolution of ice flow. The distribution of effective pressure and the form of subglacial drainage networks have important implications on basal sliding. However, subglacial melt water drainage is dynamic in space and time and varies in a complicated manner coupled to surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is known about how the surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and ice flow. Here, we build a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion. A synthetic glacier geometry is used to obtain the steady-state solutions for effective pressure and subglacial conduit sizes on a rectangular grid. The model has channels and distributed linked cavities that occupy the grid centers and exchange water along the grid edges. The numerical procedure uses Newton's method to compute water pressure and conduit cross-sectional area. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. We then applied the water model to a 6000 km2 catchment south of Jakobshavn Isbrae along the western margin of Greenland. The water model is forced with surface melt input from the Polar MM5 regional climate model. Surface melt is supplied at discrete locations through supraglacial lakes. The location of supraglacial lakes are identified from satellite imagery. We compare modeled output of ice speed to satellite derived measurements of ice flow and discuss their agreements and discrepancies.

  7. Crowded-field photometry from HST-imaging

    E-print Network

    Marianne Sodemann; Bjarne Thomsen

    1997-04-29

    We present a thorough investigation of stellar photometry based on HST imaging of crowded fields at 85 and 10 arcsec from the centre of the high-surface brightness elliptical M32. The Principal Investigators of the present archive data have elsewhere presented an impressive colour-magnitude diagram of the field at 85 arcsec. Based on the same data we enlarge on their photometric analysis and supplement with error estimators that more clearly show the implications of severe image crowding on the stellar photometry. We show that the faintest stars (I>25.0, V>26.0) are found too bright by several tens of a magnitude. For the field at 10 arcsec we conclude that it is not possible to obtain reliable stellar photometry, standard deviations being larger than 0.4 mag. Artificial-star experiments show that only very few of the brightest stars of the luminosity function can be expected to represent single objects, the majority being either spurious or not as bright as measured.

  8. BVRI PHOTOMETRY OF 53 UNUSUAL ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Q.-Z.

    2011-02-15

    We present the results of BVRI photometry and classification of 53 unusual asteroids, including 35 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), 6 high eccentricity/inclination asteroids, and 12 recently identified asteroid-pair candidates. Most of these asteroids were not classified prior to this work. For the few asteroids that have been previously studied, the results are generally in agreement. In addition to observing and classifying these objects, we merge the results from severalphotometric/spectroscopic surveys to create the largest-ever sample with 449 spectrally classified NEAs for statistical analysis. We identify a 'transition point' of the relative number of C/X-like and S-like NEAs at H {approx} 18 {r_reversible} D {approx} 1 km with confidence level at {approx}95% or higher. We find that the C/X-like:S-like ratio for 18 {<=} H < 22 is about twice as high as that of H < 18 (0.33 {+-} 0.04 versus 0.17 {+-} 0.02), virtually supporting the hypothesis that smaller NEAs generally have less weathered surfaces (therefore less reddish appearance) due to younger collision ages.

  9. An Introduction to Astronomical Photometry Using CCDs W. Romanishin

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    An Introduction to Astronomical Photometry Using CCDs W. Romanishin University of Oklahoma wjr for the college astrophysics major to photometry in the optical region of the spectrum of astronomical objects telescope time as photometry. That said, it is still obvious that imaging photometry is an important part

  10. An Introduction to Astronomical Photometry Using CCDs W. Romanishin

    E-print Network

    Zallen, Richard

    An Introduction to Astronomical Photometry Using CCDs W. Romanishin University of Oklahoma wjr astrophysics major to photometry in the optical region of the spectrum of astronomical objects using CCD telescope time as photometry. That said, it is still obvious that imaging photometry is an important part

  11. L' AND M' Photometry Of Ultracool Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, M. S.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Vrba, F. J.; Henden, A. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    We have compiled L' (3.4-4.1 microns) and M' (4.6- 4.8 microns) photometry of 63 single and binary M, L, and T dwarfs obtained at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope using the Mauna Kea Observatory filter set. This compilation includes new L' measurements of eight L dwarfs and 13 T dwarfs and new M' measurements of seven L dwarfs, five T dwarfs, and the M1 dwarf Gl 229A. These new data increase by factors of 0. 6 and 1.6, respectively, the numbers of ultracool dwarfs T (sub eff) photometry, and trigonometric parallaxes are available, and we estimate these quantities for nine other dwarfs whose parallaxes and flux-calibrated spectra have been obtained. BC(SUB K) is a well-behaved function of near-infrared spectral type with a dispersion of approx. 0.1 mag for types M6-T5 it is significantly more scattered for types T5-T9. T (sub eff) declines steeply and monotonically for types M6-L7 and T4-T9, but it is nearly constant at approx. 1450 K for types L7-T4 with assumed ages of approx. 3 Gyr. This constant T(sub eff) is evidenced by nearly unchanging values of L'-M' between types L6 and T3. It also supports recent models that attribute the changing near-infrared luminosities and spectral features across the L-T transition to the rapid migration, disruption, and/or thinning of condensate clouds over a narrow range of T(sub eff). The L' and M' luminosities of early-T dwarfs do not exhibit the pronounced humps or inflections previously noted in l through K bands, but insufficient data exist for types L6-T5 to assert that M(Sub L') and M(sub M') are strictly monotonic within this range of typew. We compare the observed K, L', and M' luminosities of L and T dwarfs in our sample with those predicted by precipitation-cloud-free models for varying surface gravities and sedimentation efficiencies.

  12. WFPC2 aperture photometry and PSF modelling

    E-print Network

    N. R. Tanvir; D. R. T. Robinson; T. von Hippel

    1995-03-22

    Since the WFPC-2 undersamples the PSF, aperture photometry can produce results which are competetive with profile fitting in many situations. This article reports and investigation of aperture corrections using both real data and PSF models.

  13. Classification of stars with WBVR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskiy, S. G.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2013-10-01

    We present a method of obtaining the most reliable stellar spectral type based on multi-color photometry. The method also allows us to estimate color excess EB-V and distance to the star. Approbation of the method using bright stars with known spectral classification and W BV R photometry permits to estimate its reliability. Stellar spectra models from Pickles (1998) library and Fluks et al. (1994) interstellar extinction law were used in the application of the method.

  14. WFPC2 Stellar Photometry with HSTphot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2000-01-01

    HSTphot, a photometry package designed to handle the undersampled PSFs found in WFPC2 images, is introduced and described, as well as some of the considerations that have to be made in order to obtain accurate PSF-fitting stellar photometry with WFPC2 data. Tests of HSTphot's internal reliability are made using multiple observations of the same field, and tests of external reliability are made by comparing with DoPHOT reductions of the same data. Subject headz'ngs: techniques: photometric

  15. WFPC2 Stellar Photometry with HSTphot

    E-print Network

    Andrew E. Dolphin

    2000-06-15

    HSTphot, a photometry package designed to handle the undersampled PSFs found in WFPC2 images, is introduced and described, as well as some of the considerations that have to be made in order to obtain accurate PSF-fitting stellar photometry with WFPC2 data. Tests of HSTphot's internal reliability are made using multiple observations of the same field, and tests of external reliability are made by comparing with DoPHOT reductions of the same data.

  16. First photometry results from Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    An overview of the Gaia Photometric Processing is presented. The Gaia photometry consists of the white light (330-1050 nm) G-band, and low resolution spectrophotometry realized by two prisms dispersing all the light entering the field of view. One disperser - called BP for Blue Photometer- operates in the wavelength range 330-680 nm; the other - called RP for Red Photometer - covers the wavelength range 640-1050 nm. The light collected by BP and RP can also be integrated into two broad bands, G_BP and G_RP.This photometric data reduction is based on the overall principle of a self-calibrating system improved by iteration. The input data includes flux (G, G_BP, G_RP) and the low-resolution spectral data. The calibration models and algorithms used are described. Initial validation results are shown which indicate the photometric quality of the preliminary calibrated data. Expectations for the quality of the photometric data to be included in the first public data release (mid-2016) are discussed.

  17. Meteor44 Video Meteor Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Wesley R.; Suggs, Robert M.; Cooke, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Meteor44 is a software system developed at MSFC for the calibration and analysis of video meteor data. The dynamic range of the (8bit) video data is extended by approximately 4 magnitudes for both meteors and stellar images using saturation compensation. Camera and lens specific saturation compensation coefficients are derived from artificial variable star laboratory measurements. Saturation compensation significantly increases the number of meteors with measured intensity and improves the estimation of meteoroid mass distribution. Astrometry is automated to determine each image's plate coefficient using appropriate star catalogs. The images are simultaneously intensity calibrated from the contained stars to determine the photon sensitivity and the saturation level referenced above the atmosphere. The camera s spectral response is used to compensate for stellar color index and typical meteor spectra in order to report meteor light curves in traditional visual magnitude units. Recent efforts include improved camera calibration procedures, long focal length 'streak' meteor photometry and two-station track determination. Meteor44 has been used to analyze data from the 2001, 2002 and 2003 MSFC Leonid observational campaigns as well as several lesser showers. The software is interactive and can be demonstrated using data from recent Leonid campaigns.

  18. Calibration of the MACHO Photometry Database

    E-print Network

    C. Alcock; R. A. Allsman; D. R. Alves; T. S. Axelrod; A. C. Becker; D. P. Bennett; K. H. Cook; A. J. Drake; K. C. Freeman; K. Griest; M. J. Lehner; S. L. Marshall; D. Minniti; B. A. Peterson; M. R. Pratt; C. A. Nelson; P. J. Quinn; C. W. Stubbs; W. Sutherland; A. B. Tomaney; D. L. Welch

    1999-09-14

    The MACHO Project is a microlensing survey that monitors the brightnesses of 60 million stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud, and Galactic bulge. Our database presently contains about 80 billion photometric measurements, a significant fraction of all astronomical photometry. We describe the calibration of MACHO two-color photometry and transformation to the standard Kron-Cousins V and R system. Calibrated MACHO photometry may be properly compared with all other observations on the Kron-Cousins standard system, enhancing the astrophysical value of these data. For 9 million stars in the LMC bar, independent photometric measurements of 20,000 stars with V photometry with published photometric sequences and new Hubble Space Telescope observations shows agreement. The current calibration zero-point uncertainty for the remainder of the MACHO photometry database is estimated to be +- 0.10 mag in V or R and +-0.04 mag in (V-R). We describe the first application of calibrated MACHO photometry data: the construction of a color-magnitude diagram used to calculate our experimental sensitivity to detect microlensing in the LMC.

  19. A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci affecting the cortical surface area and thickness of Heschl's gyrus.

    PubMed

    Cai, D-C; Fonteijn, H; Guadalupe, T; Zwiers, M; Wittfeld, K; Teumer, A; Hoogman, M; Arias-Vásquez, A; Yang, Y; Buitelaar, J; Fernández, G; Brunner, H G; van Bokhoven, H; Franke, B; Hegenscheid, K; Homuth, G; Fisher, S E; Grabe, H J; Francks, C; Hagoort, P

    2014-09-01

    Heschl's gyrus (HG) is a core region of the auditory cortex whose morphology is highly variable across individuals. This variability has been linked to sound perception ability in both speech and music domains. Previous studies show that variations in morphological features of HG, such as cortical surface area and thickness, are heritable. To identify genetic variants that affect HG morphology, we conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis in 3054 healthy individuals using HG surface area and thickness as quantitative traits. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed association P values that would survive correction for multiple testing over the genome. The most significant association was found between right HG area and SNP rs72932726 close to gene DCBLD2 (3q12.1; P=2.77 × 10(-7) ). This SNP was also associated with other regions involved in speech processing. The SNP rs333332 within gene KALRN (3q21.2; P=2.27 × 10(-6) ) and rs143000161 near gene COBLL1 (2q24.3; P=2.40 × 10(-6) ) were associated with the area and thickness of left HG, respectively. Both genes are involved in the development of the nervous system. The SNP rs7062395 close to the X-linked deafness gene POU3F4 was associated with right HG thickness (Xq21.1; P=2.38 × 10(-6) ). This is the first molecular genetic analysis of variability in HG morphology. PMID:25130324

  20. Eos, Koronis, and Maria Family Asteroids: Infrared (JHK) Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Owensby, Pamela D.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Tedesco, Edward F.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared photometry at 1.2, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer (JHK) is reported for 56 asteroids in the Eos, Koronis and, Maria dynamical families. These data are consistent with similar surface composition for all of the asteroids of each family. The infrared colors within each family cluster in the region observed for the S taxonomic class, but Eos asteroids may belong to a separable K class. Asteroid 243 Ida, which was observed by the Galileo spacecraft, is a typical member of the Koronis family. The average infrared colors of the Maria family are slightly redder than those of the Eos and Koronis families.

  1. Uranium in Surface Waters and Sediments Affected by Historical Mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Wirt, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of 82 stream waters and 87 stream sediments within mountainous areas immediately west of Denver, Colorado, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in October 1994. The primary purpose was to evaluate regionally the effects of geology and past mining on the concentration and distribution of uranium. The study area contains uranium- and thorium-rich bedrock, numerous noneconomic occurrences of uranium minerals, and several uranium deposits of variable size and production history. During the sampling period, local streams had low discharge and were more susceptible to uranium-bearing acid drainage originating from historical mines of base- and precious-metal sulfides. Results indicated that the spatial distribution of Precambrian granites and metamorphic rocks strongly influences the concentration of uranium in stream sediments. Within-stream transport increases the dispersion of uranium- and thorium rich mineral grains derived primarily from granitic source rocks. Dissolved uranium occurs predominantly as uranyl carbonate complexes, and concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 65 micrograms per liter. Most values were less than 5 micrograms per liter, which is less than the current drinking water standard of 30 micrograms per liter and much less than locally applied aquatic-life toxicity standards of several hundred micrograms per liter. In local streams that are affected by uranium-bearing acid mine drainage, dissolved uranium is moderated by dilution and sorptive uptake by stream sediments. Sorbents include mineral alteration products and chemical precipitates of iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides, which form where acid drainage enters streams and is neutralized. Suspended uranium is relatively abundant in some stream segments affected by nearby acid drainage, which likely represents mobilization of these chemical precipitates. The 234U/238U activity ratio of acid drainage (0.95-1.0) is distinct from that of local surface waters (more than 1.05), and this distinctive isotopic composition may be preserved in iron-oxyhydroxide precipitates of acid drainage origin. The study area includes a particularly large vein-type uranium deposit (Schwartzwalder mine) with past uranium production. Stream water and sediment collected downstream from the mine's surface operations have locally anomalous concentrations of uranium. Fine-grained sediments downstream from the mine contain rare minute particles (10-20 micrometers) of uraninite, which is unstable in a stream environment and thus probably of recent origin related to mining. Additional rare particles of very fine grained (less than 5 micrometer) barite likely entered the stream as discharge from settling ponds in which barite precipitation was formerly used to scavenge dissolved radium from mine effluent.

  2. International Studies of Hazardous Groundwater/Surface Water Exchange in the Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami Affected Areas of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Titov, V. V.; Verstraeten, I. M.; Pinegina, T. K.; Tsadikovsky, E. I.; Heilweil, V. M.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    During the US-Russia Geohazards Workshop held July 17-19, 2012 in Moscow, Russia the international research effort was asked to identify cooperative actions for disaster risk reduction, focusing on extreme geophysical events. As a part of this recommendation the PIRE project was developed to understand, quantify, forecast and protect the coastal zone aquifers and inland water resources of Kamchatka (Russia) and its ecosystems affected by the November 4, 1952 Kamchatka tsunami (Khalatyrka Beach near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) and the January 2, 1996 Karymskiy volcano eruption and the lake tsunami. This project brings together teams from U.S. universities and research institutions located in Russia. The research consortium was briefed on recent technical developments and will utilize samples secured via major international volcanic and tsunami programs for the purpose of advancing the study of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected coastal areas and inland lakes of Kamchatka. We plan to accomplish this project by developing and applying the next generation of field sampling, remote sensing, laboratory techniques and mathematical tools to study groundwater-surface water interaction processes and SGD. We will develop a field and modeling approach to define SGD environment, key controls, and influence of volcano eruption and tsunami, which will provide a framework for making recommendations to combat contamination. This is valuable for politicians, water resource managers and decision-makers and for the volcano eruption and tsunami affected region water supply and water quality of Kamchatka. Data mining and results of our field work will be compiled for spatial modeling by Geo-Information System (GIS) using 3-D Earth Systems Visualization Lab. The field and model results will be communicated to interested stakeholders via an interactive web site. This will allow computation of SGD spatial patterns. In addition, thanks to the conceptual integrated approach, the mathematical tool will be transportable to other regions affected by volcanic eruption and tsunami. We will involve students in the work, incorporate the results into our teaching portfolio and work closely with the IUGG GeoRisk Commission and AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group to communicate our findings to the broader public, specifically local communities that will be most impacted. Under the PIRE education component, a cohort of U.S. and Russian post-doctoral researchers and students will receive training and contribute to the overall natural hazards SGD science agenda in cooperation with senior U.S. researchers and leading investigators from the Russian institutions. Overall, the extensive team of researchers, students and institutions is poised to deliver an innovative and broad spectrum of science associated with the study of SGD in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected areas, in a way not possible to achieve in isolation.

  3. TIME-RESOLVED PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS: ROTATIONS, SHAPES, AND PHASE FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    TIME-RESOLVED PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS: ROTATIONS, SHAPES, AND PHASE FUNCTIONS Scott S measured phase darkening for seven Kuiper belt objects in the 0 to 2 phase-angle range. Unlike Pluto-albedo porous surface materials. Key words: Kuiper belt -- minor planets, asteroids -- Oort cloud -- solar

  4. Detection of Terrestrial Planets Using Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Boruci, William; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Transit photometry detection of planets offers many advantages: an ability to detect terrestrial size planets, direct determination of the planet's size, applicability to all main-sequence stars, and a differential brightness change of the periodic signature being independent of stellar distance or planetary orbital semi-major axis. Ground and space based photometry have already been successful in detecting transits of the giant planet HD209458b. However, photometry 100 times better is required to detect terrestrial planets. We present results of laboratory measurements of an end-to-end photometric system incorporating all of the important confounding noise features of both the sky and a space based photometer including spacecraft jitter. In addition to demonstrating an instrumental noise of less than 10 ppm (an Earth transit of a solar-like star is 80 ppm), the brightnesses of individual stars were dimmed to simulate Earth-size transit signals. These 'transits' were reliably detected as part of the tests.

  5. Photometry of the old nova HZ Pup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, Tomas; Abbott, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This study of the old nova HZ Pup involved obtaining image data, removing the instrumental signature, performing photometry on the stellar images present, and generating light curves. Relative photometry between the target star and other stars in the image was used to remove atmospheric effects. A periodogram of this light curve shows the historically known periodicity close to 20 minutes. However, other periodicities are also present and it is not clear from the data which are real and which are artifacts of the sampling. These data will be combined with data from other telescopes collected contemporaneously in order to resolve this ambiguity.

  6. Time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables

    E-print Network

    C. Papadaki; H. M. J. Boffin; J. Cuypers; V. Stanishev; Z. Kraicheva; V. Genkov

    2003-12-18

    We present time-resolved photometry of two cataclysmic variables whose CCD photometric observations were obtained with the 1m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in October 2002 and August 2003 and with the 1m telescope at Hoher List in Germany. Concerning MCT 2347-3144 we detect for the first time a period of 6.65h. For V1193 Ori the 3.96 h periodicity has for the first time been confirmed through time-resolved photometry.

  7. Generating Light Curves from Forced PSF-fit Photometry on PTFIDE Difference-images

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    1 Generating Light Curves from Forced PSF-fit Photometry on PTFIDE ancillary forced Aperture Photometry 6 ­ Other quality checks for PSF-fit photometry ­ Putting it all together: conversion to magnitudes 9 ­ AC­to­DC Photometry

  8. Extrasolar planet transit photometry at Wallace Astrophysical Observatory

    E-print Network

    Fong, Wen-fai

    2008-01-01

    Extrasolar planet transit photometry is a relatively new astronomical technique developed over the past decade. Transit photometry is the measurement of a star's brightness as an orbiting planet passes in front of the star ...

  9. Isotopic assessment of sources and processes affecting sulfate and nitrate in surface water and groundwater of Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Rock, L; Mayer, B

    2002-12-01

    Surface water and deep and shallow groundwater samples were taken from selected parts of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg to determine the isotopic composition of nitrate and sulfate, in order to identify sources and/or processes affecting these solutes. Deep groundwater had sulfate concentrations between 20 and 40 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values between -3.0 and -20.0 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values between +1.5 and +5.0 per thousand; nitrate was characterized by concentrations varying between < 0.5 and 10 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values of approximately -0.5 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values approximately +3.0 per thousand. In the shallow groundwater, sulfate concentrations ranged from 25 to 30 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values from -20.0 to +4.5 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values from approximately +0.5 to +4.5 per thousand; nitrate concentrations varied between approximately 10 and 75 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values between +2.5 and +10.0 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values between +1.0 and +3.0 per thousand. In surface water, sulfate concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 mg/L, delta34S(sulfate) values varied between -9.3 and +10.9 per thousand, and delta18O(sulfate) values between +3.0 and +10.7 per thousand were observed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 10 to 40 mg/L, delta15N(nitrate) values from +6.5 to +12.0 per thousand, and delta18O(nitrate) values from -0.4 to +4.0 per thousand. Based on these data, three sulfate sources were identified controlling the riverine sulfate load. These are soil sulfate, dissolution of evaporites, and oxidation of reduced S minerals in the bedrock. Both groundwater types were predominantly influenced by sulfate from the two latter lithogenic S sources. The deep groundwater and a couple shallow groundwater samples had nitrate derived mainly from soil nitrification. All other sampling sites were influenced by nitrate originating from sewage and/or manure. A decrease in nitrate concentration observed along one of the rivers was attributed to denitrification. It appears that sulfate within Luxembourg's aquatic ecosystem is mainly of lithogenic origin, whereas nitrate is often derived from anthropogenic activities. PMID:12725423

  10. Mutations Affecting Keratin 10 Surface-Exposed Residues Highlight the Structural Basis of Phenotypic Variation in Epidermolytic Ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Haris; Kumar, Anil; Craiglow, Brittany G; Zhou, Jing; Saraceni, Corey; Torbeck, Richard; Ragsdale, Bruce; Rehder, Paul; Ranki, Annamari; Choate, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) due to KRT10 mutations is a rare, typically autosomal dominant, disorder characterized by generalized erythema and cutaneous blistering at birth followed by hyperkeratosis and less frequent blistering later in life. We identified two KRT10 mutations p.Q434del and p.R441P in subjects presenting with a mild EI phenotype. Both occur within the mutational "hot spot" of the keratin 10 (K10) 2B rod domain, adjacent to severe EI-associated mutations. p.Q434del and p.R441P formed collapsed K10 fibers rather than aggregates characteristic of severe EI KRT10 mutations such as p.R156C. Upon differentiation, keratinocytes from p.Q434del showed significantly lower apoptosis (P-value<0.01) compared with p.R156C as assessed by the TUNEL assay. Conversely, the mitotic index of the p.Q434del epidermis was significantly higher compared with that of p.R156C (P-value<0.01) as estimated by the Ki67 assay. Structural basis of EI phenotype variation was investigated by homology-based modeling of wild-type and mutant K1-K10 dimers. Both mild EI mutations were found to affect the surface-exposed residues of the K10 alpha helix coiled-coil and caused localized disorganization of the K1-K10 heterodimer. In contrast, adjacent severe EI mutations disrupt key intermolecular dimer interactions. Our findings provide structural insights into phenotypic variation in EI due to KRT10 mutations. PMID:26176760

  11. Pneumococcal Surface Protein A does not affect the immune responses to a combined diphtheria tetanus and pertussis vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Fernanda A; Miyaji, Eliane N; Quintilio, Wagner; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo L; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S

    2013-05-01

    The Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) is a promising candidate for the composition of a protein vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously shown that the whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine (wP) is a good adjuvant to PspA, inducing protective responses against pneumococcal infection in mice. In Brazil, wP is administered to children, formulated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTPw) and aluminum hydroxide (alum) as adjuvant. A single subcutaneous dose of PspA5-DTPlow (a formulation containing PspA from clade 5 and a new generation DTPw, containing low levels of B. pertussis LPS and Alum) induced high levels of systemic anti-PspA5 antibodies in mice and conferred protection against respiratory lethal challenges with two different pneumococcal strains. Here we evaluate the mucosal immune responses against PspA5 as well as the immune responses against the DTP antigens in mice vaccinated with PspA5-DTPlow. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with PspA5-DTPlow induced high levels of anti-PspA5 IgG in the airways but no IgA. In addition, no differences in the influx of cells to the respiratory mucosa, after the challenge, were observed in vaccinated mice, when compared with control mice. The levels of circulating anti-pertussis, -tetanus and -diphtheria antibodies were equivalent in mice vaccinated with DTPlow or PspA5-DTPlow. Antibodies induced by DTPlow or PspA5-DTPlow showed similar ability to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of the diphtheria toxin on Vero cells. Furthermore, combination with PspA5 did not affect protection against B. pertussis and tetanus toxin challenges in mice. Our results support the proposal for a combined PspA-DTP vaccine. PMID:23541622

  12. Aperture Photometry Uncertainties assuming Priors and Correlated Noise

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    1 Aperture Photometry Uncertainties assuming Priors and Correlated Noise F. Masci, version 2.0, 10 aperture photometry assuming (i) prior pixel-flux uncertainties are available for the image (e.g., computed photometry is being performed. One way to do this is to compare the uncertainties with the local RMS pixel

  13. Time Series Photometry Data: Standard Access, Standard Formats

    E-print Network

    Holl, András

    Time Series Photometry Data: Standard Access, Standard Formats Andr#19; as Holl Konkoly Observatory a discussion on data access and #12;le format aspects of photometry. Introduction Presently there is time series photometry data available in public databases, but the access to these varies from one collection

  14. VALIDATION OF SPECTRAL UNMIXING METHODS USING PHOTOMETRY AND TOPOGRAPHY INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    VALIDATION OF SPECTRAL UNMIXING METHODS USING PHOTOMETRY AND TOPOGRAPHY INFORMATION Rubén Marrero1 topography and photometry of the scene. The validation of the different methods and deconvolution processes topography and most importantly photometry are precisely known. On the other hand better distribution maps

  15. NIR photometry of M31LRN 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Stefan; Pessev, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A new epoch JHKs NIR photometry of the stellar merger candidate MASTER OT J004207.99+405501.1 / M31N 2015-01a / M31LRN 2015 (Kurtenkov et al. 2015, Williams et al. 2015, ATel #6911, ATel #7150) has been obtained.

  16. Photometry from online Digitized Sky Survey Plates

    E-print Network

    A. Bacher; S. Kimeswenger; P. Teutsch

    2005-07-22

    Online Digital Sky Survey (DSS) material is often used to obtain information on newly discovered variable stars for older epochs (e.g. Nova progenitors, flare stars, ...). We present here the results of an investigation of photometry on online digital sky survey material in small fields calibrated by CCD sequences. We compared different source extraction mechanisms and found, that even down near to the sensitivity limit, despite the H-compression used for the online material, photometry with an accuracy better than 0\\fm1 rms is possible on DSS-II. Our investigation shows that the accuracy depends strongly on the source extraction method. The SuperCOSMOS scans, although retrieved with an higher spatial resolution, do not give us better results. The methods and parameters presented here, allow the user to obtain good plate photometry in small fields down to the Schmidt plate survey limits with a few bright CCD calibrators, which may be calibrated with amateur size telescopes. Especially for the events mentioned above, new field photometry for calibration purposes mostly exists, but the progenitors were not measured photometrically before. Also the follow up whether stellar concentrations are newly detected clusters or similar work may be done without using mid size telescopes. The calibration presented here is a "local" one for small fields. We show that this method presented here gives higher accuracies than "global" calibrations of surveys (e.g. GSC-II, SuperCOSMOS and USNO-B)

  17. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  18. Galileo Photometry of Asteroid 951 Gaspra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Lee, P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Breneman, H.; Head, J.W.; Murchie, S.; Fanale, F.; Robinson, M.; Clark, B.; Granahan, J.; Garbeil, H.; McEwen, A.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Davies, M.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Wagner, R.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Galileo images of Gaspra make it possible for the first time to determine a main-belt asteroid's photometric properties accurately by providing surface-resolved coverage over a wide range of incidence and emission angles and by extending the phase angle coverage to phases not observable from Earth. We combine Earth-based telescopic photometry over phase angles 2?? ??? ?? ??? 25?? with Galileo whole-disk and disk-resolved data at 33?? ??? ?? ??? 51?? to derive average global photometric properties in terms of Hapke's photometric model. The microscopic texture and particle phase-function behavior of Gaspra's surface are remarkably like those of other airless rocky bodies such as the Moon. The macroscopic surface roughness parameter, ??? = 29??, is slightly larger than that reported for typical lunar materials. The particle single scattering albedo, ???0 = 0.36 ?? 0.07, is significantly larger than for lunar materials, and the opposition surge amplitude, B0 = 1.63 ?? 0.07, is correspondingly smaller. We determine a visual geometric albedo pv = 0.22 ?? 0.06 for Gaspra, in close agreement with pv = 0.22 ?? 0.03 estimated from Earth-based observations. Gaspra's phase integral is 0.47, and the bolometric Bond albedo is estimated to be 0.12 ?? 0.03. An albedo map derived by correcting Galileo images with our average global photometric function reveals subdued albedo contrasts of ??10% or less over Gaspra's northern hemisphere. Several independent classification algorithms confirm the subtle spectral heterogeneity reported earlier (S. Mottola, M. DiMartino, M. Gonano-Beurer, H. Hoffman, and G. Neukum, 1993, Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, pp. 421-424; M. J. S. Belton et al., 1992, Science 257, 1647-1652). Whole-disk colors (0.41 ??? ?? ??? 0.99 ??m) vary systematically with longitude by about ??5%, but color differences as large as 30% occur locally. Colors vary continuously between end-member materials whose areal distribution correlates with regional topography. Infrared: violet (0.99:0.41-??m) color ratios on Gaspra are strongly correlated with local elevation, being largest at lower elevations and smaller at higher elevations. No correlation was detected between elevation and the green:violet (0.56:0.41-??m) color ratio. Bright materials with a strong 1-??m absorption occur primarily in association with craters along ridges, while darker materials with 30% weaker 1-??m signatures occur downslope. The variations of color and albedo cannot be easily explained by grain-size effects alone or by differences in photometric geometry. The trends observed are consistent with those revealed by laboratory studies of the effects of comminution, glass formation, and segregation of metal from silicate components in chondritic meteorites and also in some silicate mixtures. The relative importance of these various processes on Gaspra remains to be determined. ?? 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrared Photometry for Automated Telescopes: Passband Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, Gene; Young, Andrew T.

    2011-03-01

    The high precision that photometry in the near and intermediate infrared region can provide has not been achieved, partly because of technical challenges (including cryogenics, which most IR detectors require), and partly because the filters in common use are not optimized to avoid water-vapor absorptions, which are the principal impediment to precise ground-based IR photometry. We review the IRWG filters that achieve this goal, and the trials that were undertaken to demonstrate their superiority. We focus especially on the near IR set and, for high elevation sites, the passbands in the N window. We also discuss the price to be paid for the improved precision, in the form of lower throughput, and why it should be paid: to achieve not only higher precision (i.e., improved signal-to-noise ratio), but also lower extinction, thus producing higher accuracy in extra-atmospheric magnitudes. The edges of the IRWG passbands are not defined by the edges of the atmospheric windows: therefore, they admit no flux from these (constantly varying) edges. The throughput cost and the lack of a large body of data already obtained in these passbands are principal reasons why the IRWG filters are not in wide use at observatories around the world that currently do IR work. Yet a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio varies inversely with both extinction and with a measure of the Forbes effect. So, the small loss of raw throughput is recouped in signal-to-noise gain. We illustrate these points with passbands of both near and intermediate IR passbands. There is also the matter of cost for small production runs of these filters; reduced costs can be realized through bulk orders with uniform filter specifications. As a consequence, the near-IR IRWG passbands offer the prospect of being able to do photometry in those passbands at both high and low elevation sites that are capable of supporting precise photometry, thereby freeing infrared photometry from the need to access exclusively high and dry elevation sites, although photometry done at those sites can also benefit from improved accuracy and transformability. We suggest that if the IRWG passbands are made available, they will be used! New automated systems making use of these passbands have the advantage of establishing the system more widely, creating a larger body of data to which future observations will be fully transformable, and will be cheaper to purchase. This work has been supported in part by grants to EFM by the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  20. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2016 January-March

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2016-01-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and have no or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  1. Lightcurve Photometry Opportunities: 2015 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Harris, Alan W.; Durech, Josef; Benner, Lance A. M.

    2015-10-01

    We present lists of asteroid photometry opportunities for objects reaching a favorable apparition and having either none or poorly-defined lightcurve parameters. Additional data on these objects will help with shape and spin axis modeling via lightcurve inversion. We also include lists of objects that will be the target of radar observations. Lightcurves for these objects can help constrain pole solutions and/or remove rotation period ambiguities that might not come from using radar data alone.

  2. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  3. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  4. Diving marine mammals must surface for gas exchange, a necessity that affects all their aquatic activities. By rapidly

    E-print Network

    Webb, Paul M.

    H) at the surface between dives in free-ranging adult and juvenile northern elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris. Although the free-ranging diving behavior of the elephant seal has been studied extensively, littleH) at the surface between dives in free-ranging northern elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris. We recorded f

  5. Starspot Imaging Using Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Still, M.; Harmon, R. O.; Barclay, T.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of stellar objects in the Kepler field of view have been found with quasi-coherent photometric structure. The variations are likely due to photospheric starspots. Assuming that the observed structure is the result of starspots, the quasi-coherent nature of the objects’ light curves may result from a combination of differential rotation and starspot evolution. Using multi-year, milli-magnitude precision, uninterrupted 30-minute cadence Kepler data, we map stellar surfaces of several Kepler stars using a light-curve inversion algorithm. We measure starspot filling factors, differential rotation and starspot migration and growth, and starspot longevity with the goal of identifying possible solar-like magnetic cycles. For example, in two years of data we identify over twenty distinct spots (up to three coexistent) on KIC 5110407 (Teff = 5211 K, log g = 3.838), with spot lifetimes of six to 40 rotation periods (3.458 days), and evidence for differential rotation (?? = 1.674°/day). We acknowledge support from the NASA Harriett G. Jenkins Pre-Doctoral Fellowship Program.

  6. CCD Strömvil Photometry of M 37

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R. P.; Janusz, R.; Kazlauskas, A.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    2001-12-01

    We have been working on a program of setting up standards in the Strömvil photometric system and have been doing CCD photometry of globular and open clusters. A previous paper (Boyle et al. BAAS, AAS Meeting #193, #68.08) described the results of observations made in the open cluster M 67, which we are setting up as one of the prime standard fields for Strömvil photometry. Now we discuss our observations of M 37, made on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona. One of us (R.J.) has automated the data processing by a novel method. The Strömvil group is multinational. By use of this innovative automated, yet interactive processing method, one systematically applies the same processing steps to run in IRAF by capturing them as presented in html files and submitting them to the IRAF command language. Use of the mouse avoids errors and accelerates the processing from raw data frames to calibrated photometry. From several G2 V stars in M 67 we have calculated their mean color indices and compare them to stars in M 37 to identify candidate G2 V stars there. Identifying such stars relates to the search for terrestrial exoplanets. Ultimately we will use the calibrated Strömvil indices to make photometric determinations of log g and Teff.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM RESPONSE OF SURFACE WATERS TO ACIDIC DEPOSITION: STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent intensive study of the causes of surface water acidification has led to numerous hypothesized controlling mechanisms. Among these are the salt-effect reduction of alkalinity, the base cation buffering and sulfate adsorption capacities of soils, availability of weatherable ...

  8. Characterization of surface properties affecting the activity of the 'free silica' fraction of respirable dusts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E.; Keane, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to investigate the surface properties of the quartz or 'free silica' fraction of respirable mine dusts. The degree of surface contamination of respirable quartz particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) to distinguish alumino/silicate and magnesium silicate surface occlusions from the silicate particles. By varying the electron-beam accelerating voltage, the depth of penetration could be reduced, so that the surface layer could be distinguished from the substrate material. Experiments were conducted on the relationship of measured SEM-EDX signal coming from the substrate to coating thickness and electron-beam accelerating voltage. In the second part, modifications were made of respirable-quartz-particle cytotoxicity by surface treatment. As measured by erythrocyte hemolysis and pulmonary macrophage release of lactate dehydrogenase in-vitro, respirable quartz cytotoxicity was neutralized by boiling in water in glass test tubes for 10 to 40 minutes. The membranolytic potential was reduced to near zero by boiling up to 10 milligrams of quartz per milliliter of water. Replacing the medium with fresh water midway through the boiling resulted in full detoxification. Preboiling the medium with silica reduced the effect. Detoxification persisted after mild drying at 110 C for 8 hours and persisted after 3 days of resuspension in water at room temperature.

  9. Surface pressure affects B-hordein network formation at the air-water interface in relation to gastric digestibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingqi; Huang, Jun; Zeng, Hongbo; Chen, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    Protein interfacial network formation under mechanical pressure and its influence on degradation was investigated at molecular level using Langmuir-Blodgett B-hordein monolayer as a 2D model. Surface properties, such as surface pressure, dilatational and shear rheology and the surface pressure-area (?-A) isotherm, of B-hordein at air-water interface were analyzed by tensiometer, rheometer and a Langmuir-Blodgett trough respectively. B-Hordein conformation and orientation under different surface pressures were determined by polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The interfacial network morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). B-Hordein could reduce the air-water surface tension rapidly to ?45mN/m and form a solid-like network with high rheological elasticity and compressibility at interface, which could be a result of interactions developed by intermolecular ?-sheets. The results also revealed that B-hordein interfacial network switched from an expanded liquid phase to a solid-like film with increasing compression pressure. The orientation of B-hordein was parallel to the surface when in expended liquid phase, whereas upon compression, the hydrophobic repetitive region tilted away from water phase. When compressed to 30mN/m, a strong elastic network was formed at the interface, and it was resistant to a harsh gastric-like environment of low pH and pepsin. This work generated fundamental knowledge, which suggested the potential to design B-hordein stabilized emulsions and encapsulations with controllable digestibility for small intestine targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. PMID:26342324

  10. Spatial variation of the charge and sulfur oxidation state in a surface gradient affects plasma protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Xue; Streitmatter, Seth; Wright, Bryon E; Hlady, Vladimir

    2010-07-20

    A gradient of negative surface charge based on the 1D spatial variation from surface sulfhydryl to mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate moieties was prepared by the controlled UV oxidation of a 3-mercaptopropylsilane monolayer on fused silica. The adsorption of three human plasma proteins--albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and fibrinogen (Fgn)--onto such a surface gradient was studied using spatially resolved total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and autoradiography. Adsorption was measured from dilute solutions equivalent to 1/100 (TIRF, autoradiography), 1/500, and 1/1000 (autoradiography) of protein physiological concentrations in plasma. All three proteins adsorbed more to the nonoxidized sulfhydryl region than to the oxidized, mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate region of the gradient. In the case of HSA, the adsorption contrast along the gradient was largest when the adsorption took place from more dilute protein solutions. Increasing the concentration to 1/100 of the protein plasma concentration eliminated the effect of the gradient on HSA adsorption and, to the lesser extent, on IgG adsorption. In the case of Fgn, the greatest adsorption contrast was observed at the highest concentration used. On the basis of adsorption kinetics, the estimated binding affinity of HSA for the sulfhydryl region was twice the affinity for the mixed sulfhydryl-sulfonate region of the gradient. For IgG and Fgn, the initial adsorption was transport-limited and the initial adsorption rates approached the computed flux of the protein to the surface. PMID:20568822

  11. Seasonal dynamics of the land surface energy balance of a boreal forest-peatland landscape affected by degrading permafrost in the Taiga Plains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, M.; Wischnewski, K.; Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W. L.; Kljun, N.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Northern boreal ecosystems along the southern limit of permafrost comprise a mosaic of forests with permafrost, and permafrost-free peatland and lake ecosystems. The proportion of permafrost-free areas has rapidly increased over the last decades due to increasingly warmer air temperatures. This change in land cover causes changes in vegetation composition and structure affecting land surface characteristics such as albedo and surface roughness with important implications for the land surface energy balance and thus regional climate. For example, a decrease in sensible heat flux potentially cools the atmosphere and thus constitutes a negative feedback to the climate system. Changes in latent heat fluxes alter regional water vapour dynamics and thus may affect precipitation patterns. To better understand the land surface energy balance under the influence of degrading permafrost, we measured sensible and latent heat fluxes with two eddy covariance systems, one at 15 m and one at 2 m above the ground surface, along with net radiation and soil heat flux at Scotty Creek, a watershed in the discontinuous permafrost zone in the southern part of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The flux footprint of the 15 m-eddy covariance system covers an area equally covered by black spruce forests and permafrost-free, treeless peatlands whereas the flux footprint of the adjacent 2 m-eddy covariance system covers a single bog within the footprint of the 15 m system. Peak sensible heat fluxes at the bog were up to 200 W m-2 smaller than the landscape-scale fluxes between April and July 2014. During the snow free period, peak latent heat fluxes at the wet bog were about 50 W m-2 higher than the landscape-scale fluxes. Albedo of the forest was generally smaller compared to the bog except for the immediate post-melt period when the bog was affected by widespread surface flooding. This difference in albedo leads to higher net radiation at the forest site, particularly during the snow cover period. Our nested tower measurements indicate that with further permafrost degradation sensible heat and latent heat fluxes are likely to decrease and increase, respectively. This shift in the land surface energy balance could attenuate the regional positive air temperature trend and favour increased summer precipitation in the northern boreal zone.

  12. Photometry and Polarization in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    Photometry and Polarization in Remote Sensing is a textbook that purports to offer quantitative approaches to theory and applications of remote sensing in the 0.185-12-?m wavelength range. Many researchers utilize remote sensing to conduct at least part of their research, including workers in such diverse areas as astronomy, oceanography, meteorology, ecology, hydrology, and geology. As a consequence, an extensive but dispersed literature exists, mostly written over the past decade. A text that begins with theoretical approaches and covers modern examples of research using remote sensing data would be most welcome.

  13. Photometry and polarimetry of V 1057 Cygni.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G.; Lee, T.; Coyne, G.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of extensive photometric and polarimetric data over a six-month interval for V 1057 Cyg. The polarization appears to be constant and of interstellar origin; the photometry, which extends nearly six octaves from the ultraviolet to 22 microns in the infrared, indicates that the total observed luminosity is decreasing - having now declined about 10% from its earlier level. A model characterized by two circumstellar shells which absorb and reradiate short-wavelength stellar flux from an underlying A1-type star provides the best fit to the observational data. The present variability, however, cannot be due to circumstellar activity, but appears to originate in the star itself.

  14. Time Series Photometry of KZ Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    We present BVRI time series photometry of the high amplitude delta Scuti star KZ Lacertae secured using the 0.9-meter telescope located at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. In addition to the multicolor light curves that are presented, the V data from the last six years of observations are used to plot an O-C diagram in order to determine the ephemeris and evaluate evidence for period change. We wish to thank the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for their continued support of the research activities at the West Mountain Observatory.

  15. Quick and Dirty WFPC2 Stellar Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    The latest release of the IRAF (Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) MXTOOLS package includes the new tasks QDWFPC2 (Quick and Dirty Wide Field and Planetary Camera, which does quick CCD (charge-coupled device) stellar photometry on two Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 (Wide Field and Planetary Camera) observations: WFPC2COLOR, which converts HST WFPC2 instrumental magnitudes to standard colors using the Holtzman et al. color equations, and QDCMD (Quick and Dirty Color Magnitude Diagram), which reads the output of WFPC2COLOR and displays a color-magnitude diagram on a user-chosen graphics device.

  16. V photometry of Titania, Oberon, and Triton

    SciTech Connect

    Goguen, J.D.; Hammel, H.B.; Brown, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    The phase angle and orbital brightness variations of Titania, Oberon, and Triton are presently obtained through analysis of V filter photometry obtained at Mauna Kea in 1982-1983. While Titania and Oberon exhibit magnitude variations with phase angle comparable to those of low-to-moderate albedo asteroids observed within several deg of opposition, Triton's phase variation is distinctly different from these and has a phase coefficient consistent with either a high-albedo regolith or an optically thick nonparticulate scattering layer (perhaps an atmosphere, or an ocean). A low-albedo regolith cannot on the strength of these data be ruled out, however. 39 references.

  17. Photometry of dark atmosphereless planetary bodies: an efficient numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkman, Olli; Muinonen, Karri; Peltoniemi, Jouni

    2015-12-01

    We present a scattering model for regolith-covered Solar System bodies. It can be used to compute the intensity of light scattered by a surface consisting of packed, mutually shadowing particles. Our intention is to provide a model in which other researchers can apply in studies of Solar System photometry. Our model is a Lommel-Seeliger type model, representing a medium composed of individual scatterers with small single-scattering albedo. This means that it is suitable for dark regolith surfaces such as the Moon and many classes of asteroids. Our model adds an additional term which takes into account the mutual shadowing between the scatterers. The scatterers can have an arbitrary phase function. We use a numerical ray-tracing simulation to compute the shadowing contribution. We present the model in a form which makes implementing it in existing software straightforward and fast. The model in practice is implemented as files containing pre-computed values of the surface reflection coefficient, which can be loaded into a user's program and used to compute the scattering in the desired viewing geometries. As the usage requires only a little simple arithmetic and a table look-up, it is as fast to use as common analytical models.

  18. Surfaces

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  19. Cationic screening of charged surface groups (carboxylates) affects electron transfer steps in photosystem-II water oxidation and quinone reduction.

    PubMed

    Karge, Oliver; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Dau, Holger

    2014-10-01

    The functional or regulatory role of long-distance interactions between protein surface and interior represents an insufficiently understood aspect of protein function. Cationic screening of surface charges determines the morphology of thylakoid membrane stacks. We show that it also influences directly the light-driven reactions in the interior of photosystem II (PSII). After laser-flash excitation of PSII membrane particles from spinach, time courses of the delayed recombination fluorescence (10?s-10ms) and the variable chlorophyll-fluorescence yield (100?s-1s) were recorded in the presence of chloride salts. At low salt-concentrations, a stimulating effect was observed for the S-state transition efficiency, the time constant of O2-formation at the Mn4Ca-complex of PSII, and the halftime of re-oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor (Qa) by the secondary quinone acceptor (Qb). The cation valence determined the half-effect concentrations of the stimulating salt effect, which were around 6?M, 200?M and 10mM for trivalent (LaCl3), bivalent (MgCl2, CaCl2), and monovalent cations (NaCl, KCl), respectively. A depressing high-salt effect also depended strongly on the cation valence (onset concentrations around 2mM, 50mM, and 500mM). These salt effects are proposed to originate from electrostatic screening of negatively charged carboxylate sidechains, which are found in the form of carboxylate clusters at the solvent-exposed protein surface. We conclude that the influence of electrostatic screening by solvent cations manifests a functionally relevant long-distance interaction between protein surface and electron-transfer reactions in the protein interior. A relation to regulation and adaptation in response to environmental changes is conceivable. PMID:25062950

  20. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Non-surgical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan A; Gonzalez, Mayra G; Cantu, Myrna G; Wilson, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of studies that have evaluated non-surgical approaches for detoxification of implant body surfaces in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate clinical trials on the use of these methodologies for treating peri-implant disease. Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed) from 1966 to 2013. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on non-surgical therapy were evaluated. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing; radiographic bone fill and histological re-osseointegration. Results: From 134 articles found 35 were analyzed. The findings, advantages and disadvantages of using lasers as well as mechanical and chemical methods are discussed. Most of the in vivo and human studies used combination therapies which makes determining the efficacy of one specific method difficult. Most human studies are case series with short term longitudinal analysis without survival or failure reports. Conclusion: Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve using these approaches. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Re-osseointegration may be difficult to achieve if not impossible without surgical access to ensure thorough debridement of the defect and detoxification of the implant surface. Combination protocols for non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical results but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:24894571

  1. Differences in the surface composition of seemingly similar F75 cobalt-chromium micron-sized particulates can affect synovial fibroblast viability.

    PubMed

    Kovacik, M W; Mostardi, R A; Neal, D R; Bear, T F; Askew, M J; Bender, E T; Walker, J I; Ramsier, R D

    2008-09-01

    We present data and analyses concerning the cytotoxicity and bioreactivity associated with the surface composition of fine metal particulates that are similar to those commonly released in the body by prostheses used in total joint replacement surgery. Here we study the bulk and surface compositions of three separately procured cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) micron-sized particulate powders, each identified by their corresponding vendor as being ASTM F75 grade material. We use energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to verify the bulk metallic composition and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to examine the surface metallic composition of each CoCrMo powder. Cultured synovial fibroblasts were then exposed to the particulate powders to see how the metallic surfaces might affect cellular viability. Results indicate that while the bulk metallic composition of each CoCrMo powder was similar, the surface metallic compositions were found to be dramatically different and yielded equally dramatic differences in terms of cytotoxicity and bioreactivity of synovial fibroblast in culture. PMID:18583107

  2. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads. PMID:25016109

  3. Photometry Transforms Generation with PTGP (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, G.; Menzies, K.; Silvis, G.; Harris, B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Historically the development of photometry transformation coefficients required extensive manual effort and the use of large spreadsheets. A new release—version 5.0—of the Photometry Transformations Generation Program (PTGP) achieves the goal of generating transformation coefficients without the use of spreadsheets—saving considerable time and ensuring data accuracy. PTGP version 5.0 works directly with VSP to retrieve the most recent standard star reference magnitudes (currently for M67 and NGC7790). It then processes instrument magnitude file(s) downloaded from vphot or exported from AIP4WIN or MAXIM. Either AUID or “Boulder” star identifications can be used for AIP4WIN and MAXIM. When using VPHOT data or “Boulder” star identifications, PTGP determines the AUID names for each of the reference standard stars. All standard transforms are calculated. Plots of each transform's data can be reviewed, and individual star observations added/deleted. Transform sets can be saved for further use. Transform sets can be compared and selected sets averaged. The averaged sets can be exported in a file format compatible with the AAVSO TA tool. The presentation will provide a brief overview and demonstration of the tool. It will also discuss the implications of using PYTHON for the development—both benefits and potential problems. The program runs on both PCs and Macs. A subsequent presentation will discuss the use of VPHOT and PTGP to generate transforms and the testing of the impacts of varying key VPHOT and PTGP parameters.

  4. The degree of N-glycosylation affects the trafficking and cell surface expression levels of Kv1.4 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Itaru; Zhu, Jing; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza; Thornhill, William B

    2015-04-01

    Kv1.4 potassium channels are heavily glycosylated proteins involved in shaping action potentials and in neuronal excitability and plasticity. Kv1.4 N354Q, without an N-glycan, exhibited decreased protein stability and trafficking to the cell surface (Watanabe et al. in J Biol Chem 279:8879-8885, 2004). Here we investigated whether the composition of the N-glycan affected Kv1.4 cell surface expression. Kv1.4 proteins carrying N-glycans with different compositions were generated by adding glycosidase inhibitors or using N-glycosylation-deficient mutant cell lines. We found that oligomannose-type, hybrid-type, or incomplete complex-type N-glycans had a negative effect on surface protein expression of Kv1.4 compared with complex-type N-glycans. The decrease in surface protein level of Kv1.4 was mainly due to a reduction in total protein level, induced by altered N-glycan composition. Kv1.4 in CSTP-treated cells carried a unique oligomannose-type N-glycan that contains three glucose residues. This N-glycan had the most negative effect on cell surface expression of Kv1.4. It decreased Kv1.4 surface protein level by a combined mechanism of reducing total protein level and increasing ER-retention. Our data suggest that composition of the N-glycan plays an important role in protein stability and trafficking, and a sialylated complex-type N-glycan promoted high cell surface expression of Kv1.4. PMID:25416425

  5. Relative Photometry with data from the Peter van de Kamp Observatory D. Cohen and E. Jensen

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Relative Photometry with data from the Peter van de Kamp Observatory D with those reduced images. While in principle, we could "do photometry on" some can download the data: http://astro.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/telescope/sample_photometry

  6. JHK photometry of selected Trojan and Hilda asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dale W.; Johnson, Paul E.; Buckingham, William L.; Shorthill, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    No entirely satisfactory match has been established between the present JHK photometry of selected Hilda and Trojan asteroids and photometry for both main belt asteroids and laboratory samples. It is noted that while the leading Trojans and Hildas exhibit similar and homogeneous JHK colors, the trailing Trojans appear to be more heterogeneous. Charcoal and magnetite provide the best match in terms of JHK colors.

  7. Wide-field stellar photometry in Piwnice Observatory

    E-print Network

    Gracjan Maciejewski

    2007-12-17

    In this paper research projects based on the wide-field CCD photometry performed in Piwnice Observatory are discussed. The used telescopes, as well as dedicated software pipeline for data reduction are presented. The prospects for collaboration between Polish and Bulgarian institutes in the field of wide-field photometry are also discussed.

  8. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  9. Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway affect root waving on tilted agar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Gallois, P.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots grow in a wavy pattern upon a slanted surface. A novel mutation in the anthranilate synthase alpha 1 (ASA1) gene, named trp5-2wvc1, and mutations in the tryptophan synthase alpha and beta 1 genes (trp3-1 and trp2-1, respectively) confer a compressed root wave phenotype on tilted agar surfaces. When trp5-2wvc1 seedlings are grown on media supplemented with anthranilate metabolites, their roots wave like wild type. Genetic and pharmacological experiments argue that the compressed root wave phenotypes of trp5-2wvc1, trp2-1 and trp3-1 seedlings are not due to reduced IAA biosynthetic potential, but rather to a deficiency in L-tryptophan (L-Trp), or in a L-Trp derivative. Although the roots of 7-day-old seedlings possess higher concentrations of free L-Trp than the shoot as a whole, trp5-2wvc1 mutants show no detectable alteration in L-Trp levels in either tissue type, suggesting that a very localized shortage of L-Trp, or of a L-Trp-derived compound, is responsible for the observed phenotype.

  10. Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends

    E-print Network

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends Neil Mc. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Keywords: Kuiper Belt objects; Photometry; Infrared

  11. Network-scale dynamics of sediment mixtures: how do tectonics affect surface bed texture and channel slope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Bras, R. L.; Tucker, G. E.

    2003-04-01

    An alluvial channel's slope and bed texture are intimately linked. Along with fluvial discharge, these variables are the key players in setting alluvial transport rates. We know that both channel slope and mean grain size usually decrease downstream, but how sensitive are these variables to tectonic changes? Are basin concavity and downstream fining drastically disrupted during transitions from one tectonic regime to another? We explore these questions using the CHILD numerical landscape evolution model to generate alluvial networks composed of a sand and gravel mixture. The steady-state and transient patterns of both channel slope and sediment texture are investigated. The steady-state patterns in slope and sediment texture are verified independently by solving the erosion equations under equilibrium conditions, i.e. the case when the erosion rate is equal to the uplift rate across the entire landscape. The inclusion of surface texture as a free parameter (as opposed to just channel slope) leads to some surprising results. In all cases, an increase in uplift rate results in channel beds which are finer at equilibrium (for a given drainage area). Higher uplift rates imply larger equilibrium transport rates; this leads to finer channels that have a smaller critical shear stress to entrain material, and therefore more material can be transported for a given discharge (and channel slope). Changes in equilibrium slopes are less intuitive. An increase in uplift rates can cause channel slopes to increase, remain the same, or decrease, depending on model parameter values. In the surprising case in which equilibrium channel slopes decrease with increasing uplift rates, we suggest that surface texture changes more than compensate for the required increase in transport rates, causing channel slopes to decrease. These results highlight the important role of sediment grain size in determining transport rates and caution us against ignoring this important variable in fluvial networks.

  12. Ten Recent Enhancements To Aperture Photometry Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laher, Russ; Rebull, L. M.; Gorjian, V.

    2013-01-01

    Aperture Photometry Tool is free, multi-platform, easy-to-install software for astronomical research, as well as for learning, visualizing, and refining aperture-photometry analyses. This mature software has been under development for five years, and is a silent workhorse of the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program. Software version 2.1.5 is described by Laher et al., Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, No. 917, pp. 737-763, (July 2012). Four software upgrades have been released since the publication, which include new capabilities, increased speed, more user-friendliness, and some minor bug fixes. Visit www.aperturephotometry.org to download the latest version. The enhancements are as follows: 1) Added new Tools menu option to write selected primary-image data to a comma-separated-value file (for importing into Excel); 2) Added a new display of the color-table levels on a separate panel; 3) Added a new tool to measure the angular separation between positions on the thumbnail image, via mouse-cursor drag and release; 4) Added a new tool to overlay an aperture at user-specified coordinates (in addition to aperture overlay via mouse click); 5) Speeded up the source-list tool with optional multithreading in its automatic mode (allowed thread number is user-specifiable); 6) Added a new “Number” column to the output aperture-photometry-table file in order to track the input source order (multithreading reorders the output); 7) Upgraded the source-list tool to accept input source lists containing positions in sexagesimal equatorial coordinates (in addition to decimal degrees, or, alternatively, pixel coordinates); 8) Added a new decimal/sexagesimal converter; 9) Upgraded the source-list creation tool to compute the detection threshold using robust estimates of the local background and local data dispersion, where the user can select the grid and window sizes for these local calculations; and 10) Modified the batch mode to optionally generate a source list. These upgrades increase the software's utility, and more improvements are planned for future releases.

  13. Studies of the Virgo cluster based on the Virgo Photometry Catalogue

    E-print Network

    C. K. Young

    1997-12-09

    The `Virgo Photometry Catalogue' (VPC) is the first independently calibrated general catalogue of galaxies to cover the Virgo cluster since the `Catalog of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies' of Zwicky et al. (1961,1963). It contains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23 square-degree region centred on the cluster's core. Photographic surface photometry is presented for 1067 galaxies in the U band, for 1020 galaxies in the B_J band and for 1020 galaxies in the R_C band. All total magnitudes and total colours are extrapolated according to a new system; denoted `t' to distinguish it from the `T' system already in use. This paper outlines: the scope of the VPC, the new extrapolation system, some recent findings based on the catalogue and further work in progress.

  14. Kinemetry: a generalisation of photometry to the higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution

    E-print Network

    Davor Krajnovic; Michele Cappellari; P. Tim de Zeeuw; Yannick Copin

    2005-12-07

    We present a generalisation of surface photometry to the higher-order moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution of galaxies observed with integral-field spectrographs. The generalisation follows the approach of surface photometry by determining the best fitting ellipses along which the profiles of the moments can be extracted and analysed by means of harmonic expansion. The assumption for the odd moments (e.g. mean velocity) is that the profile along an ellipse satisfies a simple cosine law. The assumption for the even moments (e.g velocity dispersion) is that the profile is constant, as it is used in surface photometry. We find that velocity profiles extracted along ellipses of early-type galaxies are well represented by the simple cosine law (with 2% accuracy), while possible deviations are carried in the fifth harmonic term which is sensitive to the existence of multiple kinematic components, and has some analogy to the shape parameter of photometry. We compare the properties of the kinematic and photometric ellipses and find that they are often very similar. Finally, we offer a characterisation of the main velocity structures based only on the kinemetric parameters which can be used to quantify the features in velocity maps (abridged).

  15. Supernova Photometry with the LCOGT Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilday, Benjamin E.; Howell, D.; Brunner, N.; Bianco, F.; Graham, M.; LCOGT

    2011-05-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is currently designing, constructing, and deploying a network of robotic telescopes which will consist of multiple 1m and 0.4m telescopes, positioned at sites distributed roughly equi-longitudinally around the globe. When completed, the network will enable unique opportunities for time-domain astronomy. The LCOGT network also includes the 2m Faulkes Telescopes (FTs); Faulkes North (Haleakala, Maui) and Faulkes South (Siding Springs, Australia). As a precursor to the full telescope network, LCOGT is operating the Faulkes Telescopes in a robotic observing mode, and one primary use of the FTs over the last two years has been to provide multi-color photometric follow-up of supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We discuss the current status of FT photometry for SNe from PTF, including the photometric reduction pipeline, data-quality statistics, and photometric calibrations.

  16. Inferring Planetary Obliquity Using Rotational & Orbital Photometry

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Joel C; Haggard, Hal M; Pallé, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B

    2015-01-01

    The obliquity of a terrestrial planet is an important clue about its formation and critical to its climate. Previous studies using simulated photometry of Earth show that continuous observations over most of a planet's orbit can be inverted to infer obliquity. We extend this approach to single-epoch observations for planets with arbitrary albedo maps. For diffuse reflection, the flux seen by a distant observer is the product of the planet's albedo map, the host star's illumination, and the observer's visibility of different planet regions. It is useful to treat the product of illumination and visibility as the kernel of a convolution; this kernel is unimodal and symmetric. For planets with unknown obliquity, the kernel is not known a priori, but could be inferred by fitting a rotational light curve. We analyze this kernel under different viewing geometries, finding it well described by its longitudinal width and latitudinal position. We use Monte Carlo simulation to estimate uncertainties on these kernel char...

  17. Techniques for Automated Single-Star Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    2001-01-01

    Tennessee State University operates several automatic photoelectric telescopes (APTs) located at Fairborn Observatory in the Patagonia Mountains of southern Arizona. The APTs are dedicated to photometric monitoring programs that would be expensive and difficult to accomplish without the advantages of automation. I review the operation of two of the telescopes (a 0.75- and 0.80-meter (m) APT) and the quality-control techniques that result in the routine acquisition of single-star differential photometry with a precision of 0.001 mag for single observations and 0.0001 - 0.0002 mag for seasonal means. I also illustrate the capabilities of the APTS with sample results from a program to measure luminosity cycles in sun-like stars and a related program to search for the signatures of extrasolar planets around these stars.

  18. TERMS PHOTOMETRY OF KNOWN TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Payne, Alan; Ramirez, Solange V.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Wyatt, Pamela; Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T.; Zachary Gazak, J.; Rabus, Markus

    2011-10-15

    The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey conducts radial velocity and photometric monitoring of known exoplanets in order to refine planetary orbits and predictions of possible transit times. This effort is primarily directed toward planets not known to transit, but a small sample of our targets consists of known transiting systems. Here we present precision photometry for six WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) planets acquired during their transit windows. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for each planet and combine these data with previous measurements to redetermine the period and ephemerides for these planets. These observations provide recent mid-transit times which are useful for scheduling future observations. Our results improve the ephemerides of WASP-4b, WASP-5b, and WASP-6b and reduce the uncertainties on the mid-transit time for WASP-29b. We also confirm the orbital, stellar, and planetary parameters of all six systems.

  19. Photometry’s Bright Future: Detecting Solar System Analogs with Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippke, Michael; Angerhausen, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Time-series transit photometry from the Kepler space telescope has allowed for the discovery of thousands of exoplanets. We explore the potential of yet improved future missions such as PLATO 2.0 in detecting solar system analogs. We use real-world solar data and end-to-end simulations to explore the stellar and instrumental noise properties. By injecting and retrieving planets, rings, and moons of our own solar system, we show that the discovery of Venus and Earth analogs transiting G dwarfs like our Sun is feasible at high signal-to-noise ratio after collecting 6 yr of data, but Mars and Mercury analogs will be difficult to detect owing to stellar noise. In the best cases, Saturn’s rings and Jupiter’s moons will be detectable even in single-transit observations. Through the high number (>1 billion) of observed stars by PLATO 2.0, it will become possible to detect thousands of single-transit events by cold gas giants, analogs to our Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Our own solar system aside, we also show, through signal injection and retrieval, that PLATO 2.0 class photometry will allow for the secure detection of exomoons transiting quiet M dwarfs. This is the first study analyzing in depth the potential of future missions and the ultimate limits of photometry, using realistic case examples.

  20. Extracellular Ca2+ modulates leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 cell surface distribution on T lymphocytes and consequently affects cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Transition of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), from an inactive into an activate state depends on the presence of extracellular Mg2+ and/or Ca2+ ions. Although Mg2+ is directly involved in ligand binding, the role of Ca2+ in LFA-1 mediated adhesion remained obscure. We now demonstrate that binding of Ca2+, but not Mg2+, directly correlates with clustering of LFA-1 molecules at the cell surface of T cells, thereby facilitating LFA-1-ligand interaction. Using a reporter antibody (NKI-L16) that recognizes a Ca(2+)-dependent epitope on LFA-1, we found that Ca2+ can be bound by LFA-1 with different strength. We noticed that weak binding of Ca2+ is associated with a dispersed LFA-1 surface distribution on T cells and with non- responsiveness of these cells to stimuli known to activate LFA-1. In contrast, stable binding of Ca2+ by LFA-1 correlates with a patch-like surface distribution and vivid ligand binding after activation of LFA- 1. Mg(2+)-dependent ligand binding does not affect binding of Ca2+ by LFA-1 as measured by NKI-L16 expression, suggesting that Mg2+ binds to a distinct site, and that both cations are important to mediate adhesion. Only Sr2+ ions can replace Ca2+ to express the L16 epitope, and to induce clustering of LFA-1 at the cell surface. We conclude that Ca2+ is involved in avidity regulation of LFA-1 by clustering of LFA-1 molecules at the cell surface, whereas Mg2+ is important in regulation of the affinity of LFA-1 for its ligands. PMID:7510713

  1. Snow cover and ground surface temperature on a talus slope affected by mass movements. Veleta cirque, Sierra Nevada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro, L. M.; Palacios, D.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Salvador-Franch, F.

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses the thermal ground behaviour on an alpine talus slope located at the foot of the north wall of the glacial cirque on the Pico del Veleta (3398 m, 37°03'21''N, 3°21'57''W, MAAT: -0,4°C) in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. There are frequent mass movements on this talus slope, particularly in its central section, caused by the abundant presence of fine-grained sediment and by the water from snowmelt and/or ice degradation in the ground or permafrost (Gómez et al., 2003). To determine the snowmelt pattern and ocurrence of permafrost, a continuous ground surface temperature was kept by installing 6 mini-loggers (HOBO Pendant) along the descending profile of the central talus, which is 170 m long with altitudes ranging from 3180 m at the higher end to 3085 m at the lower end. A thermal borehole was also installed at a depth of 2 m at the base of the slope on an active rock glacier. The results obtained for the period October 2008 - September 2009 show that, in contrast to alpine talus slopes (Luetschg et. al., 2004; Lambiel and Pieracci, 2008), the upper part of the slope is characterized by mean annual ground surface temperatures (MAGST) lower than at the base of the talus, possibly due to the effect of the shadow of the cirque wall. The MAGST oscillate between 0.592°C at the station near the slope apex (S2) and 1.836°C at the station near the base (S5). In winter-spring, when the talus slope is covered with snow, the GST are stabilized at all stations between mid-October and early November. The minimum GST, which express the BTS conditions, oscillate between 0.232 and 0.01°C, depending on the month, with lowest values recorded during the month of April. Only one station (S3, mid-slope) recorded negative values (max. value : - 0.549°C in December and - 0.211 in April ). In summer, the snow disappears fairly quickly between mid- and late July on the intermediate stretch of the talus slope (S3, S4, S6), where the majority of the flows detected occur. In the mid-upper part (S5, S2) the thaw occurs in mid-August. The GST data provide evidence of the current absence of permafrost along the talus slope profile, although some years ago it was detected using BTS methods (Gómez et al., 2003. Gómez-Ortiz, A., Palacios, D., Luengo, E., Tanarro, L. M.; Schulte, L. and Ramos, M., 2003. Talus instability in a recent deglaciation area and its relationship to buried ice and snow cover evolution (Picacho del Veleta, Sierra Nevada, Spain). Geografisca Annaler 85 A (2), 165-182. Lambiel, C. and Pieracci, K. 2008. Permafrost distribution in talus slopes located within the alpine periglacial belt, Swiss Alps. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 19: 293-304 Luetschg, M.; Stoeckli, M.; Lehning, M.; Haeberli, W., and Ammann, W. 2004. Temperatures in two boreholes at Flüela Pass, Eastern Swiss Alps: the effect of snow redistribution on permafrost distribution patterns in high mountain areas. Permafrost and Periglac. Process. 15: 283-297. Research funded by CGL2009-7343 project, Government of Spain.

  2. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min-1h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (?D and ?(18)O-H2O) as well as those of nitrate (?(15)N-NO3(-) and ?(18)O-NO3(-)) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes--mainly photosynthesis and respiration--were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal changes. High frequency daily monitoring of key water quality parameters over different seasons is shown to be essential in evaluating river restoration success. PMID:26057997

  3. DOE-EMSP Final Report: Characterization of Changes in Colloid and DNAPL Affecting Surface Chemistry and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Susan E. Powers; Stefan J. Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2007-02-07

    The waste disposal to the M-area basin and A-14 outfall at the Savannah River Department of Energy facility in Aiken SC (USA) included a wide variety of inorganic aqueous flows and organic solvents in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The DNAPL has migrated through the subsurface resulting in widespread groundwater contamination. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify processes that could have affected the migration and remediation of the DNAPL in the subsurface. It was hypothesized that the variety of waste disposed at this site could have altered the mineral, microbial and DNAPL properties at this site relative to other DNAPL sites. The DNAPL was determined to have a very low interfacial tension and is suspected to be distributed in fine grained media, thereby reducing the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation efforts. Although the DNAPL is primarily comprised of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethane, it also contains organic acids and several heavy metals. Experimental results suggest that iron from the aqueous and DNAPL phases undergoes precipitation and dechlorination reactions at the DNAPL-water interface, contributing to the low interfacial tension and acidity of the DNAPL. Biological activity in the contaminated region can also contribute to the low interfacial tension. PCE degrading bacteria produce biosurfactants and adhere to the DNAPL-water interface when stressed by high tetrachloroethene or low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The presence of iron can reduce the interfacial tension by nearly an order of magnitude, while the PCE degraders reduced the interfacial tension by nearly 50%. Abiotic changes in the mineral characteristics were not found to be substantially different between contaminated and background samples. The research completed here begins to shed some insight into the complexities of DNAPL fate and migration at sites where co-disposal of many different waste products occurred. Quantifying the low interfacial tension of the SRS DNAPL helps to formulate a new conceptual picture of the subsurface DNAPL migration and provides an explanation of the limited effectiveness of remediation efforts. Alternative designs for remediation that are more effective for sites with DNAPL in fine grained media are required.

  4. On modeling and nanoanalysis of caries-affected dentin surfaces restored with Zn-containing amalgam and in vitro oral function.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; López-López, Modesto T; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the influence of mechanical loading on the ability of Zn-free versus Zn-containing amalgams to promote remineralization at the dentin interface. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces (CAD) were restored using Zn-free or Zn-containing dental amalgams. Midcoronal dentin surfaces were studied by (1) atomic force microscopy analysis (including plot and phase imaging, nanoindentation test [modulus of Young (Ei), nanoroughness measurements, and fibril diameter assessment], (2) Raman spectroscopy/cluster analysis, (3) x-ray diffraction, (4) field emission electron microscope and energy-dispersive analysis, for morphological, mechanical, and physicochemical characterization. Analyses were performed before amalgam placement and after amalgam removal, at 24 h and 3 weeks of load cycling. Zn-free and Zn-containing amalgams restorations promoted an increase in the modulus of Young of CAD surfaces, after 3 weeks of load cycling; at this time, Zn-containing amalgams attained higher Ei than Zn-free restorations. Zn-containing amalgams induced tubular occlusion after load cycling, in both sound and CAD. Zn free-amalgams promoted remineralization of both intertubular and peritubular dentin in CAD substrata. These minerals were identified as calcium-phosphate deposits and crystals as hydroxyl-apatite with augmented crystallographic maturity but with some components of lattice distortion. Crosslinking of collagen diminished and secondary structure of collagen increased in CAD substrate restored with Zn-containing amalgam after 3 weeks of load cycling, indicating an advanced preservation, molecular organization, and orientation of collagen fibrils after load cycling. Plot and phase images permitted to observe the topographical changes which were promoted by the mineral deposits; in general, the indexes related to higher remineralization gave rise to a decrease of nanoroughness and an augmentation of the bandwidth of the collagen fibrils. Zn-containing amalgam restorations submitted to mechanical stimuli promote remineralization of the partially mineral-depleted subjacent substrate at the caries-affected dentin. PMID:26483350

  5. Ceres Photometry and Albedo from Dawn Framing Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, S. E.; Mottola, S.; Keller, H. U.; Li, J.-Y.; Matz, K.-D.; Otto, K.; Roatsch, T.; Stephan, K.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The Dawn spacecraft is in orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. The onboard Framing Camera (FC) [1] is mapping the surface through a clear filter and 7 narrow-band filters at various observational geometries. Generally, Ceres' appearance in these images is affected by shadows and shading, effects which become stronger for larger solar phase angles, obscuring the intrinsic reflective properties of the surface. By means of photometric modeling we attempt to remove these effects and reconstruct the surface albedo over the full visible wavelength range. Knowledge of the albedo distribution will contribute to our understanding of the physical nature and composition of the surface.

  6. The highly unusual outgassing of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 from narrowband photometry and imaging of the coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2013-02-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1991 through 2011. We acquired photoelectric photometry on two nights in 1991, four nights in 1997/1998, and 13 nights in 2010/2011. We observed a strong secular decrease in water and all other observed species production in 2010/2011 from the 1991 and 1997/1998 levels. We see evidence for a strong asymmetry with respect to perihelion in the production rates of our usual bandpasses, with peak production occurring ˜10 days post-perihelion and production rates considerably higher post-perihelion. The composition was "typical," in agreement with the findings of other investigators. We obtained imaging on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We find that, after accounting for their varying parentage and lifetimes, the C2 and C3 coma morphology resemble the CN morphology we reported previously. These species exhibited an hourglass shape in October and November, and the morphology changed with rotation and evolved over time. The OH and NH coma morphology showed hints of an hourglass shape near the nucleus, but was also enhanced in the anti-sunward hemisphere. This tailward brightness enhancement did not vary significantly with rotation and evolved with the viewing geometry. We conclude that all five gas species likely originate from the same source regions on the nucleus, but that OH and NH were derived from small grains of water and ammonia ice that survived long enough to be affected by radiation pressure and driven in the anti-sunward direction. We detected the faint, sunward facing dust jet reported by other authors, and did not detect a corresponding gas feature. This jet varied little during a night but exhibited some variations from night to night, suggesting it is located near the total angular momentum vector. Overall, our imaging results support the conclusions of other authors that Hartley 2's "hyperactivity" is caused by icy particles of various sizes that are lifted off the surface and break up in the coma to greatly increase the effective active surface area.

  7. Spitzer/IRAC Photometry Of The Four Largest Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Richard; Emery, J.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.

    2012-10-01

    The surfaces of the four largest Uranian satellites are dominated by water ice and a spectrally neutral constituent that is likely carbonaceous in composition. CO2 ice has been detected on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania, with no detection on the furthest regular Uranian satellite, Oberon (Grundy et al., 2003, 2006). Whether CO2 ice is primordial or is actively produced in the Uranian system is unclear; however, it seems unlikely that primordial CO2 ice would remain exposed on an icy satellite surface over the age of the Solar System. One possible mechanism for producing CO2 ice is bombardment of water ice and carbonaceous material by charged particles caught in Uranus’ magnetic field. Unlike the other large Uranian satellites, Oberon spends part of its orbit outside the confines of Uranus’ magnetic field, which might help explain why CO2 ice has yet to be detected on Oberon. We are using photometric data gathered by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), in order to search for the signature of CO2 ice on Oberon, and confirm its presence on Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania at longer wavelengths than previous studies. IRAC collects data in four different channels, which are centered roughly at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 µm. Additionally, we are gathering spectroscopic data using SpeX on IRTF, at similar longitudes to the IRAC observations, in order to characterize the distribution of CO2 ice on these icy satellites over a wide range of near-infrared wavelengths. Our preliminary photometry results for Oberon indicate that there is a steep reduction in reflected solar flux from channel 1 to channel 2, suggesting that surface materials are absorbing photons at wavelengths within the bandpass of channel 2. We will present the results of our photometric analysis of the four largest Uranian moons.

  8. Accuracy of stellar parameters determined from multicolor photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.; Mironov, A. V.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2014-04-01

    The development and application of new methods for intelligent analysis and extraction of information from digital sky surveys carried out in various spectral domains have now become a popular field in astrophysical research and, in particular, in stellar studies. Modern large-scale photometric surveys provide data for 105-106 relatively faint objects, and the lack of spectroscopic data can be compensated by the cross identification of the objects followed by an analysis of all catalogued photometric data. In this paper we investigate the possibility of determining the effective temperature, surface gravity, total extinction, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio based on the photometry provided in the 2MASS, SDSS, and GALEX surveys, and estimate the accuracy of the inferred parameters. We use a library of theoretical spectra to compute the magnitudes of stars in the photometric bands of the above surveys for various sets of input parameters. We compare the differences between the computed magnitudes with the errors of the corresponding surveys. We find that stellar parameters can be computed over a sizable domain of the parameter space. We estimate the accuracy of the resulting parameters. We show that the presence of far-ultraviolet data in the available set of observed magnitudes increases the accuracy of the inferred parameters.

  9. BATC 15 Band Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 188

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jiaxin; Wu, Zhenyu; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents CCD multicolour photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The observations were carried out as a part of the Beijing--Arizona--Taiwan--Connecticut Multicolour Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March, using 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000--10000 \\AA. By fitting the Padova theoretical isochrones to our data, the fundamental parameters of this cluster are derived: an age of $t=7.5\\pm 0.5$ Gyr, a distant modulus of $(m-M)_0=11.17\\pm0.08$, and a reddening of $E(B-V)=0.036\\pm0.010$. The radial surface density profile of NGC 188 is obtained by star count. By fitting the King model, the structural parameters of NGC 188 are derived: a core radius of $R_{c}=3.80'$, a tidal radius of $R_{t}=44.78'$, and a concentration parameter of $C_{0}=\\log(R_{t}/R_{c})=1.07$. Fitting the mass function to a power-law function $\\phi(m) \\propto m^{\\alpha}$, the slopes of mass functions for different spatial regions are derived. We find that NGC 188 presents a slope break in the mass function. The b...

  10. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for Precision Photometry of Bright Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Rucinski, S. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleanski, P.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.

    2014-06-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, the brightness and temperature variations of stars generally brighter than mag(V) ? 4 with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of six nanosats (hence Constellation): two from Austria, two from Canada, and two from Poland. Each 7 kg nanosat carries an optical telescope of aperture 3 cm feeding an uncooled CCD. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other with a red filter. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (?24°), so up to about 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously, sampled in 32 × 32 pixels sub-rasters. Photometry of additional fainter targets, with reduced precision but thorough time sampling, will be possible through onboard data processing. The BRITE sample is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases. The goals of BRITE-Constellation are to (1) measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology; (2) look for varying spots on the stars surfaces carried across the stellar disks by rotation, which are the sources of co-rotating interaction regions in the winds of the most luminous stars, probably arising from magnetic subsurface convection; and (3) search for planetary transits.

  11. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are merger candidates. Merger events may lead to anisotropic velocity distributions in systems of any luminosity, including dwarfs. The RSA sample of dwarf galaxies is more likely to contain mergers because, in contrast to earlier dwarf galaxy surveys that have focused on clusters and rich groups of galaxies, the RSA dwarfs are typically located in low density environments. The occurrence of mergers among dwarf galaxies is of interest in connection with the rapid evolution of faint blue galaxy counts at redshift z less than 1 which suggests that dwarf galaxies were about five times more numerous in the recent past. Finally, our sample contains several examples of late-type dwarfs and 'transition' types that are potential precursors of nucleated early-type dwarfs. All the above processes--mass loss, mergers, astration--are likely to have contributed to the formation of the current population of diffuse early-type dwarfs. A few new redshifts of dwarf galaxies are reported in this paper.

  12. The expected Gaia revolution in asteroid science: Photometry and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellino, A.

    2014-07-01

    Gaia is expected to produce a major revolution in our knowledge of the asteroids. Apart from a huge improvement in the accuracy of the orbital elements of these objects, something which is a ''natural'' consequence of the unprecedented astrometric accuracy of Gaia, we can also expect that the photometric and spectrophotometric performances of the Gaia detectors will be such to substantially move ahead the frontier of the domain of physical characterization of asteroids by means of remote observations. A list of physical properties, that will be derived from the analysis of the detections corresponding to different observed transits of each object in the Gaia focal plane during five years of operational activity, includes masses, sizes, average densities, spin properties, reflectance spectra, albedos, as well as a new taxonomic classification. In this review, the focus will be on Gaia photometry and spectrophotometry. The method of photometric inversion of sparse photometric data developed to reduce Gaia photometric data of asteroids will be described, and its expected performances will be discussed. In particular, the choice of assuming for the objects the shapes of ideal triaxial ellipsoids, fairly simplistic in an era in which much more refined shape models are currently used in photometric inversion methods, will be justified by the need of minimizing the CPU time needed to process data for hundreds of thousands of objects in a reasonable time. The processing of spectrophotometric data will be also described. These data will produce a huge data set of reflectance spectra of asteroids. A particular advantage of these data will be that of including also the blue part of the spectrum, which has been substantially lost since the epoch in which the CCD detectors have replaced the older photomultipliers used for UBVRI photometry. The big data set of new asteroid spectra will be also used to develop a new asteroid taxonomy, used new algorithms developed for this purpose. Coupled with the determination of reasonably accurate masses and bulk densities for the biggest 100 asteroids, Gaia data will open a new era in asteroid science, and will allow us to answer some fundamental questions, including the relation between internal structure and surface properties. The resulting post-Gaia scenario in asteroid science will be very much improved with respect to the current state of the art.

  13. Comparison of Metallicities Adopted for the Synthetic UBV Photometry with Those Evaluated by Means of RGU Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaali, S.; Güngör, S.; Karatas, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Comparison of metallicities adopted for the synthetic UBV photometry with those evaluated by means of RGU photometry for 92 stars is presented. The agreement only for zero metallicity. The discrepancy increases to low metallicities which cover Intermediate population and Population II main-sequence star. U-G and G-R colour indices are transformed from UBV synthetic data and do not include any observational error. Therefore, the disagreement may orginate from a systematic error in the metallicity calibration of relatively metal-poor stars in RGU photometry.

  14. Detection of Extrasolar Planets by Transit Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Webster, Larry; Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Showen, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge of other planetary systems that includes information on the number, size, mass, and spacing of the planets around a variety of star types is needed to deepen our understanding of planetary system formation and processes that give rise to their final configurations. Recent discoveries show that many planetary systems are quite different from the solar system in that they often possess giant planets in short period orbits. The inferred evolution of these planets and their orbital characteristics imply the absence of Earth-like planets near the habitable zone. Information on the properties of the giant-inner planets is now being obtained by both the Doppler velocity and the transit photometry techniques. The combination of the two techniques provides the mass, size, and density of the planets. For the planet orbiting star HD209458, transit photometry provided the first independent confirmation and measurement of the diameter of an extrasolar planet. The observations indicate a planet 1.27 the diameter of Jupiter with 0.63 of its mass (Charbonneau et al. 1999). The results are in excellent agreement with the theory of planetary atmospheres for a planet of the indicated mass and distance from a solar-like star. The observation of the November 23, 1999 transit of that planet made by the Ames Vulcan photometer at Lick Observatory is presented. In the future, the combination of the two techniques will greatly increase the number of discoveries and the richness of the science yield. Small rocky planets at orbital distances from 0.9 to 1.2 AU are more likely to harbor life than the gas giant planets that are now being discovered. However, new technology is needed to find smaller, Earth-like planets, which are about three hundred times less massive than Jupiter-like planets. The Kepler project is a space craft mission designed to discover hundreds of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone around a wide variety of stars. To demonstrate that the technology exists to find such small planets, our group has conducted an end-to-end system test. The results of the laboratory tests are presented and show that we are ready to start the search for Earth-size planets.

  15. ASPIN: Research project on near-Earth asteroid photometry in frame of the ISON optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, Igor; Inasaridze, Raguli; Elenin, Leonid; Krugly, Yurij; Rumyantsev, Vasilij; Namkhai, Tungalag; Schmalz, Sergei; Tsogt-Ochir, Shijirbayar

    International Scientific Optical Network (ISON) represents one of largest systems specializing in observation of space objects. The main goal of project is observations of space debris. As an additional task the regular photometry of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is carried out using the network’s telescopes with apertures from 0.4 m up to 2.6 m (ASPIN project - Asteroid Search and Photometry Initiative). The photometry is aimed at getting lightcurves of asteroids for solving different tasks concerning with physical properties of these celestial bodies. The lightcurves have been obtained with a typical photometric accuracy of 0.01-0.03 mag. The main purpose of the observations is to study characteristics of asteroids such as rotation period, size and shape of the body, surface composition and other. It is expected to detect an influence of the YORP effect. Special attention is paid to the detection of binary asteroids. During 2013 the photometric observations have been carried out at 12 observatories during more than 250 nights which have been allowed to obtain the data on 40 NEAs as well as 15 main-belt asteroids. In result the rotation periods have been determined for 8 NEAs in the first time and refined for 10 NEAs. Two binary systems were discovered. Lightcurves of 11 main-belt asteroids with diameters less than 10 km (binary systems or members of small clusters) were obtained. Several of the observed asteroids were radar targets - between them the NEA (367943) Duende (or 2012 DA14), which was approached to the Earth in day of falling the Chelyabinsk meteor on February 23, 2013. The obtained results will be presented and perspectives of NEA photometry with ISON telescopes will be discussed.

  16. APASS Landolt-Sloan BVgri photometry of Rave stars. I. Data, effective temperatures, and reddenings

    SciTech Connect

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Henden, A.; Frigo, A.; Bienaymé, O.; Siebert, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kordopatis, G.; Helmi, A.; Levine, S. E.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; and others

    2014-11-01

    We provide AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) photometry in the Landolt BV and Sloan g'r'i' bands for all 425,743 stars included in the fourth RAVE Data Release. The internal accuracy of the APASS photometry of RAVE stars, expressed as the error of the mean of data obtained and separately calibrated over a median of four distinct observing epochs and distributed between 2009 and 2013, is 0.013, 0.012, 0.012, 0.014, and 0.021 mag for the B, V, g', r', and i' bands, respectively. The equally high external accuracy of APASS photometry has been verified on secondary Landolt and Sloan photometric standard stars not involved in the APASS calibration process and on a large body of literature data on field and cluster stars, confirming the absence of offsets and trends. Compared with the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog (CMC-15), APASS astrometry of RAVE stars is accurate to a median value of 0.098 arcsec. Brightness distribution functions for the RAVE stars have been derived in all bands. APASS photometry of RAVE stars, augmented by 2MASS JHK infrared data, has been ?{sup 2} fitted to a densely populated synthetic photometric library designed to widely explore temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and reddening. Resulting T {sub eff} and E {sub B–V}, computed over a range of options, are provided and discussed, and will be kept updated in response to future APASS and RAVE data releases. In the process, we find that the reddening caused by a homogeneous slab of dust, extending for 140 pc on either side of the Galactic plane and responsible for E{sub B?V}{sup poles} = 0.036 ± 0.002 at the Galactic poles, is a suitable approximation of the actual reddening encountered at Galactic latitudes |b| ? 25°.

  17. WIYN Open Cluster Study: UBVRI Photometry of NGC 2158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, Luke T.; Steinhauer, Aaron J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.

    2015-01-01

    We present WIYN 0.9m HDI UBVRI photometry of NGC 2158, a very rich, intermediate-aged, open cluster located near the galactic anti-center. We report derived values for the cluster age, distance, reddening.

  18. Revised Filter Profiles and Zero Points for Broadband Photometry

    E-print Network

    Mann, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Estimating accurate bolometric fluxes for stars requires reliable photometry to absolutely flux calibrate the spectra. This is a significant problem for studies of very bright stars, which are generally saturated in modern photometric surveys. Instead we must rely on photometry with less precise calibration. We utilize precisely flux-calibrated spectra to derive improved filter bandpasses and zero points for the most common sources of photometry for bright stars. In total we test 40 different filters in the General Catalog of Photometric Data as well as those from Tycho-2 and $Hipparcos$. We show that utilizing inaccurate filter profiles from the literature can create significant color terms resulting in fluxes that deviate by $>$10% from actual values. To remedy this we employ an empirical approach; we iteratively adjust the literature filter profile and zero point, convolve it with catalog spectra, and compare to the corresponding flux from the photometry. We adopt the passband values that produces the best...

  19. A catalogue of IJK photometry of Planetary Nebulae with DENIS

    E-print Network

    S. Schmeja; S. Kimeswenger

    2001-05-15

    Near-infrared photometry of planetary nebulae (PNe) allows the classification of those objects. We present the largest homogeneous sample so far, obtained with the Deep Near Infrared Southern Sky Survey (DENIS).

  20. Photometry and transit-timing analysis for eleven transiting exoplanets

    E-print Network

    De Kleer, Katherine Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents time-series photometry of transits of 11 different extrasolar planets. Observations were conducted with the Fred L. Whipple Observatory 1.2m telescope and the Wise Observatory im telescope, in standard ...

  1. Exoplanet Photometry of Tres-5b Using a DSLR Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mike

    2015-05-01

    DSLR cameras are commonly used by amateur astronomers in the field of variable star photometry. After submitting photometry results to AAVSO using a DSLR camera for the past 4 years, I decided to see if it was possible to actually record magnitude drops of as little as 15 to 20 mmg as are seen in some exoplanet transits. Surprisingly, my results were much better than I expected. Clearly it is possible to get publishable results of exoplanet transits with a DSLR camera.

  2. BINARY STAR SYNTHETIC PHOTOMETRY AND DISTANCE DETERMINATION USING BINSYN

    SciTech Connect

    Linnell, Albert P.; DeStefano, Paul; Hubeny, Ivan E-mail: pdestefa@uw.edu

    2013-09-15

    This paper extends synthetic photometry to components of binary star systems. The paper demonstrates accurate recovery of single star photometric properties for four photometric standards, Vega, Sirius, GD153, and HD209458, ranging over the HR diagram, when their model synthetic spectra are placed in fictitious binary systems and subjected to synthetic photometry processing. Techniques for photometric distance determination have been validated for all four photometric standards.

  3. Multicolor Photometry of Trans-neptunian Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Romon, J.; Veillet, C.

    2001-12-01

    We are continuing our photometric survey of the trans-neptunian and Centaur populations started in 1997. We report multicolor photometry for 17 objects. With these results combined with previous data (M. A. Barucci, A. Doressoundiram, M. Fulchignoni, D. Tholen, and M. Lazzarin 1999. Icarus142, 476-481; M. A. Barucci, J. Romon, A. Doressoundiram, and D. Tholen 2000. Astron. J.120, 496-500), we have at our disposal a homogeneous and high-quality set of color indices for 29 objects, numerous enough to make significant studies. The color-color diagrams confirm the wide and continuous spread of colors in the trans-neptunian object population. This diversity may be explained by the combined action of space weathering and collisional resurfacing. We do not find any correlation of colors with size or heliocentric distance, but we note an excess of red objects for perihelion distance greater than 40 AU. Furthermore, our results suggest also that highly inclined (e.g., i>17°) and eccentric objects are preferentially neutral. These objects may have suffered more collisional resurfacing than others.

  4. Recent Advances in Video Meteor Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Wesley R.; Suggs, Robert M.; Meachem, Terry; Cooke, William J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most common (and obvious) problems with video meteor data involves the saturation of the output signal produced by bright meteors, resulting in the elimination of such meteors from photometric determinations. It is important to realize that a "bright" meteor recorded by intensified meteor camera is not what would be considered "bright" by a visual observer - indeed, many Generation II or III camera systems are saturated by meteors with a visual magnitude of 3, barely even noticeable to the untrained eye. As the relatively small fields of view (approx.30 ) of the camera systems captures at best modest numbers of meteors, even during storm peaks, the loss of meteors brighter than +3 renders the determination of shower population indices from video observations even more difficult. Considerable effort has been devoted by the authors to the study of the meteor camera systems employed during the Marshall Space Flight Center s Leonid ground-based campaigns, and a calibration scheme has been devised which can extend the useful dynamic range of such systems by approximately 4 magnitudes. The calibration setup involves only simple equipment, available to amateur and professional, and it is hoped that use of this technique will make for better meteor photometry, and move video meteor analysis beyond the realm of simple counts.

  5. BVRI photometry of DQ Herculis in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrienko, E. S.; Ibragimov, M. A.; Savanov, I. S.; Satovskii, B. L.; Egamberdiev, Sh. A.; Burkhanov, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The results of BV RI photometry of the nova DQ Her 1934 performed at the Maidanak Observatory of the Astronomical Institute of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences in October 2014 are presented. The system's brightness, the out-of-eclipse color indices, and the shape of the minima in the BV RI light curves, which are due to eclipses of the white dwarf with its accreting disk-like envelope by the red dwarf, correspond to one of the lowest activity levels observed during the system's deepest relaxation after a nova outburst. The orbital-phase variations of the color indices indicate the presence of a considerably non-uniform brightness distribution for light coming from the disk-like envelope and other gaseous structures of DQ Her, which are observed at orbital phases of 0.85-1.15. The results can be qualitatively interpreted in a picture in which the gas flow structure is formed during mass exchange in an intermediate polar. The behavior found for the color indices could be due, for example, to the visibility in this phase interval of the passage of regions of shocks (tidal shocks, a hot line, and/or a detached shock) through the line of sight.

  6. BVI CCD photometry of 47 Tucanae

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1987-08-01

    CCD BVI main-sequence photometry of 47 Tuc is presented, matched to the recent BVI isochrones of VandenBerg and Bell (1985). The main-sequence turnoffs are found to be at V = 17.60 + or - 0.1, B-V = 0.56 + or - 0.02; V-I = 0.68 + or - 0.02, and B-I = 1.24 + or - 0.02. The magnitude difference between the main-sequence turnoff and the horizontal branch is 3.55 + or - 0.15 for all three color indices. A consistent age for 47 Tuc of 17 Gyr and a consistent distance modulus of (m-M)v = 13.2 are obtained for all three indices, and an absolute magnitude of Mv = 0.85 is determined for the horizontal branch stars. The results also favor the adoption of (Fe/H) near -0.5 as the best abundance value for 47 Tuc. 38 references.

  7. Surface orientation affects the direction of cone growth by Leptolyngbya sp. strain C1, a likely architect of coniform structures Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park).

    PubMed

    Reyes, Kristina; Gonzalez, Nicolas I; Stewart, Joshua; Ospino, Frank; Nguyen, Dickie; Cho, David T; Ghahremani, Nahal; Spear, John R; Johnson, Hope A

    2013-02-01

    Laminated, microbially produced stromatolites within the rock record provide some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. The chemical, physical, and biological factors that lead to the initiation of these organosedimentary structures and shape their morphology are unclear. Modern coniform structures with morphological features similar to stromatolites are found on the surface of cyanobacterial/microbial mats. They display a vertical element of growth, can have lamination, can be lithified, and observably grow with time. To begin to understand the microbial processes and interactions required for cone formation, we determined the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community of a coniform structure from a cyanobacterial mat at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and reconstituted coniform structures in vitro. The 16S rRNA clone library from the coniform structure was dominated by Leptolyngbya sp. Other cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were present in much lower abundance. The same Leptolyngbya sp. identified in the clone library was also enriched in the laboratory and could produce cones in vitro. When coniform structures were cultivated in the laboratory, the initial incubation conditions were found to influence coniform morphology. In addition, both the angle of illumination and the orientation of the surface affected the angle of cone formation demonstrating how external factors can influence coniform, and likely, stromatolite morphology. PMID:23241986

  8. Surface Orientation Affects the Direction of Cone Growth by Leptolyngbya sp. Strain C1, a Likely Architect of Coniform Structures Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park)

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Kristina; Gonzalez, Nicolas I.; Stewart, Joshua; Ospino, Frank; Nguyen, Dickie; Cho, David T.; Ghahremani, Nahal; Spear, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminated, microbially produced stromatolites within the rock record provide some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. The chemical, physical, and biological factors that lead to the initiation of these organosedimentary structures and shape their morphology are unclear. Modern coniform structures with morphological features similar to stromatolites are found on the surface of cyanobacterial/microbial mats. They display a vertical element of growth, can have lamination, can be lithified, and observably grow with time. To begin to understand the microbial processes and interactions required for cone formation, we determined the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community of a coniform structure from a cyanobacterial mat at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, and reconstituted coniform structures in vitro. The 16S rRNA clone library from the coniform structure was dominated by Leptolyngbya sp. Other cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were present in much lower abundance. The same Leptolyngbya sp. identified in the clone library was also enriched in the laboratory and could produce cones in vitro. When coniform structures were cultivated in the laboratory, the initial incubation conditions were found to influence coniform morphology. In addition, both the angle of illumination and the orientation of the surface affected the angle of cone formation demonstrating how external factors can influence coniform, and likely, stromatolite morphology. PMID:23241986

  9. NEW UBVRI PHOTOMETRY OF 234 M33 STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jun

    2013-04-15

    This is the second paper of our series. In this paper, we present UBVRI photometry for 234 star clusters in the field of M33. For most of these star clusters, there is photometry in only two bands in previous studies. The photometry of these star clusters is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements, and in particular that our photometry is in good agreement with that of Zloczewski and Kaluzny. Combined with star cluster photometry in previous studies, we present some results: none of the M33 youngest clusters ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) have masses approaching 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, and comparisons with models of simple stellar populations suggest a large range of ages for M33 star clusters and some as old as the Galactic globular clusters.

  10. FIXING THE U-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Bastola, Deepak; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Espinoza, Juan; Gonzalez, David; Gonzalez, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hamuy, Mario E-mail: suntzeff@physics.tamu.edu E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl E-mail: mmp@lco.cl

    2013-01-01

    We present previously unpublished photometry of supernovae 2003gs and 2003hv. Using spectroscopically derived corrections to the U-band photometry, we reconcile U-band light curves made from imagery with the Cerro Tololo 0.9 m, 1.3 m, and Las Campanas 1 m telescopes. Previously, such light curves showed a 0.4 mag spread at one month after maximum light. This gives us hope that a set of corrected ultraviolet light curves of nearby objects can contribute to the full utilization of rest-frame U-band data of supernovae at redshift {approx}0.3-0.8. As pointed out recently by Kessler et al. in the context of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey supernova search, if we take the published U-band photometry of nearby Type Ia supernovae at face value, there is a 0.12 mag U-band anomaly in the distance moduli of higher redshift objects. This anomaly led the Sloan survey to eliminate from their analyses all photometry obtained in the rest-frame U-band. The Supernova Legacy Survey eliminated observer frame U-band photometry, which is to say nearby objects observed in the U-band, but they used photometry of high-redshift objects no matter in which band the photons were emitted.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies morphology and IR photometry III. (Gavazzi+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Franzetti, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Boselli, A.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.

    1999-11-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 558 galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This data set, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, with observations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiral galaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series. Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii and light concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of a positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity (2 data files).

  12. FSL constructs: a simple method for modifying cell/virion surfaces with a range of biological markers without affecting their viability.

    PubMed

    Blake, Deborah A; Bovin, Nicolai V; Bess, Dan; Henry, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    The ability to modify/visualize biological surfaces, and then study the modified cell/virion in a range of in vitro and in vivo environments is essential to gaining further insight into the function of specific molecules or the entire entity. Studies of biological surface modification are generally limited to genetic engineering of the organism or the covalent attachment of chemical moieties to the cell surface(1,2). However these traditional techniques expose the cell to chemical reactants, or they require significant manipulation to achieve the desired outcome, making them cumbersome, and they may also inadvertently affect the viability/functionality of the modified cell. A simple method to harmlessly modify the surface of cells is required. Recently a new technology, KODE Technology has introduced a range of novel constructs consisting of three components: a functional head group (F), a spacer (S) and a lipid tail (L) and are known as Function-Spacer-Lipid or FSL constructs3. The spacer (S) is selected to provide a construct that is dispersible in water, yet will spontaneously and stably incorporate into a membrane. FSL construct functional moieties (F) so far include a range of saccharides including blood group-related determinants, sialic acids, hyaluronan polysaccharides, fluorophores, biotin, radiolabels, and a range of peptides(3-12). FSL constructs have been used in modifying embryos, spermatozoa, zebrafish, epithelial/endometrial cells, red blood cells, and virions to create quality controls systems and diagnostic panels, to modify cell adhesion/ interaction/ separation/ immobilization, and for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells/virions(3-12). The process of modifying cells/virions is generic and extremely simple. The most common procedure is incubation of cells (in lipid free media) with a solution for FSL constructs for 1-2 hours at 37°C(4-10). During the incubation the FSL constructs spontaneously incorporate into the membrane, and the process is complete. Washing is optional. Cells modified by FSL constructs are known as kodecytes(6-9), while virions are kodevirions(10). FSL constructs as direct infusions and kodecytes/kodevirions have been used in experimental animal models(7,8,10). All kodecytes/kodevirions appear to retain their normal vitality and functionality while gaining the new function of the F moiety(7,8,10,11). The combination of dispersibility in biocompatible media, spontaneous incorporation into cell membranes, and apparent low toxicity, makes FSL constructs valuable research tools for the study of cells and virions. PMID:21847082

  13. Dithering Strategies and Point-Source Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan; Kim, Alex G

    2011-02-22

    The accuracy in the photometry of a point source depends on the point-spread function (PSF), detector pixelization, and observing strategy. The PSF and pixel response describe the spatial blurring of the source, the pixel scale describes the spatial sampling of a single exposure, and the observing strategy determines the set of dithered exposures with pointing offsets from which the source flux is inferred. In a wide-field imaging survey, sources of interest are randomly distributed within the field of view and hence are centered randomly within a pixel. A given hardware configuration and observing strategy therefore have a distribution of photometric uncertainty for sources of fixed flux that fall in the field. In this article we explore the ensemble behavior of photometric and position accuracies for different PSFs, pixel scales, and dithering patterns. We find that the average uncertainty in the flux determination depends slightly on dither strategy, whereas the position determination can be strongly dependent on the dithering. For cases with pixels much larger than the PSF, the uncertainty distributions can be non-Gaussian, with rms values that are particularly sensitive to the dither strategy. We also find that for these configurations with large pixels, pointings dithered by a fractional pixel amount do not always give minimal average uncertainties; this is in contrast to image reconstruction for which fractional dithers are optimal. When fractional pixel dithering is favored, a pointing accuracy of better than {approx}0.15 {approx}0.15 pixel width is required to maintain half the advantage over random dithers.

  14. Downregulation of GbpB, a Component of the VicRK Regulon, Affects Biofilm Formation and Cell Surface Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans? †

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Cristiane; Stipp, Rafael N.; Wang, Bing; Smith, Daniel J.; Höfling, José F.; Kuramitsu, Howard K.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Mattos-Graner, Renata O.

    2011-01-01

    The virulence of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans relies in part on the sucrose-dependent synthesis of and interaction with glucan, a major component of the extracellular matrix of tooth biofilms. However, the mechanisms by which secreted and/or cell-associated glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) produced by S. mutans participate in biofilm growth remain to be elucidated. In this study, we further investigate GbpB, an essential immunodominant protein with similarity to murein hydrolases. A conditional knockdown mutant that expressed gbpB antisense RNA under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter was constructed in strain UA159 (UACA2) and used to investigate the effects of GbpB depletion on biofilm formation and cell surface-associated characteristics. Additionally, regulation of gbpB by the two-component system VicRK was investigated, and phenotypic analysis of a vicK mutant (UAvicK) was performed. GbpB was directly regulated by VicR, and several phenotypic changes were comparable between UACA2 and UAvicK, although differences between these strains existed. It was established that GbpB depletion impaired initial phases of sucrose-dependent biofilm formation, while exogenous native GbpB partially restored the biofilm phenotype. Several cellular traits were significantly affected by GbpB depletion, including altered cell shape, decreased autolysis, increased cell hydrophobicity, and sensitivity to antibiotics and osmotic and oxidative stresses. These data provide the first experimental evidence for GbpB participation in sucrose-dependent biofilm formation and in cell surface properties. PMID:21078847

  15. Correlating Total Visual Magnitude Estimates and CCD Photometry for Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger, Mark Richard

    2015-08-01

    A key facet of understanding the activity of comets is coverage of their light curve. For some comets such as 2P/Encke there is good light curve coverage from visual observers extending back over many returns over more than 2 centuries. However, in recent years, CCD photometry by amateur astronomers has become the dominant data source and the number of total visual magnitude estimates has reduced sharply, making comparison of recent and historical photometric data for comets increasingly difficult. The relationship between total visual magnitude estimates - dominated by the emission from the Swan bands of C2 - and CCD aperture photometry - dominated by the dust continuum - has been far from clear.This paper compares CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude for several recent well-observed bright comets, including C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), C/2012 S1 (ISON) and C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) using a consistent and homogeneous database of observations from (mainly) Spanish observers. For comets with a 1/r radial coma profile, good agreement is found between CCD aperture photometry and total visual magnitude estimates for a CCD aperture corresponding to a physical coma diameter of ?105km.The relationship between the coma radial brightness slope and the equivalent physical aperture for CCD photometry to obtain agreement with total visual magnitude estimates is investigated.

  16. CP2 stars in clusters: deep Delta a-photometry

    E-print Network

    H. M. Maitzen; M. Rode; E. Paunzen

    1998-05-05

    The search for chemically peculiar (CP) stars in open clusters using photoelectric photometry sampling the presence of the characteristic flux depression feature at 5200A via the Delta a-system (Maitzen 1976) has so far delivered data for objects usually no more distant than 1000 pc from the Sun. If one intends to study the presence of CP stars at larger distances from the Sun, classical photometry has to be replaced by CCD photometry. For the first time, our investigation presents the results of CCD-photometry in the Delta a-system for a rich open cluster which is at a distance clearly beyond hitherto studied objects, Melotte 105 (2 kpc, log age = 8.5). Comparison with published uvby-photometry yields the calibration of the colour index g_1-y of our system, which is necessary for deriving the peculiarity index Delta a. For this we achieve an average accuracy of 0.007 mag. Six objects with only marginally peculiar Delta a-values were found, but spectroscopic and additional photometric evidence is needed to substantiate their peculiarity.

  17. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  18. BATC 15 Band Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents CCD multicolor photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The observations were carried out as part of the Beijing–Arizona–Taiwan–Connecticut Multicolor Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March, using 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000–10000 Å. By fitting the Padova theoretical isochrones to our data, the fundamental parameters of this cluster are derived: an age of t=7.5+/- 0.5 Gyr, a distance modulus of {(m-M)}0=11.17+/- 0.08, and a reddening of E(B-V)=0.036+/- 0.010. The radial surface density profile of NGC 188 is obtained using the star count. By fitting the King model, the structural parameters of NGC 188 are derived: a core radius of {R}c=3\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 80, a tidal radius of {R}t=44\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 78, and a concentration parameter of {C}0={log}({R}t/{R}c)=1.07. Fitting the mass function (MF) to a power-law function ? (m)\\propto {m}? , the slopes of the MFs for different spatial regions are derived. We find that NGC 188 presents a slope break in the MF. The break mass is {m}{break}=0.885 {M}? . In the mass range above {m}{break}, the slope of the overall region is ? =-0.76. The slope of the core region is ? =1.09, and the slopes of the external regions are ? =-0.86 and ? =-2.15, respectively. In the mass range below {m}{break}, these slopes are ? =0.12, ? =4.91, ? =1.33, and ? =-1.09, respectively. The mass segregation in NGC 188 is reflected in the obvious variation of the slopes in different spatial regions of this cluster.

  19. First time-series optical photometry from Antarctica

    E-print Network

    K. G. Strassmeier; R. Briguglio; T. Granzer; G. Tosti; I. DiVarano; I. Savanov; M. Bagaglia; S. Castellini; A. Mancini; G. Nucciarelli; O. Straniero; E. Distefano; S. Messina; G. Cutispoto

    2008-07-18

    Beating the Earth's day-night cycle is mandatory for long and continuous time-series photometry and had been achieved with either large ground-based networks of observatories at different geographic longitudes or when conducted from space. A third possibility is offered by a polar location with astronomically-qualified site characteristics. Aims. In this paper, we present the first scientific stellar time-series optical photometry from Dome C in Antarctica and analyze approximately 13,000 CCD frames taken in July 2007. We conclude that high-precision CCD photometry with exceptional time coverage and cadence can be obtained at Dome C in Antarctica and be successfully used for time-series astrophysics.

  20. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kami?ski, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander

    2014-06-01

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on ? Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  1. Wide Field Near-Infrared Photometry of 12 Galactic Globular Clusters: Observations Versus Models on the Red Giant Branch

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Roger E; Mauro, Francesco; Geisler, Douglas; Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Kinemuchi, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We present wide field near-infrared photometry of 12 Galactic globular clusters, typically extending from the tip of the cluster red giant branch (RGB) to the main sequence turnoff. Using recent homogenous values of cluster distance, reddening and metallicity, the resulting photometry is directly compared to the predictions of several recent libraries of stellar evolutionary models. Of the sets of models investigated, Dartmouth and Victoria-Regina models best reproduce the observed RGB morphology, albeit with offsets in J-Ks color which vary in their significance in light of all sources of observational uncertainty. Therefore, we also present newly recalibrated relations between near-IR photometric indices describing the upper RGB versus cluster iron abundance as well as global metallicity. The influence of enhancements in alpha elements and helium are analyzed, finding that the former affect the morphology of the upper RGB in accord with model predictions. Meanwhile, the empirical relations we derive are in ...

  2. New Horizons disk-integrated approach photometry of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangari, Amanda M.; Buie, Marc W.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Howett, C. J. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Young, Leslie A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Approach and cruise observations of Pluto and Charon by NASA's New Horizons LOng Range Reconnaissance Imager ("LORRI") allow monitoring of Pluto not only at phase angles beyond Earth's 2 degree limit, but present a near constant sub-observer latitude of 43 degrees. However, the creation of light curves and solar phase curves of the pair prove to be an interesting challenge. Early images of the pair from July 2013 are barely resolved and have low signal, while later images show the pair clearly resolved and at sufficient resolution. Just at the Pluto approaches the signal level and image quality of prior HST images, surface features become resolved, rendering disk integrated photometry increasingly difficult and inaccurate, with the largest discrepancies found at longitudes which show the intersection of features informally named Tombaugh Regio ("the heart") and Cthulhu Macula ("the whale"). Now, post flyby, accurate knowledge of the radius and the shapes of surface features and their patterns of dark and light, allow for the creation of custom PSFs created from flyby maps. Using these maps, we present disk-integrated approach photometry, a solar phase curve and estimate Hapke parameters, taking into account the sub-observer position.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  3. Characterization of transiting exoplanets by way of differential photometry

    E-print Network

    Cowley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a simple activity for plotting and characterizing the light curve from an exoplanet transit event by way of differential photometry analysis. Using free digital imaging software, participants analyse a series of telescope images with the goal of calculating various exoplanet parameters, including its size, orbital radius and habitability. The activity has been designed for a high school or undergraduate university level and introduces fundamental concepts in astrophysics and an understanding of the basis for exoplanetary science, the transit method and digital photometry.

  4. A method for determining stellar parameters from multicolor photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2012-09-01

    Amethod for determining the most probable spectral types, color excesses E B- V , and distances of stars from multicolor photometry is described. The main idea of the method is modeling the photometric data using various models for the stellar spectra and the interstellar extinction law, and applying the maximum likelihood method. The reliability of the method is estimated using stars with known spectral types and WBVR photometry, based on the empirical library of stellar spectra of Pickles and the model for the interstellar extinction law developed by Fluks et al.

  5. Tipsy pulsation of classical Cepheids - lessons from space photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabados, L.; Evans, N. R.; Szabó, R.; Derekas, A.; Cameron, A.

    2015-09-01

    Space photometric data of the Kepler Cepheid, V1154 Cygni, and those of SZ Tauri (MOST photometry) indicate that classical Cepheids are not strictly regular pulsators. Cycle-to-cycle period changes and variations in the shape of the light curve are revealed from the continuous photometry covering 6 cycles of SZ Tau pulsation and several hundred pulsation cycles of V1154 Cyg. To make the situation more interesting/complicated, the MOST light curve of RT Aurigae (a Cepheid pulsating in the fundamental mode) shows stellar oscillations in a highly repetitive manner.

  6. Transit and secondary eclipse photometry in the near-infrared

    E-print Network

    Ignas Snellen

    2007-05-02

    Near-infrared photometry of transiting extrasolar planets can be of great scientific value. It is however not straightforward to reach the necessary millimagnitude precision. Here we report on our attempts to observe transits and secondary eclipses of several extrasolar planets at 2.2 micron. Best results have been obtained on OGLE-TR-113b using the SOFI near-infrared camera on ESO's New Technology Telescope. Its K-band transit shows a remarkably flat bottom indicating low stellar limb darkening. Secondary eclipse photometry has resulted in a formal 3 sigma detection, but residual systematic effects make this detection rather uncertain.

  7. Is increasing industrialization affecting remote ecosystem health in the South Americas? Insights from ocean surface water measurements of As, Sb and Pb from a GEOTRACES transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik; Salaun, Pascal; Van den Berg, Stan; Bi, Zaoshun

    2014-05-01

    Continued industrial development of the South Americas with increasing atmospheric emission of toxic trace metals has lead to a growing concern about possible effects on pristine ecosystem health. Concentration measurements of trace metals in ocean surface waters in the North Atlantic have successfully revealed the global extent of atmospheric pollution in the Northern Hemisphere during economical growth in the USA and Europe, suggesting a similar approach can be applied to the Southern Hemisphere. To this end, we determined concentrations of lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) using voltammetry in surface water samples of the South Atlantic Ocean collected during the third leg of the GEOTRACES West Atlantic Cruise. These elements are volatile and therefore most likely suitable tracer elements of industrial emissions from South America. The samples were not filtered and the solutions were acidified and UV digested. Total concentrations of Pb were detected. Detected As levels correspond to the sum of inorganic species (AsIII + AsV) plus the mono methyl arsenic acid (MMA) while the dimethyl arsenic acid (DMA) is not detected in such conditions. For Sb, detected levels correspond at least to the sum of inorganic fractions (SbIII + SbV). The measured concentrations for Pb varied from 6 to 23 pM. Concentrations were highest at -35° latitude and lowest at -40° and -50° latitude. We found a decreasing trend from about -35° latitude southwards. The average concentrations of As was 20 nM and of Sb 1.2 nM. Arsenic showed a more significant north to south trend than Sb. Arsenic concentration was highest at -23 ° latitude (21 nM) and the lowest at -43 ° latitude (17.7 nM). Antimony concentration was highest at -31 ° latitude (1.5 nM) and lowest at -35 ° latitude (1.0 nM). Our preliminary data suggests that the major industrial centres in Brazil (i.e., Sao Paolo, Rio de Janeiro) and Argentina (i.e., Buenos Aires) affect atmospheric metal fluxes to remote environments. The concentrations, however, are not as high as determined in the Northern Hemisphere, suggesting a less drastic impact. That is also reflected in air quality data from the major cities.

  8. Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of csrA, a pleiotropic gene from Escherichia coli that affects glycogen biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, cell size, and surface properties.

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, T; Gong, M; Liu, M Y; Brun-Zinkernagel, A M

    1993-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that a few global regulatory factors mediate many of the extensive changes in gene expression that occur as Escherichia coli enters the stationary phase. One of the metabolic pathways that is transcriptionally activated in the stationary phase is the pathway for biosynthesis of glycogen. To identify factors that regulate glycogen biosynthesis in trans, a collection of transposon mutants was generated and screened for mutations which independently increase or decrease glycogen levels and the expression of a plasmid-encoded glgC'-lacZ fusion. The glycogen excess mutation TR1-5 was found to be pleiotropic. It led to increased expression of the genes glgC (ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase) and glgB (glycogen branching enzyme), which are representative of two glycogen synthesis operons, and the gluconeogenic gene pckA (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and it exhibited effects on cell size and surface (adherence) properties. The mutated gene was designated csrA for carbon storage regulator. Its effect on glycogen biosynthesis was mediated independently of cyclic AMP (cAMP), the cAMP receptor protein, and guanosine 3'-bisphosphate 5'-bisphosphate (ppGpp), which are positive regulators of glgC expression. A plasmid clone of the native csrA gene strongly inhibited glycogen accumulation and affected the ability of cells to utilize certain carbon sources for growth. Nucleotide sequence analysis, complementation experiments, and in vitro expression studies indicated that csrA encodes a 61-amino-acid polypeptide that inhibits glycogen biosynthesis. Computer-assisted data base searches failed to identify genes or proteins that are homologous with csrA or its gene product. Images PMID:8393005

  10. Comparative evaluation of microshear bond strength of the caries-affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method (papain)

    PubMed Central

    Chittem, Jyothi; Sajjan, Girija S.; Varma, Kanumuri Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing interest in chemomechanical excavation (papain) in permanent molar teeth. There are several studies dealing with primary molar teeth. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional method and Carie-care (chemomechanical method) on the microshear bond strength (?SBS) and the type of failure of an adhesive system to caries-affected dentin of permanent molar teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty permanent molar teeth with carious lesions extending into the dentin were selected. Through the center of the carious lesion, teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into two groups based on the method of caries excavation (conventional and chemomechanical method). The time required for the completion of excavation procedure was noted. Samples were again divided into two subgroups in each according to the method of restoration (Ketac N100 and Filtek Z350 composite). The bonded interface was subjected to ?SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Fractured surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope, and representative specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope for the type of failure. Statistical Analysis: It was achieved with unpaired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test at 5% level of significance. Results: The ?SBS values of Carie-care groups were similar to that of the conventional method. The ?SBSs of resin composite were significantly (P < 0.001) more than that of resin glass ionomer bonded irrespective of the method of caries excavation. Conclusion: A papain-based chemomechanical agent can be used safely as a method for caries removal when employing conventional adhesive systems. PMID:26430299

  11. Multicolor photometry of x ray selected Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Cruz, Omar

    1993-01-01

    Strong evidence of evolution in cluster of galaxies at relatively low redshift has been indicated by recent x-ray studies. We are conducting a comprehensive optical study of a sample of Abell clusters that are strong x-ray emitters in order to test the x-ray evolution scenarios that have been proposed. The initial observations consist of three-color (B, R, I) imaging of low-redshift (0.025 less than z less than 0.25) Abell clusters using the T2KA CCD on the 0.9m telescope at KPNO the large field (23 ft. x 23 ft., approx. 1 Mpc at z = 0.025 and approx. 7 Mpc at z = 0.25) gives the unprecedented ability to sample most of the extent of the field of low-redshift clusters using a CCD. Given the advantages of CCDs over photographic plates, we expect to improve on many of the previous studies. A list of x-ray selected cluster of galaxies provides a homogeneous sample of true clusters that cannot be mistaken from apparent over-densities due to projection effects of field galaxies. Some optical indicators of cluster evolution are the population of ratios of cluster galaxies and their spatial distribution, a regular spiral-poor cluster is expected to be more evolved than an irregular spiral-rich cluster. Also regular spiral-poor clusters present high central concentrations while irregular spiral-rich are less concentrated. Variations in the Luminosity Function (LF) can indicate evolution. But in order to build reliable LFs it is necessary to determine the Hubble types of the cluster galaxies. In the past the classifications of cluster galaxies have been done by visual inspection on photographic material, this technique is very limited and can lead to errors when the galaxies are faint. The Hubble types of cluster galaxies can be determined in an objective manner by comparing colors and profiles from surface photometry. To show that this approach is feasible, I have presented preliminary results from the photometric analysis of the Abell-cluster A1213. Colors and profiles of the surface brightness distribution were compared to determine the Hubble types of the cluster galaxies.

  12. Retrieval of cirrus properties by Sun photometry: A new perspective on an old issue

    E-print Network

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Retrieval of cirrus properties by Sun photometry: A new perspective on an old issue Michal Segal. Ramachandran, J. Redemann, and B. A. Baum (2013), Retrieval of cirrus properties by Sun photometry: A new

  13. Infrared space observatory photometry of circumstellar dust in Vega-type systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Stencel, R. E.; Backman, D. E.; Thakur, N.

    1998-01-01

    The ISOPHOT (Infrared Space Observatory Photometry) instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was used to obtain 3.6-90 micron photometry of Vega-type systems. Photometric data were calibrated with the ISOPHOT fine calibration source 1 (FCS1). Linear regression was used to derive transformations to make comparisons to ground-based and IRAS photometry systems possible. These transformations were applied to the photometry of 14 main-sequence stars. Details of these results are reported on.

  14. HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY OF EXTREME KBO 2003 EL{sub 61}

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David; Peixinho, Nuno

    2008-05-15

    We present high-precision, time-resolved, visible and near-infrared photometry of the large (diameter {approx} 2500 km) Kuiper belt object (136108) 2003 EL{sub 61}. The new data confirm rapid rotation at period P = 3.9155 {+-} 0.0001 h with a peak-to-peak photometric range of {delta}m{sub R} = 0.29 {+-} 0.02 mag and further show subtle but reproducible color variations with rotation. Rotational deformation of 2003 EL{sub 61} alone would give rise to a symmetric light curve free of color variations. The observed photometric deviations from the best-fit equilibrium model show the existence of a large surface region with an albedo and color different from the mean surface of 2003 EL{sub 61}. We explore constraints on the nature of this anomalous region set by the existing data.

  15. Optical properties of boreal forest fire smoke derived from Sun photometry

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    Optical properties of boreal forest fire smoke derived from Sun photometry N. T. O'Neill,1 T. F 2001; published 13 June 2002. [1] Aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometry were: Aerosols (0305); KEYWORDS: aerosols, forest fire smoke, Sun photometry, optics 1. Introduction [2] Smoke

  16. Notes for KINGFISH on SPIRE Photometry DRAFT: v8 2013.3.16.759

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    Notes for KINGFISH on SPIRE Photometry DRAFT: v8 2013.3.16.759 B. T. Drainea ABSTRACT Some notes on interpretation of SPIRE photometry of extended sources, and recommendations for use by the KINGFISH collaboration photometry to be sometimes confusing: the distinction between beam sizes to use for point sources or extended

  17. New Aperture and PSF Photometry QSO 0957+561A,B

    E-print Network

    Ovaldsen, Jan-Erik

    New Aperture and PSF Photometry of QSO 0957+561A,B Application to Time Delay and Microlensing Aperture and PSF Photometry of QSO 0957+561A,B", is distributed under the terms of the Public Library was initiated with the aim of developing a photometry program to reduce the CCD frames. The results were

  18. NOVEL METHODS FOR PREDICTING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY USING VIRTUAL SENSORS

    E-print Network

    NOVEL METHODS FOR PREDICTING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY USING VIRTUAL SENSORS, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey using two new training-set methods. We utilize the broadband photometry from material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION Using broadband photometry in multiple filters to estimate

  19. An Improved Technique for the Photometry and Astrometry of Faint Companions

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    An Improved Technique for the Photometry and Astrometry of Faint Companions DANIEL BURKE School to differential astrometry and photometry of faint companions in adap- tive optics images. It is based ratio (SR) data (SR 0:5), the differential photometry of a binary star with a m ¼ 4:5 and a separation

  20. ON THE AGE AND METALLICITY ESTIMATION OF SPIRAL GALAXIES USING OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyun-chul

    ON THE AGE AND METALLICITY ESTIMATION OF SPIRAL GALAXIES USING OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY-infrared photometry show surprisingly orthogonal grids as age and metallicity are varied, and they are coming headinggs: galaxies: abundances -- galaxies: evolution -- galaxies: photometry -- galaxies: spiral

  1. Characterization of Transiting Exoplanets by Way of Differential Photometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Michael; Hughes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a simple activity for plotting and characterizing the light curve from an exoplanet transit event by way of differential photometry analysis. Using free digital imaging software, participants analyse a series of telescope images with the goal of calculating various exoplanet parameters, including size, orbital radius and…

  2. Comet Kohoutek. [proceedings - astronomical photometry/astronomical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation of scientific observations (workshop) is presented. Topics discussed are: (1) tail form, structure, and evolution; (2) hydroxyl related observations; (3) molecules and atoms in the coma and tail; (4) photometry and radiometry; and (5) spacecraft and ground based observation data. Color photographs are shown.

  3. Readmefirst_planetary_photometry_data Purpose of this archive

    E-print Network

    Lockwood, Wes

    b ,y photometry of Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's satellite Titan. While nearly all the data (except_by_season.txt and subsidiary files: Titan_nights.txt Titan_summary.txt Uranus_by_season.txt and subsidiary files: Uranus_nights.txt Uranus_summary.txt Neptune_by_season.txt and subsidiary files: Neptune_nights.txt Neptune _summary

  4. JCMT COADD: UKT14 continuum and photometry data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David; Oliveira, Firmin J.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, T.

    2014-11-01

    COADD was used to reduce photometry and continuum data from the UKT14 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the 1990s. The software can co-add multiple observations and perform sigma clipping and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Additional information on the software is available in the JCMT Spring 1993 newsletter (large PDF).

  5. Photoelectric photometry of J V. [Jupiter satellite Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    UBV photometry of J V (Amalthea) near greatest western elongation shows this satellite to be about one magnitude fainter than previously believed. It is observed to be very red, having a B-V color index near + 1.5 mag. Unlike the Galilean satellites, J V appears to be a low-albedo object.

  6. Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-print Network

    Davies, John Keith

    Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects John K. Davies Joint Astronomy\\GammaJ colors of 14 Kuiper Belt objects using new infrared (J) data combined, in most cases, with simultaneous. Kuiper Belt objects exhibit a wide range of V\\GammaJ colors but there is no correlation with heliocentric

  7. NIR photometry of the flaring Blazar PKS2320-035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.

    2015-12-01

    Following the report by L. Pacciani (ATEL#8323) on the flaring state of the FSRQ PKS2320-035 a high redshift QSO (z=1.411) also known as BZQJ 2323-0317, associated with the Gamma-ray Source 2GGLJ2323.6-0316, We carried out NIR photometry of this object on December 5th,2015 (MJD2457361.662).

  8. Crab Pulsar Photometry and the Signature of Free Precession

    E-print Network

    Andrej Cadez; Simon Vidrih; Mirjam Galicic; Alberto Carraminana

    2003-03-17

    Optical photometry for the pulsar PSR0531+21 has been extended with new observations that strengthen evidence for a previously observed 60 seconds periodicity. This period is found to be increasing with time at approximately the same rate as the rotational period of the pulsar. The observed period and its time dependence fit a simple free precession model.

  9. Iontophoresis and Flame Photometry: A Hybrid Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Duncan; Cottam, Linzi; Bradley, Sarah; Brannigan, Jeanie; Davis, James

    2010-01-01

    The combination of reverse iontophoresis and flame photometry provides an engaging analytical experiment that gives first-year undergraduate students a flavor of modern drug delivery and analyte extraction techniques while reinforcing core analytical concepts. The experiment provides a highly visual demonstration of the iontophoresis technique and…

  10. uvby--beta photoelectric photometry of NGC 7063

    E-print Network

    J. H. Pena; L. Fox Machado; R. Garrido

    2007-07-15

    From uvby photometry of 75 stars in the direction of NGC 7063 we were able to determine membership of some stars and fix the distance (722 +- 105 pc), log age (of 8.146) and reddening (E(b-y) = 0.091 +- 0.039 mag) for the cluster.

  11. CCD Photometry of Nova V1500 Cygni Twenty Years After

    E-print Network

    I. Semeniuk; A. Olech; M. Nalezyty

    1995-12-14

    We report on CCD photometry of Nova V1500 Cygni obtained in July 1995 to show that twenty years after outburst, being of about 18~mag, the star can still be observed with small telescopes. The 0.1396 day period continues to be stable.

  12. Some Insights on Solar Variability from Precision Stellar Astronomical Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Skiff, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    At Lowell Observatory, precision photoelectric photometry was directed toward the study of solar variability and the variability of sun-like stars beginning in 1949 and continuing until now. The ubiquity and range of low-level variability, including some that appears to be cyclic, among solar-type stars shows that recent solar variability may be unusual only in its present restraint.

  13. Crowded Field Photometry in the CLASH Clusters: Measuring the Red Sequence of Cluster Galaxies with Robust Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John; Kelson, Daniel; Coe, Dan A.; Postman, Marc; CLASH Team

    2016-01-01

    The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) is an HST multi-cycle treasury program investigating 25 massive clusters of galaxies with X-ray gas Tx > 5 keV, spanning ~5 to ~30 x 10^14 solar masses, and a redshift range of 0.15 < z < 0.9. With 500 orbits of HST time and 16-filter, ultraviolet to infrared photometry of each cluster, this survey offers an unprecedented dataset for cluster galaxy photometry across a span of age and mass, but obtaining robust photometry for the cluster members has been hampered by the crowded field. We have developed a new technique to detect and define objects despite the presence of overlapping light profiles and to measure photometry of galaxies overlapping the extended haloes of massive galaxies. Utilizing spectral energy distribution fitting, we infer the properties of the detected galaxies, including their abundances and the time since their first star formation. Here we will discuss our technique and results, including the role metallicity and age play in shaping the red sequence of cluster galaxies.

  14. The impact of main belt asteroids on infrared--submillimetre photometry and source counts

    E-print Network

    Cs. Kiss; A. Pal; Th. G. Mueller; P. Abraham

    2007-11-28

    > Among the components of the infrared and submillimetre sky background, the closest layer is the thermal emission of dust particles and minor bodies in the Solar System. This contribution is especially important for current and future infrared and submillimetre space instruments --like those of Spitzer, Akari and Herschel -- and must be characterised by a reliable statistical model. > We describe the impact of the thermal emission of main belt asteroids on the 5...1000um photometry and source counts, for the current and future spaceborne and ground-based instruments, in general, as well as for specific dates and sky positions. > We used the statistical asteroid model (SAM) to calculate the positions of main belt asteroids down to a size of 1km, and calculated their infrared and submillimetre brightness using the standard thermal model. Fluctuation powers, confusion noise values and number counts were derived from the fluxes of individual asteroids. > We have constructed a large database of infrared and submillimetre fluxes for SAM asteroids with a temporal resolution of 5 days, covering the time span January 1, 2000 -- December 31, 2012. Asteroid fluctuation powers and number counts derived from this database can be obtained for a specific observation setup via our public web-interface. > Current space instruments working in the mid-infrared regime (Akari and Spitzer Space Telescopes) are affected by asteroid confusion noise in some specific areas of the sky, while the photometry of space infrared and submillimetre instruments in the near future (e.g. Herschel and Planck Space Observatories) will not be affected by asteroids. Faint main belt asteroids might also be responsible for most of the zodiacal emission fluctuations near the ecliptic.

  15. An Aperture Photometry Pipeline for K2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Carboneau, Lindsey; Lezcano, Andy; Vydra, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program with undergraduate students at Florida Gulf Coast University, we have constructed an aperture photometry pipeline for K2 data. The pipeline performs dynamic automated aperture mask definition for all targets in the K2 fields, followed by aperture photometry and detrending. Our pipeline is currently used to support a number of projects, including studies of stellar rotation and activity, red giant asteroseismology, gyrochronology, and exoplanet searches. In addition, output is used to support an undergraduate class on exoplanets aimed at a student audience of both majors and non-majors. The pipeline is designed for both batch and single-target use, and is easily extensible to data from other missions, and pipeline output is available to the community. This paper will describe our pipeline and its capabilities and illustrate the quality of the results, drawing on all of the applications for which it is currently used.

  16. Absolute stellar photometry on moderate-resolution FPA images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of star (and Moon) images has been collected by the ground-based RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) as part of the US Geological Survey program for lunar calibration. The stellar data are used to derive nightly atmospheric corrections for the observations from extinction measurements, and absolute calibration of the ROLO sensors is based on observations of Vega and published reference flux and spectrum data. The ROLO telescopes were designed for imaging the Moon at moderate resolution, thus imposing some limitations for the stellar photometry. Attaining accurate stellar photometry with the ROLO image data has required development of specialized processing techniques. A key consideration is consistency in discriminating the star core signal from the off-axis point spread function. The analysis and processing methods applied to the ROLO stellar image database are described. ?? 2009 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Galileo photometry of Apollo landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Head, James W.; Pieters, C.; Pratt, S.; Mustard, J.; Klaasen, K.; Neukum, G.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.

    1993-01-01

    As of December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft performed its second and final flyby (EM2), of the Earth-Moon system, during which it acquired Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera images of the lunar surface suitable for photometric analysis using Hapke's, photometric model. These images, together with those from the first flyby (EM1) in December 1989, provide observations of all of the Apollo landing sites over a wide range of photometric geometries and at eight broadband filter wavelengths ranging from 0.41 micron to 0.99 micron. We have completed a preliminary photometric analysis of Apollo landing sites visible in EM1 images and developed a new strategy for a more complete analysis of the combined EM1 and EM2 data sets in conjunction with telescopic observations and spectrogoniometric measurements of returned lunar samples. No existing single data set, whether from spacecraft flyby, telescopic observation, or laboratory analysis of returned samples, describes completely the light scattering behavior of a particular location on the Moon at all angles of incidence (i), emission (e), and phase angles (a). Earthbased telescopic observations of particular lunar sites provide good coverage of incidence nad phase angles, but their range in emission angle is limited to only a few degrees because of the Moon's synchronous rotation. Spacecraft flyby observations from Galileo are now available for specific lunar features at many photometric geometries unobtainable from Earth; however, this data set lacks coverage at very small phase angles (a less than 13 deg) important for distinguishing the well-known 'opposition effect'. Spectrogoniometric measurements from returned lunar samples can provide photometric coverage at almost any geometry; however, mechanical properties of prepared particulate laboratory samples, such as particle compaction and macroscopic roughness, likely differ from those on the lunar surface. In this study, we have developed methods for the simultaneous analysis of all three types of data: we combine Galileo and telescopic observations to obtain the most complete coverage with photometric geometry, and use spectrogoniometric observations of lunar soils to help distinguish the photometric effects of macroscopic roughness from those caused by particle phase function behavior (i.e., the directional scattering properties of regolith particles).

  18. Multicolor Photometry of the Uranus Irregular Satellites Sycorax and Caliban

    E-print Network

    Michele Maris; Giovanni Carraro; Gabriele Cremonese; Marco Fulle

    2001-01-27

    We report on accurate BVRI photometry for the two Uranus irregular satellites Sycorax and Caliban. We derive colours, showing that Sycorax is bluer than Caliban. Our data allows us to detect a significant variability in the Caliban's light-curve, which suggests an estimated period of about 3 hours. Despite it is the brighter of the two bodies, Sycorax does not display a strong statistically significant variability. However our data seem to suggest a period of about 4 hours

  19. UBV photometry of OB and field stars at l = 250

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Photoelectric UBV photometry is presented for 70 stars in the SLS Catalog and 35 field stars in the vicinity of l = 250. Reddenings vary from a minimum of 0.25 up to 0.9. Except for six stars, possibly possessing a common distance and reddening, the distance modulus-color excess diagram of the SLS stars reveals no obvious clusters or associations. SLS stars 989 and 999 may be variable. 23 refs.

  20. Astronomical Photometry and the Legacy of Arne Henden (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Arne Henden has helped provide a valuable resource to the photometric community with the publication of the 1982 book Astronomical Photometry. I will present a brief review of the topics covered in this handbook and recount some of the many times that it has been useful to myself and my students for answering a wide variety of questions dealing with the acquisition and reduction of photometric observations.

  1. CCD Photometry of SW Ursae Majoris during the 1996 Superoutburst

    E-print Network

    I. Semeniuk; A. Olech; T. Kwast; M. Nalezyty

    1997-04-22

    We present CCD R photometry of SW Ursae Majoris - an SUUMa type cataclysmic variable - obtained during its April 1996 superoutburst. The mean value of the superhump period derived from our observations is 0.05818(+/-2) days (83.8 min). The analysis of times of superhump maxima gives clear evidence for the increase of the superhump period with dPsh/dt=0.000089.

  2. UBVI photometry of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 6939

    E-print Network

    Gloria Andreuzzi; Angela Bragaglia; Monica Tosi; Gianni Marconi

    2003-11-13

    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the nearby, intermediate age open cluster NGC 6939. Using the synthetic Colour - Magnitude Diagrams technique we estimate the following parameters: age between 1.3 and 1.0 Gyr (depending on whether or not overshooting is considered), reddening 0.34

  3. ISOCAM Photometry of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. D. Law-Green; A. Zezas; M. J. Ward; C. Boisson

    1998-12-23

    Mid-infrared photometry of the hosts of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies at 6 microns and 12 microns has been attempted with ISOCAM. No conclusive detections have been made. This implies that these are quiescent objects with little or no active star-formation. Neither X-ray binaries nor starburst-driven superwinds are consistent explanations for the X-ray emission in these objects. We conclude that these NLXGs are predominantly AGN-powered.

  4. Multiband CCD Photometry of CY Aquarii Using the AAVSOnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    delta Scuti stars are a class of short-period pulsating variable stars that include CY Aquarii. Multiband CCD photometry was performed on that star using instruments in Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Australia from the AAVSO's global robotic telescope network. Rapid cadence, multi-hour time series yielded high precision light curves and 21 new maxima. Data analyses revealed a pulsation pattern consistent with the existing model that describes the origin of SXPHE stars.

  5. Galileo photometry of asteroid 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.C.; Simonelli, D.P.; Klaasen, K.; Johnson, T.V.; Fanale, F.; Granahan, J.; McEwen, A.S.; Belton, M.; Chapman, C.

    1996-01-01

    Galileo imaging observations over phase angles 19.5?? to 109.8?? are combined with near-opposition Earth-based data to derive the photometric properties of Ida. To first order these properties are uniform over the surface and well modeled at ?? = 0.55 ??m by Hapke parameters ????0 = 0.22, h = 0.020, B0 = 1.5, g = -0.33, and ?? = 18?? with corresponding geometric albedo p = 0.21??0.030.01 and Bond albedo AB = 0.081??0.0170.008. Ida's photometric properties are more similar to those of "average S-asteroids" (P. Helfenstein and J. Veverka 1989, Asteroids II, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) than are those of 951 Gaspra. Two primary color units are identified on Ida: Terrain A exhibits a spectrum with relatively shallower 1-??m absorption and a relatively steeper red spectral slope than average Ida, while Terrain B has a deeper 1-??m absorption and a less steep red slope. The average photometric properties of Ida and Terrain A are similar while those of Terrain B differ mostly in having a slightly higher value of ????0 (0.22 versus 0.21), suggesting that Terrain B consists of slightly brighter, more transparent regolith particles. Galileo observations of Ida's satellite Dactyl over phase angles 19.5?? to 47.6?? suggest photometric characteristics similar to those of Ida, the major difference being Dactyl's slightly lower albedo (0.20 compared to 0.21). ?? 1990 Academic Press, Inc.

  6. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orlea?ski, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz

    2014-02-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, brightness and temperature variations of stars brighter than V ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of three pairs of 7 kg nanosats (hence ``Constellation'') from Austria, Canada and Poland carrying optical telescopes (3 cm aperture) and CCDs. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter; the other, a red filter. The first two nanosats (funded by Austria) are UniBRITE, designed and built by UTIAS-SFL (University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies-Space Flight Laboratory) and its twin, BRITE-Austria, built by the Technical University Graz (TUG) with support of UTIAS-SFL. They were launched on 25 February 2013 by the Indian Space Agency, under contract to the Canadian Space Agency. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~ 24 degrees), so up to 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously in 32 × 32 sub-rasters. Photometry (with reduced precision but thorough time sampling) of additional fainter targets will be possible through on-board data processing. A critical technical element of the BRITE mission is the three-axis attitude control system to stabilize a nanosat with very low inertia. The pointing stability is better than 1.5 arcminutes rms, a significant advance by UTIAS-SFL over any previous nanosatellite. BRITE-Constellation will primarily measure p- and g-mode pulsations to probe the interiors and ages of stars through asteroseismology. The BRITE sample of many of the brightest stars in the night sky is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all evolutionary stages, and evolved medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases (cool giants and AGB stars). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for stars brighter than mag V=4 from which the BRITE-Constellation sample will be selected is shown in Fig. 1. This sample falls into two principal classes of stars: (1) Hot luminous H-burning stars (O to F stars). Analyses of OB star variability have the potential to help solve two outstanding problems: the sizes of convective (mixed) cores in massive stars and the influence of rapid rotation on their structure and evolution. (2) Cool luminous stars (AGB stars, cool giants and cool supergiants). Measurements of the time scales involved in surface granulation and differential rotation will constrain turbulent convection models. Mass loss from these stars (especially the massive supernova progenitors) is a major contributor to the evolution of the interstellar medium, so in a sense, this sample dominates cosmic ``ecology'' in terms of future generations of star formation. The massive stars are believed to share many characteristics of the lower mass range of the first generation of stars ever formed (although the original examples are of course long gone). BRITE observations will also be used to detect some Jupiter- and even Neptune-sized planets around bright host stars via transits, as expected on the basis of statistics from the Kepler exoplanet mission. Detecting planets around such very bright stars will greatly facilitate their subsequent characterization. BRITE will also use surface spots to investigate stellar rotation. The following Table summarizes launch and orbit parameters of BRITE-Constellation components. The full version of this paper describing in more detail BRITE-Constellation will be published separately in a journal. The symposium presentation is available at http://iaus301.astro.uni.wroc.pl/program.php

  7. M2K Planet Search: Spectroscopic Screening and Transit Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Gaidos, E.; Fischer, D.; Lepine, S.

    2010-10-01

    The M2K project is a search for planets orbiting nearby early M and late K dwarf drawn from the SUPERBLINK catalog. M and K dwarfs are highly attractive targets for finding low-mass and habitable planets because (1) close-in planets are more likely to orbit within their habitable zone, (2) planets orbiting them induce a larger Doppler signal and have deeper transits than similar planets around F, G, and early K type stars, (3) planet formation models predict they hold an abundance of super-Earth sized planets, and (4) they represent the vast majority of the stars close enough for direct imaging techniques. In spite of this, only 10% of late K and early M dwarfs are being monitored by current Doppler surveys. As part of the M2K project we have obtained low-resolution spectra for more than 2000 of our sample of 10,000 M and K dwarfs. We vet our sample by screening these stars for high metallicity and low chromospheric activity. We search for transits on targets showing high RMS Doppler signal and photometry candidates provided by SuperWASP project. By using "snapshot” photometry have been able to achieve sub-millimag photometry on numerous transit targets in the same night. With further follow-up observations we will be able to detect planets smaller than 10 Earth masses.

  8. High precision differential photometry of planet transits with the MMTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Brian L.; Colon, Knicole D.; Ford, Eric B.; Blake, Cullen H.; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2010-02-01

    We propose to use Magellan+MMTF(IMACS) to achieve some of the very highest precision ground-based, time-differential, narrow-band photometry to date on selected favorable transiting planet host stars. The proposed observations are expected to provide precise measurements of the time, duration, shape, and color of an exoplanet transit. Our primary target, CoRoT-7, is an active star hosting the first transiting super-Earth transiting planet, and our color observations will thus be sensitive not just to stellar limb darkening, but also spot activity. We also propose to use the exquisite precision of our tunable filter photometry technique on either GJ 436 or WASP-16, both systems which are in need of additional observations that will contribute towards the detection of small orbital perturbations. This demonstration of the power of tunable filter differential photometry will show how important Magellan+MMTF can be as a resource in the arsenal of ground-based follow- up for Neptune and super-Earth transiting planets yet to be discovered.

  9. Multi-channel fiber photometry for population neuronal activity recording

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qingchun; Zhou, Jingfeng; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Minmin; Fu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Fiber photometry has become increasingly popular among neuroscientists as a convenient tool for the recording of genetically defined neuronal population in behaving animals. Here, we report the development of the multi-channel fiber photometry system to simultaneously monitor neural activities in several brain areas of an animal or in different animals. In this system, a galvano-mirror modulates and cyclically couples the excitation light to individual multimode optical fiber bundles. A single photodetector collects excited light and the configuration of fiber bundle assembly and the scanner determines the total channel number. We demonstrated that the system exhibited negligible crosstalk between channels and optical signals could be sampled simultaneously with a sample rate of at least 100 Hz for each channel, which is sufficient for recording calcium signals. Using this system, we successfully recorded GCaMP6 fluorescent signals from the bilateral barrel cortices of a head-restrained mouse in a dual-channel mode, and the orbitofrontal cortices of multiple freely moving mice in a triple-channel mode. The multi-channel fiber photometry system would be a valuable tool for simultaneous recordings of population activities in different brain areas of a given animal and different interacting individuals. PMID:26504642

  10. Identifying Contaminated K-Band Globular Cluster RR Lyrae Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Gieren, W.

    2012-10-01

    Acquiring near-infrared K-band (2.2 ?m) photometry for RR Lyrae variables in globular clusters and nearby galaxies is advantageous, since the resulting distances are less impacted by reddening and metallicity. However, K-band photometry for RR Lyrae variables in M5, Reticulum, M92, ? Cen, and M15 display clustercentric trends. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data imply that multiple stars in close proximity to RR Lyrae variables located near the cluster core, where the stellar density increases markedly, are generally unresolved in ground-based images. RR Lyrae variables near the cluster core appear to suffer from photometric contamination, thereby yielding underestimated cluster distances and biased ages. The impact is particularly pernicious, since the contamination propagates a systematic uncertainty into the distance scale, and hinders the quest for precision cosmology. The clustercentric trends are probably unassociated with variations in chemical composition, since an empirical K-band period-magnitude relation inferred from Araucaria/VLT (Very Large Telescope) data for RR Lyrae variables in the Sculptor dSph exhibits a negligible metallicity dependence: (0.059 ± 0.095) × [Fe/H]ZW, a finding that supports prior observational results. A future multiepoch, high-resolution near-infrared survey, analogous to the optical HST ACS Galactic Globular Cluster Survey, may be employed to establish K-band photometry for the contaminating stars discussed here.

  11. Night sky photometry with amateur-grade digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, Tomasz; Gronkiewicz, Dominik; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Steslicki, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of night sky brightness can give us valuable information on light pollution. The more the measurements we have the better is our knowledge on the spatial distribution of the pollution on local and global scale.High accuracy professional photometry of night sky can be performed with dedicated instruments. The main drawbacks of this method are high price and low mobility. This limits an amount of observers and therefore amount of photometric data that can be collected. In order to overcome the problem of limited amount of data we can involve amateur astronomers in photometry of night sky. However, to achieve this goal we need a method that utilizes equipment which is usually used by amateur astronomers, e.g digital cameras.We propose a method that enables good accuracy photometry of night sky with a use of digital compact or DSLR cameras. In the method reduction of observations and standarization to Johnson UBV system are performed. We tested several cameras and compared results to Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements. The overall consistency for results is within 0.2 mag.

  12. Aperture Photometry of Saturated Star Images from Digitised Photographic Plates

    E-print Network

    J. L. Innis; D. W. Coates; A. P. Borisova; M. K. Tsvetkov

    2005-02-21

    Saturated stellar images on digitised photographic plates are many times greater in area than the `seeing disk' seen in unsaturated CCD images. Indeed the flux profile of a bright star can be traced out for several degrees from the star's centre. The radius of the saturated stellar image can often be directly related to the magnitude of the star, a fact well known and exploited in iris photometry. In this work we compare the radial flux profile of stars in the approximate range B ~9 to ~13 mag, obtained from scans of plates from the Bamberg Sky Patrol archive, with a profile of the form measured by King. We show that simple aperture photometry of saturated stellar images, obtained from photo-positives of scanned photographic plates, yield data that are in agreement with simulations using a (saturated) synthetic stellar radius profile. Raw plate magnitudes from this aperture photometry can be easily and satisfactorily transformed to standard magnitudes, as demonstrated in a recent study carried out by the current authors.

  13. Multi-channel fiber photometry for population neuronal activity recording.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingchun; Zhou, Jingfeng; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Minmin; Fu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Fiber photometry has become increasingly popular among neuroscientists as a convenient tool for the recording of genetically defined neuronal population in behaving animals. Here, we report the development of the multi-channel fiber photometry system to simultaneously monitor neural activities in several brain areas of an animal or in different animals. In this system, a galvano-mirror modulates and cyclically couples the excitation light to individual multimode optical fiber bundles. A single photodetector collects excited light and the configuration of fiber bundle assembly and the scanner determines the total channel number. We demonstrated that the system exhibited negligible crosstalk between channels and optical signals could be sampled simultaneously with a sample rate of at least 100 Hz for each channel, which is sufficient for recording calcium signals. Using this system, we successfully recorded GCaMP6 fluorescent signals from the bilateral barrel cortices of a head-restrained mouse in a dual-channel mode, and the orbitofrontal cortices of multiple freely moving mice in a triple-channel mode. The multi-channel fiber photometry system would be a valuable tool for simultaneous recordings of population activities in different brain areas of a given animal and different interacting individuals. PMID:26504642

  14. Pushing the precision limit of ground-based eclipse photometry

    E-print Network

    M. Gillon; D. R. Anderson; B. -O. Demory; D. M. Wilson; C. Hellier; D. Queloz; C. Waelkens

    2008-06-30

    Until recently, it was considered by many that ground-based photometry could not reach the high cadence sub-mmag regime because of the presence of the atmosphere. Indeed, high frequency atmospheric noises (mainly scintillation) limit the precision that high SNR photometry can reach within small time bins. If one is ready to damage the sampling of his photometric time-series, binning the data (or using longer exposures) allows to get better errors, but the obtained precision will be finally limited by low frequency noises. To observe several times the same planetary eclipse and to fold the photometry with the orbital period is thus generally considered as the only option to get very well sampled and precise eclipse light curve from the ground. Nevertheless, we show here that reaching the sub-mmag sub-min regime for one eclipse is possible with a ground-based instrument. This has important implications for transiting planets characterization, secondary eclipses measurement and small planets detection from the ground.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies morphology and IR photometry II. (Gavazzi+ 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Pierini, D.; Baffa, C.; Lisi, F.; Hunt, L. K.; Randone, I.; Boselli, A.

    1996-05-01

    We present near-infrared H-band (1.65?m) surface photometry of 297 galaxies (mostly) in the Coma Supercluster obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera, ARNICA, mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5mag/arcsec2 isophote, concentration indices, and total H magnitudes are derived. Combining these observations with those obtained similarly using the Calar Alto telescopes (Paper I, ) we find a strong positive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxy H-band luminosity, and we analyze the consequent dependence of near-infrared growth-curves on H-band luminosity. For a description of the H band photometric system, see e.g. (2 data files).

  16. A 3D extinction map of the northern Galactic plane based on IPHAS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sale, S. E.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Farnhill, H. J.; Raddi, R.; Barlow, M. J.; Eislöffel, J.; Vink, J. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Wright, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a 3D map of extinction in the northern Galactic plane derived using photometry from the INT/WFC Photometric H? Survey of the northern Galactic plane. The map has fine angular ( ˜ 10 arcmin) and distance (100 pc) sampling allied to a significant depth (?5 kpc). We construct the map using a method based on a hierarchical Bayesian model described in a previous article by Sale. In addition to mean extinction, we also measure differential extinction, which arises from the fractal nature of the interstellar medium, and show that it will be the dominant source of uncertainty in estimates of extinction to some arbitrary position. The method applied also furnishes us with photometric estimates of the distance, extinction, effective temperature, surface gravity, and mass for ˜38 million stars. Both the extinction map and the catalogue of stellar parameters are made publicly available via http://www.iphas.org/extinction.

  17. STAR FORMATION IN THE OUTER DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES: ULTRAVIOLET AND H{alpha} PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese; Skillman, Evan D. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu

    2011-12-20

    We present an analysis of ultradeep UV and H{alpha} imaging of five nearby spiral galaxies to study the recent star formation in the outer disk. Using azimuthally averaged ellipse photometry as well as aperture photometry of individual young stellar complexes, we measure how star formation rates (SFRs) and UV and H{alpha} colors vary with radius. We detect azimuthally averaged UV flux to {approx}1.2-1.4 R{sub 25} in most galaxies; at the edge of the detected UV disk, the surface brightnesses are 28-29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, corresponding to SFR surface densities of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Additionally, we detect between 120 and 410 young stellar complexes per galaxy, with a significant number of detections out to {approx}1.5 R{sub 25}. We measure radial FUV-NUV profiles, and find that the dispersion in the UV colors of individual young stellar complexes increases with radius. We investigate how radial variations in the frequency of star formation episodes can create color gradients and increasing dispersion in the UV colors of star-forming regions, like those observed in our study. Specifically, we use recently published, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of {Sigma}{sub SFR} throughout the disk of M33 to estimate the frequency of star formation episodes throughout the disk of a typical spiral galaxy. We use stellar synthesis models of these star formation histories (SFHs) to measure the variations in UV colors and find that we can replicate large dispersions in UV colors based on episodic SFHs.

  18. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  19. Karl Schwarzschild's investigations of ``out-of-focus photometry'' between 1897-1899 and his contribution to photographic photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild was working at Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he particularly studied the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law during photographic exposures. During that time stellar magnitudes were almost exclusively determined by measuring the size of in-focus stellar disks. Photometry using out-of-focus exposures had been proposed, but had not yet been tried. Schwarzschild's very first paper in this context contains two important results: The intimation that estimating densities on out-of-focus plates could give an accuracy of better than 0.05 mag and the analysis of his photographic data indicated that the reciprocity law (S=I? t), was not obeyed. >From the paper it is not clear how he came to set himself this double task. A series of singly exposed plates date from September 1897, whereas the series of exposures of particular relevance to the question of the time dependence of plate density all date from October 1897. It is remarkable how Schwarzschild succeeded in deriving a better approximation of the characteristic curve's dependence on intensity and time. The talk will focus on Schwarzschild's investigations of ``out-of-focus photometry'' between 1897 and 1899. A few selected original photographic plates will be presented and discussed.

  20. 500 days of SN 2013dy: spectra and photometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Kromer, M.; Fox, O. D.; Zheng, W.; Challis, P.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Folatelli, G.; Graham, M. L.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lee, W. H.; Pakmor, R.; Patat, F.; Phillips, M. M.; Pignata, G.; Röpke, F.; Seitenzahl, I.; Silverman, J. M.; Simon, J. D.; Sternberg, A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Taubenberger, S.; Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    SN 2013dy is a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) for which we have compiled an extraordinary data set spanning from 0.1 to ˜ 500 d after explosion. We present 10 epochs of ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) spectra with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, 47 epochs of optical spectra (15 of them having high resolution), and more than 500 photometric observations in the BVrRiIZYJH bands. SN 2013dy has a broad and slowly declining light curve (?m15(B) = 0.92 mag), shallow Si II ? 6355 absorption, and a low velocity gradient. We detect strong C II in our earliest spectra, probing unburned progenitor material in the outermost layers of the SN ejecta, but this feature fades within a few days. The UV continuum of SN 2013dy, which is strongly affected by the metal abundance of the progenitor star, suggests that SN 2013dy had a relatively high-metallicity progenitor. Examining one of the largest single set of high-resolution spectra for an SN Ia, we find no evidence of variable absorption from circumstellar material. Combining our UV spectra, NIR photometry, and high-cadence optical photometry, we construct a bolometric light curve, showing that SN 2013dy had a maximum luminosity of 10.0^{+4.8}_{-3.8} × 10^{42} erg s-1. We compare the synthetic light curves and spectra of several models to SN 2013dy, finding that SN 2013dy is in good agreement with a solar-metallicity W7 model.

  1. Missing stellar mass in SED fitting: spatially unresolved photometry can underestimate galaxy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorba, R.; Sawicki, M.

    2015-09-01

    We fit model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to each pixel in 67 nearby ( = 0.0057) galaxies using broad-band photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX. For each galaxy, we compare the stellar mass derived by summing the mass of each pixel to that found from fitting the entire galaxy treated as an unresolved point source. We find that, while the pixel-by-pixel and unresolved masses of galaxies with low specific star formation rates (sSFRs, such as ellipticals and lenticulars) are in rough agreement, the unresolved mass estimate for star-forming galaxies is systematically lower than the measurement from spatially resolved photometry. The discrepancy is strongly correlated with sSFR, with the highest sSFRs in our sample having masses underestimated by 25 per cent (0.12 dex) when treated as point sources. We found a simple relation to statistically correct mass estimates derived from unresolved broad-band SED fitting to the resolved mass estimates: mresolved = munresolved/(-0.057log (sSFR) + 0.34), where sSFR is in units of yr-1. We study the effect of varying spatial resolution by degrading the image resolution of the largest images and find a sharp decrease in the pixel-by-pixel mass estimate at a physical scale of approximately 3 kpc, which is comparable to spiral arm widths. The effects we observe are consistent with the `outshining' idea which posits that the youngest stellar populations mask more massive, older - and thus fainter - stellar populations. Although the presence of strong dust lanes can also lead to a drastic difference between resolved and unresolved mass estimates (up to 45 per cent or 0.3 dex) for any individual galaxy, we found that resolving dust does not affect mass estimates on average. The strong correlation between mass discrepancy and sSFR is thus most likely due to the outshining systematic bias.

  2. Comparison of ozone determinations by ultraviolet photometry and gas-phase titration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ozone determinations based on ultraviolet absorption photometry and gas-phase titration (GPT) shows good agreement between the two methods. Together with other results, these findings indicate that three candidate reference methods for ozone, UV photometry, IR photometry, and GPT are in substantial agreement. However, the GPT method is not recommended for routine use by air pollution agencies for calibration of ozone monitors because of susceptibility to experimental error.

  3. Accurate PSF-matched photometry for the J-PAS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Benitez, Txitxo; Dupke, Renato a.

    2015-08-01

    The Javalambre-PAU Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is expected to map 8,600 squared-degrees of the sky using 54 narrow and 5 broad band filters. Carried out by a Spanish-Brazilian consortium, the main goal of this survey is to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) with photometric redshifts. The expectation is measuring these photometric redshifts with a precision of dz/(1 + z) ~ 0.003 for 100 million galaxies and a few millions of quasars, and reaching an accuracy of dz/(1 + z) ~ 0.01 for other 300 million galaxies. With these numbers, it will be possible to determine w in the Dark Energy (DE) equation of state with an accuracy of < 4%. To achieve such precision and measure the radial BAOs, not only an advanced technical setup but also special data processing tools are required. These tools must be accurate as well as suitable to be implemented in fully automated and computationally efficient algorithms.The factor that most influences the photometric redshift precision is the quality of the photometry. For that reason we have developed a new technique based on the Chebyshev-Fourier bases (CHEFs, Jiménez-Teja & Benítez 2012, ApJ, 745, 150) to obtain a highly precise multicolor photometry without PSF consideration, thus saving a considerable amount of time and circumventing severe problems such as the PSF variability across the images. The CHEFs are a set of mathematical orthonormal bases with different scale and resolution levels, originally designed to fit the surface light distribution of galaxies. They have proved to be able to model any kind of morphology, including spirals, highly elliptical, or irregular galaxies, including isophotal twists and fine substructure. They also fit high signal-to-noise images, lensing arcs and stars with great accuracy. We can calculate optimal, unbiased, total magnitudes directly through these CHEFs models and, thus, colors without needing the PSF.We compare our photometry with widely-used codes such as SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996, Astron Astrophys Sup, 117, 393) and ColorPro (Coe et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 926), using real data from the COSMOS survey, the HUDF, and the XDF.

  4. Multicolor photometry of the merging galaxy cluster A2319: Dynamics and star formation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xu E-mail: yuanqirong@njnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622{sub ?70}{sup +91} km s{sup –1}, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ?10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ? 20 mag. A u-band (?3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h {sub BATC} = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have shorter SFR time scales, older stellar ages, and higher interstellar medium metallicities. For the merging cluster A2319, local surface density is a better environmental indicator rather than the cluster-centric distance. Compared with the well-relaxed cluster A2589, a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies is found in A2319, indicating that the galaxy-scale turbulence stimulated by the subcluster merger might have played a role in triggering the star formation activity.

  5. Multicolor Photometry of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A2319: Dynamics and Star Formation Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xu

    2014-05-01

    Asymmetric X-ray emission and a powerful cluster-scale radio halo indicate that A2319 is a merging cluster of galaxies. This paper presents our multicolor photometry for A2319 with 15 optical intermediate filters in the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system. There are 142 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts within the viewing field of 58' × 58' centered on this rich cluster, including 128 member galaxies (called sample I). A large velocity dispersion in the rest frame, 1622^{+91}_{-70} km s-1, suggests merger dynamics in A2319. The contour map of projected density and localized velocity structure confirm the so-called A2319B substructure, at ~10' northwest to the main concentration A2319A. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of more than 30,000 sources are obtained in our BATC photometry down to V ~ 20 mag. A u-band (~3551 Å) image with better seeing and spatial resolution, obtained with the Bok 2.3 m telescope at Kitt Peak, is taken to make star-galaxy separation and distinguish the overlapping contamination in the BATC aperture photometry. With color-color diagrams and photometric redshift technique, 233 galaxies brighter than h BATC = 19.0 are newly selected as member candidates after an exclusion of false candidates with contaminated BATC SEDs by eyeball-checking the u-band Bok image. The early-type galaxies are found to follow a tight color-magnitude correlation. Based on sample I and the enlarged sample of member galaxies (called sample II), subcluster A2319B is confirmed. The star formation properties of cluster galaxies are derived with the evolutionary synthesis model, PEGASE, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR). A strong environmental effect on star formation histories is found in the manner that galaxies in the sparse regions have various star formation histories, while galaxies in the dense regions are found to have shorter SFR time scales, older stellar ages, and higher interstellar medium metallicities. For the merging cluster A2319, local surface density is a better environmental indicator rather than the cluster-centric distance. Compared with the well-relaxed cluster A2589, a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies is found in A2319, indicating that the galaxy-scale turbulence stimulated by the subcluster merger might have played a role in triggering the star formation activity.

  6. Porous medium coffee ring effect and other factors affecting the first crystallisation time of sodium chloride at the surface of a drying porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidri, F.; Sghaier, N.; Eloukabi, H.; Prat, M.; Nasrallah, S. Ben

    2013-12-01

    We study the distribution of ions in a drying porous medium up to the formation of first crystals at the surface. The study is based on comparisons between numerical simulations and experiments with packings of glass beads. The experimental configuration, which is representative of many previous drying experiments, is characterized by the formation of an efflorescence fairy ring at the surface of the porous medium. The preferential formation of crystals at the periphery is explained by the combined effect of higher evaporation fluxes at the surface periphery, as in the classical coffee ring problem, and variations in the porosity near the wall bordering the packing. It is shown that both effects have a great impact on the time marking the occurrence of first crystals, which is referred to as the first crystallization time. The experiments indicate that the first crystallization time increases with a decreasing bead size for a given initial ion concentration. This is explained by the variation with bead size of the characteristic size of the near wall region where a preferential desaturation of the sample occurs as a result of the porosity increase near the wall. The study also reveals a significant salt supersaturation effect. This represents a noticeable fact in relation with salt weathering issues.

  7. Geochemical distribution and removal of As, Fe, Mn and Al in a surface water system affected by acid mine drainage at a coalfield in Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pan; Tang, Changyuan; Liu, Congqiang; Zhu, Lijun; Pei, Tingquan; Feng, Lijuan

    2009-06-01

    The chemical characteristics, formation and natural attenuation of pollutants in the coal acid mine drainage (AMD) at Xingren coalfield, Southwest China, are discussed in this paper based on the results of a geochemical investigation as well as geological and hydrogeological background information. The chemical composition of the AMD is controlled by the dissolution of sulfide minerals in the coal seam, the initial composition of the groundwater and the water-rock interaction. The AMD is characterized by high sulfate concentrations, high levels of dissolved metals (Fe, Al, Mn, etc.) and low pH values. Ca2+ and SO4 2- are the dominant cation and anion in the AMD, respectively, while Ca2+ and HCO3 - are present at significant levels in background water and surface water after the drainage leaves the mine site. The pH and alkalinity increase asymptotically with the distance along the flow path, while concentrations of sulfate, ferrous iron, aluminum and manganese are typically controlled by the deposition of secondary minerals. Low concentrations of As and other pollutants in the surface waters of the Xingren coalfield could be due to relatively low quantities being released from coal seams, to adsorption and coprecipitation on secondary minerals in stream sediments, and to dilution by unpolluted surface recharge. Although As is not the most serious water quality problem in the Xingren region at present, it is still a potential environmental problem.

  8. DeWitt field study: surface flux observations, in-situ soundings, and remote sensing of conditions affecting the behavior of the mixed layer over land

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Wesely, M.L.; Sisterson, D.L.; Martin, T.J.; Hart, R.L.; Cook, D.R.; Hess, P.E.; Eloranta, E.W.; Hicks, B.B.

    1986-03-01

    The DeWitt field study, conducted July 10 to 21, 1979, provides information on the structure of the lower 2 km of the atmosphere and the surface boundary conditions for flat farmland in central Illinois. Mean wind and temperature profiles in the lower atmosphere were measured by in-situ soundings both with high-resolution miniature radiosondes and an instrument package carried aloft by a kytoon. The height and depth of the entrainment zone at the top of the boundary layer, and some wind velocity component means and turbulence statistics were measured with lidar and sodar remote sensing systems. Standard meteorological surface observations, measurements of solar and net radiation, and eddy fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and ozone over a local maize canopy complete the body of data collected. This report summarizes methods of observation and data reduction and presents the processed data in tabular and graphic forms in a series of appendices. These results can be used to test models of planetary boundary layer behavior, including the influences of surface fluxes and entrainment aloft on the variation of mixed layer heights and mixing processes in the boundary layer.

  9. High-precision photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. X.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Domsa, I.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high-precision photometry from the K2 data set, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel data set. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high-precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue - this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ˜0.127 arcsec. For bright stars, our best 6.5 h precision for raw light curves is ˜20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 h precision achieved is ˜15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. Example light curves of transiting planets and a Cepheid variable candidate, are also presented. We make all light curves public, including the raw and detrended photometry, at http://k2.hatsurveys.org.

  10. Cool White Dwarfs Revisited -- New Spectroscopy and Photometry

    E-print Network

    Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Brad M. Hansen; L. V. E. Koopmans; Ben R. Oppenheimer; Roger D. Blandford

    2003-10-08

    In this paper we present new and improved data on 38 cool white dwarfs identified by Oppenheimer et al. 2001 (OHDHS) as candidate dark halo objects. Using the high-res spectra obtained with LRIS, we measure radial velocities for 13 WDs that show an H alpha line. We show that the knowledge of RVs decreases the UV-plane velocities by only 6%. The radial velocity sample has a W-velocity dispersion of sig_W = 59 km/s--in between the values associated with the thick disk and the stellar halo. We also see indications for the presence of two populations by analyzing the velocities in the UV plane. In addition, we present CCD photometry for half of the sample, and with it recalibrate the photographic photometry of the remaining WDs. Using the new photometry in standard bands, and by applying the appropriate color-magnitude relations for H and He atmospheres, we obtain new distance estimates. New distances of the WDs that were not originally selected as halo candidates yield 13 new candidates. On average, new distances produce velocities in the UV plane that are larger by 10%, with already fast objects gaining more. Using the new data, while applying the same UV-velocity cut (94 km/s) as in OHDHS, we find a density of cool WDs of 1.7e-4 pc^-3, confirming the value of OHDHS. In addition, we derive the density as a function of the UV-velocity cutoff. The density (corrected for losses due to higher UV cuts) starts to flatten out at 150 km/s (0.4e-4 pc^-3), and is minimized (thus minimizing a possible non-halo contamination) at 190 km/s (0.3e-4 pc^-3). These densities are in a rough agreement with the estimates for the stellar halo WDs, corresponding to a factor of 1.9 and 1.4 higher values.

  11. Photometry and spectroscopy in the open cluster alpha Persei, 2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.

    1994-01-01

    Results from a combination of new spectroscopic and photometric observations in the lower main sequence and pre-main sequence of the open cluster alpha Persei are presented. New echelle spectroscopy has provided radial and rotational velocity information for thirteen candidate members, three of which are nonmembers based on radial velocity, absence of a Li 6707 A feature, and absence of H alpha emission. A set of revised rotational velocity estimates for several slowly rotating candidates identified earlier is given, yielding rotational velocities as low as 7 km/s for two apparent cluster members. VI photometry for several pre-main-sequence members is given; the new (V, V-I(sub K) photometry yields a more clearly defined pre-main sequence. A list of approximately 30 new faint candidate members based on the (V, V-I(sub K)), charge coupled device (CCD) photometry is presented in an effort to identify additional cluster members at very low masses. Low-dispersion spectra obtained for several of these candidates provide in some cases supporting evidence for cluster membership. The single brown dwarf candidate in this cluster is for the first time placed in a color-magnitude diagram with other cluster members, providing a better means for establishing its true status. Stars from among the list of new photometric candidates may provide the means for establishing a sequence of cluster members down to very faint magnitudes (V approximately 21) and consequently very low masses. New coordinate determinations for previous candidate members and finding charts for the new photometric candidates are provided in Appendices.

  12. LEMON: an (almost) completely automated differential-photometry pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrón, V.; Fernández, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present LEMON, the CCD differential-photometry pipeline, written in Python, developed at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (CSIC) and originally designed for its use at the 1.23 m CAHA telescope for automated variable stars detection and analysis. The aim of our tool is to make it possible to completely reduce thousands of images of time series in a matter of hours and with minimal user interaction, if not none at all, automatically detecting variable stars and presenting the results to the astronomer.

  13. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  14. Coordinates and RI photometry of Large Magellanic Cloud carbon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, E. )

    1990-07-01

    Coordinates and photoelectric RI magnitudes are given for 86 carbon stars discovered by Blanco et al. in four selected 0.12 deg sq areas of the LMC. A comparison with the photometry of Blanco et al. for carbon stars in three different fields of the LMC suggests that the luminosity distribution of the carbon stars may change from center to center in the LMC. This possibility is supported by the differences in the mean I magnitude of the carbon stars detected between the four areas studied. 16 refs.

  15. EUVE photometry of SS Cygni: Dwarf nova outbursts and oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C.W.

    1995-05-15

    The authors present EUVE Deep Survey photometry and AAVSO optical measurements of the 1993 August and 1994 June/July outbursts of the dwarf nova SS Cygni. The EUV and optical light curves are used to illustrate the different response of the accretion disk to outbursts which begin at the inner edge and propagate outward, and those which begin at the outer edge and propagate inward. Furthermore, the authors describe the properties of the quasi-coherent 7--9 s sinusoidal oscillations in the EUV flux detected during the rise and plateau stages of these outbursts.

  16. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  17. 5-micron photometry of late-type dwarfs

    E-print Network

    I. N. Reid; K. L. Cruz

    2001-10-15

    We present narrowband-M photometry of nine low-mass dwarfs with spectral types ranging from M2.5 to L0.5. Combining the (L'-M') colours derived from our observations with data from the literature, we find colours consistent with a Rayleigh-Jeans flux distribution for spectral types earlier than M5, but enhanced F_3.8/F_4.7 flux ratios (negative (L'-M') colours) at later spectral types. This probably reflects increased absorption at M' due to the CO fundamental band. We compare our results against recent model predictions and briefly discuss the implications.

  18. Spectroscopy and photometry for low-mass stars in Praesepe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Scott D.; Stauffer, John R.; Prosser, Charles F.; Herter, Terry

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained spectral types, H alpha equivalent widths, and optical photometry for a small sample of late K and M dwarf candidate members of the Praesepe open cluster. At least for the small sample of stars we have observed, all of the Paesepe members later than M2 have H alpha in emission. The chromospheric activity of the Praesepe satrs is essentially the same as that for Hyades members of the same mass, as expected since the two clusters are thought to be the same age.

  19. Old open clusters: UBGVRI photometry of NGC 2506

    E-print Network

    G. Marconi; D. Hamilton; M. Tosi; A. Bragaglia

    1997-07-07

    UBGVRI photometry for the open cluster NGC 2506 is presented. From comparison of the observed colour-magnitude diagrams with simulations based on stellar evolutionary models we derive in a self consistent way reddening, distance, and age of the cluster: E(B-V)=0-0.07, (m-M)o = 12.6, age = 1.5-2.2 Gyr. The cluster shows a well definite secondary sequence, suggesting that binary systems constitute about 20 % of the cluster members visible in the colour-magnitude diagram.

  20. CCD Photometry of Dwarf Nova AL Com in Superoutburst

    E-print Network

    W. Pych; A. Olech

    1995-09-20

    We report a CCD optical photometry of a dwarf nova AL Com in superoutburst. Before superhumps occurred the light curve was highly variable with dominant periods about 41 minutes and 81.5 minutes for different nights. The period of observed superhumps is 82.5 minutes and seems to be stable. The first harmonic of the basic period is also present. We detected a weak signal corresponding to period 78.1 minutes. One of the periods 78.1 or 81.5 is suspected to be a possible signature of orbital motion in the system.

  1. CCD based phase resolved stroboscopic photometry of pulsars

    E-print Network

    Jurij Kotar; Simon Vidrih; Andrej Cadez

    2003-03-17

    A stroboscope designed to observe pulsars in the optical spectrum is presented. The absolute phase of the stroboscope is synchronized to better than 2.5 microseconds with the known radio ephemerides for a given pulsar. The absolute timing is provided by the GPS clock. With such a device phase resolved photometry of pulsars can be performed. We demonstrate the instrument's capabilities with the results of a set of observations of the Crab pulsar, the brightest of the known optical pulsars, with a visual magnitude of 16.5, and a rotational frequency of ~29Hz.

  2. CCD photometry of the old open cluster Collinder 261

    E-print Network

    E. Gozzoli; M. Tosi; G. Marconi; A. Bragaglia

    1996-07-16

    We present UBVI photometry for the old open cluster Collinder 261. From comparison of the observed colour-magnitude diagrams with simulations based on stellar evolutionary models we derive in a self consistent way reddening, distance, and age of the cluster: E(B-V)=0.25$-$0.34, (m-M)$_0$=11.7-12.0, and age=7$-$8 Gyr or 9$-$11 Gyr, depending on the adopted stellar tracks. The models in better agreement with the data turn out to have metallicity at most solar.

  3. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Mason, Keith O.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    CCD time-resolved photometry in V, B, and near-IR for 17 faint cataclysmic variables (CVs) is presented and analyzed. The data are obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Perkins reflector, Lowell Observatory, and the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos from April-June 1989. The degree of variability and periodicities for the CVs are examined. It is observed that the variability of most of the stars is consistent with CV class behavior. Orbital periods for five CVs are determined, and three potential eclipsing systems are detected.

  4. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. III

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, S.B.; Szkody, P.; Kreidl, T.J.; Mason, K.O.; Puchnarewicz, E.M. Washington Univ., Seattle Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ London Univ. College, Dorking )

    1990-07-01

    CCD time-resolved photometry in V, B, and near-IR for 17 faint cataclysmic variables (CVs) is presented and analyzed. The data are obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, the Perkins reflector, Lowell Observatory, and the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos from April-June 1989. The degree of variability and periodicities for the CVs are examined. It is observed that the variability of most of the stars is consistent with CV class behavior. Orbital periods for five CVs are determined, and three potential eclipsing systems are detected. 36 refs.

  5. Spinocerebellar ataxia-13 Kv3.3 potassium channels: arginine-to-histidine mutations affect both functional and protein expression on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Thornhill, William B

    2013-09-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.3 is the causative gene of SCA13 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 13), an autosomal dominant neurological disorder. The four dominant mutations identified to date cause Kv3.3 channels to be non-functional or have altered gating properties in Xenopus oocytes. In the present paper, we report that SCA13 mutations affect functional as well as protein expression of Kv3.3 channels in a mammalian cell line. The reduced protein level of SCA13 mutants is caused by a shorter protein half-life, and blocking the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway increases the total protein of SCA13 mutants more than wild-type. SCA13 mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and the side chains of these residues play a critical role in the stable expression of Kv3.3 proteins. In addition, we show that mutant Kv3.3 protein levels could be partially rescued by treatment with the chemical chaperone TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) and to a lesser extent with co-expression of Kv3.1b. Thus our results suggest that amino acid side chains of SCA13 positions affect the protein half-life and/or function of Kv3.3, and the adverse effect on protein expression cannot be fully rescued. PMID:23734863

  6. Near-IR Spectroscopy and Visual Broadband Photometry of Unbound Asteroid Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Weissman, P.; Duddy, S. R.; Christou, A.; Green, S. F.; Lowry, S. C.; Rozitis, B.

    2012-10-01

    Over 62 pairs of asteroids have been identified with extremely similar orbits (Rozek, Breiter, and Jopek 2011, MNRAS 412, 987). Backwards integration of their orbits show that each pair probably experienced a very low-velocity close encounter, in many cases less than 1 Myr ago (e.g. Vokrouhlický and Nesvorný 2008, AJ 136, 280). Pravec et al. (2010, Nature, 466, 1085) examined 35 pairs and found that the secondary/primary mass ratio is <0.2. Also, as this ratio approaches 0.2, the rotation period of the primary increases. This is consistent with formation of the pairs through rotational fission of a parent rubble-pile asteroid (Scheeres 2007, Icarus 189, 370). However, the pairs were linked through dynamical considerations alone, and mass ratios were determined using catalogued visual magnitudes and the assumption that the albedos and bulk densities of the components are identical. We are undertaking a campaign of characterising the asteroids in these pairs using visual and NIR spectroscopy as well as thermal IR photometry. We present 0.8-2.5 micron spectroscopic observations of using SpeX on NASA-IRTF, and BVRI photometry using the 0.6-m Table Mountain Observatory telescope. Our goals are to assess the similarity of the spectra of the components’ surfaces (e.g. Duddy et al. 2012, A&A, 539, A36) and also to look for evidence of color variation as a function of rotational phase. Since dynamical studies have placed constraints on the formation ages, if the asteroids are completely resurfaced during formation, we can start to explore the timescales involved in space weathering. We report recent progress in our investigations. This work was supported in part by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and done in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract with NASA.

  7. delta Ceti is not monoperiodic: seismic modeling of a beta Cephei star from MOST spacebased photometry

    E-print Network

    C. Aerts; S. V. Marchenko; J. M. Matthews; R. Kuschnig; D. B. Guenther; A. F. J. Moffat; S. M. Rucinski; D. Sasselov; G. A. H. Walker; W. W. Weiss

    2006-02-02

    The beta Cephei star delta Ceti was considered one of the few monoperiodic variables in the class. Despite (or perhaps because of) its apparently simple oscillation spectrum, it has been challenging and controversial to identify this star's pulsation mode and constrain its physical parameters seismically. Broadband time-resolved photometry of delta Ceti spanning 18.7 days with a duty cycle of about 65% obtained by the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite -- the first scientific observations ever obtained by MOST -- reveals that the star is actually multiperiodic. Besides the well-known dominant frequency of f1 = 6.205886/d, we have discovered in the MOST data its first harmonic 2f1 and three other frequencies (f2 = 3.737/d, f3 = 3.673/d and f4 = 0.318/d), all detected with S/N > 4. In retrospect, f2 was also present in archival spectral line profile data but at lower S/N. We present seismic models whose modes match exactly the frequencies f1 and f2. Only one model falls within the common part of the error boxes of the star's observed surface gravity and effective temperature from photometry and spectroscopy. In this model, f1 is the radial (l = 0) first overtone and f2 is the g2 (l = 2, m = 0) mode. This model has a mass of 10.2+/-0.2 Msun and an age of 17.9+/-0.3 million years, making delta Ceti an evolved beta Cephei star. If f2 and f3 are rotationally split components of the same g2 mode, then the star's equatorial rotation velocity is either 27.6 km/s or half this value. Given its vsini of about 1 km/s, this implies we are seeing delta Ceti nearly pole-on.

  8. Feasibility of spectro-photometry in X-rays (SPHINX) from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Doing space Astronomy on lunar surface has several advantages. We present here feasibility of an All Sky Monitoring Payload for Spectro-photometry in X-rays (SPHINX) which can be placed on a lander on the moon or in a space craft orbiting around the moon. The Si-PIN photo-diodes and CdTe crystals are used to detect solar flares, bright gamma bursts, soft gamma-ray repeaters from space and also X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from lunar surface. We present the complete Geant4 simulation to study the feasibility of such an instrument in presence of Cosmic Diffused X-Ray Background (CDXRB). We find that the signal to noise ratio is sufficient for moderate to bright GRBs (above 5 keV), for the quiet sun (up to 100 keV), solar flares, soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) of lunar surface etc. This is a low-cost system which is capable of performing multiple tasks while stationed at the natural satellite of our planet.

  9. High Precision Photometry for K2 Campaign 1

    E-print Network

    Huang, Chelsea X; Hartman, J D; Bakos, G Á; Bhatti, W; Domsa, I; de Val-Borro, M

    2015-01-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission promises and has delivered new discoveries in the stellar and exoplanet fields. However, due to the loss of accurate pointing, it also brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. In this paper, we describe a new reduction pipeline for extracting high precision photometry from the K2 dataset, and present public light curves for the K2 Campaign 1 target pixel dataset. Key to our reduction is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps, from which accurate centroids are passed on for high precision photometry extraction. We extract target light curves for sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue -- this includes not only primary targets of the K2 campaign 1, but also any other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. We provide the raw light curves, and the products of various detrending processes aimed at removing different types of systematics. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ~ 0.13". For bright stars, ...

  10. High Precision Photometry for the K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Soares-Furtado, Melinda; Penev, Kaloyan; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gaspar; Bhatti, Waqas; Domsa, Istvan; de Val-Borro, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The two reaction wheel K2 mission brings new challenges for the data reduction processes. We developed a reduction pipeline for extracting high precision photometry from the K2 dataset and we use this pipeline to generate light curves for the K2 Campaign 0 super-stamps and K2 Campaign 1 target pixel dataset. Key to our reduction technique is the derivation of global astrometric solutions from the target stamps from which accurate centroids are passed on for high precision photometry extraction. We also implemented the image subtraction method to reduce the K2 Campaign 0 super-stamps containing open clusters M35 and NGC2158. We extract target light curvesfor sources from a combined UCAC4 and EPIC catalogue -- this includes not only primary targets of the K2 Mission, but also other stars that happen to fall on the pixel stamps. Our astrometric solutions achieve a median residual of ~0.127". For bright stars, our best 6.5 hour precision for raw light curves is ~20 parts per million (ppm). For our detrended light curves, the best 6.5 hour precision achieved is ~15 ppm. We show that our detrended light curves have fewer systematic effects (or trends, or red-noise) than light curves produced by other groups from the same observations. We highlight the measurements of rotation curves using the K2 light curves of stars within open cluster M35 and NGC2158.

  11. Photometry of Variable Stars from Dome A, Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lingzhi; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C B; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W V; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2011-01-01

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth thanks to the excellent atmospheric conditions present at the site during the long polar winter night. We present high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 10,000 stars with i<14.5 mag located in a 23 square-degree region centered on the south celestial pole. The photometry was obtained with one of the CSTAR telescopes during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter. We used this photometric data set to derive site statistics for Dome A and to search for variable stars. Thanks to the nearly-uninterrupted synoptic coverage, we find 6 times as many variables as previous surveys with similar magnitude limits. We detected 157 variable stars, of which 55% are unclassified, 27% are likely binaries and 17% are likely pulsating stars. The latter category includes delta Scuti, gamma Doradus and RR Lyrae variables. One variable may be a transiting exoplanet.

  12. Stromvil CCD Photometry in Globular Cluster M 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Richard P.; Janusz, R.; Philip, A. G. D.; Straizys, V.; Vrba, F.

    2007-12-01

    We observed the globular cluster M 3 in the 7-band Stromvil system plus Vilnius X-band at the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope with a 2K CCD giving a 6-arcmin field. We observed the open cluster M 67 in the same run. Here from the residuals of many stars fit to quality CCD Vilnius photometry (Laugalys et al., 2004, Baltic Astronomy, 13, 1) we reshape and thus correct the initial flatfields. M 67 with a wide color base gives the color transformations of the run by calibrating from about 12 photoelectric standards in the Stromvil and similar Vilnius systems. In M 3 six photoelectric standards of moderate quality, all red stars of 13th magnitude in the Vilnius system calibrate the zero-point magnitude scale. Point-spread-function fitting to the stars in the crowded M 3 field resolves blends. With relatively short exposures of minutes a limiting magnitude V=15 is obtained with a signal/noise ratio about 100. So from this new photometry we subsequently can classify all types of stars and treat questions of reddening, distances, membership and metallicity at least at the horizontal branch of the cluster.

  13. A new look at photometry of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goguen, J.D.; Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Buratti, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use ROLO photometry (Kieffer, H.H., Stone, T.C. [2005]. Astron. J. 129, 2887-2901) to characterize the before and after full Moon radiance variation for a typical highlands site and a typical mare site. Focusing on the phase angle range 45??. ) to calculate the scattering matrix and solve the radiative transfer equation for I/. F. The mean single scattering albedo is ??=0.808, the asymmetry parameter is ???cos. ?????=0.77 and the phase function is very strongly peaked in both the forward and backward scattering directions. The fit to the observations for the highland site is excellent and multiply scattered photons contribute 80% of I/. F. We conclude that either model, roughness or multiple scattering, can match the observations, but that the strongly anisotropic phase functions of realistic particles require rigorous calculation of many orders of scattering or spurious photometric roughness estimates are guaranteed. Our multiple scattering calculation is the first to combine: (1) a regolith model matched to the measured particle size distribution and index of refraction of the lunar soil, (2) a rigorous calculation of the particle phase function and solution of the radiative transfer equation, and (3) application to lunar photometry with absolute radiance calibration. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  14. UBV Photometry of the young open cluster Berkely 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyemi, Abolaji; Eskridge, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    We obtained UBV imaging of a field in the young open cluster Berkeley 87. From these images, we measured the brightness of ~180 stars in the cluster. Our photometry was calibrated using published photometry (Turner & Forbes 1982 PASP 94, 789) of a subset of stars in our field. The cluster is in a region of the sky with strongly varying extinction. Therefore we made a (U-B)-(B-V) color-color diagram of the field and used this to de-redden the stars on a case by case basis. We de-reddened the stars using the unreddened supergiant and main sequence colors from Astrophysical Quantities (Cox 2000).The color-magnitude diagrams of the de-reddened stars are compared to the Padova isochrones(Marigo et al 2008 A&A 482 883). The isochrones are generated for a range of ages, with solar metalicity and no ? enhancement. The best fit for the isochrones was the main sequence de-reddened stars from which the age of the cluster is estimated to be 20 million years. This is older than previous age estimates (1-5 million years) from earlier studies of the cluster. This may indicate age variation in the cluster.We acknowledge the support of the Physics and Astronomy department, and the College of Science and Engineering, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

  15. PHOTOMETRY OF VARIABLE STARS FROM DOME A, ANTARCTICA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lingzhi; Macri, Lucas M.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang Lifan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Storey, John W. V.; Cui Xiangqun; Gong Xuefei; Yuan Xiangyan; Feng Longlong; Yang Ji; Zhu Zhenxi; Liu Qiang; Zhou Xu; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Shang Zhaohui; Yang Huigen; York, Donald G.

    2011-11-15

    Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth thanks to the excellent atmospheric conditions present at the site during the long polar winter night. We present high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 10,000 stars with i < 14.5 mag located in a 23 deg{sup 2} region centered on the south celestial pole. The photometry was obtained with one of the CSTAR telescopes during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter. We used this photometric data set to derive site statistics for Dome A and to search for variable stars. Thanks to the nearly uninterrupted synoptic coverage, we found six times as many variables as previous surveys with similar magnitude limits. We detected 157 variable stars, of which 55% were unclassified, 27% were likely binaries, and 17% were likely pulsating stars. The latter category includes {delta} Scuti, {gamma} Doradus, and RR Lyrae variables. One variable may be a transiting exoplanet.

  16. Uptake and bio-reactivity of polystyrene nanoparticles is affected by surface modifications, ageing and LPS adsorption: in vitro studies on neural tissue cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Kumarasamy; Kenesei, Kata; Li, Yang; Demeter, Kornél; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Madarász, Emilia

    2015-02-01

    Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the role of the chemical composition of particle surfaces in the in vitro interaction with different neural cell types. PS NPs within a size-range of 45-70 nm influenced the metabolic activity of cells depending on the cell-type, but caused toxicity only at extremely high particle concentrations. Neurons did not internalize particles, while microglial cells ingested a large amount of carboxylated but almost no PEGylated NPs. PEGylation reduced the protein adsorption, toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs. After storage (shelf-life >6 months), the toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs increased. The altered biological activity of ``aged'' NPs was due to particle aggregation and due to the adsorption of bioactive compounds on NP surfaces. Aggregation by increasing the size and sedimentation velocity of NPs results in increased cell-targeted NP doses. The ready endotoxin adsorption which cannot be prevented by PEG coating, can render the particles toxic. The age-dependent changes in otherwise harmless NPs could be the important sources for variability in the effects of NPs, and could explain the contradictory data obtained with ``identical'' NPs.Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the role of the chemical composition of particle surfaces in the in vitro interaction with different neural cell types. PS NPs within a size-range of 45-70 nm influenced the metabolic activity of cells depending on the cell-type, but caused toxicity only at extremely high particle concentrations. Neurons did not internalize particles, while microglial cells ingested a large amount of carboxylated but almost no PEGylated NPs. PEGylation reduced the protein adsorption, toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs. After storage (shelf-life >6 months), the toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs increased. The altered biological activity of ``aged'' NPs was due to particle aggregation and due to the adsorption of bioactive compounds on NP surfaces. Aggregation by increasing the size and sedimentation velocity of NPs results in increased cell-targeted NP doses. The ready endotoxin adsorption which cannot be prevented by PEG coating, can render the particles toxic. The age-dependent changes in otherwise harmless NPs could be the important sources for variability in the effects of NPs, and could explain the contradictory data obtained with ``identical'' NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06849a

  17. Factors affecting the fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA into surface waters of agricultural watersheds in the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used extensively in almost all agricultural and urban areas of the United States and Europe. Although, glyphosate is used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, it is predominately used in the United States on soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton that have been genetically modified to be tolerant to glyphosate. From 1992 to 2007, the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10,000 Mg to more than 80,000 Mg, respectively. The greatest areal use is in the midwestern United States where glyphosate is applied on transgenic corn and soybeans. Because of the difficulty and expense in analyzing for glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, a primary glyphosate degradate) in water, there have been only small scale studies on the fate and transport of glyphosate. The characterization of the transport of glyphosate and AMPA on a watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of 4 agricultural watersheds in studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States and at the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg. Two of these basins were located in the midwestern United States where the major crops are corn and soybean, the third is located the lower Mississippi River Basin where the major crops are soybean, corn, rice, and cotton, and the fourth was located near Strasbourg, France where the use of glyphosate was on a vineyard. The load as a percent of use ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and could be related to 3 factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however, those watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  18. Quantifying the uncertainty in surface energy fluxes of glacierised environments: How does the lack of information affect estimations of ablation amounts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, A.; Pellicciotti, F.; Burlando, P.

    2014-12-01

    Surface-atmosphere energy exchanges control the ablation of snow and ice dominated regions. Although some of the input variables for surface energy balance (SEB) models can be estimated with reasonable accuracy using extrapolated data, remote sensing or meteorological models, estimates of other variables are still difficult, especially across glacierised catchments and at high elevations. Despite the existence of large uncertainties in the forcing variables, ablation amounts are usually simulated by glacio-hydrological models using only deterministic inputs. This is the case for advanced SEB models, which use large amounts of input data, or conceptual models e.g. based on temperature index methods, which rely on the transferability in space and time of empirical parameters. In this work, we present an approach to explicitly calculate the uncertainty transferred from input variables to energy fluxes and ablation amounts of SEB simulations. For this, we parameterize the probability density functions (pdfs) of the SEB results. We code a point scale SEB model that calculates radiative, turbulent and internal heat fluxes. The model also includes a blowing snow sublimation module to determine mass losses to the atmosphere within the saltation and suspension layers. Using the SEB model, we perform extensive numerical simulations (>2*106 model runs) and obtain results of melt and sublimation within a-priori defined ranges of the input variables. These ranges are relatively wide in order to be representative of highly variable high-elevation conditions. After this, we fit theoretical pdfs to the input and outputs variables of the SEB model and obtain the distribution parameters. Using these results and a Bayesian scheme, we can compute the pdf of each output variable of the SEB as a function of the available (usually limited) information at a particular study site. In order to identify the most relevant information for each output variable, we also show the results of a global sensitivity analysis of the SEB model. The approach is tested using field measurements in the Chilean Andes and the Nepalese Himalaya. The presented method is shown to be effective on the calculation of energy fluxes, and melt and sublimation amounts, explicitly computing their uncertainty using a computationally parsimonious approach.

  19. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (H?), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  20. A Response Surface Methodology study on the role of factors affecting growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis ISA 2211 in wine.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Barata, A; Ferreira-Dias, S; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of glucose, ethanol and sulphur dioxide on the growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wines using a response surface methodology approach. Sulphur dioxide proved to have a significant (p < 0.05) negative linear and quadratic effect on growth and 4-ethylphenol production. Concentrations of sulphur dioxide higher than 20 mg L(-1), at pH 3.50, induced immediate loss of cell culturability under growth permissive levels of ethanol. Under high ethanol concentrations (14% v/v), the lag phase increased from 3 to 10 days, growth being fully arrested at 15% (v/v). Glucose up to 10 g L(-1) was found to be a significant factor (quadratic level) in biomass increase under low ethanol (<12.5% v/v) and low sulphite concentrations. However, when cells were inactivated by sulphur dioxide and ethanol, glucose (up to 10 g L(-1)) did not prevent cell death. Production of more than 50 ?g L(-1) day(-1) of 4-ethylphenol was only observed in the presence of high numbers (10(6) CFU mL(-1)) of culturable cells, being stimulated by increasing glucose concentrations. PMID:24929715

  1. A study of lubrication, processing conditions, and material combinations that affect the wear of micro-textured-carbide coated cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy surfaces used for artificial joints implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettienne-Modeste, Geriel A.

    Total joint replacement remains one of the most successful treatments for arthritis. The most common materials used for artificial joints are metals (e.g., cobalt-chrome alloys or titanium alloys), which articulate against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Wear related failures of artificial joints may be reduced with the use of novel micro-textured carbide surfaces. The micro-textured carbide surfaces were deposited on a CoCrMo alloy using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Wear tests were conducted to determine wear mechanisms and properties of the micro-textured surfaces. The research presented in this thesis addresses: (1) rheolgoical behavior of bovine calf serum with and without antibacterial agents to determine whether they can be used as appropriate models for synovial fluid, (2) the wear behavior of the micro-textured CoCrMo surface system, and (3) the mechanical and material properties of the micro-textured CoCrMo alloy surface relevant to wear performance. The rheological studies showed that the apparent viscosity of bovine calf serum increased with an increase in concentration before and after the serum was used for wear testing. The wear analysis showed that the processing conditions (2hr deposition vs. 4hr deposition times) affected the wear properties. The 2hr carbide-on-carbide lubricated in 50% BCS produced the lowest wear factor and rate for the five wear couple systems containing the carbide disk or plate material. Greater wear was produced in serum without penicillin/streptomycin (P/S) compared to the serum containing P/S. A greater carbide coating thickness 10 (micrometers) was produced during the 4hr deposition time than for the 2hr deposition (˜3mum). The nano-hardness value was higher than the micro-hardness for both the 4hr and 2hr carbide surfaces. The micro-hardness results of the worn carbide surfaces showed that an increase in BCS concentration from 0% to 100% increased the micro-hardness (HV) for carbide surfaces (from 873 to 1344 HV).

  2. Wide Field Near-infrared Photometry of 12 Galactic Globular Clusters: Observations Versus Models on the Red Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Roger E.; Hempel, Maren; Mauro, Francesco; Geisler, Douglas; Alonso-Garcia, Javier; Kinemuchi, Karen

    2015-12-01

    We present wide field near-infrared (near-IR) photometry of 12 Galactic globular clusters, typically extending from the tip of the cluster red giant branch (RGB) to the main sequence turnoff. Using recent homogenous values of cluster distance, reddening and metallicity, the resulting photometry is directly compared to the predictions of several recent libraries of stellar evolutionary models. Of the sets of models investigated, Dartmouth and Victoria-Regina models best reproduce the observed RGB morphology, albeit with offsets in J-{K}S color which vary in their significance in light of all sources of observational uncertainty. Therefore, we also present newly recalibrated relations between near-IR photometric indices describing the upper RGB versus cluster iron abundance as well as global metallicity. The influence of enhancements in alpha elements and helium are analyzed, and we find that the former affect the morphology of the upper RGB in accord with model predictions. Meanwhile, the empirical relations we derive are in good agreement with previous results, and minor discrepancies can likely be attributed to differences in the assumed cluster distances and reddenings. In addition, we present measurements of the horizontal branch (HB) and RGB bump magnitudes, finding a non-negligible dependence of the near-IR HB magnitude on cluster metallicity. Lastly, we discuss the influence of assumed cluster distances, reddenings and metallicities on our results, finding that our empirical relations are generally insensitive to these factors to within their uncertainties.

  3. Fits to data The gures in this Appendix show the ts to the photometry for the mod-

    E-print Network

    Whiting, Matthew

    Appendix D Fits to data The #12;gures in this Appendix show the #12;ts to the photometry (calculated according to Section 4.4). The photometry is shown in the centre-left panel. The magnitudes from). The polarisation is plotted on a linear scale, against wavelength on the same log scale as the photometry

  4. Fits to data The figures in this Appendix show the fits to the photometry for the mod-

    E-print Network

    Whiting, Matthew

    Appendix D Fits to data The figures in this Appendix show the fits to the photometry for the mod to Section 4.4). The photometry is shown in the centre-left panel. The magnitudes from Table B.1 have been, against wavelength on the same log scale as the photometry. The bottom-left shows the optical spectrum

  5. VAPHOT -A Package for Precision Differential Aperture Photometry HANS J. DEEG1,2, LAURANCE R. DOYLE3

    E-print Network

    Deeg, Hans-Jörg

    VAPHOT - A Package for Precision Differential Aperture Photometry HANS J. DEEG1,2, LAURANCE R radius, diameter and 'size' is clarified Abstract The aperture photometry package `vaphot' was developed to perform reliable and precise time-series photometry of uncrowded fields. This package works within

  6. PUSHING THE LIMITS OF GROUND-BASED PHOTOMETRIC PRECISION: SUBMILLIMAGNITUDE TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    PUSHING THE LIMITS OF GROUND-BASED PHOTOMETRIC PRECISION: SUBMILLIMAGNITUDE TIME-SERIES PHOTOMETRY of this study was to demonstrate the ability to obtain very high precision photometry for a large number to obtain high-precision (millimagnitude, or less than 1%) time-series, optical and infrared photometry

  7. Spitzer IRAC Photometry for Time Series in Crowded Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer team; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Koz?owski, S.; Wyrzykowski, ?.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Soszy?ski, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE group

    2015-12-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  8. An interactive modular design for computerized photometry in spectrochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    A general functional description of totally automatic photometry of emission spectra is not available for an operating environment in which the sample compositions and analysis procedures are low-volume and non-routine. The advantages of using an interactive approach to computer control in such an operating environment are demonstrated. This approach includes modular subroutines selected at multiple-option, menu-style decision points. This style of programming is used to trace elemental determinations, including the automated reading of spectrographic plates produced by a 3.4 m Ebert mount spectrograph using a dc-arc in an argon atmosphere. The simplified control logic and modular subroutine approach facilitates innovative research and program development, yet is easily adapted to routine tasks. Operator confidence and control are increased by the built-in options including degree of automation, amount of intermediate data printed out, amount of user prompting, and multidirectional decision points.

  9. CCD-? a and BVR photometry of NGC 7296

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Maitzen, H. M.; Claret, A.; Pavlovski, K.; Tamajo, E.

    2005-10-01

    The first CCD photometric investigation of the open cluster NGC 7296 up to now was performed within the narrow band ? a photometric system, which enables us to detect peculiar objects. A deeper investigation of that cluster followed, using the standard BVR-Bessel filter set. The age and E(B-V) was determined independently to log t = 8.0 ± 0.1 and 0.15 ± 0.02, respectively by using ? a and broadband photometry. In total five Be/Ae objects and two metal-weak stars showing significant negative ? a-values as well as one classical chemically peculiar star could be identified within that intermediate age open cluster. Based on observations at the Hvar Observatory, University of Zagreb and the Leopold-Figl Observatory for Astrophysics, University of Vienna.

  10. CCD photometry to V = 21 in a Puppis field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, W. E.; Reed, B. C.; Hesser, J. E.

    1986-06-01

    A UBV calibrating sequence of 235 stars brighter than V = 21.25 in the 'Puppis Window' at (l,b) = (254 deg, 0 deg) is presented. The photoelectric data were obtained during the night of October 3, 1983, using a CCD camera on the CTIO 4-m telescope. The program used consisted of 10-s and 120-s exposure pairs in B and V of a field centered on the Reed and FitzGerald (1983) star C7-53. After preprocessing the program frames (bias, flat-fielding, and fringe removal), the data were reduced with an operating version of DAOPHOT. The internal errors of the photometry, derived through DAOPHOT by adding scaled images scattered randomly throughout the frame and then remeasuring the frame, are summarized. The cutoff of V = 21.25 corresponds to the value of sigma(V,B) about 0.1 mag.

  11. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  12. FRAM telescope - monitoring of atmospheric extinction and variable star photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurysek, J.; Honkova, K.; Masek, M.

    2015-02-01

    The FRAM (F/(Ph)otometric Robotic Atmospheric Monitor) telescope is a part of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) located near town Malargüe in Argentina. The main task of the FRAM telescope is the continuous night - time monitoring of the atmospheric extinction and its wavelength dependence. The current methodology of the measurement of a atmospheric extinction and for instrumentation properties also allows simultaneous observation of other interesting astronomical targets. The current observations of the FRAM telescope are focused on the photometry of eclipsing binaries, positional refinement of minor bodies of the Solar system and observations of optical counterparts of gamma ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly describe the main purpose of the FRAM telescope for the PAO and we also present its current astrono mical observing program.

  13. Evaluation of urine culture screening by light-scatter photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.C.; Thrupp, L.D.; Matsen, J.M.

    1981-08-01

    Urine screening for bacteriuria by light-scatter photometry (Autobac) was evaluated for accuracy and compared with a colony count by the calibrated loop method. Incubation time, inoculum size, precision, and interference of particulate matter were evaluated in an effort to standardize the screening procedure. Results showed that urines could be accurately screened for Enterobacteriaceae by inoculating a single Autobac cuvette chamber with 0.1 or 0.2 ml of urine and determining the voltage change after four hours. A change of greater than or equal to 0.2 units indicates significant bacteriuria. Decreased accuracy was noted for urines having greater than 10(5) cfu/ml of Pseudomonas species or gram-positive cocci, possibly because these organisms grow more slowly.

  14. Spectroscopy and photometry of L-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Abe, L.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Rivet, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    Among L-type asteroids, a peculiar category of objects exists: it includes the so-called "Barbarians", known to have very specific features in the phasepolarization curve. Such objects are thought to contain a high percentage of Calcium-Aluminumrich- Inclusions, responsible of a spinel absorption feature in the near infrared (around 2.1-2.2 ?m). However, Barbarians are also peculiar in some other physical properties: in particular they seem to have unusually high rotation periods, and large amplitude light curves. We started a campaign of NIR spectroscopy and photometry to shed a light on such properties and to compare the Barbarians to the other objects belonging to the same taxonomic type.

  15. Prelude to, and Nature of the Space Photometry Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2015-09-01

    It is now less than a decade since CoRoT initiated the space photometry revolution with breakthrough discoveries, and five years since Kepler started a series of similar advances. I'll set the context for this revolution noting the status of asteroseismology and exoplanet discovery as it was 15-25 years ago in order to give perspective on why it is not mere hyperbole to claim CoRoT and Kepler fostered a revolution in our sciences. Primary events setting up the revolution will be recounted. I'll continue with noting the major discoveries in hand, and how asteroseismology and exoplanet studies, and indeed our approach to doing science, have been forever changed thanks to these spectacular missions.

  16. The symbiosis of photometry and radial-velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    1994-01-01

    The FRESIP mission is optimized to detect the inner planets of a planetary system. According to the current paradigm of planet formation, these planets will probably be small Earth-sized objects. Ground-based radial-velocity programs now have the sensitivity to detect Jovian-mass planets in orbit around bright solar-type stars. We expect the more massive planets to form in the outer regions of a proto-stellar nebula. These two types of measurements will very nicely complement each other, as they have highest detection probability for very different types of planets. The combination of FRESIP photometry and ground-based spectra will provide independent confirmation of the existence of planetary systems in orbit around other stars. Such detection of both terrestrial and Jovian planets in orbit around the same star is essential to test our understanding of planet formation.

  17. USING PHOTOMETRY TO PROBE THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF {delta} SCORPII

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C. E.; Wiegert, P. A.; Cyr, R. P.; Halonen, R. J.; Tycner, C.; Henry, G. W.; Muterspaugh, M. W.

    2013-05-15

    We acquired Johnson BV photometry of the binary Be disk system {delta} Scorpii during its 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012 observing seasons and used it to probe the innermost regions of the disk. We found that several disk building events have occurred during this time, resulting in an overall brightening in the V band and reddening of the system. In addition to these long-term trends, we found cyclical variability in each observing season on timescales between 60 and 100 days. We were able to reproduce the changes in the magnitude and color of {delta} Sco using our theoretical models and found that variable mass-loss rates in the range 2.5-7.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} over {approx}35 days can reproduce the observed increase in brightness.

  18. Spitzer IRAC Photometry for Time Series in Crowded Fields

    E-print Network

    Novati, S Calchi; Yee, J C; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Wibking, B; Zhu, W; Udalski, A; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szyma?ski, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Koz?owski, S; Wyrzykowski, ?; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzy?ski, G; Soszy?ski, I; Ulaczyk, K

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for $Spitzer$ time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint and/or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 $Spitzer$ microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of $Spitzer$'s instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by $Kepler$ and $WFIRST$, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  19. Far-ultraviolet photometry of the globular cluster omega Cen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Jonathan H.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Rood, Robert T.; Dorman, Ben; Landsman, Wayne B.; Cheng, K.-P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.

    1994-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet images of the globular cluster omega Centauri obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the 1990 December Astro-1 mission. A total of 1957 sources are detected at 1620 A to a limiting ultraviolet (UV) magnitude of 16.4 in the central 24 min diameter region of the field and a limit of 15.6 over the remainder of the 40 min diameter field. Over 1400 of these sources are matched with stars on a Stroemgren u band charge coupled devices (CCD) frame obtained with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9 m telescope to produce a (far-UV, u) color-magnitude diagram (CMD). Completeness of the sample and error estimates are determined by photometry of artificial stars added to the images. The horizontal branch (HB) of the CMD is heavily populated hotter than 9000 K. A large number of 'extreme HB' stars are found hotter than a conspicuous break in the HB at T(sub e) approximately 16000 K. There is also a significant population of stars above the HB, the brightest of which is 4 mag brighter than the HB. Most of the hotter of these appear to be 'AGB-manque' or 'Post-Early Asymptotic Giant Branch' stars. We compare the observations to recent theoretical evolutionary tracks for the zero-age HB and subsequent phases. The tracks match the data well, with the exception of the hotter HB stars, many of which fall below the zero-age horizontal branch. It is unclear as yet whether these are a special population or an artifact of errors in the models or photometry. We identify 33 stars with T(sub e) greater than or approximately = 50000 K, which are hotter than zero-age HB stars with envelope masses of 0.003 solar mass.

  20. How does nature of rain affect micro-physical parameters of surface rain? A study on vertical profile and surface rain micro-structure over eastern Himalaya in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Soumendra; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Mitra, Amitabha

    A study has been made on the effect of nature of the rain (convective, stratiform and mixed) on the various micro-physical properties like drop-size distributions (DSD), fall velocity and rain rate of surface rain over Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. A vertical looking Micro Rain Radar (MRR) was used for the vertical profile of micro-physical parameters of rain along with the rain height derived from the bright band structure of melting layer of radar reflectivity profile. The micro-physical parameters of surface rain was obtained using a ground based Disdrometer. Data has been collected and analysed for all the rain events during monsoon (June-September), 2013. All the rain events over the entire study period were classified as convective, stratiform and mixed type based on the bright band structure. DSD, fall velocity of rain drops and rain rate obtained from Disdrometer were correlated with the types of rain obtained from MRR. Our results showed that the average height of bright band of melting layer was 2.5 km and 4 km for convective and stratiform type of rain respectively. For mixed type of rain radar reflectivity shows two peaks with the bright band heights ranging from 2 - 5 km. Convective rain events showed higher rain rate at the ground with the range of 30-40 mm hr (-1) . Instantaneous rain rate of convective rain events sometimes reached more than 100 mm hr (-1) . DSD at the surface showed that number of bigger drops (> 0.5 mm) increases significantly compared to smaller drops (< 0.5 mm) along with higher fall velocities. The drop diameter for this type of rain reached 5 mm for most of the cases. For stratiform type of rain, surface rain rate was found to be comparatively much lower remaining around 5 mm hr (-1) . The number of bigger drops was much lower associated to stratiform type of rain. The drop diameter remained within 2 mm for most of the cases. Several events were observed where all types of rains occurred with convective rains appeared at the initial phase of rain followed by mixed type and both of them lasted for low duration. Stratiform rains which appeared after the mixed type lasted for longer duration till the end of the events. The individual characteristics for each type of rains were distinctly observed for the events where all these three types were present. These distinctly different features of different rain types could significantly impact on the washing or scavenging air pollutants below the cloud with different potentials.

  1. Imaging Spotted Stars with Simultaneous Interferometry, Spectroscopy, and Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael; Monnier, John; Korhonen, Heidi; Harmon, Robert; Henry, Gregory W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Michael; Latham, David

    2015-08-01

    Harnessing the sub-milliarcsecond resolving capabilities of the world's largest infrared interferometer, the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, we combine light from all six telescopes with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) to directly image the spotted stellar surfaces of the giant primary stars of RS CVn binary systems. In the first study of its kind, we compare these unprecedented interferometric (aperture synthesis) images of stars with simultaneous Doppler and light-curve inversion images to verify the methods and understand their limitations. Using the latitude information we obtain from the Doppler and aperture synthesis images, we investigate degeneracies across hemispheres and the latitude dependence of magnetic field structures. Additionally, we have made the first detections of the systems' faint companions (H-band flux ratios >250:1), detected ellipsoidal variations, and measured gravity darkening. Together these results affect previous analyses of starspot location (e.g. active longitudes), evolution, and differential rotation. Whether or not current solar dynamos can accurately predict the properties of the young, active Sun is unclear; our detailed studies of active, cool giants with rapid rotation and large starspots may help broaden and guide extensions of dynamo theory.

  2. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. A DISTANCE DETERMINATION TO THE LOCAL GROUP SPIRAL M33 FROM NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF CEPHEID VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz E-mail: pietrzyn@hubble.cfm.udec.cl; and others

    2013-08-10

    Motivated by an amazing range of reported distances to the nearby Local Group spiral galaxy M33, we have obtained deep near-infrared photometry for 26 long-period Cepheids in this galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope. From the data, we constructed period-luminosity relations in the J and K bands which together with previous optical VI photometry for the Cepheids by Macri et al. were used to determine the true distance modulus of M33, and the mean reddening affecting the Cepheid sample with the multiwavelength fit method developed in the Araucaria Project. We find a true distance modulus of 24.62 for M33, with a total uncertainty of {+-}0.07 mag which is dominated by the uncertainty on the photometric zero points in our photometry. The reddening is determined as E(B - V) = 0.19 {+-} 0.02, in agreement with the value used by the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project of Freedman et al. but in some discrepancy with other recent determinations based on blue supergiant spectroscopy and an O-type eclipsing binary which yielded lower reddening values. Our derived M33 distance modulus is extremely insensitive to the adopted reddening law. We show that the possible effects of metallicity and crowding on our present distance determination are both at the 1%-2% level and therefore minor contributors to the total uncertainty of our distance result for M33.

  3. EXTENDED PHOTOMETRY FOR THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: A TESTBED FOR PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael C.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J. E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes a new catalog that supplements the existing DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey photometric and spectroscopic catalogs with ugriz photometry from two other surveys: the Canada-France-Hawaii Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Each catalog is cross-matched by position on the sky in order to assign ugriz photometry to objects in the DEEP2 catalogs. We have recalibrated the CFHTLS photometry where it overlaps DEEP2 in order to provide a more uniform data set. We have also used this improved photometry to predict DEEP2 BRI photometry in regions where only poorer measurements were available previously. In addition, we have included improved astrometry tied to SDSS rather than USNO-A2.0 for all DEEP2 objects. In total this catalog contains {approx}27, 000 objects with full ugriz photometry as well as robust spectroscopic redshift measurements, 64% of which have r > 23. By combining the secure and accurate redshifts of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey with ugriz photometry, we have created a catalog that can be used as an excellent testbed for future photo-z studies, including tests of algorithms for surveys such as LSST and DES.

  4. 3.6-7.9 um Photometry of L and T Dwarfs and the Prevalence of Vertical Mixing in their Atmospheres

    E-print Network

    S. K. Leggett; D. Saumon; M. S. Marley; T. R. Geballe; D. A. Golimowski; D. Stephens; X. Fan

    2006-10-06

    We present new L' (3.75 um) photometry of six L and T dwarfs, and M' (4.70 um) photometry of ten L and T dwarfs, observed at Gemini Observatory, and new 3.55, 4.49, 5.73 and 7.87 um photometry of nine L and T dwarfs, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The sample includes unusually blue and red dwarfs from our near-infrared studies. The data are combined with published L', M' and Spitzer photometry of L and T dwarfs, and trends of colors with spectral type and other colors are examined. Model atmospheres by Marley and Saumon are used to generate synthetic colors for ranges of effective temperature, gravity, grain sedimentation efficiency, metallicity and vertical mixing efficiency. We explore how these parameters affect the mid-infrared colors of L and T dwarfs and find that the data are modelled satisfactorily only if substantial vertical mixing occurs in both L- and T-dwarf atmospheres. The location and range of the L and T dwarf sequences in IRAC color-color and color - magnitude diagrams is also only reproduced if this mixing occurs, with a range of efficiency described by K_zz ~ 10^2-10^6 cm^2/s. The colors of the unusually red dwarfs are best reproduced by non-equilibrium models with low sedimentation efficiency, i.e. thick cloud decks, and those of the unusually blue dwarfs by non-equilibrium models with high sedimentation efficiency, i.e. thin cloud decks. The K-L' and Spitzer [3.55]-[4.49] colors can be used as indicators of effective temperature for L and T dwarfs, but care must be taken to include gravity and metallicity effects for late-T dwarfs and vertical mixing for both late-L and T dwarfs.

  5. Optical Photometry of BY Cam Modeled Using a Multipolar Magnetic Field Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, John; Mason, P. A.; Zhilkin, A.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Robinson, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present new high-speed broad-band optical photometry of the asynchronous polar (magnetic cataclysmic variable) BY Cam. Observations were obtained at the 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope of McDonald observatory with 3s integration times. In an attempt to understand the complex changes in accretion flow geometry, we performed full 3D MHD simulations assuming a variety of white dwarf magnetic field structures including both aligned and non-aligned dipole plus quadrupole field components. We compare model predictions with photometry and various phases of the beat cycle and find that synthetic light curves derived from a multipolar field structure are consistent with the optical photometry.

  6. The AAVSO Photoelectric Photometry Program in Its Scientific and Socio-Historic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, I review the work of the AAVSO in the area of photoelectric photometry (PEP). This work was influenced by several trends: in science, in technology, and in the sociology of amateur astronomy. Through the 1980s, the AAVSO photoelectric photometry program competed with other such programs and, in recent years, has been overshadowed by CCD photometry programs. Nevertheless, the AAVSO PEP program has, through careful organization, motivation, and feedback, produced extensive scientific results, and can continue to do so. In the case of my own research, AAVSO PEP observations have also contributed significantly to the education of my students.

  7. Photometry from voyager 2: initial results from the uranian atmosphere, satellites, and rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, A L; Hord, C W; West, R A; Esposito, L W; Simmons, K E; Nelson, R M; Wallis, B D; Buratti, B J; Horn, L J; Graps, A L; Pryor, W R

    1986-07-01

    The Voyager 2 photopolarimeter successfully completed the Uranus encounter, acquiring new data on the planet's atmosphere, its principal satellites, and its ring system. Spatially resolved photometry of the atmosphere at 0.27 micrometer shows no enhancement in absorption toward the pole, unlike the case for Jupiter and Saturn. Stellar occultation measurements indicate the temperature at the 1-millibar level over the north pole is near 90 kelvins. The geometric albedos of the five large satellites of Uranus were measured at 0.27 and 0.75 micrometer and indicate the presence of low albedo, spetrally flat absorbing material. Titania seems to have a fluffy surface, as indicated by its phase curve. The nine ground-based rings were detected, and their internal structure, optical depths, and positions were determined. The sharp edges of the in ring made it possible to measure its edge thickness (less than 150 meters) and particle sizes (less than 30 meters); little or no dust was detcted. New narrow rings and partial rings (arcs) were measured, and the narrow component of the eta ring was found to be discontinuous. PMID:17812890

  8. Multicolour time series photometry of four short-period weak-lined T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, C.

    2015-05-01

    The paper describes continuous photometric monitoring of four pre-main-sequence stars, probable members of young stellar associations. Measurements, covering at least four nights per star, were obtained by cycling through several filters. The data could be used to choose between aliases of rotation periods quoted in the literature. As expected, the amplitudes of sinusoidal variations decline with increasing wavelength, mildly enough to indicate the presence of coolspots on the stellar surfaces. Variability amplitudes can dwindle from a 0.1 mag level to virtually zero on a time-scale of one or two days. A flare observed in CD-36 3202 is discussed in some detail, and a useful mathematical model for its shape is introduced. It is demonstrated that accurate colour indices (? < 5-6 mmag, typically) can be derived from the photometry. The magnitude variations as measured through different filters are linearly related. This is exploited to calculate spot temperatures (800-1150 K below photospheric for the different stars) and the ranges of variation of the spot filling factors (roughly 10-20 per cent). The available All Sky Automated Survey measurements of the stars are analysed, and it is concluded that there is good evidence for differential rotation in all four stars.

  9. DDO Photometry of M71: Carbon and Nitrogen Patterns Among Evolving Giants

    E-print Network

    M. M. Briley; G. H. Smith; C. F. Claver

    2001-08-07

    We present V, B-V, and DDO C(41-42) and C(42-45) photometry for a sample of 75 red giants down to M_V = +2 in the relatively metal-rich Galactic globular cluster M71. The C(41-42) colors reveal a bimodal distribution of CN band strengths generally anticorrelated with CH band strength as measured by the C(42-45) color. Both DDO colors agree well with those found in 47 Tucanae -- a nearby globular cluster of similar metallicity -- and suggest nearly identical C and N abundance patterns among the giants of both clusters. A comparison with synthetic DDO colors demonstrates that little change in surface C or N abundance is required to match the colors of the M71 giants over the entire luminosity range observed. Apparently like 47 Tuc (a cluster of much greater mass and central concentration), M71 exhibits an abundance pattern which cannot be solely the result of internal mixing.

  10. Photometry of the SW Sex-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    E-print Network

    V. Stanishev; Z. Kraicheva; V. Genkov

    2007-04-10

    Aims: We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn Methods: Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) day. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V~15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(+/-0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ~0.145 day are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presence of tilted accretion disc is discussed, and a way to observationally test this is suggested.

  11. A new look at photometry of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Stone, Thomas C.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2010-08-01

    We use ROLO photometry (Kieffer, H.H., Stone, T.C. [2005]. Astron. J. 129, 2887-2901) to characterize the before and after full Moon radiance variation for a typical highlands site and a typical mare site. Focusing on the phase angle range 45° < ? < 50°, we test two different physical models, macroscopic roughness and multiple scattering between regolith particles, for their ability to quantitatively reproduce the measured radiance difference. Our method for estimating the rms slope angle is unique and model-independent in the sense that the measured radiance factor I/ F at small incidence angles (high Sun) is used as an estimate of I/ F for zero roughness regolith. The roughness is determined from the change in I/ F at larger incidence angles. We determine the roughness for 23 wavelengths from 350 to 939 nm. There is no significant wavelength dependence. The average rms slope angle is 22.2° ± 1.3° for the mare site and 34.1° ± 2.6° for the highland site. These large slopes, which are similar to previous "photometric roughness" estimates, require that sub-mm scale "micro-topography" dominates roughness measurements based on photometry, consistent with the conclusions of Helfenstein and Shepard (Helfenstein, P., Shepard, M.K. [1999]. Icarus 141, 107-131). We then tested an alternative and very different model for the before and after full Moon I/ F variation: multiple scattering within a flat layer of realistic regolith particles. This model consists of a log normal size distribution of spheres that match the measured distribution of particles in a typical mature lunar soil 72141,1 (McKay, D.S., Fruland, R.M., Heiken, G.H. [1974]. Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 5, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1 (5), 887-906). The model particles have a complex index of refraction 1.65-0.003 i, where 1.65 is typical of impact-generated lunar glasses. Of the four model parameters, three were fixed at values determined from Apollo lunar soils: the mean radius and width of the log normal size distribution and the real part of the refraction index. We used FORTRAN programs from Mishchenko et al. (Mishchenko, M.I., Dlugach, J.M., Yanovitskij, E.G., Zakharova, N.T. [1999]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 63, 409-432; Mishchenko, M.I., Travis, L.D., Lacis, A.A. [2002]. Scattering, Absorption and Emission of Light by Small Particles. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York. < http://www.giss.nasa.gov/staff/mmishchenko/books.html>) to calculate the scattering matrix and solve the radiative transfer equation for I/ F. The mean single scattering albedo is ? = 0.808, the asymmetry parameter is = 0.77 and the phase function is very strongly peaked in both the forward and backward scattering directions. The fit to the observations for the highland site is excellent and multiply scattered photons contribute ?80% of I/ F. We conclude that either model, roughness or multiple scattering, can match the observations, but that the strongly anisotropic phase functions of realistic particles require rigorous calculation of many orders of scattering or spurious photometric roughness estimates are guaranteed. Our multiple scattering calculation is the first to combine: (1) a regolith model matched to the measured particle size distribution and index of refraction of the lunar soil, (2) a rigorous calculation of the particle phase function and solution of the radiative transfer equation, and (3) application to lunar photometry with absolute radiance calibration.

  12. IRAC Photometry of 400-800K Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Sandy; Burningham, Ben; Lodieu, Nicolas; Lucas, Phil; Marley, Mark; Pinfield, David; Saumon, Didier; Warren, Steve

    2011-05-01

    Warm IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] photometry is critical for understanding the cold population of brown dwarfs now being found, objects which have more in common with planets than stars. As effective temperature drops from 800K to 400K, the fraction of flux emitted beyond 3um increases rapidly, from about 40% to >75%. This rapid increase makes a color like H-[4.5] a very sensitive temperature indicator, and it can be combined with a gravity and metallicity sensitive color like H-K to constrain all three of these fundamental properties - temperature, gravity and metallicity - which in turn gives us mass and age for these, generally isolated, slowly cooling objects. Our goal is to accurately characterise the temperature/ gravity/ metallicity distribution of the coolest brown dwarfs being found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) and the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), which is only possible if IRAC photometry is available to complement our near-infrared data. While data at similar wavelengths will be provided by WISE for a sample of brown dwarfs, there are large differences between the photometric systems, which will be dependent on metallicity, gravity and the degree of turbulent mixing. Hence to fully exploit the sample of cold T dwarfs found by the near- and mid-infrared sky surveys, and to provide a homogeneous dataset for all ultracool dwarfs, a large number of sources must be observed in both the IRAC and WISE filter sets. Furthermore, different populations will be identified by the different surveys, and the number of cold brown dwarfs will be small, hence IRAC follow- up of UKIDSS, VISTA and WISE brown dwarfs is extremely valuable. The Cycle 8 time will increase the number of 400-600K near-infrared-selected brown dwarf (a sample with mass 5-20 M_Jupiter) that have IRAC data to ~25, a significant increase of ~50%. We expect to trigger eleven low impact ToO observations during Cycle 8, totalling 9.9 hours of AORs.

  13. Infrared photometry and polarimetry of Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Howard, Eric M.

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and linear polarimetry of Cygnus X-3 at K (2.2 micrometers) obtained over a 5 yr period. Photometry and polarimetry at J, H, and K of nearby field stars is also presented. From an analysis of these data we find: (1) Using the x-ray ephemeris of Kitamoto et al. (ApJ, 384, 263 (1992), including the first and second derivatives of the period, the leading edge of the decline to minimum in the quiescent K light curve has not changed in phase since 1974. The duration of the minimum in the light curve has changed significantly between different epochs, becoming much broader in 1993 than it was previously. (2) In addition to an interstellar polarization component, it is likely Cyg X-3 has an intrinsic polarization component that is variable. The variations in the polarization do not show any diagnostic pattern with orbital phase. A crude analysis of the polarization suggests the intrinsic polarization of Cyg X-3 has a mean position angle of approximately 12 deg, nearly the same as the direction of the expanding radio lobes. This is consistent with circumstellar electrons scattering in an equatorial disk that is perpendicular to the lobe axis. (3) The mean position angle for the interstellar polarization in the direction of Cyg X-3 is 150 deg. This is nearly perpendicular to the axis of interstellar radio scattering seen in the extended (Very Long Baseline Inteferometry (VLBI) images. Since the position angle of interstellar polarization is the same as the projected magnetic field direction, this suggests the interstellar (not circumstellar) scattering must be taking place perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field lines. (4) Cyg X-3 was observed at K during a flare on 1992 September 30 with a temporal resolution of 6 s. The flaring had rise and fall times of approximately 50 s with peak intensities up to 80 mJy. The flux between individual flare events never dropped to quiescent levels for the duration of our observations (approximately 2000 s).

  14. Pre-maximum photometry of the probable nova M31N 2015-06a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovcharov, E.; Minev, M.; Kurtenkov, A.; Nedialkov, P.; Valcheva, A.

    2015-06-01

    We report optical photometry of the probable nova M31N 2015-06a (ATel#7584). The observations were carried out two days before the discovery using the 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria.

  15. Aperture Photometry and Transit Light Curve Analysis D. Cohen and E. Jensen

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Aperture Photometry and Transit Light Curve Analysis D. Cohen and E to analyze, dataset and also includes a section on fitting a transit model for and characterizing a transit-like event in the light curve of a candidate transiting

  16. Testing Accuracy and Precision of Existing Photometry Algorithms on Moving Targets

    E-print Network

    Sonnett, Sarah; Jedicke, Robert; Bus, Schelte; Tonry, John; Hainaut, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies determining which astronomical photometry software is best suited for a particular dataset are usually focused on speed, source classification, and/or meeting a sensitivity requirement. For faint objects in particular, the priority is given to maximizing signal-to-noise. Photometry of moving targets offers additional challenges (i) to aperture photometry because background object contamination varies from image to image, and (ii) to routines that build a PSF model from point sources in the image because trailed field stars do not perfectly represent the PSF of the untrailed target. Here, we present the results of testing several photometry algorithms (tphot, DAOPHOT, DoPHOT, APT, and multiple techniques within Source Extractor and IRAF's PHOT) on data for a faint, slow-moving solar system object with a known light curve. We find that the newly-developed tphot software most accurately and precisely reproduces the object's true light curve, with particular advantages in centroiding, exclusion o...

  17. A STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA AND THE CALIBRATION OF MULTIBAND PHOTOMETRY 

    E-print Network

    Bastola, Deepak 1988-

    2012-04-27

    objects. The photometry of Type Ia SNe puts constraints on the Einstein?s equation of state parameters and supports the Dark Energy cosmological parameter causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe....

  18. Precision of a Low-Cost InGaAs Detector for Near Infrared Photometry

    E-print Network

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an InGaAs near-infrared camera to explore whether low-cost detectors can make small (?1 m) telescopes capable of precise (photometry of relatively bright targets. ...

  19. Photometry of Be Stars in the vicinity of COROT primary targets for asteroseismology

    E-print Network

    J. Gutierrez-Soto; J. Fabregat; J. Suso; A. M. Hubert; M. Floquet; R. Garrido

    2003-09-29

    We present differential photometry of Be stars close to potential COROT primary targets for asteroseismology. Several stars are found to be short period variables. We propose them to be considered as secondary targets in the COROT asteroseismology fields.

  20. U-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS David Jewitt,1,2

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    U-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS David Jewitt,1,2 Nuno Peixinho,1,3 and Henry H. Hsieh1,2,4 Received 2007 July 29; accepted 2007 August 22 ABSTRACT We present U-band photometry of Kuiper Belt objects-infrared wavelengths, the U-band colors of Kuiper Belt objects show a wide range and a unimodal distribution. We find

  1. Southern Milky Way carbon stars - New candidates, JHK photometry, and radial velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, V.M.; Cook, K.H.; Schechter, P.L.; Aaronson, M.; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-07-01

    Data are presented for low-latitude southern Milky Way carbon stars. Coordinates and cross identifications are given for carbon stars (67 of which are confirmed new discoveries) in seven fields deemed to be unusually transparent. JHK photometry is presented for 520 stars. Velocities are presented for 393 stars. Improved coordinates are presented for selected stars in Westerlund's catalog. Averaged photometry and velocities are presented for a sample of 336 stars. 26 refs.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-104b and WASP-106b photometry (Smith+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier, Cameron A.; Delrez, L.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hebrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Louden, T. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Montagnier, G.; Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rostron, J. W.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    The stars WASP-104 and WASP-106 were observed by SuperWASP-N from 2008 to 2011, and by WASP-South from 2009 to 2010. This differential survey photometry has been de-reddened and normalised. Further photometry was obtained using the TRAPPIST, Euler, Liverpool and Isaac Newton telescopes in 2013 and 2014. All these data are plotted in Figures 1 and 2. (1 data file).

  3. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D. J.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  4. RELATIVE PHOTOMETRY OF HAT-P-1b OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of two occultations of the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-1b. By measuring the planet to star flux ratio near opposition, we constrain the geometric albedo of the planet, which is strongly linked to its atmospheric temperature gradient. An advantage of HAT-P-1 as a target is its binary companion ADS 16402 A, which provides an excellent photometric reference, simplifying the usual steps in removing instrumental artifacts from HST time-series photometry. We find that without this reference star, we would need to detrend the lightcurve with the time of the exposures as well as the first three powers of HST orbital phase, and this would introduce a strong bias in the results for the albedo. However, with this reference star, we only need to detrend the data with the time of the exposures to achieve the same per-point scatter, therefore we can avoid most of the bias associated with detrending. Our final result is a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.64 for the geometric albedo of HAT-P-1b between 577 and 947 nm.

  5. High Precision Photometry of Bright Transiting Exoplanet Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Maurice; Eastman, Jason; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the past two decades, the successful search for exoplanets and the characterization of their physical properties have shown the immense progress that has been made towards finding planets with characteristics similar to Earth. For most exoplanets with a radius about the size of Earth, evaluating their physical properties, such as the mass, radius and equilibrium temperature, cannot be determined with satisfactory precision. The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) was recently built to obtain spectroscopic and photometric measurements to find, confirm, and characterize Earth-like exoplanets. MINERVA's spectroscopic survey targets the brightest, nearby stars which are well-suited to the array's capabilities, while its primary photometric goal is to search for transits around these bright targets. Typically, it is difficult to find satisfactory comparison stars within a telescope's field of view when the primary target is very bright. This issue is resolved by using one of MINERVA's telescopes to observe the primary bright star while the other telescopes observe a distinct field of view that contains satisfactory bright comparison stars. We describe the code used to identify nearby comparison stars, schedule the four telescopes, produce differential photometry from multiple telescopes, and show the first results from this effort.This work has been funded by the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, the ERAU Honors Program, the ERAU Undergraduate Research Spark Fund, and the Banneker Institute at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  6. Short-period Stellar Activity Cycles with Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2015-07-01

    We study the short-periodic component of stellar activity with a cycle period of {P}{cyc}\\lt {10}3 days using the Kepler mission photometry of fast-rotating (1\\lt P\\lt 4 days) stars with spectra of M4V to F3V. Applying the originally developed two non-spectral methods, we measured the effective period of stellar cycles in 462 objects. The obtained results are in accordance with previous measurements by Vida et al. and do not seem to result from a beating effect. The performed measurements of Pcyc cluster in a specific branch that covers the previously unstudied region in the Saar & Brandenburg diagram and connects the branch of inactive stars with the area populated by super-active objects. It is shown that the formation of the discovered branch is due to the ?-quenching effect, which saturates the magnetic dynamo and decreases the cycle periods with the increase of the inverted Rossby number. This finding is important in the context of the discussion on catastrophic quenching and other heuristic approximations of the nonlinear ?-effect.

  7. Analysis of RGU Photometry in Selected Area 51

    E-print Network

    S. Bilir; S. Karaali; R. Buser

    2004-07-02

    A low-latitude anticenter field (l=189, b=+21) is investigated by using the full calibration tools of RGU photometry. The observed RGU data are reduced to the standard system and the separation of dwarfs and evolved stars is carried out by an empirical method. Stars are categorized into three metallicity classes, i.e. -0.25<[M/H]<=+0.50, -1.00<[M/H]<=-0.25, and [M/H]<=-1.00$ dex, and their absolute magnitudes are determined by the corresponding colour-magnitude diagrams. The unusually large scattering in the two-colour diagrams is reduced by excluding 153 extra-galactic objects, identifying them compared with the charts of Basel Astronomical Institute and University of Minnesota, and by the criterion and algorithm of Gaidos et al. (1993). The local logarithmic space density for giants, D(0)=6.75, lies within the local densities of Gliese (1969) and Gliese & Jahreiss (1992). The local luminosity function for the absolute magnitude interval 3

  8. Not Color Blind Using Multiband Photometry to Classify Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Poznanski, D; Maoz, D; Filippenko, A V; Leonard, D C; Matheson, T; Poznanski, Dovi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Matheson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Large numbers of supernovae (SNe) have been discovered in recent years, and many more will be found in the near future. Once discovered, further study of a SN and its possible use as an astronomical tool (e.g., a distance estimator) require knowledge of the SN type. Current classification methods rely almost solely on the analysis of SN spectra to determine their type. However, spectroscopy may not be possible or practical when SNe are faint, very numerous, or discovered in archival studies. We present a classification method for SNe based on the comparison of their observed colors with synthetic ones, calculated from a large database of multi-epoch optical spectra of nearby events. We discuss the capabilities and limitations of this method. For example, type Ia SNe at redshifts z 100 days) stages. Broad-band photometry through standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI filters can be useful to classify SNe up to z ~ 0.6. The use of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) u'g'r'i'z' filters allows extending our classification m...

  9. Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7678

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, Hong-Bae; Kim, Jeong-Mi

    1996-10-01

    We present VR CCD photometry and long-slit spectroscopy of a late type spiral galaxy NGC 7678. The grey scale images and isophotal maps illustrate the presence of a weak bar from which spiral arms emerge. There are many HII regions along the spiral arms, but bright giant HII regions are more concentrated in the massive southern arm. The bright compact nucleus of NGC 7678 is bluer than bulge and bar. The spectral features of the nucleus and HII regions are very similar but the nuclear spectra shows higher [NII]lambda 6583/H_alpha than those of the HII regions. The nucleus of NGC7678 seems to be intermediate type between HII region nulcei and LINERs by the ratio of [NII]lambda 6583/H_alpha, but it is more likely to be HII region-like nucleus if we consider the [SNII]lambda 6716, 6731/H_alpha together. The star formation rate is estimated to be about 0.2 Mo/yr based on the H_alpha flux.

  10. Vilnius Multicolor CCD Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartaši?t?, S.; Janusz, R.; Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    We have performed multicolor CCD observations of the central area of NGC 752 to search for faint, low-mass members of this open cluster. Four 12'x12' fields were taken on the 1.8 m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (Mt. Graham, Arizona) using a 4K CCD camera and eight intermediate-band filters of the Strömvil system. In this paper we present a catalog of photometry for 405 stars down to the limiting magnitude V=18.5, which contains V magnitudes and color indices of the Vilnius system, together with photometric determinations of spectral types, absolute magnitudes MV, interstellar reddening values EY-V and metallicity parameters [Fe/H]. The good quality multicolor data made it possible to identify the locus of the lower main sequence to four magnitudes beyond the previous (photographic) limit. A relatively small number of photometric members identified at faint magnitudes seems to be indicative of actual dissolution of the cluster from the low-mass end.

  11. Time-Resolved Photometry of V458 Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, Samia; Garnavich, P.

    2011-01-01

    We observed V458 Vul (Nova Vul 2007) over four nights in June, 2010, nearly three years after its nova outburst. Time-resolved photometry was obtained at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, covering 2 to 4 hour spans with a cadence of 30 sec. The first night of data shows a clear 20 minute periodicity with a 0.1 magnitude amplitude. On subsequent nights, power-spectral analysis continues to show variations with a time scale of 20 minutes, but the irregularity of the signal suggests that this is a quasi-periodic oscillation. The 98-minute orbital period is not evident in our observations. V458 Vul is the central star of a planetary nebula. Combining our CCD images suggests a light echo from the nova outburst is scattering off of material in the nebula to the northwest of the central star. Appreciation goes to the National Science Foundation for supporting this project through the Research Experience for Undergraduates program at Notre Dame.

  12. A Search for Ringed Exoplanets Using Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heising, Matthew Z.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Schlichting, Hilke E.

    2015-11-01

    Models are developed to simulate light curves of stars dimmed by transiting exoplanets with and without rings. These models are then applied to Kepler photometry to search for planetary rings in a sample of 21 exoplanets, mostly hot Jupiters, chosen to offer the best observational opportunity for discovering potential rings. We also examine what kinds of rings might be expected for these planets, in terms of both size and orientation, based on arguments involving the host planet’s equilibrium temperature, its likely obliquities, and the formation and stability of possible ring systems. Finding no evidence for rings, for each of the 21 studied planets it is determined on an observational basis which potential rings can be rejected out of a representative set of fiducial rings, varying in both size and orientation. For 12 of the 21 planets, we determined that Saturn-like rings could be ruled out for at least certain orientations. Additionally, the detectability of rings is studied, and it is found that ringed planets with small obliquities (roughly 5°–10°) can yield large signals, which is encouraging for future work, since such small obliquities are expected for hot Jupiters.

  13. BRITE-Constellation: nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    E-print Network

    Weiss, W W; Moffat, A F J; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Koudelka, O F; Grant, C C; Zee, R E; Kuschnig, R; Mochnacki, St; Matthews, J M; Orleanski, P; Pamyatnykh, A; Pigulski, A; Alves, J; Guedel, M; Handler, G; Wade, G A; Zwintz, K; CCD,

    2014-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation (where BRITE stands for BRIght Target Explorer) is an international nanosatellite mission to monitor photometrically, in two colours, the brightness and temperature variations of stars generally brighter than mag(V) ~ 4, with precision and time coverage not possible from the ground. The current mission design consists of six nanosats (hence Constellation): two from Austria, two from Canada, and two from Poland. Each 7 kg nanosat carries an optical telescope of aperture 3 cm feeding an uncooled CCD. One instrument in each pair is equipped with a blue filter, the other with a red filter. Each BRITE instrument has a wide field of view (~24 degrees), so up to about 15 bright stars can be observed simultaneously, sampled in 32 pixel x 32 pixel sub-rasters. Photometry of additional fainter targets, with reduced precision but thorough time sampling, will be possible through onboard data processing. The BRITE sample is dominated by the most intrinsically luminous stars: massive stars seen at all e...

  14. CCD time-resolved photometry of faint cataclysmic variables. II

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, P.; Howell, S.B.; Mateo, M.; Kreidl, T.J. Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ )

    1989-10-01

    Time-resolved optical broad-band light curves obtained from differential photometry on sequential CCD frames of the known or suspected cataclysmic variable FO And, EH Aqr, WX Cet, XX Cet, AL Com, V503 Cyg, AH Eri, CP Eri, IR Gem, RW UMi, PG0134+070, and US 3215 are presented. The analysis of the light curves with coverage of greater than 2 hrs shows repeatable periodicity in five objects. PG0134+070 exhibits eclipses of 1.3-1.8 mag depth with a period of 313 min. V503 Cyg has a 0.7-1.0 mag peak-to-peak modulation with a period of 109 min. IR Gem shows a large modulation at the orbital period of 99 min, and comparison with previous data indicates that this modulation may have an amplitude dependent on outburst phase. AH Eri reveals a 0.1-0.3 mag modulation, at a period of 42 min. Better time-resolved data on AL Com confirm the 0.4-mag variation reported by Howell and Szkody (1988) at a period of 42 min. These latter two short periods likely indicate magnetic systems. There is also some evidence of periodicity in RW UMi and WX Cet which must be confirmed with further data. 25 refs.

  15. Infrared photometry of the black hole candidate Sagittarius A*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Close, Laird M.; Mccarthy, Donald W. JR.; Melia, Fulvio

    1995-01-01

    An infrared source has been imaged within 0.2 +/- 0.3 arcseconds of the unique Galactic center radio source Sgr A* High angular resolution (averaged value of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) approximately 0.55 arcseconds) was achieved by rapid (approximately 50 Hz) real-time images motion compensation. The source's near-infrared magnitudes (K = 12.1 +/- 0.3, H = 13.7 +/- 0.3, and J = 16.6 +/- 0.4) are consistent with a hot object reddened by the local extinction A(sub v) approximately 27). At the 3 sigma level of confidence, a time series of 80 images limits the source variability to less than 50% on timescales from 3 to 30 minutes. The photometry is consistent with the emission from a simple accretion disk model for a approximately 1 x 10(exp 6) solar mass black hole. However, the fluxes are also consistent with a hot luminous (L approximately 10(exp 3.5) to 10(exp 4-6) solar luminosity) central cluster star positionally coincident with Sgr A*.

  16. A Search for Ringed Exoplanets using Kepler Photometry

    E-print Network

    Heising, Matthew Z; Schlichting, Hilke E

    2015-01-01

    Models are developed to simulate lightcurves of stars dimmed by transiting exoplanets with and without rings. These models are then applied to \\textit{Kepler} photometry to search for planetary rings in a sample of 21 exoplanets, mostly hot Jupiters, chosen to offer the best observational opportunity for discovering potential rings. We also examine what kinds of rings might be expected for these planets, in terms of both size and orientation, based on arguments involving the host planet's equilibrium temperature, its likely obliquities, and the formation and stability of possible ring systems. Finding no evidence for rings, for each of the 21 studied planets it is determined on an observational basis which potential rings can be rejected out of a representative set of fiducial rings, varying in both size and orientation. For 12 of the 21 planets, we determined that Saturn-like rings could be ruled out for at least certain orientations. Additionally, the detectability of rings is studied, and it is found that ...

  17. GASPS Photometry of the Tucana-Horologium Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Donaldson J.; Roberge, Aki

    2010-01-01

    The GASPS Open Time Key Programme on Herschel represents a new opportunity to sensitively probe protoplanetary and debris disks at far-IR wavelengths. We present preliminary PACS 70 and 160 micron photometry of eighteen stars in the 30 Myr-old Tucana-Horologium association. Of these eighteen, eight were detected in the 70 micron band. Four of these eight were also detected in the 160 micron band. We constructed SEDs for these systems using optical data from Hipparcos (B and V), near-IR data from 2MASS (J, H, and K), mid-IR data from IRAS and Spitzer MIPS (12 and 24 microns, respectively), and the new far-IR data from PACS. For the stars showing IR excess emission, we fit simple single-temperature blackbody curves to the IR excess in order to determine the rough dust abundances and temperatures. Dust observations at these wavelengths will also be important for comparison with upcoming Herschel PACS spectra that will search for gas in the disks. Our goal is to determine or limit the ever-allusive gas-to-dust ratio for these disk systems.

  18. Short-period stellar activity cycles with Kepler photometry

    E-print Network

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    We study the short-periodic component of stellar activity with a cycle periods Pcyc up to 1000 days using the Kepler mission photometry of fast-rotating (rotational periods from 1 to 4 days) stars with spectra of M4V to F3V. Applying the originally developed two non-spectral methods, we measured the effective period of stellar cycles in 462 objects. The obtained results are in accordance with previous measurements by Vida et al. (2014), do not seem to result from a beating effect. The performed measurements of Pcyc cluster in a specific branch which covers the previously unstudied region in the Saar-Brandenburg (1999) diagram, and connects the branch of inactive stars with the area populated by super-active objects. It is shown that the formation of the discovered branch is due to the alpha-quenching effect, which saturates the magnetic dynamo and decreases the cycle periods with the increase of inverted Rossby number. This finding is important in the context of the discussion on catastrophic quenching and ot...

  19. Analysis of RGU Photometry in Selected Area 51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, S.; Karaali, S.; Buser, R.

    2004-09-01

    A low-latitude anticenter field (l=189 °, b=+21 °) is investigated by using the full calibration tools of RGU photometry. The observed RGU data are reduced to the standard system and the separation of dwarfs and evolved stars is carried out by an empirical method. Stars are categorized into three metallicity classes, i.e. -0.25<[M/H]?+0.50, $-1.00<[M/H]?-0.25, and [M/H]?-1.00 dex, and their absolute magnitudes are determined by the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams. The unusually large scattering in the two-color diagrams is reduced by excluding 153 extra-galactic objects, identifying them compared with the charts of Basel Astronomical Institute and University of Minnesota, and by the criterion and algorithm of Gaidos et al. [1]. The local logarithmic space density for giants, D*(0)=6.75, lies within the local densities of Gliese and Gliese & Jahreiss. The local luminosity function in our work for the absolute magnitude interval 3

  20. SYNMAG PHOTOMETRY: A FAST TOOL FOR CATALOG-LEVEL MATCHED COLORS OF EXTENDED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, Kevin; Yasuda, Naoki; Hogg, David W.; Higgs, Tim D.; Nichol, Robert C.; Masters, Karen L.; Lang, Dustin; Wake, David A.

    2012-12-01

    Obtaining reliable, matched photometry for galaxies imaged by different observatories represents a key challenge in the era of wide-field surveys spanning more than several hundred square degrees. Methods such as flux fitting, profile fitting, and PSF homogenization followed by matched-aperture photometry are all computationally expensive. We present an alternative solution called 'synthetic aperture photometry' that exploits galaxy profile fits in one band to efficiently model the observed, point-spread-function-convolved light profile in other bands and predict the flux in arbitrarily sized apertures. Because aperture magnitudes are the most widely tabulated flux measurements in survey catalogs, producing synthetic aperture magnitudes (SYNMAGs) enables very fast matched photometry at the catalog level, without reprocessing imaging data. We make our code public and apply it to obtain matched photometry between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz and UKIDSS YJHK imaging, recovering red-sequence colors and photometric redshifts with a scatter and accuracy as good as if not better than FWHM-homogenized photometry from the GAMA Survey. Finally, we list some specific measurements that upcoming surveys could make available to facilitate and ease the use of SYNMAGs.

  1. Effective temperatures and radii of planet-hosting stars from IR photometry

    E-print Network

    I. Ribas; E. Solano; E. Masana; A. Gimenez

    2003-10-16

    In this paper we present and analyse determinations of effective temperatures of planet-hosting stars using infrared (IR) photometry. One of our goals is the comparison with spectroscopic temperatures to evaluate the presence of systematic effects that could alter the determination of metal abundances. To estimate the stellar temperatures we have followed a new approach based on fitting the observed 2MASS IR photometry with accurately calibrated synthetic photometry. Special care has been put in evaluating all sources of possible errors and incorporating them in the analysis. A comparison of our temperature determinations with spectroscopic temperatures published by different groups reveals the presence of no systematic trends and a scatter compatible with the quoted uncertainties of 0.5-1.3%. This mutual agreement strengthens the results of both the spectroscopic and IR photometry analyses. Comparisons with other photometric temperature calibrations, generally with poorer performances, are also presented. In addition, the method employed of fitting IR photometry naturally yields determinations of the stellar semi-angular diameters, which, when combined with the distances, results in estimations of the stellar radii with remarkable accuracies of ~2-4%. A comparison with the only star in the sample with an empirically determined radius (HD 209458 -- from transit photometry) indicates excellent agreement.

  2. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm. Of particular interest is the performance of pier and grade beam foundations which behaved more stiffly in comparison to typically observed shallow strip footing foundations.

  3. Just the Photometry: Constraining exoplanet orbits by measuring stellar densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliski, David; Kipping, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    One unique trick in toolkit of astronomers studying transiting exoplanets, is that the mean stellar density may be determined using the shape of the light curve, under various idealized assumptions such as a circular orbit and the target star is unblended. “Asterodensity profiling” seeks to exploit this trick by comparing the light curve derived stellar density to that from some independent measurement. Any difference between the two measures indicates that one or more of the idealized assumptions are invalid. Therefore, the major challenge with single-planet systems (so-called “single-body asterodensity profiling” or SAP) is distinguishing whether the difference is due to a blend, orbital eccentricity or some combination. By careful consideration of the input priors, utilizing constraints from secondary eclipses and a Bayesian analysis of the system in question, the problem is tractable though, offering the chance to determine the underlying eccentricity distribution of exoplanets and even aid in validating planet candidates through blend analysis. In this talk, I will discuss single-body asterodensity profiling (SAP) for targets with asteroseismologically determined stellar densities, which is generally considered a gold-standard measure. We have investigated several targets with the largest apparent discrepancies between the transit-derived stellar density and that from asteroseismology. By independently detrending and fitting the transit light curves, we have calculated a revised value of this crucial ratio, with various priors tried. I will present the current results our work and discuss implications for the eccentricity and blend validation of these studied systems. I will finish by exploring the exciting potential of this technique in the TESS-era, where the fact our technique requires bright-star photometry alone, opens the door to constraints for hundreds/thousands of objects.

  4. BVRI photometry of NGC 3231, NGC 7055, and NGC 7127

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Hermansson, L.; Holmström, P.

    2012-06-01

    Context. Open clusters are often used as tracers for the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. But they can also be used to study distinct "local stellar populations" and all kind of stellar groups. All these studies crucially depend on their unambiguous detection and classification separating them from the fore- and background field population. Aims: Still more than one third of the catalogued galactic open clusters are unstudied to date. We have chosen three northern open cluster fields, namely NGC 3231, NGC 7055, and NGC 7127 which have been never studied before to shed more light on their true nature. Methods: We present Johnson-Cousins BVRI photometry down to V ? 19 mag. After the transformation to the standard systems, colour-magnitude diagrams were generated. These diagrams were used to fit solar abundant isochrones to determine the distance modulus, reddening and apparent age of the main sequences. Results: As reported before, a significant plate-dependent distortion of the UCAC3 compared to the PPMXL within all three star fields was found. No correlation of this distortion with the apparent magnitude of the objects was detected. From the analysis of the colour-magnitude diagrams and the available proper motions we conclude that NGC 7055 and NGC 7127 are young, real, open clusters with ages of about 10 and 100 Myr, respectively. They are located in a distance of about 3300 as well as 5700 pc from the Sun. NGC 3231, on the other hand, is probably a high galactic latitude open cluster remnant. The complete tables with the photometric measurements are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A68

  5. Not Color Blind: Using Multiband Photometry to Classify Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Dovi Poznanski; Avishay Gal-Yam; Dan Maoz; Alexei V. Filippenko; Douglas C. Leonard; Thomas Matheson

    2002-06-04

    Large numbers of supernovae (SNe) have been discovered in recent years, and many more will be found in the near future. Once discovered, further study of a SN and its possible use as an astronomical tool (e.g., as a distance estimator) require knowledge of the SN type. Current classification methods rely almost solely on the analysis of SN spectra to determine their type. However, spectroscopy may not be possible or practical when SNe are faint, numerous, or discovered in archival studies. We present a classification method for SNe based on the comparison of their observed colors with synthetic ones, calculated from a large database of multi-epoch optical spectra of nearby events. We discuss the capabilities and limitations of this method. For example, type Ia SNe at redshifts z colors. Type II-P SNe have distinct (very red) colors at late (t > 100 days) stages. Broadband photometry through standard Johnson-Cousins $UBVRI$ filters can be useful to classify SNe out to z ~ 0.6. The use of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ugriz filters allows the extension of our classification method to even higher redshifts (z = 0.75), and the use of infrared bands, to z = 2.5. We demonstrate the application of this method to a recently discovered SN from the SDSS. Finally, we outline the observational data required to further improve the sensitivity of the method, and discuss prospects for its use on future SN samples. Community access to the tools developed is provided by a dedicated website (http://wise-obs.tau.ac.il/~dovip/typing) .

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and motions in Arches and Quintuplet (Stolte+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, A.; Hussmann, B.; Olczak, C.; Brandner, W.; Habibi, M.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Lu, J., R.; Clarkson, W., I.; Anderson, J.

    2015-02-01

    Two to three epochs of photometry and astrometric imaging were obtained in the Arches and Quintuplet clusters with the VLT/NAOS-CONICA instrument from 2002 to 2012, covering timebaselines from 3 to 5 years in each of five fields per cluster. Astrometry and proper motions were derived from Ks imaging. The combination with HST/WFC3 F127M and F153M imaging provided infrared colours, and NACO L' observations were used to derive infrared excess emission. The spatial resolution of all NAOS-CONICA observations was 27.1-milliarcseconds/pixel and 130mas/pixel for all WFC3 images. The catalogue provides all epochs of Ks photometry and proper motions for stars brighter than Ks=17.5mag. Proper motions are derived as the positional difference between two astrometric epochs. HST/WFC3 F127M and F153M photometry was converted to standard JH photometry with colour equations provided in the paper. L' photometry was referenced to the Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey with uncertain zeropoints due to the large differences in spatial resolution, and absolute values should be treated with care, while relative photometry is robust. Membership indicators are given as follows: 1: likely cluster member, 0: likely non-member, -1: unknown membership, -99: two epoch measurements could not be obtained. For Quintuplet cluster (tablee1.dat), an indication of cluster membership is given as a formal probability in Field 2-5, where stars with pclus>0.4 are likely member candidates. A value of -99.0 indicates that the corresponding photometry or astrometry could not be obtained. (2 data files).

  7. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the ANS Ultraviolet Photometry Catalogue of Point Sources (Wesselius et al 1982)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ultraviolet photometry catalog is described in detail, with a byte-by-byte format description and characteristics of the data file given. The catalog is a compilation of ultraviolet photometry in five bands, within the wavelength range 155 nm to 330 nm, for 3573 mostly stellar objects. Additional cross reference data (object identification, UBV photometry and MK spectral types) are included in the catalog.

  8. A Comparison of the Published Stellar Photometry Data in the South-West Field of the Galaxy M31 Disk

    E-print Network

    D. Narbutis; R. Stonkute; V. Vansevicius

    2006-10-05

    We compare stellar photometry data in the South-West part of the M31 disk published by Magnier et al. (1992), Mochejska et al. (2001) and Massey et al. (2006) as the local photometric standards for the calibration of star cluster aperture photometry. Large magnitude and color differences between these catalogs are found. This makes one to be cautious in using these data as the local photometric standards for new photometry.

  9. Investigating spatial variation in the surface and atmosphere of Pluto through stellar occultations and PSF photometry

    E-print Network

    Zangari, Amanda Marie

    2013-01-01

    Stellar occultations provide a high-resolution view of a single chord through Pluto's atmosphere. This thesis presents three projects related to stellar occultation observations of Pluto. The first project concerns the ...

  10. Time-series BVI Photometry for the Globular Cluster NGC 6981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigo, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2013-11-01

    We present new BVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6981, based mostly on ground-based CCD archival images. We present a new color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that reaches almost four magnitudes below the turn-off level. We performed new derivations of metallicity and morphological parameters of the evolved sequences, in good agreement with the results of previous authors, and obtain a value of [Fe/H] ~= -1.50 in the new UVES scale. We also identify the cluster's blue straggler population. Comparing the radial distribution of these stars with the red giant branch population, we find that the blue stragglers are more centrally concentrated, as found in previous studies of blue stragglers in globular clusters. Taking advantage of the large field of view covered by our study, we analyzed the surface density profile of the cluster, and find extratidal main sequence stars out to r ? 14.'1, or about twice the tidal radius. We speculate that the presence of these stars may be due to tidal disruption in the course of NGC 6981's orbit, in which case tidal tails associated with the cluster may exist. We also take a fresh look at the variable stars in the cluster, recovering all previously known variables, including three SX Phoenicis stars. We also add three previously unknown RR Lyrae (one c-type and two ab-type) to the total census. Finally, comparing our CMD with unpublished data for M3 (NGC 5272), a cluster with a similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, we found that both objects are essentially coeval. This paper makes use of data obtained from the Isaac Newton Group Archive, which is maintained as part of the CASU Astronomical Data Centre at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge.

  11. UBVI CCD photometry of two old open clusters NGC 1798 and NGC 2192

    E-print Network

    Hong Soo Park; Myung Gyoon Lee

    1999-01-12

    We present UBVI CCD photometry of two open clusters NGC 1798 and NGC 2192 which were little studied before. Color-magnitude diagrams of these clusters show several features typical for old open clusters: a well-defined main-sequence, a red giant clump, and a small number of red giants. The main sequence of NGC 1798 shows a distinct gap at V ~ 16.2 mag. From the surface number density distribution we have measured the size of the clusters, obtaining 8'.3 (= 10.2 pc) for NGC 1798 and 7'.3 (= 7.5 pc) for NGC 2192. Then we have determined the reddening, metallicity, and distance of these clusters using the color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams: E(B-V)=0. 51\\pm0.04, [Fe/H] = -0.47\\pm0.15 dex and (m-M)_0=13.1\\pm0.2 (d=4.2\\pm 0.3 kpc) for NGC 1798, and E(B-V)=0.20\\pm0.03, [Fe/H] = -0.31\\pm0.15 dex and (m-M)_0=12.7\\pm0.2 (d=3.5\\pm 0.3 kpc) for NGC 2192. The ages of these clusters have been estimated using the morphological age indicators and the isochrone fitting with the Padova isochrones: 1.4 \\pm 0.2 Gyrs for NGC 1798 and 1.1 \\pm 0.1 Gyrs for NGC 2192. The luminosity functions of the main sequence stars in these clusters are found to be similar to other old open clusters. The metallicity and distance of these clusters are consistent with the relation between the metallicity and galactocentric distance of other old open clusters.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and photometry of VV Puppis during a high accretion state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Szkody, Paula; Sion, Edward M.; Long, Knox S.

    1995-01-01

    We determine the physical properties of the accretion region of the AM Her-type binary VV Puppis using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) medium-resolution spectroscopy and photometry obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) observatory. The EUV continuum from VV Pup was detected in the wavelength range from 75 to 135 A and was simultaneously recorded with the Deep Survey/Spectrometer (DS/S) imaging telescope, allowing for the extraction of an accurate light curve. VV Pup appeared to have entered a high-accretion state just prior to the pointed EUVE observations. We use the EUV light curve to infer the diameter of the accretion region (d = 220 km) assuming a hemispherical geometry and a radius of 9000 km for the white dwarf. We perform a model atmosphere analysis and, based on the light curve properties and assuming a distance of 145 pc, we derive an effective temperature of the accretion region in the range 270,000 is less than T(sub eff) is less than 360,000 K and a neutral hydrogen column density in the local interstellar medium of n(sub H) = 1.9 - 3.7 x 10(exp 19)/sq cm. The total EUV/soft X-ray energy radiated by the accretion region is approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s. Our results provide a first verification of past suggestions that deep heating of the white dwarf surface produces the soft X-ray flux from the polars. We present a possible detection of O VI absortion features, and we suggest that extensive EUVE observations targeting high-accretion events may result in oxygen and heavier element abundance determination in the accretion region.

  13. TIME-SERIES BVI PHOTOMETRY FOR THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6981 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Amigo, P.; Catelan, M.; Zoccali, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Smith, H. A. E-mail: mzoccali@astro.puc.cl E-mail: Peter.Stetson@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2013-11-01

    We present new BVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6981, based mostly on ground-based CCD archival images. We present a new color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that reaches almost four magnitudes below the turn-off level. We performed new derivations of metallicity and morphological parameters of the evolved sequences, in good agreement with the results of previous authors, and obtain a value of [Fe/H] ? –1.50 in the new UVES scale. We also identify the cluster's blue straggler population. Comparing the radial distribution of these stars with the red giant branch population, we find that the blue stragglers are more centrally concentrated, as found in previous studies of blue stragglers in globular clusters. Taking advantage of the large field of view covered by our study, we analyzed the surface density profile of the cluster, and find extratidal main sequence stars out to r ? 14.'1, or about twice the tidal radius. We speculate that the presence of these stars may be due to tidal disruption in the course of NGC 6981's orbit, in which case tidal tails associated with the cluster may exist. We also take a fresh look at the variable stars in the cluster, recovering all previously known variables, including three SX Phoenicis stars. We also add three previously unknown RR Lyrae (one c-type and two ab-type) to the total census. Finally, comparing our CMD with unpublished data for M3 (NGC 5272), a cluster with a similar metallicity and horizontal branch morphology, we found that both objects are essentially coeval.

  14. The role of environment in the evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies: a comparison of UBVR and H? photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jacqueline M.

    2015-10-01

    The star formation properties of 33 dwarf irregular galaxies that reside in differing local and global environments are investigated through UBVR and H? photometry. Local environment is defined by the local galaxy number density, where high indicates at least one neighbour within 200 kpc and low indicates no neighbours within 1 Mpc. Global environment is classified as either field or group/cluster. Dwarf irregular galaxies are ideal candidates for a study on the role of environment in galaxy evolution due to their shallow gravitational potentials. Galaxies in local high-density environments are found to have brighter central and effective surface brightnesses, while those in global high-density environments have brighter absolute magnitudes, central and effective surface brightnesses, and higher star formation rates. However, no difference is seen among the different environments when considering star formation rates normalized by H I mass. Sérsic profiles were fit to the V- and R-band surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. No correlation exists between structural characteristics and environment. Most optical properties of dwarf irregular galaxies were found to be independent of environment, indicating that cluster membership and proximity to a neighbouring galaxy have no systematic long-term effects on the evolution of the objects in this study. Either environmental effects on dwarf galaxies are too sensitive to specific conditions for environmental trends to occur, or environmental influences result in a morphological evolution (e.g. dwarf irregular evolves to dwarf elliptical), which would not be apparent in a sample of only one morphological type.

  15. A model for saturation correction in meteor photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, Jean-Baptiste; Weryk, R. J.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2010-05-01

    In order to correct for the effect of saturation on photometric measurements of meteors, we have developed a numerical model for saturation and apply it to data gathered using two generation III image intensified video systems on two nights (2008 October 31 and 2008 November 6). The two cameras were pointed in the same direction, and the aperture of one camera was set two stops below the aperture of the other. With these conditions, some meteors saturated one camera but not the other (group I); some saturated both cameras (group II); and some did not saturate either of them (group III). A model of meteor saturation has been developed which uses the image background value, angular meteor speed and the lateral width of the meteor image to simulate the true and saturated light curve of meteors. For group I meteors, we computed a saturation correction and applied it to the saturated light curve. We then compared the corrected saturated curve to the unsaturated curve from the other camera to validate the model. For group II meteors, a saturation correction is calculated and applied to both observed light curves, which have different degrees of saturation, and the corrected curves are compared. We collected 516 meteors, of which 30 were of group I, and seven of group II. For meteors in group I, an average residual of less than 0.4 mag was found between the observed unsaturated light curve and the model-corrected saturated light curve. For meteors in group II, the average residual between the two corrected light curves was 0.3 mag. For our data, the saturation correction goes from 0.5 to 1.9 mag for meteors in group I, and 1.2 to 2.5 mag for meteors in group II. Based on the agreement between the observed and modelled light curves (less than 0.4 mag over all meteors of all groups), we conclude that our model for saturation correction is valid. It can be used to extract the true luminosity of a saturated meteor, which is necessary to calculate photometric mass. Our model also demonstrates that fixed corrections to saturated meteor photometry, not accounting for background levels or angular velocities, do introduce significant error to meteor photometric analyses.

  16. ASTERIA: A CubeSat for Exoplanet Transit and Stellar Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Mary; Seager, Sara

    2015-12-01

    We present ASTERIA, a 6U CubeSat demonstrator for exoplanet transit photometry. ASTERIA, currently in development at JPL and due to be launched in mid to late 2016, is a testbed for a two-stage pointing system capable of <10 arcsecond pointing as well as active thermal control. These two features will allow ASTERIA to achieve very high photometric precision (<100 ppm) in a very small and cost effective package. ASTERIA will be used to search for transits of known RV planets as well as perform long duration, high cadence stellar photometry. The stellar photometry data will be used to study flares and stellar activity on a variety of stellar types. This presentation will focus on ASTERIA's science mission.

  17. Photoelectric photometry of Comet P/Halley from Mauna Kea Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piscitelli, J. R.; Tholen, D. J.; Hammel, H. B.; Lark, N.

    1986-01-01

    A program of photoelectric photometry of comet Halley yielded 60 nights of usable photometry. The uncertainty in the photometry in all filters except OH is better than 2%. Throughout the apparition, the comet is brightest in the filters that isolated the neutral gas emission features of OH, CN, C2, and C3. The fluxes in the filters that isolated the ionic emission features of CO(+) and H2O(+) are comparable to the continuum when centered upon the optocenter, thereby making the ionic emission weak to undetectable above the continuum. The continuum colors do not appear to be a function of phase angle; therefore, the colors are probably indicative of dust grain composition and are not dominated by scattering geometry effects.

  18. Optical BVRI photometry of common proper motion F/G/K+M wide separation binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V – R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V – I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of VVV CL041 cluster (Chene+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chene, A.-N.; Ramirez Alegria, S.; Borissova, J.; O'Leary, E.; Martins, F.; Herve, A.; Kuhn, M.; Kurtev, R.; Consuelo Amigo Fuentes, P.; Bonatto, C.; Minniti, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the JHKs photometry extracted from the VVV (VISTA variables in the Via Lactea) survey for the cluster VVV CL041. The photometry extraction was performed by employing the VVV-SkZ pipeline's (Mauro et al., 2013RMxAA..49..189M) automated software based on ALLFRAME (Stetson, 1994PASP..106..250S). 2MASS photometry was used for absolute flux calibration in the J, H, and Ks bands, using stars with 12.5

  20. Intrinsic stellar oscillation amplitude and granulation power density measured in photometry

    E-print Network

    Michel, E; Baudin, F; Barban, C; Appourchaux, T; Auvergne, M

    2008-01-01

    Measuring amplitudes of solar-like oscillations and the granulation power spectral density constitute two promising sources of information to improve our understanding and description of the convection in outer layers of stars. However, different instruments, using different techniques and different band passes, bring measurements which cannot be directly compared neither to each other nor to theoretical values. In this work, we define simple response functions to derive intrinsic oscillation amplitudes and granulation power density, from photometry measurements obtained with a specific instrument on a specific star. We test this method on different photometry data sets obtained on the Sun with two different instruments in three different band passes. We show that the results are in good agreement and we establish reference intrinsic values for the Sun in photometry. We also compute the response functions of the CoRoT instrument for a range of parameters representative of the Main Sequence solar-like pulsator...

  1. Deriving stellar properties from photometry: maximizing information content and minimizing biases

    E-print Network

    J. Maíz Apellániz

    2005-06-13

    I study the importance of the accurate calibration of photometric systems in order to produce meaningful comparisons between the observed colors + magnitudes and model SEDs. Possible sources of errors are discussed and two examples are analyzed. I show that well-calibrated Tycho-2 photometry is stable and precise enough for such comparisons. On the contrary, the available calibrations for Johnson UBV photometry yield relative large systematic errors, which has prompted me to develop a new, more precise calibration. The advantages of multicolor photometry over the standard single-color + magnitude diagrams for the derivation of physical properties of stars (elimination of degeneracies, inclusion of multiple parameters, avoidance of linearizing approximations, possibility of a more precise treatment of errors) are discussed through the use of CHORIZOS, a code developed specifically for this purpose.

  2. First Results From the Large Binocular Telescope: Deep Photometry of New dSphs

    E-print Network

    Matthew G. Coleman; Jelte de Jong

    2007-08-20

    This contribution describes photometry for two Galactic dSphs obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope to a magnitude of ~25.5. Using the Large Binocular Camera, a purpose-built wide-field imager for the LBT, we have examined the structure and star formation histories of two newly-discovered Local Group members, the Hercules dSph and the Leo T dSph/dIrr system. We have constructed a structural map for the Hercules system using three-filter photometry to V ~ 25.5. This is the first deep photometry for this system, and it indicates that Hercules is unusually elongated, possibly indicating distortion due to the Galactic tidal field. We have also derived the first star formation history for the Leo T system, and find that its oldest population of stars (age ~ 13 Gyr) were relatively metal-rich, with [Fe/H] ~ -1.5.

  3. Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Szymon Gladysz; Julian C. Christou

    2009-07-14

    We propose a complete framework for the detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions from a sequence of adaptive optics corrected short exposures. The algorithms exploit the difference in statistics between the on-axis and off-axis intensity. Using moderate-Strehl ratio data obtained with the natural guide star adaptive optics system on the Lick Observatory's 3-m Shane Telescope, we compare these methods to the standard approach of PSF fitting. We give detection limits for the Lick system, as well as a first guide to expected accuracy of differential photometry and astrometry with the new techniques. The proposed approach to detection offers a new way of determining dynamic range, while the new algorithms for differential photometry and astrometry yield accurate results for very faint and close-in companions where PSF fitting fails. All three proposed algorithms are self-calibrating, i.e. they do not require observation of a calibration star thus improving the observing efficiency.

  4. Photometry of Star Clusters in the M31 Galaxy. Aperture Size Effects

    E-print Network

    D. Narbutis; V. Vansevicius; K. Kodaira; A. Bridzius; R. Stonkute

    2007-12-23

    A study of aperture size effects on star cluster photometry in crowded fields is presented. Tests were performed on a sample of 285 star cluster candidates in the South-West field of the M31 galaxy disk, measured in the Local Group Galaxy Survey mosaic images (Massey et al. 2006). In the majority of cases the derived UBVRI photometry errors represent the accuracy of cluster colors well, however, for faint objects, residing in crowded environments, uncertainties of colors could be underestimated. Therefore, prior to deriving cluster parameters via a comparison of measured colors with SSP models, biases of colors, arising due to background crowding, must be taken into account. A comparison of our photometry data with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the clusters by Krienke and Hodge (2007) is provided.

  5. CCD Photometry of Galactic Globular Clusters. IV. The NGC 1851 RR Lyraes

    E-print Network

    Alistair R. Walker

    1998-04-30

    The variable star population of the galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 (C0512-400) has been studied by CCD photometry, from observations made in the B, V, and I bands during 1993-4. Light curves are presented for 29 variables, seven of which are new discoveries. The behavior of the RR lyraes in the period-temperature diagram appears normal when compared to clusters which bracket the NGC 1851 metallicity. Reddening and metallicity are re-evaluated, with no compelling evidence to change from accepted values. Photometry for stars within an annulus with radii 80 and 260 arcsec agrees to better than 0.02 mag in all colors with extensive earlier photometry, to at least V = 18.5. Instability strip boundary positions for several clusters shows a trend for the red boundary to move to redder colors as the metallicity increases.

  6. VLT transit and occultation photometry for the bloated planet CoRoT-1b

    E-print Network

    Gillon, M; Triaud, A H M J; Barman, T; Hebb, L; Montalban, J; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Deleuil, M; Magain, P

    2009-01-01

    We present VLT eclipse photometry for the giant planet CoRoT-1b. We observed a transit in the R-band filter and an occultation in a narrow filter centered on 2.09 microns. Our analysis of this new photometry and published radial velocities, in combination with stellar-evolutionary modeling, leads to a planetary mass and radius of 1.07 (+0.13,-0.18) M_Jup and 1.45 (+0.07,-0.13) R_Jup, confirming the very low density previously deduced from CoRoT photometry. The large occultation depth that we measure at 2.09 microns (0.278 (+0.043,-0.066) %) is consistent with thermal emission and is better reproduced by an atmospheric model with no redistribution of the absorbed stellar flux to the night side of the planet.

  7. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    SciTech Connect

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. {yields} Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. {yields} EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. {yields} EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. {yields} The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm{sup -2}) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12({lambda}). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  8. Interpretation of whole-disk photometry of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, K. D.; Rhoads, J. W.; Hanover, G. A.; Lumme, K.; Bowell, E.

    1983-01-01

    Small scale surface features of the moons Deimos and Phobos were studied using star tracker observations made by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters. The whole-disk brightness/solar phase angle phase curves were developed out to a phase angle of 125 deg. An analysis was undertaken according to Lumme-Bowell theory to obtain accurate phase integrals zero-phase geometric albedos, and Bond albedos. The microstructural and particulate surface properties of the two moons were found to be very similar, as were the whole-body densities and the microphysical makeup, thereby suggesting a common origin. However, the presence of streamers on Deimos and the relatively smooth surfaces of both moons indicates a long-term influence of Mars producing surface morphologies different from what would occur with asteroids.

  9. STAR CLUSTERS IN M33: UPDATED UBVRI PHOTOMETRY, AGES, METALLICITIES, AND MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhou; De Grijs, Richard E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    The photometric characterization of M33 star clusters is far from complete. In this paper, we present homogeneous UBVRI photometry of 708 star clusters and cluster candidates in M33 based on archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the galaxy's major axis. Our photometry includes 387, 563, 616, 580, and 478 objects in the UBVRI bands, respectively, of which 276, 405, 430, 457, and 363 do not have previously published UBVRI photometry. Our photometry is consistent with previous measurements (where available) in all filters. We adopted Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry for complementary purposes, as well as Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared JHK photometry where available. We fitted the spectral-energy distributions of 671 star clusters and candidates to derive their ages, metallicities, and masses based on the updated PARSEC simple stellar populations synthesis models. The results of our ?{sup 2} minimization routines show that only 205 of the 671 clusters (31%) are older than 2 Gyr, which represents a much smaller fraction of the cluster population than that in M31 (56%), suggesting that M33 is dominated by young star clusters (<1 Gyr). We investigate the mass distributions of the star clusters—both open and globular clusters—in M33, M31, the Milky Way, and the Large Magellanic Cloud. Their mean values are log (M {sub cl}/M {sub ?}) = 4.25, 5.43, 2.72, and 4.18, respectively. The fraction of open to globular clusters is highest in the Milky Way and lowest in M31. Our comparisons of the cluster ages, masses, and metallicities show that our results are basically in agreement with previous studies (where objects in common are available); differences can be traced back to differences in the models adopted, the fitting methods used, and stochastic sampling effects.

  10. FAINT NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET/FAR-ULTRAVIOLET STANDARDS FROM SWIFT/UVOT, GALEX, AND SDSS PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Brown, Peter E-mail: hoversten@astro.psu.ed E-mail: brown@astro.psu.ed

    2010-12-10

    At present, the precision of deep ultraviolet photometry is somewhat limited by the dearth of faint ultraviolet standard stars. In an effort to improve this situation, we present a uniform catalog of 11 new faint (u {approx} 17) ultraviolet standard stars. High-precision photometry of these stars has been taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Galaxy Evolution Explorer archives and combined with new data from the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope to provide precise photometric measures extending from the near-infrared to the far-ultraviolet. These stars were chosen because they are known to be hot (20, 000 < T{sub eff} < 50, 000 K) DA white dwarfs with published Sloan spectra that should be photometrically stable. This careful selection allows us to compare the combined photometry and Sloan spectroscopy to models of pure hydrogen atmospheres to both constrain the underlying properties of the white dwarfs and test the ability of white dwarf models to predict the photometric measures. We find that the photometry provides good constraints on white dwarf temperatures, which demonstrates the ability of Swift/UVOT to investigate the properties of hot luminous stars. We further find that the models reproduce the photometric measures in all 11 passbands to within their systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our photometry, we find the standard stars to be photometrically stable. This success indicates that the models can be used to calibrate additional filters to our standard system, permitting easier comparison of photometry from heterogeneous sources. The largest source of uncertainty in the model fitting is the uncertainty in the foreground reddening curve, a problem that is especially acute in the UV.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: gr photometry of Sextans A and Sextans B (Bellazzini+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellazzini, M.; Beccari, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Sollima, A.; Testa, V.; Galleti, S.; Perina, S.; Faccini, M.; Cusano, F.

    2014-04-01

    The tables present deep LBT/LBC g and r photometry of the stars having image quality parameters (provided by DAOPHOTII) CHI<=2 and SHARP within magnitude-dependent contours traced to include the bulk of stellar objects. The observations were achieved on the night og 2012-02-21 with the Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope in binocular mode; g images were acquired with the blue arm and r images with the red arm of the telescope/camera. The astrometry and the photometry were calibrated with stars in common with SDSS-DR9 (V/139). (2 data files).

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBV(RI)c photometry of Stock 16 (Vazquez+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Feinstein, C.; Nunez, J. A.; Vergne, M. M.

    2005-02-01

    CCD UBV(RI)c imaging photometry was carried out in the field of Stock 16 along two observational runs at the University of Toronto Southern Observatory, Las Campanas, Chile, using the Hellen Sawyer Hogg 60-cm telescope: on the nights of 1994 April 13, 14 and 16, we obtained UBVRI photometry for four frames with the nitrogen-cooled detector PM METHACROME UV coated (0.45"/pix) covering 4' on a side; three more frames were exposed on the nights of 1996 February 25 and 26 in the UBV(I)c bands (this time, the detector was glycol-refrigerated). (1 data file).

  13. Optical photometry of the eclipsing Large Magellanic Cloud supersoft source CAL 87

    E-print Network

    C. Alcock

    1997-02-13

    We present optical photometry of the eclipsing supersoft source, CAL87. These observations comprise long term data accumulated as a by-product of the MACHO Project, and high speed white light photometry of a single eclipse. We (i) derive an improved ephemeris of To = HJD 2450111.5144(3) + 0.44267714(6)E for the time of minimum light, (ii) find the eclipse structure to be stable over a period of 4 years, and (iii) investigate the colour variation as a function of orbital phase. The resolution afforded by the high speed nature of the white light observations enables us to see new structure in the light curve morphology.

  14. HST Survey of Clusters in Nearby Galaxies. I. Detection and Photometry

    E-print Network

    Andrew E. Dolphin; Robert C. Kennicutt Jr

    2001-10-08

    We have developed photometric techniques that can be applied to images with highly-variable backgrounds, as well as to slightly-extended objects (object size comparable to or smaller than PSF size). We have shown that ordinary stellar PSF-fitting photometry can be applied to slightly-extended objects, provided that one applies a systematic correction to the photometry that is a function primarily of the observed sharpness. Applying these techniques to the Cepheid target NGC 3627, we find that we are successfully able to photometer the stars and clusters, as well as discriminating the cluster population with a negligible number of false detections.

  15. Results of near-Earth-asteroid photometry in the frame of the ASPIN programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugly, Y.; Molotov, I.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Aivazyan, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Belskaya, I.; Golubaev, A.; Sergeev, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Slyusarev, I.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, S.; Elenin, L.; Voropaev, V.; Koupianov, V.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Baransky, A.; Irsmambetova, T.; Litvinenko, E.; Aliev, A.; Namkhai, T.

    2014-07-01

    Regular photometric observations aimed for obtaining physical properties of near-Earth asteroids (NEA) are carried out within the Asteroid Search and Photometry Initiative (ASPIN) of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON). At present, ISON project joins 35 observation facilities in 15 countries with 80 telescopes of different class. Photometric observations of NEAs are carried out at the telescopes with apertures from 20 cm up to 2.6 m equipped with CCD cameras. The obtained lightcurves in the Johnson-Cousins photometric system or in exceptional cases in the integral light (unfiltered photometry) have typical photometric accuracy of 0.01-0.03 mag. The main targets of these observations are near-Earth asteroids as hazardous objects pose a threat for the Earth civilization. The main purpose of the observations is to study characteristics of asteroids such as rotation period, size, and shape of the body, and surface composition. The observations are aimed toward searching binary asteroids, supporting the asteroid radar observations and investigation of the YORP effect. In 2013, we have observed 40 near-Earth asteroids in more than 200 nights. The rotation periods have been determined for 14 NEAs for the first time and, for 6 NEAs, rotation periods were defined more precisely. New rotation periods have been obtained for objects from Aten group: (137805) 1999 YK_5, (329437) 2002 OA_{22}, (367943) Duende (2012 DA_{14}); Apollo: (17188) 1999 WC_2, (137126) 1999 CF_9, (163249) 2002 GT, (251346) 2007 SJ, 2013 TV_{135}; Amor: (9950) ESA, (24445) 2000 PM_8, (137199) 1999 KX_4, (285263) 1998 QE_2, (361071) 2006 AO_4, 2010 XZ_{67}, and refined for (1943) Anteros, (3361) Orpheus, (3752) Camillo, (7888) 1993 UC, (53435) 1999 VM_{40}, (68216) 2001 CV_{26}. NEAs (7888) 1993 UC and (68216) 2001 CV_{26} were found to show signs of a binary nature. To detect possible binary asteroids, we observe the object during several consecutive nights and at several observatories located at different longitudes. In particular, to cover a long time interval and not to miss the eclipse/occultation minima, the binary NEA (285263) 1998 QE_2 has been observed in close dates in Ukraine, Georgia, Tajikistan, Mongolia, the Far East of Russia, and Mexico. To test an influence of the YORP effect on the spin rates, the lightcurves of NEAs (2100) Ra-Shalom, 88710 2001 SL_9, and (138852) 2000 WN_{10} have been obtained. The observations of small NEAs (with diameters smaller 200 m) have revealed very fast rotating NEAs with rotation periods smaller than 2.2 hours for (363305) 2002 NV_{16}, 2000 KA, and 2013 QR_1. Many of our targets were also the targets of the radar observations in the Arecibo and the Goldstone. The obtained results will be presented and the perspectives of the ASPIN programme will be discussed.

  16. UBV RI Photometry of SN 1993J in M81: Days 3 to 365 Michael W. Richmond

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Michael W.

    UBV RI Photometry of SN 1993J in M81: Days 3 to 365 Michael W. Richmond Department of Astrophysical listed in R94. This paper therefore covers the optical evolution of SN 1993J during the first 365 days photometry of SN 1993J in M81 over the period 1993 March 30 to 1994 March 28, exactly one year after its

  17. Strömgren uvby photometry of the peculiar globular cluster NGC 2419

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Feltzing, Sofia; Kacharov, Nikolay; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Irwin, Mike

    2015-09-01

    NGC 2419 is a peculiar Galactic globular cluster offset from the others in the size-luminosity diagram, and showing several chemical abundance anomalies. Here, we present Strömgren uvby photometry of the cluster. Using the gravity- and metallicity-sensitive c1 and m1 indices, we identify a sample of likely cluster members extending well beyond the formal tidal radius. The estimated contamination by cluster non-members is only one per cent, making our catalogue ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up. We derive photometric [Fe/H] of red giants, and depending on which metallicity calibration from the literature we use, we find reasonable to excellent agreement with spectroscopic [Fe/H], both for the cluster mean metallicity and for individual stars. We demonstrate explicitly that the photometric uncertainties are not Gaussian and this must be accounted for in any analysis of the metallicity distribution function. Using a realistic, non-Gaussian model for the photometric uncertainties, we find a formal internal [Fe/H] spread of ?=0.11+0.02-0.01 dex. This is an upper limit to the cluster's true [Fe/H] spread and may partially, and possibly entirely, reflect the limited precision of the photometric metallicity estimation and systematic effects. The lack of correlation between spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] of individual stars is further evidence against a [Fe/H] spread on the 0.1 dex level. Finally, the CN-sensitive ?4, among other colour indices, anti-correlates strongly with magnesium abundance, indicating that the second-generation stars are nitrogen enriched. The absence of similar correlations in some other CN-sensitive indices supports the second generation being enriched in He, which in these indices approximately compensates the shift due to CN. Compared to a single continuous distribution with finite dispersion, the observed ?4 distribution of red giants is slightly better fit by two distinct populations with no internal spread, with the nitrogen-enhanced second generation accounting for 53 ± 5 per cent of stars. Despite its known peculiarities, NGC 2419 appears to be very similar to other metal-poor Galactic globular clusters with a similarly nitrogen-enhanced second generation and little or no variation in [Fe/H], which sets it apart from other suspected accreted nuclei such as ?Cen. The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A72Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  18. Synthetic photometry for carbon-rich giants. IV. An extensive grid of dynamic atmosphere and wind models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, K.; Nowotny, W.; Höfner, S.; Aringer, B.; Wachter, A.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The evolution and spectral properties of stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) are significantly affected by mass loss through dusty stellar winds. Dynamic atmosphere and wind models are an essential tool for studying these evolved stars, both individually and as members of stellar populations, to understand their contribution to the integrated light and chemical evolution of galaxies. Aims: This paper is part of a series with the purpose of testing state-of-the-art atmosphere and wind models of C-type AGB stars against observations, and making them available to the community for use in various theoretical and observational studies. Methods: We have computed low-resolution spectra and photometry (in the wavelength range 0.35-25 ?m) for a grid of 540 dynamic models with stellar parameters typical of solar-metallicity C-rich AGB stars and with a range of pulsation amplitudes. The models cover the dynamic atmosphere and dusty outflow (if present), assuming spherical symmetry, and taking opacities of gas-phase species and dust grains consistently into account. To characterize the time-dependent dynamic and photometric behaviour of the models in a concise way we defined a number of classes for models with and without winds. Results: Comparisons with observed data in general show a quite satisfactory agreement for example regarding mass-loss rates vs. (J - K) colours or K magnitudes vs. (J - K) colours. Some exceptions from the good overall agreement, however, are found and attributed to the range of input parameters (e.g. relatively high carbon excesses) or intrinsic model assumptions (e.g. small particle limit for grain opacities). Conclusions: While current results indicate that some changes in model assumptions and parameter ranges should be made in the future to bring certain synthetic observables into better agreement with observations, it seems unlikely that these pending improvements will significantly affect the mass-loss rates of the models. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable B.1, photometry, and spectra for all snapshots are available from http://www.astro.uu.se/AGBmodels and also at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A95

  19. Characterization of Low-mass, Wide-separation Substellar Companions to Stars in Upper Scorpius: Near-infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, François-René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Janson, Markus; Helling, Christiane; Witte, Soeren

    2015-03-01

    We present new 0.9-2.45 ?m spectroscopy (R˜ 1000 ), and Y, J, H, Ks, {{L}\\prime } photometry, obtained at Gemini North, of three low-mass brown dwarf companions on wide orbits around young stars of the Upper Scorpius OB association: HIP 78530 B, [PGZ 2001] J161031.9-191305 B, and GSC 06214-00210 B. We use these data to assess the companions’ spectral type, temperature, surface gravity, and mass, as well as the ability of the BT-SETTL and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models to reproduce the spectral features of young substellar objects. For completeness, we also analyze the archival spectroscopy and photometry of the Upper Scorpius planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Based on a comparison with model spectra we find that the companions, in the above order, have effective temperatures of 2700 ± 100, 2500 ± 200, 2300 ± 100, and 1700 ± 100 K. These temperatures are consistent with our inferred spectral types, respectively M7 ?, M9 ?, M9 ?, and L4 ?, obtained from spectral indices and comparisons with templates. From bolometric luminosities estimated from atmosphere model spectra adjusted to our photometry, and using evolution models at 5-10 Myr, we estimate masses of 21-25, 28-70, 14-17, and 7-12 MJup, respectively. [PGZ 2001] J161031.9-191305 B appears significantly overluminous for its inferred temperature, which explains its higher mass estimate. Synthetic spectra based on the BT-Settl and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models generally offer a good fit to our observed spectra, although our analysis has highlighted a few problems. For example, the best fits in the individual near-infrared bands occur at different model temperatures. Also, temperature estimates based on a comparison of the broadband magnitudes and colors of the companions to synthetic magnitudes from the models are systematically lower than the temperature estimates based on a comparison with synthetic spectra.

  20. A Petal of the Sunflower: Photometry of the Stellar Tidal Stream in the Halo of Messier 63 (NGC 5055)

    E-print Network

    Chonis, Taylor S; Gabany, R Jay; Majewski, Steven R; Hill, Gary J; Gralak, Ray; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    We present surface photometry of a very faint, giant arc feature in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 (M63) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. This faint feature was first detected in early photographic studies by van der Kruit (1979); more recently by Mart\\'inez-Delgado et al. (2010) and as presented in this work, the loop has been realized to be the result of a recent minor merger through evidence obtained by deep images taken with a telescope of only 0.16 m aperture. The stellar stream is confirmed in additional images taken with the 0.5 m of the BlackBird Remote Observatory and the 0.8 m of the McDonald Observatory. This low surface brightness structure around the disk of the galaxy extends ~29 kpc from its center, with a projected width of 3.3 kpc. The stream's morphology is consistent with that of the visible part of a "great-circle" stellar stream originating from the accretion of a ~10^8 M_sun dwarf satellite ...

  1. Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 05/04/06 UB CCD PHOTOMETRY OF THE OLD, METAL RICH, OPEN CLUSTERS NGC 6791, NGC 6819 AND

    E-print Network

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 05/04/06 UB CCD PHOTOMETRY OF THE OLD, METAL RICH CCD photometry. The color magnitude diagram of the three clusters is analyzed in detail, with special). However, the lack of high-quality UV photometry, particularly in the U band, prevented so far a full

  2. arXiv:1404.3440v1[astro-ph.IM]13Apr2014 CCD photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    arXiv:1404.3440v1[astro-ph.IM]13Apr2014 CCD photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh ; accepted #12;­ 2 ­ ABSTRACT Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains tricky for precision CCD photometry of such stars. Our tests on Cep and its comparison star differing by 5 magnitudes

  3. R. Astron. 345, 795--799 (2003) Five nights intensive R and Vband photometry of QSO 0957+561A,B

    E-print Network

    Ovaldsen, Jan-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Mon. R. Astron. 345, 795--799 (2003) Five nights intensive R­ and V­band photometry of QSO 0957 2003 Received 2003 original form May ABSTRACT present V­band photometry gravitational lens system 0957 monitoring at the Nordic Optical Telescope. In the photometry scheme have stressed careful magnitude

  4. Baltic Astronomy, vol. 14, XXX--XXX, 2005. ULTRACAM PHOTOMETRY OF PULSATING SUBDWARF B STARS

    E-print Network

    Jeffery, Simon

    Baltic Astronomy, vol. 14, XXX--XXX, 2005. ULTRACAM PHOTOMETRY OF PULSATING SUBDWARF B STARS C. S. Je#ery 1 C. Aerts 2,3 V. S. Dhillon 4 and T. R. Marsh 5 1 Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT

  5. Thermal Emission Photometry of Deep Impact Flyby Target (163249) 2002 GT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Reddy, V.; Vilas, F.; 2002 GT Observing Team

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (163249) 2002 GT is now the target of a Deep Impact spacecraft flyby in Jan. 2020 (see Pittichova et al., this volume, for details of the flyby and observing campaign). Thermal emission photometry of 2002 GT was obtained from NIRI on Gemini-North in the L' and M' filters, which are centered at 3.76 and 4.68 microns respectively. J- and K-band reflectance photometry was also acquired in support of the thermal observations. The full JKL'M' set was acquired on UT 2013-Jun-13 at a solar phase angle of 53 degrees. A further set of photometry in J, K, and L' only was carried out on 2013-Jun-19 at a phase angle of 65 degrees. High water vapor conditions at Mauna Kea during this period unfortunately prevented acquisition of a second set of M' measurements. In addition, N-band photometry of 2002 GT was conducted on 2013-Jun-10 from CanariCam at the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias using a beta version of the moving object guiding system. Data were acquired in three filters between 8.7 and 12.5 microns, although the limitations of the guiding are complicating the analysis. (We note that N-band observing was not offered by either Gemini or IRTF during this apparition.) Data analysis is ongoing and results will be discussed. We appreciate the efforts of the Gemini and GTC staff in support of these observing programs.

  6. Physics 344 Lab 6 Stellar Photometry and the Color-Magnitude Diagram

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    1 Physics 344 Lab 6 Stellar Photometry and the Color-Magnitude Diagram Observing: November 6 - 13: Chapters 7 & 10 Purpose: The color-magnitude (or Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram is the observational tool and I magnitudes for stars in the open star cluster M34. We will use these data to construct a color

  7. Physics 344 Lab 4 Stellar Photometry and the Color-Magnitude Diagram

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    1 Physics 344 Lab 4 Stellar Photometry and the Color-Magnitude Diagram Observing: October 10 ­ 23: Chapters 7 & 10 Purpose: The color-magnitude (or Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram is the observational tool and V magnitudes for stars in an open star cluster. We will use these data to construct a color

  8. NIR photometry the AGN candidate MASTER OTJ010728.48+033348.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Mayya, D. Y.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.

    2014-12-01

    Following the report on flaring activity of MASTER OTJ010728.48+033348.4 by Shumkov et al.,2014 (Atel #6762). We carried out NIR photometry recently, On November 30th,2014 (JD2456991.8114), we found this object with a flux corresponding to H = 15.754 +/- 0,05, J = 15.754.

  9. Achieving high-precision ground-based photometry for transiting exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    ). A fundamental limitation is imposed by scintillation, which cannot easily be calibrated (it is largely precision photometry with these systems, approaching the limit set by photon noise and scintillation noise in three broad categories: · Photon noise is a fundamental limit, common to both space and ground

  10. ASTROMETRY AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF NEPTUNE'S INNER SATELLITES AND RING ARCS

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Glenn

    ASTROMETRY AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF NEPTUNE'S INNER SATELLITES AND RING ARCS Christophe, and Despina) and ring arcs of Neptune, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and its near-infrared camera- ing within the ring region of Neptune have a near-infrared albedo consistently low, but higher than

  11. Physical studies of asteroids. XXV - Photoelectric photometry of asteroids obtained at ESO and Hoher List Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Magnusson, P.; Debehogne, H.; Hoffmann, M.; Erikson, A.; de Campos, A.; Cutispoto, G.

    1992-11-01

    Photoelectric photometry of 14 asteroids, carried out at ESO and the Hoher List Observatory during 1990 and 1991, are presented. Composite lightcurves were derived for the asteroids 140 Siwa, 238 Hypatia, 347 Pariana, 389 Industria and 1593 Fagnes. UBV colors are also given for ten of the asteroids.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Trumpler 14 JHKL' photometry (Ascenso+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso, J.; Alves, J.; Vicente, S.; Lago, M. T. V. T.

    2007-11-01

    Photometry for the stars detected with SOFI, NTT, in J, H and Ks and with NACO, VLT, in J, H, Ks and L' in the field containing the massive cluster Trumpler 14 associated with the Carina Nebula. For each star the tables contains an ID, J2000.0 equatorial coordinates, magnitudes and photometric errors. (2 data files).

  13. TIMERESOLVED PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS: ROTATIONS, SHAPES, AND PHASE FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    TIME­RESOLVED PHOTOMETRY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS: ROTATIONS, SHAPES, AND PHASE FUNCTIONS Scott. words: Kuiper belt minor planets, asteroids Oort cloud solar system: general On­line material: machine (Jewitt Luu 1993). These objects make Kuiper (also known Edgeworth­Kuiper belt), which is thought contain

  14. NIR photometry of the Blazars TXS0646-176 and TXS0908+416

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Gonzalez, R.

    2015-11-01

    Following the Fermi LAT collaboration gamma-ray activity reports of the high redshift blazars TXS0646-176 (z = 1.232, ATel#7833) and TXS0908+416 (z = 2.563, ATel#8219), we carried out NIR photometry of these objects.

  15. New shape models of asteroids reconstructed from sparse-in-time photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durech, Josef; Hanus, Josef; Vanco, Radim; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid physical parameters - the shape, the sidereal rotation period, and the spin axis orientation - can be reconstructed from the disk-integrated photometry either dense (classical lightcurves) or sparse in time by the lightcurve inversion method. We will review our recent progress in asteroid shape reconstruction from sparse photometry. The problem of finding a unique solution of the inverse problem is time consuming because the sidereal rotation period has to be found by scanning a wide interval of possible periods. This can be efficiently solved by splitting the period parameter space into small parts that are sent to computers of volunteers and processed in parallel. We will show how this approach of distributed computing works with currently available sparse photometry processed in the framework of project Asteroids@home. In particular, we will show the results based on the Lowell Photometric Database. The method produce reliable asteroid models with very low rate of false solutions and the pipelines and codes can be directly used also to other sources of sparse photometry - Gaia data, for example. We will present the distribution of spin axis of hundreds of asteroids, discuss the dependence of the spin obliquity on the size of an asteroid,and show examples of spin-axis distribution in asteroid families that confirm the Yarkovsky/YORP evolution scenario.

  16. Revised photometry and color distribution of Type Ia supernovae observed at Asiago in the seventies

    E-print Network

    F. Patat; R. Barbon; E. Cappellaro M. Turatto

    1996-05-29

    Following recent claims regarding possible errors in the photometry of SNe carried out at Asiago observatory during the 70's, which produced very blue $(B-V)$ color at maximum for some objects, we present the result of new CCD photometry of the sequences around 16 type Ia supernovae. Except for a few cases, e.g. SN1970J and SN1972J for which a large zero point error has been found, the new data show that the old Asiago observations have been carried out properly and that their accuracy was comparable to that expected for a photometry based on photographic transfers. This result is also substantiated by comparison with the re-calibration of some Asiago sequences made photo-electrically by Tsvetkov. New light curves of the SNe have been determined and B magnitudes and (B-V) colors at light peak derived. With the new data the color distribution of the SNe studied here becomes narrower and moves to the red by only 0.06 mag, showing no more very blue objects except for one, still uncertain, case. As far as the use of SNIa as standard candles is concerned, we show that the utilization of all SNe in the M$_B$ vs. (B-V)$^{max}_0$ plane reduces the uncertainties due to the photometry.

  17. Southern Cosmology Survey III: QSO's from Combined GALEX and Optical Photometry

    E-print Network

    Raul Jimenez; David N. Spergel; Michael D. Niemack; Felipe Menanteau; John P. Hughes; Licia Verde; Arthur Kosowsky

    2008-11-25

    We present catalogs of QSO candidates selected using photometry from GALEX combined with SDSS in the Stripe 82 region and Blanco Cosmology Survey (BCS) near declination -55 degrees. The SDSS region contains ~700 objects with magnitude i photometry in the GALEX bands (FUV, NUV photometry, using the method given by Atlee and Gould (2008). In the Stripe 82 field, 60% (30%) of the GALEX selected QSO's with optical magnitude iphotometry. Comparison with the same catalog by Richards et al. shows that the completeness of the sample is approximately 40%(25%). However, for regions of the sky with very low dust extinction, like the BCS 23hr field and the Stripe 82 between 0 and 10 degrees in RA, our completeness is close to 95%, demonstrating that deep GALEX observations are almost as efficient as multi-wavelength observations at finding QSO's. GALEX observations thus provide a viable alternate route to QSO catalogs in sky regions where u-band optical photometry is not available. The full catalog is available at http://www.ice.csic.es/personal/jimenez/PHOTOZ

  18. Absolute magnitudes for late-type dwarf stars for Sloan photometry

    E-print Network

    S. Bilir; S. Karaali; S. Tuncel

    2005-03-18

    We present a new formula for absolute magnitude determination for late-type dwarf stars as a function of (g-r) and (r-i) for Sloan photometry. The absolute magnitudes estimated by this approach are brighter than those estimated by colour-magnitude diagrams, and they reduce the luminosity function rather close to the luminosity function of Hipparcos.

  19. AN UPDATED CATALOG OF M33 CLUSTERS AND CANDIDATES: UBVRI PHOTOMETRY AND SOME STATISTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jun

    2012-08-15

    We present UBVRI photometry for 392 star clusters and candidates in the field of M33, which are selected from the most recent star cluster catalog. In this catalog, the authors listed star clusters' parameters such as cluster positions, magnitudes, colors in the UBVRIJHK{sub s} filters, and so on. However, a large fraction of objects in this catalog do not have previously published photometry. Photometry is performed using archival images from the Local Group Galaxies Survey, which covers 0.8 deg{sup 2} along the major axis of M33. Detailed comparisons show that, in general, our photometry is consistent with previous measurements. Positions (right ascension and declination) for some clusters are corrected here. Combined with previous literature, ours constitute a large sample of M33 star clusters. Based on this cluster sample, we present some statistical results: none of the youngest M33 clusters ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) have masses approaching 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} ; roughly half the star clusters are consistent with the 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} mass models; the continuous distribution of star clusters along the model line indicates that M33 star clusters have been formed continuously from the epoch of the first star cluster formation until recent times; and there are {approx}50 star clusters which are overlapped with the Galactic globular clusters on the color-color diagram, and these clusters are old globular cluster candidates in M33.

  20. Towards using optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperature of O stars

    E-print Network

    J. Maíz Apellániz; A. Sota

    2007-02-20

    It has been traditionally stated that it is not possible to use optical/NIR photometry to measure the temperatures of O stars. In this contribution we describe the steps required to overcome the hurdles that have prevented this from happening in the past and we present our preliminary results for the low-extinction case.

  1. V(RI)sub(c) Photometry of Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-print Network

    T. Barnes; I. Ivans; J. Martin; C. Froning; T. Moffett

    1999-04-12

    We present V(RI)sub data for thirteen Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud ans fifty-five in each wavelength band. The median uncertainty in the photometry iy Moffett, Gieren & Barnes (1998) which contained 1000 measures ($\\pm 0.01$ mag) in each wavelength band on 22 variables with periods in the range 8--133 days.

  2. Liverpool Telescope Optical Photometry Following the 2006 Outburst of RS Ophiuchi

    E-print Network

    M. J. Darnley; R. A. Hounsell; M. F. Bode

    2008-09-26

    We present a preliminary report on the broadband optical photometry of the 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. These data were obtained using the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope and cover the outburst from day 27 through day 548.

  3. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    E-print Network

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the ...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3" aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the source. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked region. A flag of 1 indicates 14 percent of the aperture is masked, so any flagged object should be carefully checked. Objects with a de-blending flag set to 1 are potentially spurious and should not be used for statistical studies. However, the photometry for real sources with a de-blending flag set to 1 is good if they fall outside of masked region. (1 data file).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: COSMOS Multi-Wavelength Photometry Catalog (Capak+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Aussel, H.; Ajiki, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Tribiano, S.; Sasaki, S.; Blain, A. W.; Brusa, M.; Carilli, C.; Comastri, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Colbert, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Green, W.; Guzzo, L.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koda, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Komiyama, Y.; Leauthaud, A.; Lefevre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C.; Massey, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Murayama, T.; Nagao, T.; Peacock, J. A.; Pickles, A.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Rhodes, J.; Rich, M.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scarlata, C.; Schiminovich, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Scodeggio, M.; Sheth, K.; Shioya, Y.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Taylor, J. E.; Yan, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2008-03-01

    The present COSMOS data were collected on a variety of telescopes and instruments, as well as from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) second data release (DR2) archive (u, g, r, i, z) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST, F814W). This paper covers the processing of the data obtained with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.3m telescope (Bj, Vj, g+, r+, i+, z+, NB816), Megaprime on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT, u*, i*), FLAMINGOS on the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO, Ks) 4m telescope, and the Infrared Side Port Imager on the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO, Ks) 4m telescope during the 2004-2005 observing season. The COSMOS I band catalog is an I band selected multi-color catalog for 2 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field at 10:00:28.6, +02:12:21. The total magnitude (SExtractor mag_auto) for a source must have an AB magnitude of less than i+<25 to appear in the archival catalog. All photometry is in the AB magnitude system and measured in a 3 arc second aperture on PSF-matched images unless otherwise noted. A magnitude of -99 indicates a photometric measurement was not possible due to lack of data, a large number of bad pixels, or saturation. A magnitude of 99.0 indicates no detection. In the case of no detection the error given for the object is the 1 sigma limiting magnitude at the position of the souce. The photometry is as measured on the images with no corrections applied. We recommend applying the magnitude offsets in the paper to obtain the best possible photometry. More details on the photometry are available in the paper. The Photometric Redshifts included in this catalog are described in Mobasher et al. (2007ApJS..172..117M) and have an accuracy of dz/(1+z)<0.031 at z<1.2 and I<24. It is important to pay attention to the flag columns at the end of the catalog. The cleanest catalog will have all flags set to 0. The photometry flags indicate the area of the photometry aperture, in square arc seconds, which is in a masked region. A flag of 1 indicates 14 percent of the aperture is masked, so any flagged object should be carefully checked. Objects with a de-blending flag set to 1 are potentially spurious and should not be used for statistical studies. However, the photometry for real sources with a de-blending flag set to 1 is good if they fall outside of masked region. (1 data file).

  6. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  7. Near-infrared photometry of carbon stars in the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy and DDO 210

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullieuszik, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Cioni, M. R.; Habing, H. J.; Held, E. V.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We investigate the intermediate-age asymptotic giant branch stellar population of two Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies to characterize their carbon star population in near-infrared (IR). Methods: Our work is based on near-IR photometry complemented with optical ground based and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry. Near-IR photometry is based on our and archival J and K_s-band images from SOFI near-IR array of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT). Optical photometry for DDO 210 is from the EMMI optical imager of ESO NTT, while the SagDIG optical data come from Momany et al. (2005, A&A, 439, 111). Results: We show that near-IR photometry is a very powerful tool for carbon star detection. We recovered two out of three previously-known carbon stars in DDO 210 and discovered six additional objects in this galaxy which have optical and near-IR colors consistent with carbon giants. This brings the total number of bona fide C-star candidates in DDO 210 to nine. However, to confirm the nature of these objects additional higher spatial resolution imaging or spectroscopic data are necessary. We detected a large population of C-star candidates in SagDIG, 18 of which were previously identified in Demers & Battinelli (2002, AJ, 123, 238) and Cook (1987, Ph.D. Thesis), and six new bona fide carbon stars. We present their optical and near-IR colors and use their luminosity function to put constraints on the star formation history (SFH) in this dwarf irregular galaxy. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, Proposal No. 71.D-0560, and archived ESO data from the Proposal No. 61.E-0273. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Deriving star formation histories from photometry using energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2015-10-01

    Panchromatic spectral energy distribution fitting is a critical tool for determining the physical properties of distant galaxies, such as their stellar mass and star formation rate. One widely used method is the publicly available MAGPHYS code. We build on our previous analysis by presenting some modifications which enable MAGPHYS to automatically estimate galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), including uncertainties, based on ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry. We use state-of-the art synthetic photometry derived by performing three-dimensional dust radiative transfer on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated disc and merging galaxies to test how well the modified MAGPHYS is able to recover SFHs under idealized conditions, where the true SFH is known. We find that while the SFH of the model with the best fit to the synthetic photometry is a poor representation of the true SFH (showing large variations with the line of sight to the galaxy and spurious bursts of star formation), median-likelihood SFHs generated by marginalizing over the default MAGPHYS libraries produce robust estimates of the smoothly varying isolated disc simulation SFHs. This preference for the median-likelihood SFH is quantitatively underlined by our estimates of ? ^2_SFH (analogous to the ?2 goodness-of-fit estimator) and ? M / M (the integrated absolute mass discrepancy between the model and true SFH) that strongly prefer the median-likelihood SFHs over those that best fit the UV-to-far-IR photometry. In contrast, we are unable to derive a good estimate of the SFH for the merger simulations (either best fit or median likelihood) despite being able to obtain a reasonable fit to the simulated photometry, likely because the analytic SFHs with bursts superposed in the standard MAGPHYS library are insufficiently general/realistic.

  9. The Calibration of the Swift/UVOT Optical Observations: A Recipe for Photometry

    E-print Network

    Weidong Li; Saurabh Jha; Alexei V. Filippenko; Joshua S. Bloom; David Pooley; Ryan J. Foley; Daniel A. Perley

    2005-09-27

    Swift/UVOT has the capability to provide critical insight into the physics of the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). But without precise calibration of the UVOT to standard photometric systems, it is impossible to leverage late- time, ground-based follow-up data to the early-time UVOT observations. In this paper, we present a calibration of the Swift/UVOT photometry to the standard Johnson UBV system for the UVOT UBV filters,and a step-by-step photometry recipe for analyzing these data. We base our analysis on aperture photometry performed on the ground-based and UVOT observations of the local standard stars in the fields of supernovae (SNe) 2005am and 2005cf, and a number of Landolt standard stars.We find that the optimal photometry aperture radius for UVOT data is small (2".5 for unbinned data,3".0 for 2X2 binned data),and show that the coincidence- loss (C-loss) correction is important even for relatively faint magnitudes (mag 16 to 19). Based on a theoretically motivated model,we fit the C-loss correction with two parameters, the photometric zero point (ZP) and the saturation magnitude (m_inf), and derive tight constraints for both parameters [sigma(ZP) = 0.01 mag and sigma(m_inf) = 0.02 mag)].We find that the color term correction is not necessary for the UVOT B and V filters,but is necessary for the U filter for blue objects [(U - V) photometry, the cause of which is unclear, but may be partly due to the spatial variation in the pixel sensitivity of the UVOT detector.

  10. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  11. Characterization of Low-mass, Wide-separation Substellar Companions to Stars in Upper Scorpius: Near-infrared Photometry and Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Lachapelle, François-René; Gagné, Jonathan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Janson, Markus; Helling, Christiane; Witte, Soeren

    2015-01-01

    We present new 0.9-2.45 $\\mu$m spectroscopy ($R \\sim 1000$), and $Y$, $J$, $H$, $K_s$, $L^\\prime$ photometry, obtained at Gemini North, of three low-mass brown dwarf companions on wide orbits around young stars of the Upper Scorpius OB association: HIP 78530 B, [PGZ2001] J161031.9-191305 B, and GSC 06214-00210 B. We use these data to assess the companions' spectral type, temperature, surface gravity and mass, as well as the ability of the BT-Settl and Drift-Phoenix atmosphere models to reproduce the spectral features of young substellar objects. For completeness, we also analyze the archival spectroscopy and photometry of the Upper Scorpius planetary mass companion 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Based on a comparison with model spectra we find that the companions, in the above order, have effective temperatures of 2700, 2500, 2300 and 1700 K. These temperatures are consistent with our inferred spectral types, respectively M7 $\\beta$, M9 $\\gamma$, M9 $\\gamma$, and L4 $\\gamma$. From bolometric luminosities estimated ...

  12. Near-infrared photometry of the Galilean satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Tittemore, W.C.; Sinton, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The present near-IR (2.2-, 3.8-, 4.8-micron) lightcurves and phase coefficients for the Galilean satellites notes the geometric albedo of Io to include volcanic emission at the two longer wavelengths, although no major outbursts were detected during the 1982-1983 period of these observations. The trend of decreasing albedo with increasing wavelength exhibited by Ganymede and Europa is consistent with their possession of icy surfaces. The results obtained for Callisto are consistent with visible-wavelength observations of other dark solar system objects. 35 references.

  13. A CCD antiblooming technique for use in photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, A. William; Janesick, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A new antiblooming technique was used to collect images for a BL Lac monitoring project. The antiblooming was accomplished by clocking two of the collection phases (in a three-phase chip) back and forth during the integration of an image. Calibrations were done using VRI standard stars to insure that the technique did not affect normal photon collection and photometric data. New sources of noise were identified which must be subtracted from the processed imaging. In contrast, the technique reduced dark current noise, which is of benefit with a thermoelectric-cooled camera. The technique eliminated blooming across the stars of interest, while preserving photon-collection efficiency. It also reduced the total noise of the exposures.

  14. HOMOGENEOUS UGRIZ PHOTOMETRY FOR ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY GALAXIES: A NON-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FROM SDSS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-11-15

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly {approx}10{sup 3} in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sersic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be {sigma}(B{sub T}){approx} 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to {approx} 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (B{sub T} {approx} 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ('dwarf') galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ('giant') galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample-profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness-are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a {approx}7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  15. Comparison of atmospheric parameters determined from spectroscopy and photometry for DA white dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Genest-Beaulieu, C.; Bergeron, P. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative analysis of atmospheric parameters obtained with the so-called photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Photometric and spectroscopic data for 1360 DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used, as well as spectroscopic data from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog. We first test the calibration of the ugriz photometric system by using model atmosphere fits to observed data. Our photometric analysis indicates that the ugriz photometry appears well calibrated when the SDSS to AB{sub 95} zeropoint corrections are applied. The spectroscopic analysis of the same data set reveals that the so-called high-log g problem can be solved by applying published correction functions that take into account three-dimensional hydrodynamical effects. However, a comparison between the SDSS and the White Dwarf Catalog spectra also suggests that the SDSS spectra still suffer from a small calibration problem. We then compare the atmospheric parameters obtained from both fitting techniques and show that the photometric temperatures are systematically lower than those obtained from spectroscopic data. This systematic offset may be linked to the hydrogen line profiles used in the model atmospheres. We finally present the results of an analysis aimed at measuring surface gravities using photometric data only.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxies. 1: Observations, discussion, and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Walter; Ford, Holland C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bosch, Frank C. Van Den; Ferrarese, Laura

    1994-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope we have observed at 10 pc resolution the nuclei of a luminosity-limited sample of 14 E and E/SO galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with magnitudes B(sub T) = 9.4 to 13.4. In this paper we present the images, and discuss the results of the detailed analysis of the surface photometry given in two companion papers. We find that the nuclear and near-nuclear morphologies confirm and strengthen the previously recognized dichotomy of 'E' galaxies into 'true' and 'disky' subtypes. The latter, usually classified E4 or later, often show a bright nuclear disk of radius approximately 100 pc. Essentially all early-type galaxies with -18 greater than M(sub B) greater than -20 are disky. Most true E galaxies are classified E4 or earlier. Most galaxies of both types show dust in the nuclear regions, the most remarkable example being a compact dust disk in NGC 4261. Other than dust, no anomalies were detected in the centers of the three galaxies in our sample which show clear kinematic evidence for a decoupled component.

  17. CCD photometry of 1218+304 1219+28 and 1727+50: Point sources, associated nebulosity and broadband spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Shaffer, D. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reitsma, H. J.; Smith, B. A.

    1981-01-01

    Visual and far red surface photometry were obtained of two X-ray emitting BL Lacertae objects, 1218+304 (2A1219+305) and 1727+50 (Izw 187), as well as the highly variable object 1219+28 (ON 231, W Com). The intensity distribution for 1727+50 can be modeled using a central point source plus a de Vaucouleurs intensity law for an underlying galaxy. The broad band spectral energy distribution so derived is consistent with what is expected for an elliptical galaxy. The spectral index of the point source is alpha = 0.97. Additional VLBI and X-ray data are also reported for 1727+50. There is nebulosity associated with the recently discovered object 1218+304. No nebulosity is found associated with 1219+28. A comparison of the results with observations at X-ray and radio frequencies suggests that all the emission from 1727+50 and 1218+304 can be interpreted as due solely to direct synchrotron emission. If this is the case, the data further imply the existence of relativistic motion effects and continuous particle injection.

  18. The Distribution of Geometric Albedos of Jupiter-Family Comets From SEPPCoN and Visible-Wavelength Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Yanga R.; Weaver, Harold; Lisse, Carey; Meech, Karen; Lowry, Stephen; Bauer, James; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Snodgrass, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We present a preliminary estimate of the distribution of geometric albedos among the Jupiter-family comet (JFC) population. While an assumption of 4% is common and consistent with the heretofore limited number of known cometary albedos, the true average albedo and albedo spread have not been well constrained. By knowing a statistically-significant number of albedos, and thus the distribution of albedo values across the comet population, we can investigate overarching science questions about the evolution of cometary surfaces. Our current work makes use of and builds on the results of the Survey of Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei (SEPPCoN), in which we obtained new and independent estimates of the radii of 89 JFCs [1,2]. By using the thus-known radius and photometry of a bare nucleus, we can constrain its geometric albedo. We will present our preliminary albedo estimates for ~50 JFC nuclei, and we will discuss the implications of the ensemble of the results. These JFCs were all observed in R-band, and were all observed at relatively large heliocentric distances (usually >4 AU from the Sun) where the comets appeared inactive, thus minimizing coma contamination. We acknowledge the support of NASA grant NNX09AB44G, of NSF grant AST-0808004, and of the Astrophysical Research Consortium/Apache Point Observatory for this work. References: [1] Y. R. Fernandez et al., 2013, Icarus 226, 1138. [2] M. S. Kelley et al., 2013, Icarus 225, 475.

  19. Photometry of Phobos and Deimos from Viking orbiter images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaasen, K. P.; Duxbury, T. C.; Veverka, J.

    1979-01-01

    Images of Phobos and Deimos acquired by the Viking orbiter television system have been used to determine the photometric functions of the Martian moons. Data covering wavelengths from 445 nm to 593 nm and solar phase angles between 0.5 deg and 122 deg were used. Normal reflectances of 0.066 + or - 0.006 for Phobos and 0.069 + or - 0.006 for Deimos were determined. No variations in either photometric function or average normal albedo were observed over the wavelength range studied. The photometric functions demonstrate that the surface of Phobos and Deimos are intricate in texture brightness surges near opposition that are more pronounced than that of the moon.

  20. THE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERIOR OF COMET 73P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3: RESULTS FROM NARROWBAND PHOTOMETRY OF MULTIPLE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, David G.; Bair, Allison N.

    2011-06-15

    We present analyses of and results for multiple components of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 at two apparitions. A total of eight nights of narrowband photometry were obtained during the comet's 2006 apparition from February 25 to September 24 at Lowell Observatory. The comet's very close passage of Earth and sporadic outbursts allowed us to successfully measure the primary body, 'C', as well as components 'B', 'G', and 'R'. We additionally include four nights of narrowband photometry from 1995, obtained at Perth Observatory between October 19 and November 21, one to two months after the initial fragmentation event and outburst. We determined production rates for OH, NH, CN, C{sub 3}, and C{sub 2}, along with a proxy for the dust production, A({theta})f{rho}, and our 2006 measurements show considerable variation in behavior among the components, and for the gas species as compared to the dust grains. The two components having the best temporal coverage, C and B, both exhibit evidence for strong seasonal effects with larger production rates prior to perihelion than after. Because C showed little or no evidence of outbursts, its derived active area (based on water production rates) appears to be dominated by ice vaporizing from the nucleus; the fractional active area of the total nucleus surface varied from 56% (2006 February) to 125% (May) and back down to 11% (September) following perihelion. Except for when Component B was in outburst, C always had higher production rates than B, implying a significantly larger effective active area on its nucleus' surface. Unlike the gas species, dust production showed large and varying trends with both aperture size and with time, implying a significant change in the properties of the dust grains during the 2006 apparition. Due to the fragmentation event in 1995, the majority of active surfaces on the various components observed in 2006 are freshly exposed from the interior of Schwassmann-Wachmann 3's nucleus, thus permitting us to directly probe the chemical composition of the relatively pristine interior. Relative abundances, expressed as production rate ratios between gas species, were compared among the four components and to values determined prior to the fragmentation, as well as to those measured in other comets. Our measurements indicate each component, to within the uncertainties, has the same composition and that this composition is consistent with that measured in the pre-fragmented nucleus. Moreover, C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} are both strongly depleted when compared to the majority of comets, placing Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 among the more extreme comets within the carbon-chain depleted class identified by A'Hearn et al. With the material released from the interior of the comet yielding comparable depletions of carbon-chain molecules as the original surface of the nucleus, we conclude that carbon-chain depletion is not caused by evolution of the surface, and so must instead reflect the primordial composition at the time and location that the comet accreted.