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1

Torque  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation of a rotating wheel below shows the relationship between net torque on the wheel and its angular acceleration. The center of the wheel is fixed so that the net external force on the wheel remains zero.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

2

Torque production in permanent-magnet synchronous motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method was developed to determine cogging as well as commutating torque in permanent-magnet machines of both buried and surface-mounted magnet types. A detailed analysis of the torque production in a permanent magnet synchronous motor drive with rectangular current excitation is presented. The effect of skewing is considered. The proposed method takes advantage of the knowledge of the flux

J. De La Ree; N. Boules

1989-01-01

3

Simulations of drag torque affecting synchronisers in a dual clutch transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drag torque contributes significantly to the engagement of synchronisers in vehicle transmissions. Little is understood of\\u000a how drag torque varies during transient engagement. Considerable analysis, however, has shown it affects engagement and can\\u000a cause the mechanism to fail. To demonstrate the significance of the role that drag torque plays during synchroniser engagement\\u000a in a wet clutch dual clutch transmission numerical

Paul D. Walker; Nong Zhang; Ric Tamba; Simon Fitzgerald

2011-01-01

4

Torque Production in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives with Rectangular Current Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special features of torque production in self-controlled permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous motor drives with rectangular current excitation have been investigated. Addressed issues include the generation of undesired torque pulsations at low speeds and system operating locus limits imposed at high speeds by saturation of the current regulator. Attention is limited to motors in which sources of reluctance torque are suppressed by

Thomas M. Jahns

1984-01-01

5

Measurement of upper extremity torque production and its relationship to throwing speed in the competitive athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to establish whether or not a correlation exists between peak torque production of upper extremity (UE) musculature and throwing speed. Eleven professional baseball players were tested for upper extremity peak torque production using a Cybex II Isokinetic Dynamometer. Throwing speed was meas ured with a radar gun. Results of statistical analysis performed on the data indicate

Lyndon R. Bartlett; Mitchel D. Storey; Bart D. Simons

1989-01-01

6

Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives With High Acceleration by Consideration of Torque–Speed and Torque–Acceleration Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of drives for high accelerating loads becomes very simple and clear with the fact that the torque- acceleration product is transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear, just like in the case of the torque-speed product (i.e., mechanical power). With this knowledge, it is easy to determine the required rated power and power rate a motor must possess for

Horst Grotstollen

2011-01-01

7

Temperature effects on torque production and efficiency of PM motors using NdFeB magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigates the temperature effects of PM (permanent magnet) motors using neodymium magnets on the torque production capability and on the efficiency of the motor. When PM motors are designed to operate in a wide temperature range, the reversible demagnetization of the neodymium magnets with temperature and the increase in winding resistance with temperature influence the maximum torque capability

Tomy Sebastian

1993-01-01

8

Unified theory of torque production in switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for calculating the average and instantaneous torque of the synchronous reluctance motor from a knowledge of the trajectory of the phase flux-linkage versus phase current [i-?] waveform, i.e., the same method as used with the switched reluctance motor. This allows a direct comparison between torque production in the two motors to be made. Analytical and finite-element

David A. Staton; Wen L. Soong; Timothy J. E. Miller

1995-01-01

9

Errors in alignment of center of pressure and foot coordinates affect predicted lower extremity torques.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to quantify the effect of errors in spatial alignment between the center of pressure recorded from a force platform and the coordinates of the foot recorded from film on resultant joint torques in the lower extremity during the stance phase of gait. Two-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data from eight subjects performing walking and running were analyzed using inverse dynamics with the obtained center of pressure values and with +/- 0.5 and +/- 1.0 cm shifts in the anteroposterior location of the center of pressure under the support foot. Shifting the center of pressure posteriorly increased the flexor (dorsiflexor) torques at the hip and ankle and decreased the extensor (plantarflexor) torques at these joints. This shift also caused an increase in the extensor and a decrease in the flexor torques at the knee. Shifting the center of pressure anteriorly caused the opposite effects at each joint. The +/- 0.5 and +/- 1.0 cm shifts in the location of the center of pressure caused, on average, 7 and 14% changes, respectively, in maximum joint torque and angular impulse values. Relative transition times between flexor and extensor torques were either increased or decreased, on average, by 7 and 13%, respectively for the two conditions over all trials. Based on these results, it is concluded that due to potential errors in the spatial alignment of kinetic and kinematic data, joint torques in the literature on gait should be considered as approximations of the true values. PMID:7673265

McCaw, S T; DeVita, P

1995-08-01

10

Temperature effects on torque production and efficiency of PM motors using NdFeB magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in high energy magnets have created widespread interest in the area of permanent magnet (PM) motors. The use of PM synchronous motors or brushless motors to replace conventional DC or induction type motors has not been as speedy as anticipated earlier. This paper deals with the temperature effects of PM motors using neodymium magnets on the torque production

Tomy Sebastian

1995-01-01

11

Maximum Torque Production in Rotor Field Oriented Control of an Induction Motor at Field Weakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a highly dynamic rotor flux- oriented control system of an induction motor in the field weakening region. The control system guarantees maximum torque production taking into account voltage and current limits. The approach permits operation without using a speed sensor. The system is investigated by simulation in real time and experimentally using a fixed point microcontroller.

H. Abu-Rub; H. Schmirgel; J. Holtz

2007-01-01

12

Factors Affecting New Product Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen commercial and 13 Department of Defense (DoD) new product developments are reviewed and analyzed to understand the factors responsible for reducing development times. The major groupings of factors affecting new product developments were found to...

J. T. Shields

1994-01-01

13

Errors in alignment of center of pressure and foot coordinates affect predicted lower extremity torques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to quantify the effect of errors in spatial alignment between the center of pressure recorded from a force platform and the coordinates of the foot recorded from film on resultant joint torques in the lower extremity during the stance phase of gait. Two-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data from eight subjects performing walking and running

Steven T. McCaw; Paul DeVita

1995-01-01

14

Isometric Knee-Extension and Knee-Flexion Torque Production During Early Follicular and Postovulatory Phases in Recreationally Active Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Acute decreases in strength have been associated with risky biomechanical strategies that might predispose one to injury. Whether acute changes in thigh muscle torque occur across the menstrual cycle remains equivocal. Objective: We compared maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the knee flexors and extensors between the early follicular (EF) and either the early luteal (EL) or midluteal (ML) phases, which were confirmed by serum hormone concentrations. We expected that MVIC torques would increase from the EF to the EL phase after estradiol peaked and before increased exposure to progesterone. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventy-one recreationally active women (age range, 18–30 years). Intervention(s): The MVICs were measured 1 day during menses and 1 day during the 8 days after ovulation. Participants were grouped by the hormone profile of their luteal test days as EL phase, ML phase, or anovulatory cycle. Main Outcome Measure(s): The MVIC torque of knee flexors and extensors (Nm/kg), estradiol (pg/mL), progesterone (ng/mL), and testosterone (ng/dL). Results: We tested 29 women during their EL phases, 32 during their ML phases, and 10 during anovulatory cycles. Although we observed relatively large individual changes in sex hormone concentrations and MVIC torques across the 2 test sessions, we observed no difference in MVIC torque between test phases (F1,68 ?=? 1.17, P ?=? .28) or among groups by test phase (F2,68 ?=? 0.31, P ?=? .74). Conclusions: Thigh MVIC torque did not change from time of menses (when estradiol and progesterone were lowest) to time in the luteal phase after an unopposed estradiol rise or combined estradiol and progesterone rise. However, these findings were limited to MVIC torque production measured at 2 different times, and further research examining these relationships at multiple times and using other measures of neuromuscular function is needed.

Montgomery, Melissa M.; Shultz, Sandra J.

2010-01-01

15

Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the motor response time and ability to develop joint torque at the knee and ankle in older women with and without a history of falls, in addition to investigating the effect of aging on these capacities. We assessed 18 young females, 21 older female fallers and 22 older female non-fallers. The peak torque, rate of torque development, rate of electromyography (EMG) rise, reaction time, premotor time and motor time were obtained through a dynamometric assessment and simultaneous electromyography. Surface EMGs of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Knee extension and flexion peak torques were lower in older fallers than in non-fallers. Knee extension and flexion and ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion peak torques were lower in both older groups than in the younger group. The rate of EMG rise of the BF and the motor time of the TA were lower and higher, respectively, in older fallers than in the younger adults. The time to reach peak torque in knee extension/flexion and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and the motor times of the RF, VL, BF and GL were higher in both older groups than in the younger groups. The motor time of the TA during ankle dorsiflexion and the knee extension peak torque were the major predictors of falls in older women, accounting for approximately 28% of the number of falls. Thus, these results further reveal the biomechanical parameters that affect the risk of falls and provide initial findings to support the prescription of exercises in fall prevention programs. PMID:23747140

Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; de Almeida Neto, Antônio Francisco; Cardozo, Adalgiso Coscrato; Gonçalves, Mauro

2013-06-06

16

Torque Calibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A torque calibrator which has a pair of torque beams with hydraulic cylinders for exerting forces on opposite ends of the torque beams and with load cells mounted at opposite ends of the beams for measuring the forces applied to the beams with the beams d...

R. L. Cameron J. S. Burgess

1988-01-01

17

Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

2012-01-01

18

Does the peak torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles affect the knee laxity measurements in male patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to examine whether the peak torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles affects the anterior\\u000a knee laxity measurements in male patients. The study comprised 45 male patients who had a chronic unilateral anterior cruciate\\u000a ligament (ACL) rupture. Preoperatively, one experienced physiotherapist performed all the KT-1000 examinations. The anterior\\u000a displacement was registered at 89 Newton.

Ninni Sernert; Jüri Kartus; Kristina Köhler; Lars Ejerhed; Sveinbjörn Brandsson; Jon Karlsson

2000-01-01

19

Geophysical Factors Affecting Plant Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for productivity is presented. It combines a model for photosynthesis with an energy budget approach to leaf energy balance. The photosynthesis model describes the rate of photosynthesis of a leaf as a function of leaf temperature, diffusive resis...

D. M. Gates H. B. Johnson C. S. Yocum P. W. Lommen

1969-01-01

20

Hyperphysics: Torque  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a short introduction to the concept of torque and how it influences the rotational motion of an object. It also contains links to more advanced materials involving torque calculation and direction, vector angular quantities, lever action, and angular acceleration. This item is part of a larger base of resources and instructional materials being continually developed by Rod Nave, Georgia State University.

Nave, Carl R.

2007-01-23

21

How plunger lift affects production  

SciTech Connect

Plunger lift is finding an increasing marketplace for application in the US. The system is advantageous in many circumstances because of low inital cost, little maintenance, and because it generally requires no external energy source. Typical applications for plunger lift are removal of liquids from a gas well, high-ratio oil well production, paraffin and hydrate control, and increased efficiency of intermittent gas lift wells. Main advantage of using a plunger to produce a well is economics. An industry-wide average installation will cost $3500 plus some service, which depends on the company furnishing the equipment. Compare this to a pumping unit to do the same job ($28,000) or a small compressor ($32,000). Also, there is no power consumption such as electricity (high initial cost to run to the lease) or gas consumed (at $2.40/mcf). All the energy is furnished by the well, including instrument gas.

Beauregard, E.M.; Ferguson, P.L.

1981-07-01

22

Effect of mutual coupling on torque production in switched reluctance motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cases, the normal operation of switched reluctance machines requires excitation of two or more phases simultaneously. When multiple phases are conducting simultaneously, the flux paths from each phase will overlap, which may lead to localized saturation. In such cases, the flux linkage must be considered a function not just of the current in the test winding but of all excited windings. The degree of mutual coupling between phases influences the per-phase magnetization curves and torque characteristics. In machines with even phase numbers, the degree of mutual coupling between phases varies due to discontinuities in the phase polarity arrangement. From nonlinear finite element simulations, it is possible to compare the i-? loop diagrams under single-phase and multiphase excitations, and hence the torque produced. The mutual flux linkage from each phase can be calculated separately for each rotor position using the frozen permeability method, to further analyze the mutual coupling effects. For a given excitation current profile, the torque can be maximized by careful arrangement of the phase polarities.

Walker, Jill A.; Dorrell, David G.; Cossar, Calum

2006-04-01

23

Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.  

PubMed

Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T

2011-06-12

24

Anisotropic effective diffusion of torqued swimmers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

External torques affect the trajectories of swimming microorganisms. We calculate analytically the effective three-dimensional diffusivity of a spherical active particle subject to both a constant external torque and thermal noise. We find that the presence of a torque renders the effective diffusive behavior anisotropic. The analytical results are compared with Brownian dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. For steady swimmers an external torque always decreases the effective swimmer diffusivity whereas it may be enhanced for time-reversible swimmers.

Sandoval, M.

2013-03-01

25

Knee extension isometric torque production differences based on verbal motivation given to introverted and extroverted female children.  

PubMed

To date, little research has been conducted to test the efficacy of different forms of motivation based on a female child's personality type. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of female children to perform a maximal knee extension isometric torque test with varying forms of motivation, based on the child's personality type (introvert vs. extrovert). The subjects were asked to perform a maximal isometric knee extension test under three different conditions: 1) with no verbal motivation, 2) with verbal motivation from the evaluator only, and 3) with verbal motivation from a group of their peers and the evaluator combined. A 2×3 mixed ANOVA was significant for an interaction (F 2,62=17.530; p<0.0005). Post hoc testing for the introverted group showed that scores without verbal motivation were significantly higher than with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers. The extroverted group revealed that scores with verbal motivation from the evaluator or the evaluator plus the peers were significantly higher than without verbal motivation. Results suggest that verbal motivation has a varying effect on isometric knee extension torque production in female children with different personality types. Extroverted girls perform better with motivation, whereas introverted girls perform better without motivation from others. PMID:20812856

McWhorter, J Wesley; Landers, Merrill; Young, Daniel; Puentedura, E Louie; Hickman, Robbin A; Brooksby, Candi; Liveratti, Marc; Taylor, Lisa

2010-09-02

26

Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.  

PubMed

FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the ?-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

2013-09-10

27

Variables Affecting Productivity in Special Education Researchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study presents the results of a survey of 100 special education researchers on variables that might affect research and publication productivity. The Ss were divided into three groups: low producers, intermediate producers, and high producers. The data were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of ranks and the Chi-square test.…

Center, D. B.; Obringer, S. J.

28

Variables Affecting Productivity in Special Education Researchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a survey on variables affecting research and publication productivity, 100 special education researchers were divided into three groups: low producers, intermediate producers, and high producers. Significant results were obtained for teaching load research participation during graduate training sources of research support, availability of…

Center, David B.; Obringer, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

29

Strength and isometric torque control in individuals with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It has been previously reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) struggle with fine adjustments of finger forces while manipulating an object. However, impairments in everyday activities can not only be attributed to difficulties with the linear forces applied on an object, but also to the application of rotational forces (torque). This study examined finger strength and isometric torque control in elderly persons with PD. Six individuals with PD (66.1 +/- 0.7 years), six elderly healthy controls (65.3 +/- 0.2 years) matched by age, gender and handedness, and six young adults (22.3 +/- 0.2 years) participated in this study. The subjects were asked to perform two tasks: maximum voluntary thumb-index pinching torque production (MVT) and constant isometric thumb-index torque control at 40% of their MVT for 20 s. The results showed decreased strength and increased difficulty in isometric torque control in individuals with PD as compared to their healthy peers. This study demonstrates that PD affects isometric finger torque production and control. PMID:18030452

Oliveira, Marcio Alves; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Rodrigues, Ana Melissa; Caballero, Raphael Maciel Silva; da Silva Caballero, Raphael Maciel; Petersen, Ricardo Demetrio; de Souza Petersen, Ricardo Demetrio; Shim, Jae Kun

2007-11-21

30

Understanding Torque  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, presented by the University of Guelph, is a tutorial on understanding torque associated with mechanical equipment. It includes example problems, definitions and self-tests. The site combines images, diagrams and text to present its concepts. Overall, the website is easy to use and provides solid information about the topic. It is a great resource for students and instructors in a technical classroom.

2008-10-28

31

Evaluating how electronic charting affects resident productivity.  

PubMed

Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming standard to improve the communication of information and longevity of patient records. Using an EMR in the emergency department (ED) could potentially slow residents evaluating patients. We evaluated how introducing an EMR affected resident productivity in an academic ED. We retrospectively studied first year emergency medicine residents from a large, academic, tertiary care center before-and-after the institution of an EMR on July 1st, 2010. No residents from the 2009-2010 class used the EMR, while all of the 2010-2011 residents used the EMR. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses using productivity, measured in patients per hour (pt/hr), as the primary outcome. A mixed-model multivariate regression, stratified by acuity zone, was created incorporating EMR and other possible confounders: admissions, signouts, daily ED volume, and days after July 1st for each shift. The study was granted IRB waiver of informed. We reviewed 2,405 shifts: 1,259 shifts before and 1,146 shifts after EMR implementation. When using the EMR, the univariate analysis estimated a 0.084 pt/hr increase in the high acuity zone (p = 0.1317) and 0.029 pt/hr decrease (p = 0.7085) in the low acuity zone. The multivariate regression estimated a 0.038 pt/hr increase (p = 0.3413) in the high acuity zone and a 0.009 pt/hr increase (p = 0.9049) in the low acuity zone with the EMR. Despite the expectation that electronic charting is detrimental to resident productivity, our analyses do not suggest a significant relationship between resident productivity and using the EMR. PMID:23334927

Henning, Daniel; Horng, Steven; Sanchez, Leon

2013-01-20

32

Torque ripple adaptive rejection in brushless motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A known problem with brushless permanent magnet AC motors is that parasitic pulsations generally affect the torque. A compact model of the pulsating torque has been recently proposed by the authors (1998), together with simple laboratory identification experiments. In this paper the identification methodology is first extended to cope with variable speed motion. Then, recognizing the time varying nature of

Gianni Ferretti; Gianantonio Magnani; Paolo Rocco

1999-01-01

33

Factors affecting goat milk production and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between production systems based on grazing and browsing vs. use of harvested feedstuffs in confinement largely depend on specific feedstuffs and plants available and being consumed. Low forage nutrient ingestion should have relatively greater impact on tissue mobilization than milk production in early than later periods of lactation, with a transition to proportionally greater change in milk production in

A. L. Goetsch; S. S. Zeng; T. A. Gipson

34

Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum.  

PubMed

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol. PMID:16348691

Dabrock, B; Bahl, H; Gottschalk, G

1992-04-01

35

Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

PubMed Central

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

Dabrock, Birgit; Bahl, Hubert; Gottschalk, Gerhard

1992-01-01

36

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

SciTech Connect

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. (Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany))

1992-04-01

37

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol\\/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol\\/vol)

B. Dabrock; H. Bahl; G. Gottschalk

1992-01-01

38

Dynamics of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) DNA loads in serum of healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs.  

PubMed

Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, small viruses with circular single stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In pigs, two different TTV species have been described so far, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). TTSuVs have lately been linked to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 prevalence and DNA loads in longitudinally collected serum samples of healthy and PMWS affected pigs from Spanish conventional, multi-site farms were analyzed. Serum samples were taken at 1, 3, 7, 11 and around 15 weeks of age (age of PMWS outbreak) and viral DNA loads determined by quantitative PCR. For both TTSuV species, percentage of viremic pigs increased progressively over time, with the highest prevalence in animals of about 15 weeks of age. TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral DNA loads in healthy and TTSuV1 loads in PMWS affected animals increased until 11 weeks of age declining afterwards. On the contrary, TTSuV2 DNA loads in PMWS affected pigs increased throughout the sampling period. It seems that TTSuV species differ in the in vivo infection dynamics in PMWS affected animals. PMID:21680113

Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Grau-Roma, L; Segalés, J; Kekarainen, T

2011-05-19

39

Do Intangible Investments Affect Companies' Productivity Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using company accounts data for 5 countries (US, UK, Japan, France and Germany) we analyse the relationship between intangibles and productivity. We integrate the company data with industry information on tangible and intangible investments and skill composition of the labour force. The industry data are summarised in two different taxonomies, factor and skill intensive groups, obtained using cluster analysis. These

Mary OMahony; Michela Vecchi

2002-01-01

40

In-store music affects product choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Royalty payments for non-broadcast commercial uses of music in 1995 amounted to #53.8 million in the UK alone. Research on music and consumer behaviour has, however, almost completely ignored the potential effect of in-store music on purchasing and particularly on product choice. By investigating the purchasing of German and French wines we have found that musical `fit' has a profound

Adrian C. North; David J. Hargreaves; Jennifer McKendrick

1997-01-01

41

Erdosteine affects eicosanoid production in COPD.  

PubMed

Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and lipid peroxidation are known to activate the 5-LO pathway with increased expression of inflammatory eicosanoids. Erdosteine has recently shown important anti-oxidant properties, including the ability to reduce 8-isoprostane in COPD patients. Aim: To assess the effects of erdosteine (E) on eicosanoids, and to compare the time-course of effect with that of E anti-oxidant activity. Methods: 12 moderate COPD patients (9 males, 60 - 78 y) randomly received E 300 mg b.i.d. or placebo (P) for 10 days in a double-blind, controlled design. Blood ROS (Fort/Units); serum LTB4 and urine LTE4 (pg/ml) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 5 and 10 days of treatment. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. Results: In COPD patients, both LTB4 and LTE4 dropped significantly during the 10-day treatment with E: s-LTB4 from 136.0 ± 35.4 SD to 54.5 ± 31.2 SD; u-LTE4 from 267.0 ± 91.5 SD to 84.0 ± 64.7 SD, p < 0.001 vs. p from Days 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease of blood ROS was confirmed in patients using E. FEV1 values slightly increased during erdosteine treatment, whereas a trend to decrease was observed in the placebo group, with a significant difference in favor of erdosteine after 10 days of treatment (p = 0.0088). Conclusions: 1) The scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of Erdosteine were both confirmed; 2) erdosteine proved to affect eicosanoids significantly; 3) this novel effect underlines the important anti-inflammatory potentialities of the drug in COPD; 4) further investigation is needed in order to assess the capability of Erdosteine in controlling ongoing inflammation in chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:21176724

Dal Negro, R W; Visconti, M; Tognella, S; Micheletto, C

2011-01-01

42

Angular Acceleration without Torque?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.|

Kaufman, Richard D.

2012-01-01

43

Polarity-Dependent Dielectric Torque in Nematic Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric dispersion in the uniaxial nematic liquid crystals affects the switching dynamics of the director, as the dielectric torque is determined by not only the present values of the electric field and director but also by their past values. We demonstrate that this “dielectric memory” leads to an unusual contribution to the dielectric torque that is linear in the present field and thus polarity sensitive. This torque can be used to accelerate the “switch-off” phase of director dynamics.

Gu, Mingxia; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

2008-06-01

44

Polarity-dependent dielectric torque in nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

The dielectric dispersion in the uniaxial nematic liquid crystals affects the switching dynamics of the director, as the dielectric torque is determined by not only the present values of the electric field and director but also by their past values. We demonstrate that this "dielectric memory" leads to an unusual contribution to the dielectric torque that is linear in the present field and thus polarity sensitive. This torque can be used to accelerate the "switch-off" phase of director dynamics. PMID:18643544

Gu, Mingxia; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

2008-06-13

45

Fabricated torque shaft  

SciTech Connect

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

46

RADIATIVE TORQUES ALIGNMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF PINWHEEL TORQUES  

SciTech Connect

We study the alignment of grains subject to both radiative torques and pinwheel torques while accounting for thermal flipping of grains. By pinwheel torques we refer to all systematic torques that are fixed in grain body axes, including the radiative torques arising from scattering and absorption of isotropic radiation. We discuss new types of pinwheel torques, which are systematic torques arising from infrared emission and torques arising from the interaction of grains with ions and electrons in hot plasma. We show that both types of torques are long-lived, i.e., may exist longer than gaseous damping time. We compare these torques with the torques introduced by E. Purcell, namely, torques due to H{sub 2} formation, the variation of accommodation coefficient for gaseous collisions and photoelectric emission. Furthermore, we revise the Lazarian and Draine model for grain thermal flipping. We calculate mean flipping timescale induced by Barnett and nuclear relaxation for both paramagnetic and superparamagnetic grains, in the presence of stochastic torques associated with pinwheel torques, e.g., the stochastic torques arising from H{sub 2} formation, and gas bombardment. We show that the combined effect of internal relaxation and stochastic torques can result in fast flipping for sufficiently small grains and, because of this, they get thermally trapped, i.e., rotate thermally in spite of the presence of pinwheel torques. For sufficiently large grains, we show that the pinwheel torques can increase the degree of grain alignment achievable with the radiative torques by increasing the magnitude of the angular momentum of low attractor points and/or by driving grains to new high attractor points.

Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: hoang@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

2009-04-20

47

Factors affecting the nutritional quality of soya products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional quality of soya products is determined not only by the quantity and availability of the amino acids which\\u000a make up the protein of such products, but is also markedly affected by the processing conditions which are employed in their\\u000a manufacture. The most important factor in this regard is the application of some form of heat treatment which serves

I. E. Liener; M. Swaminathan; V. Subrahmanyan

1981-01-01

48

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental

Thi Hiep Han; Jin-Hyung Lee; Moo Hwan Cho; Thomas K. Wood; Jintae Lee

2011-01-01

49

Polarity-Dependent Dielectric Torque in Nematic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectric dispersion in the uniaxial nematic liquid crystals affects the switching dynamics of the director, as the dielectric torque is determined by not only the present values of the electric field and director but also by their past values. We demonstrate that this ``dielectric memory'' leads to an unusual contribution to the dielectric torque that is linear in the

Mingxia Gu; Sergij V. Shiyanovskii; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

2008-01-01

50

Control strategies for direct torque control using discrete pulse modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for direct torque control of AC machines using discrete pulse-modulated inverters such as the resonant DC link inverter is presented. A unique feature of the control method is that only one current sensor in the DC link is required. Excellent control of torque, stator flux, and motor current waveshapes is seen to be obtained without affecting the high

Thomas G. Habetler; Deepakraj M. Divan

1991-01-01

51

Control strategies for direct torque control using discrete pulse modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme for direct torque control of AC machines using discrete pulse modulated inverters, such as the resonant DC link inverter, is presented. A unique feature of the control method presented is that only one current sensor in the DC link is required. Excellent control of torque, stator flux and motor current waveshapes is obtained without affecting the high dynamic

Thomas G. Habetler; Deepakraj M. Divan

1989-01-01

52

Decoupling manufacturing sources of cogging torque in fractional pitch PMSM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional pitch is commonly used to significantly reduce cogging torque in PMSM, however, maximum benefit is dependent on accurate stator and rotor manufacturing. This paper presents a method of decoupling the stator and rotor contributions to total cogging torque. Rotor causes are further decoupled into magnet placement and strength variation. Decoupling is possible due to stator and rotor affected harmonics

Mark Thiele; Greg Heins; Travis Brown

2011-01-01

53

Managing Dialogue: How Information Availability Affects Collaborative Reference Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated how both shared and privileged knowledge affect reference production during dialogue. Dyads of participants jointly established routes for an imaginary person. Each participant was given a map featuring shared landmarks (i.e., they also appeared on the partner's map) and privileged landmarks (i.e., they did not appear…

Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic

2012-01-01

54

Factors affecting the productivity of loaders in surface mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheel loaders are deployed as primary loading machines in surface mines due to their mobility and low operating cost. The productivity of wheel loaders or any other loading machine is affected by several factors. One of the most significant factors is the characteristic of the muck being loaded. A study was conducted to examine the effects of the looseness, angle

S. P. Singh; R. Narendrula

2006-01-01

55

Torque developed at simulated sliding between sport shoes and an artificial turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotation torque is known to be one of many factors affecting the risk of injury in athletics. Experiments were performed to examine the torque and friction on differ ent sport shoes when sliding on an artificial turf. An apparatus was constructed in which it is possible to measure simultaneously the torque and the frictional force developed when a shoe slides

Gunnar Andreasson; Ulf Lindenberger; Per Renström; Lars Peterson

1986-01-01

56

Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture  

SciTech Connect

Parameters affecting the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum have been studied using chemostats with phosphate, sulfate, or magnesium as growth-limiting factors.Only under phosphate and sulfate limitation and at a pH below 5.0 were the solvents found to be the major fermentation products. Lactate was produced under sulfate limitation above pH 5.0. Magnesium limitation was not appropriate for continuous solvent formation. It was found that a threshold concentration of acid products was required for solvent production. The concentration of the suitable growth-limiting factor had to be in a range which allowed sufficient growth and substrate consumption to obtain these threshold concentrations of butyrate and/or acetate.

Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G.

1984-01-01

57

What Is Torque?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the concept: "What is torque?" Bartelt begins with a simple example of torque, illustrated using a crank, pail, and water well. After this important introduction, the author introduces the student to the mathematics behind torque. Four different scenarios are used to help students walk through the calculations. Bartelt explains each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in the explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction into both the physical and mathematical concept of force. The author concludes the presentation with a brief series of questions.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-24

58

Torque multiplier subsea tool  

SciTech Connect

A torque multiplier subsea tool for setting a seal between a casing hanger and a subsea wellhead includes a mandrel having a sun gear with axial elongate teeth. An outer barrel is disposed around the mandrel forming an annulus therebetween. A planetary gear assembly is disposed in the annulus between the barrel and the sun gear to transmit to the barrel a torque which is higher in magnitude than that applied to the mandrel. A connector body disposed around the mandrel, below the planetary gear assembly, includes radially movable dogs for engaging the casing hanger. The barrel engages the sealing assembly and transmits the increased torque thereto to advance the sealing assembly downwards and to set the seal. The mandrel advances downwards with the sealing assembly and releases the dogs from the casing hanger. An emergency release mechanism is provided to advance the mandrel downwards to release the dogs in the event such downward movement is prevented during normal seal setting operation.

Leicht, F. M.; Baugh, B. F.; Palany, H. C.

1985-10-22

59

Torque control of electric motors without using torque sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate torque control of a brushless motor requires the motor's torque characteristics, which can be captured by a periodic function in motor angle. This paper presents a direct adaptive controller for torque control of brushless motors, which estimates the Fourier coefficients of the periodic function based on the measurements of motor phase voltage and angle. It will be analytically shown

Farhad Aghili

2007-01-01

60

Ironless Armature Torque Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless a...

R. L. Fisher

1972-01-01

61

Torque multiplier subsea tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A torque multiplier subsea tool for setting a seal between a casing hanger and a subsea wellhead includes a mandrel having a sun gear with axial elongate teeth. An outer barrel is disposed around the mandrel forming an annulus therebetween. A planetary gear assembly is disposed in the annulus between the barrel and the sun gear to transmit to the

F. M. Leicht; B. F. Baugh; H. C. Palany

1985-01-01

62

Isentropic Pressure and Mountain Torques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of pressure torques and mountain torques is investigated on the basis of observations for the polar caps, two midlatitude and two subtropical belts, and a tropical belt by evaluating the lagged covariances of these torques for various isentropic surfaces. It is only in the polar domains and the northern midlatitude belts that the transfer of angular momentum to

Joseph Egger; Klaus-Peter Hoinka

2009-01-01

63

Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

Csapo, Marg

1985-01-01

64

Issues in reducing the cogging torque of mass-produced permanent-magnet brushless DC motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of techniques are available to reduce cogging torque in permanent-magnet brushless DC motors. Theoretically, all the techniques are quite effective for minimizing the cogging torque. This paper presents the efficacy of these methods in mass production subject to manufacturing tolerances\\/variations. The cogging torque minimization becomes a challenging task when the requirement is very stringent in applications such as

Mohammad S. Islam; Sayeed Mir; Tomy Sebastian

2004-01-01

65

Environmental factors affecting indole production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intercellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50 °C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K; Lee, Jintae

2010-12-08

66

Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms.

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

67

Phonological overlap affects lexical selection during sentence production.  

PubMed

Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803

Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-04-02

68

Physclips: Rotation, torques, precession  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a multimedia introduction to rotation. It includes topics such as rotational kinetic energy, rotational kinematics, moment of inertia, torques, Newton's laws for rotation, and angular momentum. Short video clips, still images, graphs, and diagrams are integrated with text to promote understanding of important concepts. This tutorial is part of the PhysClip collection of web-based resources on introductory mechanics, electricity, and magnetism.

Wolfe, Joe

2009-06-19

69

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ?, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

1994-04-01

70

Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.  

PubMed

Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome. PMID:24149660

Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

2013-10-22

71

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt...of Part 63âEmission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

2009-07-01

72

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt...cements and solvents used at the tire production affected source. ...0.00005 pounds per ton) of rubber used at the tire production affected...

2010-07-01

73

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt...cements and solvents used at the tire production affected source. ...0.00005 pounds per ton) of rubber used at the tire production affected...

2009-07-01

74

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt...of Part 63âEmission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

2010-07-01

75

Plastic molded torque converter turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbine disposed within a torque converter is described, the torque converter disposed between an engine and a transmission within a vehicle, the turbine rotatively fixed to a converter output element, the turbine comprising: a hub, formed of ferrous material, including: a flange portion, having a first side and a second side, having a complement of projections protruding from the

R. R; T. E. Hojna

1993-01-01

76

Momentum Confinement at Low Torque  

SciTech Connect

Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

Solomon, W M; Burrell, K H; deGrassie, J S; Budny, R; Groebner, R J; Heidbrink, W W; Kinsey, J E; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; Mikkelsen, D; Nazikian, R; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Scott, S D; Van Zeeland, M A; Zarnstorff, M C

2007-06-26

77

Current-induced torques in magnetic materials.  

PubMed

The magnetization of a magnetic material can be reversed by using electric currents that transport spin angular momentum. In the reciprocal process a changing magnetization orientation produces currents that transport spin angular momentum. Understanding how these processes occur reveals the intricate connection between magnetization and spin transport, and can transform technologies that generate, store or process information via the magnetization direction. Here we explain how currents can generate torques that affect the magnetic orientation and the reciprocal effect in a wide variety of magnetic materials and structures. We also discuss recent state-of-the-art demonstrations of current-induced torque devices that show great promise for enhancing the functionality of semiconductor devices. PMID:22522637

Brataas, Arne; Kent, Andrew D; Ohno, Hideo

2012-04-23

78

Hydromechanical transmission with split torque and regenerative torque flow paths  

SciTech Connect

A hydrokinetic torque converter mechanism is described for an automotive vehicle driveline adapted to deliver driving torque from a driving shaft to an output shaft; a compound planetary gear unit having two input elements, a reaction element, separate torque input shafts connected respectively to the input elements; the hydrokinetic unit comprising a bladed impeller and a bladed turbine, the impeller being connected to the driving shaft, the tubing being connected to one of the input shafts; a centrifugally operated clutch means for connecting a second input shaft to the driving shaft and an overrunning coupling between the output side of the centrifugally actuated clutch and the first input shaft.

Plasencia, D.B.; Maxwell, S.P.

1986-06-03

79

Productivity enhancement of salt-affected environments through crop diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends and future demographic projections suggest that the need to produce more food and fibrewill necessitate effective utilization of salt-affected land and saline water resources. Currently at least 20 per cent of the world's irrigated land is salt affected and\\/or irrigated with waters containing elevated levels of salts. Several major irrigation schemes have suffered from the problems of salinity

M. Qadir; A. Tubeileh; J. Akhtar; A. Larbi; P. S. Minhas; M. A. Khan

2008-01-01

80

Plasma torque and nonambipolar transport  

SciTech Connect

Poloidal symmetry breaking in toroidal plasmas causes a damping of poloidal rotation and toroidal symmetry breaking a damping of toroidal rotation. These torques are transmitted by the magnetic field to the outside world. An upper limit exists on the torque that can be transmitted by magnetic asymmetries. This limit is enforced by shielding asymmetries from the plasma, which can be an important effect for toroidal asymmetries. The torque interaction of plasmas with magnetic fields can be either through an anisotropic pressure or by the drive for magnetic islands. The physics of both types of interactions are considered and paradoxical effects are clarified.

Boozer, Allen H. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2009-05-15

81

Step motor control for maximum torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the switching angle and the output torque of a step motor is derived, and the optimal angle, which maximized the output torque, is found. The resulting maximum torque, which varies with the velocity, is an upper limit for the torque that can be generated by the step motor.

J. Tal

1976-01-01

82

Pressurized Fluid Torque Driver Control and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transf...

J. S. Cook

1994-01-01

83

Torque generated by the bacterial flagellar motor close to stall.  

PubMed Central

In earlier work in which electrorotation was used to apply external torque to tethered cells of the bacterium Escherichia coli, it was found that the torque required to force flagellar motors backward was considerably larger than the torque required to stop them. That is, there appeared to be substantial barrier to backward rotation. Here, we show that in most, possibly all, cases this barrier is an artifact due to angular variation of the torque applied by electrorotation, of the motor torque, or both; the motor torque appears to be independent to speed or to vary linearly with speed up to speeds of tens of Hertz, in either direction. However, motors often break catastrophically when driven backward, so backward rotation is not equivalent to forward rotation. Also, cells can rotate backward while stalled, either in randomly timed jumps of 180 degrees or very slowly and smoothly. When cells rotate slowly and smoothly backward, the motor takes several seconds to recover after electrorotation is stopped, suggesting that some form of reversible damage has occurred. These findings do not affect the interpretation of electrorotation experiments in which motors are driven rapidly forward.

Berry, R M; Berg, H C

1996-01-01

84

Rotating vector methods for smooth torque control of a switched reluctance motor drive  

SciTech Connect

This paper has two primary contributions to switched reluctance motor (SRM) control: a systematic approach to smooth torque production and a high-performance technique for sensorless motion control. The systematic approach to smooth torque production is based on development of novel rotating spatial vectors methods that can be used to predict the torque produced in an arbitrary SRM. This analysis directly leads to explicit, insightful methods to provide smooth torque control of SRM's. The high-performance technique for sensorless motion control is based on a rotating vector method for high bandwidth, high resolution, position, and velocity estimation suitable for both precise torque and motion control. The sensorless control and smooth torque control methods are both verified experimentally.

Nagel, N.J.; Lorenz, R.D.

2000-04-01

85

HEAT STRESS AS IT AFFECTS ANIMAL PRODUCTION l  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is well documented that the stress of hot environments lowers productive and reproduc- tive efficiency in farm animals. Likewise, research information is available to aid in the management of livestock in such adverse conditions. However, practical methods to achieve the desired levels of productive and reproductive performance are lacking. Summer forages that will support a high level of

J. W. Fuquay

2010-01-01

86

Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children's Lexical Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent…

Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

2009-01-01

87

Factors affecting the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by Penicillium funiculosum.  

PubMed

The optimum conditions for the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by mutant strain of Penicillium funiculosum CCM F-8080 were examined in shaken flask cultures. The highest production of this metabolite was achieved in a medium with glucose as the sole carbon source and (NH4)2HPO4 as the nitrogen source. The most suitable concentrations of the given sources for production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid are 80 g/l glucose and 2 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 (maximal production, 814.9 mg/l). We also observed the influence of concentration of L-phenylalanine and inorganic phosphate in culture medium on the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid. The biological activity of mitorubrinic acid as trypsin inhibitor was determined (IC50 41.05 mumol/l). PMID:11199497

Lesová, K; Sturdíková, M; Rosenberg, M

2000-01-01

88

Age-related differences in responses to affective vs. rational ads for hedonic vs. utilitarian products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the moderating role of product category type (hedonic vs. utilitarian) on age-related differences\\u000a in responses to affective vs. rational ads. An experiment showed that elderly consumers (age 65 plus) had more favorable attitudes\\u000a toward affective (vs. rational) ads, regardless of product category type. In contrast, young adult consumers (age 18–25) favored\\u000a affective ads only for hedonic products.

Aimee Drolet; Patti Williams; Loraine Lau-Gesk

2007-01-01

89

Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

90

Monitoring cutting tool operation and condition with a magnetoelastic rate of change of torque sensor  

SciTech Connect

Application of a magnetoelastic rate of change of torque sensor to monitor the condition of milling cutters and operating parameters is described. Cutting tools naturally degrade with use by wear, chipping, or fracture, and the efficiency and quality of the product are highly dependent on the tool condition. The theoretical analysis is compared to experimental data in detecting changes in torque during each cutting event, and the rate of change of torque signal is investigated for a variety of cutting tool conditions.

Garshelis, Ivan J.; Kari, Ryan J.; Tollens, Stijn P. L.; Cuseo, James M. [Magnova, Inc., Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201 (United States) and MagCanica, Inc., San Diego, California 92117 (United States); MagCanica, Inc., San Diego, California 92117 (United States)

2008-04-01

91

Factors affecting the ethanol productivity of yeast in molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol production by a laboratory yeast strain, X2180-1B, was less than half that by an alcohol yeast, YOY655, in a molasses medium containing 30% sugars, although X2180-1B produced approximately the same amount of ethanol as YOY655 in a nutrition medium with the same sugar content. The weak productivity of X2180-1B in the molasses was ascribed to the limitation of

Kazuhiko Takeshige; Kozo Ouchi

1995-01-01

92

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data

W. M. Balch; C. F. Byrne

1994-01-01

93

How does verbal non-diagnostic information affect product evaluation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interaction effect of the dilution effect and the connotation transfer effect on product evaluation.\\u000a We start our investigation with the finding that advertisements often contain verbal non-diagnostic information. For instance,\\u000a using embellished labels or fancy names, referring to completely unknown or unneeded attributes, and providing information\\u000a on sponsorships usually does not transmit information on product benefits

Heribert Gierl; Verena Huettl

94

Design of brushless PM motor for high starting torque requirement for aircraft applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design of a brushless permanent magnet motor in which the performance requirement is dominated by breakout torque. It discusses the impact of a rotor position feedback error and how it affects the machine sizing in order to overcome breakout torque requirements. It is shown that the brushless AC drive is less sensitive to the position error

Tadashi Sawata; Parminder Sangha

2009-01-01

95

A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping.  

PubMed

New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956

Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E

2012-09-18

96

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search for new approaches to control resource depletion, environmental damage, and the costs of solid wastes disposal led to this study. One approach is the extension of the lifetime of durable products. Factors affecting product lifetime are examined t...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

97

Genes Affecting Productivity in Natural Populations of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

PubMed Central

Two hundred second chromosomes were extracted from a Japanese population in October of 1972, and the viabilities and productivities of homozygotes and heterozygotes from them were examined. Viability was measured by the Cy method and productivity by the number of progeny produced per female. The frequency of lethal-carrying chromosomes was 0.315. When the average heterozygote viability was standardized as 1.000, the average homozygote viability was 0.595 including the lethal lines, and 0.866 excluding them. The frequency of recessive sterile chromosomes among 131 non-lethal lines was 0.092 in females and 0.183 in males. There were two instances in which homozygosis for the second chromosome caused sterility in both sexes, which was close to the number expected (2.2) on a random basis of 0.092 x 0.183 x 131. When the average heterozygote productivity of 200 lines was standardized as 1.000, the average homozygote productivity was 0.532 including female steriles, and 0.584 excluding them. The ratio of detrimental load to lethal load was 0.383, while the ratio of partial sterility load to complete sterility load was 5.767. The average viability of lethal heterozygotes was slightly, but not significantly, lower than that of lethal-free heterozygotes, while the average productivity of lethal heterozygotes was significantly lower than that of lethal-free heterozygotes. There was a significant association of sterility in either sex with low viability of homozygotes. However, no statistically significant differences in viability and productivity were detected between sterile heterozygotes and non-sterile heterozygotes. The heterozygous effects of viability and productivity polygenes were examined by regressions of the heterozygotes on the sum of corresponding homozygotes. The regression coefficients were slightly positive for both viability and productivity if lethal and sterile chromosomes were excluded. The correlation between viability and productivity in homozygotes was significantly positive when sterile chromosomes were included, but the significance disappeared when the sterile chromosomes were excluded. In the heterozygotes there were no detectable correlations between them.

Watanabe, Takao K.; Ohnishi, Seido

1975-01-01

98

Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding land for water reservoir creation has many environmental impacts including the production of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To assess processes governing GHG emissions from the flooding of terrestrial carbon, three experimental reservoirs were constructed in upland boreal forest areas of differing carbon stores as part of the Flooded Upland Dynamics Experiment (FLUDEX). We calculated process-based GHG budgets for these reservoirs over 5 years following the onset of flooding. Stable isotopic budgets of carbon were necessary to separate community respiration (CR), which produces CO2, from net primary production (NPP), which consumes CO2, and to separate CH4 production from CH4 consumption via oxidation. NPP removed up to 44% of the CO2 produced from CR. CR and NPP exhibited different year-after-year trends. CH4 flux to the atmosphere increased about twofold over 3 years, yet isotopic budgets showed CH4 production in flooded soils increased nearly tenfold. CH4 oxidation near the flooded soil-water interface greatly decreased the CH4 flux from the water column to the atmosphere. Ebullition was the most important conduit of CH4 to the atmosphere after 3 years. Although CH4 production increased with time, the total GHG flux, in CO2 equivalents, declined. Contrary to expectations, neither CR nor total GHG fluxes were directly related to the quantity of organic carbon flooded. Instead, these reservoirs produced a strikingly similar amount of CO2 equivalents over 5 years.

Venkiteswaran, Jason J.; Schiff, Sherry L.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Matthews, Cory J. D.; Boudreau, Natalie M.; Joyce, Elizabeth M.; Beaty, Kenneth G.; Bodaly, R. Andrew

2013-04-01

99

Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  

PubMed

Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

2013-01-25

100

Factors affecting the photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our laboratory studies indicate that the photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in seawater can result from the photosensitized reaction of organosulfur compounds. Because natural photosensitizers are more prevalent in coastal waters than the open ocean, these results help to explain why marine COS concentrations are highest in coastal and shelf regions. Wavelength studies of COS photoproduction in freshly collected

Richard G. Zepp; Meinrat O. Andreae

1994-01-01

101

Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

102

Analysis of genetic factors affecting egg production in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic determinants of egg production were studied in two inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosome III was the only one responsible for differences in egg laying between them; its effect is completely dominant. By means of a marker stock, synthetic chromosomes were constructed consisting of known portions of the two third chromosomes but without carrying any marker genes themselves. Chromosome

A Dominguez; J Rubio

1986-01-01

103

Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters affecting the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production are summarized and discussed: microorganism, carbon- and nitrogen-source, fermentation mode, pH, and temperature. LA production is compared in terms of LA concentration, LA yield and LA productivity. Also by-product formation and LA isomery are discussed.

Karin Hofvendahl

2000-01-01

104

Factors affecting in vitro microrhizome production in turmeric  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro microrhizome production was obtained in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). Freshly sprouted buds with small rhizome portions excised from stored mature rhizomes were cultured on semi-solid culture initiation medium –- MS basal medium + 0.88 µM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) + 0.92 µM kinetin + 5% coconut water + 2% sucrose + 0.5% agar –- resulting in bud elongation. Multiple shoots

Mrudul V. Shirgurkar; C. K. John; Rajani S. Nadgauda

2001-01-01

105

Bacterial biogas production in coastal systems affected by freshwater inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of two greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and the bacterial processes involved in their production (nitrification and denitrification for N2O, and methanogenesis for CH4), were determined in surface waters of two coastal areas under the influence of freshwater inputs, on one part in the Gulf of Lions and the Rhone River plume, in northwestern Mediterranean

D. Marty; P Bonin; V Michotey; M Bianchi

2001-01-01

106

Firing of antagonist small-diameter muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and torque of elbow flexors.  

PubMed

During muscle fatigue, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents can decrease voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle. However, these afferents may have a more widespread effect on other muscles in the exercising limb. We examined if the firing of fatigue-sensitive afferents from elbow extensor muscles in the same arm reduces torque production and voluntary activation of elbow flexors. In nine subjects we examined voluntary activation of elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during brief (2-3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Inflation of a blood pressure cuff following a 2-min sustained MVC blocked blood flow to the fatigued muscle and maintained firing of small-diameter afferents. After a fatiguing elbow flexion contraction, maximal flexion torque was lower (26.0 ± 4.4% versus 67.9 ± 5.2% of initial maximal torque; means ± s.d.; P < 0.001) and superimposed twitches were larger (4.1 ± 1.1% versus 1.8 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC, P = 0.01) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing elbow extensor contraction, maximal flexion torque was also reduced (82.2 ± 4.9% versus 91.4 ± 2.3% of initial maximal torque; P = 0.007), superimposed twitches were larger (2.7 ± 0.7% versus 1.3 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC; P = 0.02) and voluntary activation lower (81.6 ± 8.2% versus 95.5 ± 6.9%; P = 0.04) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing contraction, voluntary drive to the fatigued muscles is reduced with continued input from small-diameter muscle afferents. Furthermore, fatigue of the elbow extensor muscles decreases voluntary drive to unfatigued elbow flexors of the same arm. Therefore, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents from one muscle can affect voluntary activation and hence torque generation of another muscle in the same limb. PMID:23652589

Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

2013-05-07

107

Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (?0.69, ?0.81, ?0.71 and ?0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.

Lewandowska, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

2011-01-01

108

Somatotype variables related to muscle torque and power in judoists.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo. PMID:23487284

Lewandowska, Joanna; Bu?ko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

2011-12-25

109

Bacterial biogas production in coastal systems affected by freshwater inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of two greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4), and the bacterial processes involved in their production (nitrification and denitrification for N 2O, and methanogenesis for CH 4), were determined in surface waters of two coastal areas under the influence of freshwater inputs, on one part in the Gulf of Lions and the Rhone River plume, in northwestern Mediterranean Sea, and on the other part in the inner Thermaikos Gulf, in Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean Sea. High concentrations of dissolved CH 4 and N 2O were recorded in the surface waters of Gulf of Lions and Gulf of Thermaikos, up to 1300 nM for CH 4, and 40 nM for N 2O. No direct relationship could be found between the concentration and production of the biogases, as they may also be produced in deep water or bottom sediment in shallow areas, or derived from anthropogenic activity or ship contamination in polluted areas. Irrespective of the origin of CH 4 and N 2O, the presence of extremely high concentrations of these two gases in superficial seawater implies that they can easily escape to the atmosphere; consequently, these nearshore waters enriched in greenhouse gases may play an important role in the increase in atmospheric concentration of both CH 4 and N 2O.

Marty, D.; Bonin, P.; Michotey, V.; Bianchi, M.

2001-12-01

110

How hollow melanosomes affect iridescent colour production in birds.  

PubMed

Developmental constraints and trade-offs can limit diversity, but organisms have repeatedly evolved morphological innovations that overcome these limits by expanding the range and functionality of traits. Iridescent colours in birds are commonly produced by melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) organized into nanostructured arrays within feather barbules. Variation in array type (e.g. multilayers and photonic crystals, PCs) is known to have remarkable effects on plumage colour, but the optical consequences of variation in melanosome shape remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of spectrophotometric, experimental and theoretical methods to test how melanosome hollowness--a morphological innovation largely restricted to birds--affects feather colour. Optical analyses of hexagonal close-packed arrays of hollow melanosomes in two species, wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and violet-backed starlings (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), indicated that they function as two-dimensional PCs. Incorporation of a larger dataset and optical modelling showed that, compared with solid melanosomes, hollow melanosomes allow birds to produce distinct colours with the same energetically favourable, close-packed configurations. These data suggest that a morphological novelty has, at least in part, allowed birds to achieve their vast morphological and colour diversity. PMID:23902909

Eliason, Chad M; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Shawkey, Matthew D

2013-07-31

111

High torque miniature rotary actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

Nalbandian, Ruben

2005-07-01

112

Factors Affecting Organic Acid Production by Sourdough (San Francisco) Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previous workers from this laboratory observed considerable variation in the proportions of acetic and lactic acids produced in pure broth culture as compared to consistently high proportions of acetic acid produced in the sourdough and flour suspension systems. In the latter the proportion of acetic acid was always in the range of 20 to 35% of the total, whereas in pure broth culture frequently less than 5% acetic acid was produced. In the natural environment, the sourdough bacteria, tentatively identified as lactobacilli, coexist with a yeast, Saccharomyces exiguus, and this study was undertaken to determine whether this yeast or flour ingredients including glucose or other factors were involved in this variable production of acetic acid. The proportion of acetic acid produced in broth culture on maltose, the preferred carbohydrate source, was found to depend almost entirely on the degree of aeration. Essentially anaerobic conditions, as obtained by thorough evacuation and flushing with CO2 or N2, resulted in very low (5% or less) proportions of acetic acid. Aerobic conditions, achieved by continuous shaking in cotton-plugged flasks, yielded high levels (23 to 39% of the total) of acetic acid. Similar effects of aeration were observed with glucose as the substrate, although growth was considerably slower, or in nonsterile flour suspension systems. It is theorized that, under aerobic conditions, the reduced pyridine nucleotides generated in the dissimilation of carbohydrate are oxidized directly by molecular oxygen, thereby becoming unavailable for the reduction of the acetyl phosphate intermediate to ethyl alcohol, the usual product of anaerobic dissimilation of glucose by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Comparative studies with known strains of homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli showed similar effects of aeration only on the heterofermentative strains, lending additional support to the tentative grouping by previous workers from this laboratory of the sourdough bacteria with the heterofermentative lactobacilli.

Ng, Henry

1972-01-01

113

A new sensorless torque and reactive power controller for doubly-fed machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sensor-less algorithm for decoupled control of torque and reactive power of a class of doubly-fed machines like the conventional wound rotor induction machine (DFIM) or the emerging brushless reluctance machine (BDFRM), has been proposed in this paper. The control concept has been derived from the first principles of torque production and magnetisation of the machines and requires only

Hamza Chaal; Milutin Jovanovic

2010-01-01

114

Procyanidins modify insulinemia by affecting insulin production and degradation.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our research group have suggested that procyanidins modify glycemia and insulinemia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of procyanidins on ?-cell functionality in a nonpathological system. Four groups of healthy rats were studied. The animals were given daily acute doses of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) for different time periods and at different daily amounts. A ?-cell line (INS-1E) was treated with 25 mg GSPE/L for 24 h to identify possible mechanisms of action for the procyanidins. In vivo experiments showed that different doses of GSPE affected insulinemia in different ways by modifying ?-cell functionality and/or insulin degradation. The islets isolated from rats that were treated with 25 mg GSPE/kg of body weight for 45 days exhibited a limited response to glucose stimulation. In addition, insulin gene expression, insulin synthesis and expression of genes related to insulin secretion were all down-regulated. In vitro studies revealed that GSPE decreased the ability of ?-cells to secrete insulin in response to glucose. GSPE increased glucose uptake in ?-cells under high-glucose conditions but impaired glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization, decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and altered cellular membrane potentials. GSPE also modified Glut2, glucokinase and Ucp2 gene expression as well as altered the expression of hepatic insulin-degrading enzyme (Ide), thereby altering insulin degradation. At some doses, procyanidins changed ?-cell functionality by modifying insulin synthesis, secretion and degradation under nonpathological conditions. Membrane potentials and Ide provide putative targets for procyanidins to induce these effects. PMID:22444499

Castell-Auví, Anna; Cedó, Lídia; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, M Teresa; Pinent, Montserrat; Motilva, M José; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard; Maechler, Pierre; Ardévol, Anna

2012-03-22

115

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of...Ambient Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and...

2009-07-01

116

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310...CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of...Ambient Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and...

2013-07-01

117

The Effect of Aging on the Accuracy of New Friction-Style Mechanical Torque Limiting Devices for Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

Objective: High variability in delivering the target torque is reported for friction-style mechanical torque limiting devices (F-S MTLDs). The effect of aging (number of use) on the accuracy of these devices is not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of aging on the accuracy (±10% of the target torque) of F-S MTLDs. Materials and Methods: Fifteen new F-S MTLDs and their appropriate drivers from three different implant manufacturers (Astra Tech, Biohorizon and Dr Idhe), five for each type, were selected. The procedure of peak torque measurement was performed in ten sequences before and after aging. In each sequence, ten repetitions of peak torque values were registered for the aging procedure. To measure the output of each device, a Tohnichi torque gauge was used. Results: Before aging, peak torque measurements of all the devices tested in this study falled within 10% of their preset target values. After aging, a significant difference was seen between raw error values of three groups of MTLDs (P<0.05). More than 50% of all peak torque measurements demonstrated more than 10% difference from their torque values after aging. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, aging as an independent factor affects the accuracy of F-S MTLDs. Astra Tech MTLDs presented the most consistent torque output for 25 Ncm target torque.

Saboury, Aboulfazl; Sadr, Seyed Jalil; Fayaz, Ali; Mahshid, Minoo

2013-01-01

118

Torque Transmission through Rock Bolts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory testing program was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a 1000-ft-lb impact wrench in transmitting torque to the anchor shells of various lengths of rock bolts. The investigation was limited to testing of one impact wrench on 2-, 4-,...

G. H. Bragg

1977-01-01

119

MEASUREMENT OF TORQUE IN MICROMOTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a dynamometer developed for the measurement of torque of micromotors as a f unction of the rotational speed. The operating principle of the device is based on that of a typical viscometer. The shaft of the micromotor to be tested is coupled to a small cylin der, which is placed concentrically into a larger cylind er. The

Jaime I. Hernández-Navarro; Gabriel Ascanio; Leopoldo Ruiz-Huerta; Alberto Caballero-Ruiz

120

Brain torque and sex differences in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opposing asymmetry of the frontoparietal brain regions has been referred to as ‘torque’ and may be used as an index of speed of neurodevelopment. It has been recently suggested that torque is minimized in male schizophrenia, reflecting anomalous neurodevelopment. This study examined volumetric and linear torque in a group of 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy individuals; all were

Rosemary Guerguerian; Richard R. J. Lewine

1998-01-01

121

Environmental Qualification of an Actuator Torque Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental qualification testing was performed on a modified Limitorque torque switch for the torque switch safety functions in the Limitorque type SMB actuators located inside and outside containment in a nuclear power plant. The torque switch specimen was installed in a Limitorque SMB-1 electric actuator mounted on an 8'' Velan gate valve and operated with a customized programmable logic controller

A. M. Chan; S. L. Barreca; T. Kostela

2006-01-01

122

14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361 Aeronautics...Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest ofâ...

2010-01-01

123

14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361 Aeronautics...Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting...effects ofâ (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power...

2009-01-01

124

14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361 Aeronautics...Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting...effects ofâ (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power...

2010-01-01

125

14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361 Aeronautics...Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest ofâ...

2009-01-01

126

14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361 Aeronautics and...Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a)...

2013-01-01

127

14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361 Aeronautics...Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest ofâ...

2013-01-01

128

14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361 Aeronautics...Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting...effects ofâ (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power...

2013-01-01

129

14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361 Aeronautics...Structure Flight Loads § 23.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting...effects ofâ (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and...

2013-01-01

130

Redundancy resolution of manipulators through torque optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for resolving kinematic redundancies of manipulators by the effect on joint torque are examined. When the generalized inverse is formulated in terms of accelerations and incorporated into the dynamics, the effect of redundancy resolution on joint torque can be directly reflected. One method chooses the joint acceleration null-space vector to minimize joint torque in a least squares sense; when

J. Hollerbach; Ki Suh

1987-01-01

131

Piezoresistive cantilever designed for torque magnetometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

New piezoresistive silicon cantilevers designed specifically for torque magnetometry on microscopic samples have been microfabricated and tested. These levers have been optimized to detect the torque in two directions corresponding to flexion and torsion. Torque resolution of ~10-14 N m can be achieved depending on the operating mode. In one version an integrated loop allows an absolute calibration of the

M. Willemin; C. Rossel; J. Brugger; M. H. Despont; H. Rothuizen; P. Vettiger; J. Hofer; H. Keller

1998-01-01

132

Spin Transfer torques in Antiferromagnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin Transfer Torque (STT) has attracted tremendously growing interest in the past two decades. Consisting on the transfer of spin angular momentum of a spin polarized current to local magnetic moments, the STT gives rise to a complex dynamics of the magnetization. Depending on the the structure, the STT shows a dominated In plane component for spin valves [1], whereas both components coexist for magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) [2]. For latter case the symmetry of the structure is considered to be decisive in identifying the nature and behavior of the torque [3]. In the present study we are interested in magnetic structures where we substitute either one or both of the magnetic layers by antiferromagnets (AF). We use Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism applied on a tight-binding model to investigate the nature of the spin torque. We notice the presence of two types of torque exerted on (AF), a torque which tends to rotate the order parameter and another one that competes with the exchange interaction. We conclude by comparison with previous works [4-5].[4pt] [1] Xia, K., Kelly, P. J., Bauer, G. E. W., Brataas, A. & Turek, Phys. Rev. B 65, 220401 (2002). [2] Sankey, J. C. et al. Nature Phys. 4, 67--71 (2008). [3] A. Kalitsov. et al. and W. H. Butler, Phys. Rev. B 79, 174416 (2009). [4] A. S. N'uñez , R. A. Duine, Paul Haney, and A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 73, 214426 (2006). [5] R. A. Duine et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 014433 (2007).

Saidaoui, Hamed; Waintal, Xavier; Manchon, Aurelien

2013-03-01

133

Radiative Torques: Analytical Model And Basic Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to get a physical insight into grain alignment processes by studying basic properties of radiative torques (RATs). For this purpose we consider a simple toy model of a helical grain that reproduces well the basic features of RATs. The model grain consists of a reflecting spheroidal body with a reflecting mirror attached at an angle to it. Being very simple, the model allows analytical description of RATs that act upon it. We show a good correspondence of RATs obtained for this model and those of irregular grains calculated by DDSCAT. Our analysis of the role of different torque components for grain alignment reveals that one of the three RAT components does not affect the alignment, but induces only for grain precession. The other two components provide a generic alignment with grain long axes perpendicular to the light radiation, if the radiation dominates the grain precession, and perpendicular to magnetic field, otherwise. The latter coincides with the famous predictions of the Davis-Greenstein process, but our model does not invoke paramagnetic relaxation. In addition, we find that a substantial part of grains subjected to RATs gets aligned with low angular momentum, which testifies, that most of the grains in diffuse interstellar medium do not rotate fast, i.e. rotate with thermal or even sub-thermal velocities. For the radiation-dominated environments, we find that the alignment can take place on the time scale much shorter than the time of gaseous damping of grain rotation.

Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

2007-05-01

134

40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table...exceed 0.024 grams per megagram (0.00005 pounds per ton) of rubber used at the tire production affected...

2012-07-01

136

Market and Other Factors Affecting Farm Specific Production Efficiency in Pig Production in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing country production environment, farm production efficiency is often measured in terms of on-farm resources and producer characteristics. In this paper we postulate that input and output market related factors also influence farm production decisions hence its efficiency. Stochastic frontier production function was used to assess technical efficiency and its determinants including input and output market variables for a

Mohammad A. Jabbar; Shaheen Akter

2008-01-01

137

Analysis of the parameters of structural geology that affect gas production from the Devonian shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of five years' effort directed toward understanding the importance of geologic structure to Devonian gas production in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia. This study was designed to: (1) collect, compile, and analyze geologic data to construct regional structural maps of eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; (2) determine if structural types and styles affect production, and

B. Bebee; P. Berger; J. M. Dixon

1982-01-01

138

Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common

Timothy L. Dickson; Charles E. Mitchell; Darren Mark Evans

2010-01-01

139

Calculating Horsepower, RPM, and Torque  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the calculation of horsepower, RPMs, and torque. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of all three topics and then provide mathematical examples for computing each measure. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to calculating horsepower, RPMs, and torque. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.

Bourassa, James; Rosz, John

2009-04-23

140

Torque application technique and apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tool which produces a measured torque is coupled to a bolt head or nut, located in a relatively inaccessible area, by apparatus which includes a wrench member affixed to an adaptor. The wrench member is sized and shaped to engage the fastener to be operated upon and the adaptor has a tubular construction with a tool engaging socket at one end. The adaptor is provided with an elongated slot which accommodates any wires which may pass through the fastener.

Pineault, Raymond P.

1993-11-01

141

40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources...

2010-07-01

142

40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources...

2009-07-01

143

Age and gender moderate the effects of localized muscle fatigue on lower extremity joint torques used during quiet stance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of localized muscle fatigue, age, and gender on lower extremity joint torques used during quiet stance. Thirty-two participants performed exercises designed to fatigue the ankle plantarflexors, knee extensors, torso extensors, or shoulder flexors. Body kinematics and ground reaction forces were obtained both before and after the exercises, and joint torques were derived via inverse dynamics. Single joint fatigue affected torque variability at all lower extremity joints, with similar changes for both age groups. Males and females exhibited increased ankle torque variability after different tasks, with males showing more variability after ankle fatigue and females after shoulder and lumbar fatigue. Correlations between peak torques and torque variability differed between males and females and between age groups in certain cases. The results of this study suggested that both age and gender moderate the effects of fatigue on postural control and should be considered when developing strategies to prevent occupational falls. PMID:21269716

Wojcik, Laura A; Nussbaum, Maury A; Lin, Dingding; Shibata, Peggy A; Madigan, Michael L

2011-01-26

144

Inverse estimation of muscle activations from joint torque via local multiple regression.  

PubMed

The signal measured with an electromyogram (EMG) is the summation of all action potentials of motor units active at a certain time. According to previous literature, one can establish the relationship between torque and EMG/activations in a forward way, i.e., employing EMG of multiple channels to estimate the joint torque. Once the relationship is established, the torque can be predicted with EMG recordings. However, in some applications of neuroprosthetics where we need to make muscle control, it is required to inversely have an insight regarding the muscle activations under a specific motion scenario from the corresponding torque. Motivated by this point, this paper investigates inverse estimation of muscle activations in random contractions at the ankle joint. Local multiple regression is exploited for finding the relationship between muscle activations and torque. Such technique is able to rebuild the relationship between muscle activations and joint torque inversely based on experimental data obtained from five able-bodied subjects, and the resultant optimal weight matrix can indicate each muscle's contribution in the production of the torque. Further cross validation on prediction of muscle activations with joint torque with optimal weights shows that such approach may possess promising performance. PMID:24111265

Li, Zhan; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Guiraud, David

2013-07-01

145

Detection of fatigue cracks and torque loss in bolted joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue crack growth during the service life of aging aircraft is a critical issue and monitoring of such cracks in structural hotspots is the goal of this research. This paper presents a procedure for classification and detection of cracks generated in bolted joints which are used at numerous locations in aircraft structures. Single lap bolted joints were equipped with surface mounted piezoelectric (pzt) sensors and actuators and were subjected to cyclic loading. Crack length measurements and sensor data were collected at different number of cycles and with different torque levels. A classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) was used to compare signals from a healthy and damaged joint to classify fatigue damage at the bolts. The algorithm was also used to classify the amount of torque in the bolt of interest and determine if the level of torque affected the quantification and localization of the crack emanating from the bolt hole. The results show that it is easier to detect the completely loose bolt but certain changes in torque, combined with damage, can produce some non-unique classifier solutions.

Coelho, Clyde K.; Das, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Peralta, Pedro

2007-05-01

146

Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycerol is a major by-product from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics\\u000a and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and\\/or arabitol as the value-added products\\u000a from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotolerant, were first screened in this study. No strains were found to produce large\\u000a amounts of xylitol

Srujana Koganti; Tsung Min Kuo; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Nathan Smith; Lu-Kwang Ju

2011-01-01

147

Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

2011-10-01

148

Long-term structural priming affects subsequent patterns of language production.  

PubMed

This article reports three experiments exploring how experience producing particular syntactic constructions affects the rates at which those constructions will be produced in the future. In the first part of each experiment, the participants' experience at producing the double object (DO) and prepositional object (PO) constructions was manipulated so that they produced a certain proportion of DO and PO constructions. Subsequent to the establishment of these biases, the participants were given the opportunity to produce either DO or PO constructions. The main findings show that (1) patterns of experience with the DO and PO constructions affected the base rates of production for the DO and PO constructions, but not the strength of structural priming observed between particular prime sentences and particular target sentences, and (2) patterns of experience with the DO and PO constructions affected the production of subsequent sentences even across changes in the nature of the language production task. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:17910177

Kaschak, Michael P

2007-07-01

149

Nucleosome response to tension and torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the combined effect of torque and force on a nucleosome, the most abundant DNA-protein complex in eukaryotic cells. Using the worm-like chain model (WLC) we show how low positive torques ease the unwrapping of the DNA from the nucleosome. Remarkably a combination of high forces and high negative torques favors DNA unwrapping as well. The theory is also applicable beyond nucleosomes, namely whenever DNA spools are involved.

Lanzani, G.; Schiessel, H.

2012-11-01

150

Temperature and torque determination in brake drums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of temperature distribution in a brake drum and determination of drum brake torque has been carried out using finite\\u000a element methods. The simulated temperature distribution and the brake torque determined were compared with observations carried\\u000a out using an inertia dynamometer with a data-logging system. There is good agreement between the predicted temperature distribution\\u000a and the brake torque determined with

V T V S Ramachandra Rao; L S Rajaram; K N Seetharamu

1993-01-01

151

Advertising bans and product demand: how does marketing affect demand for a differentiated product?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applied economists have made extensive use of product category time series studies to investigate the effects that an advertising ban might have on markets for potentially harmful products such as tobacco and alcohol. This paper argues that such studies can cast little light on the question, partly because they contain no plausible hypothesis of how advertising influences demand in a

Tony McGuinness

1995-01-01

152

Muscle response to pneumatic hand tool torque reaction forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface electromyography was used for studying the effects of torque reaction force acting against the hand, on forearm muscle activity and grip force for five subjects operating right angle, air shut-off nutrunners. Four tools having increasing spindle torque were operated using short and long torque reaction times. Nutrunner spindle torque ranged between 30 Nm and 100 Nm. Short torque reaction

ROBERT G. RADWIN; ERNST VANBERGEIJK; THOMAS J. ARMSTRONG

1989-01-01

153

Reduction of torque ripple in brushless DC motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For permanent magnet (PM) brushless DC motors, torque ripple, is an important origin of vibration, acoustic noise and speed fluctuation. In this paper, the output torque profile of a PM motor with one phase energized is decomposed into the commutation torque, the reluctance torque and the armature reaction according to their source origins. It verifies that the output torque profile

S. M. Hwang; D. K. Lieu

1995-01-01

154

Magnetic torque maximization in a camera shutter module by the topology optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a stronger demand for the weight reduction of components of various portable electronic devices.\\u000a This work is motivated by the need to reduce the weight of a camera shutter module without much decreasing the torque generated\\u000a by its magnetic circuit. Because the camera shutter speed is most significantly affected by the torque, the magnitude

Jihun Kim; Kyung Ho Sun; Woochul Kim; Jae Eun Kim

2010-01-01

155

Torque limited drive for manual valves  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

Elliott, Philip G. (Metropolis, IL); Underwood, Daniel E. (Paducah, KY)

1989-01-01

156

Torque converter and assembly utilizing same  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a torque converter for converting a first torque to a second torque. It comprises: a housing; an input shaft having the first torque; a driving sun gear rotatable about a first axis, the input shaft being coupled to the sun gear; a driven carrier including a shaft portion rotatable about the first axis; a first planetary shaft mounted on the driven carrier coaxillay with a second axis parallel to the first axis; a first planetary gear meshing with and driven by the sun gear and mounted on the first planetary shaft so that the first planetary gear is rotatable about the second axis; a first mass eccentric to the second axis and coupled to the first planetary gear for rotation together about the second axis; first and second unidirectional clutches connected to the shaft portion of the driven carrier and operating in opposite directions; an output torque shaft, one if the first and second unidirectional clutches being coupled to the output torque shaft to transmit the second torque thereto in a pulsating fashion and to permit continuous rotation of the output torque shaft and the other one of the first and second unidirectional clutches being connected to the housing to transmit an algebraic addition of the first and second torques together.

Pitassi, V.E.; Fernandez, A.

1989-12-26

157

Production of cercosporin toxin by the phytopathogenic Cercospora fungi is affected by diverse environmental signals.  

PubMed

Cercosporin is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by many phytopathogenic Cercospora spp. We investigated environmental signals that have elaborate control of cercosporin production. Light is the most critical factor for cercosporin production. Cercospora nicotianae accumulated substantial quantities of cercosporin only when grown on a particular potato dextrose agar under light but produced little cercosporin on other brands of potato dextrose agar or media with defined ingredients. In addition to light regulation, numerous factors including salts, buffers, and ions markedly affected cercosporin production. By contrast, pH had little effect on cercosporin production. Depletion or alteration of the carbon or nitrogen sources also affected cercosporin production. Production of cercosporin was elevated to varying levels by metal ions, such as cobalt, ferric, manganese, and zinc. Significant differences in cercosporin production were observed among various Cercospora species. Further, regulation of cercosporin production by phosphate buffer, ammonium, LiCl, but not metal ions appeared to occur at transcriptional levels. Expression of the genes involved in cercosporin biosynthesis and regulation decreased markedly and was closely concomitant with the amounts of cercosporin reduced as the fungus was grown on medium containing phosphate, LiCl, ammonium, or dimethyl sulfoxide. The results reveal the complexity of cercosporin production at the physiological and genetic levels. A model delineating regulatory controls of cercosporin biosynthesis is proposed and discussed. PMID:18388998

You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Hui; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2008-04-01

158

Muscle weakness, fatigue, and torque variability: Effects of age and mobility status.  

PubMed

Introduction: Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods: Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results: Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P?torque variability differed by group (P?=?0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P?=?0.010). Conclusions: These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. Muscle Nerve, 2013. PMID:23674266

Kent-Braun, Jane A; Callahan, Damien M; Fay, Jessica L; Foulis, Stephen A; Buonaccorsi, John P

2013-05-14

159

New direct torque control of induction motor for minimum torque ripple and constant switching frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a direct torque control (DTC) method of an induction machine is proposed which enables the minimum torque ripple control, while maintaining constant switching frequency. Some drawbacks of the conventional DTC are the relatively large torque ripple in a low speed range and the variation of switching frequency according to the amplitude of hysteresis bands and the motor

Jun-Koo Kang; Seung-Ki Sul

1999-01-01

160

A nuclear mutation affects the synthesis of the chloroplast psbA gene production Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the nuclear mutation F34 on the synthesis of chloroplast-encoded photosystem II (PSII) polypeptides has been controversal. While we had concluded that the synthesis of the psbC gene product (P6) was specifically deficient in this mutant, another laboratory has found that the synthesis of the psbA gene product, the herbicide-binding protein D1, was primarily affected. These conflicting results

Jacqueline Girard-Bascou; Yves Pierre; Dominique Drapier

1992-01-01

161

Explosive sport training and torque kinetics in children.  

PubMed

A high rate of force development (RFD) is often more important than maximal force in daily and sports activities. In children, resistance training has been shown to increase maximal force. It is unclear whether, or to what extent, can children improve RFD and force kinetics. For this study, we compared strength and force kinetics of boy gymnasts with those of untrained boys and untrained men. Eight boy gymnasts (age, 9.5 ± 1.2 y), 20 untrained boys (age, 10.1 ± 1.3 y), and 20 untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.4 y) performed maximal, explosive, isometric elbow flexions (EF) and knee flexions (KF). Peak torque (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)), elapsed times to 10%-100% MVC, peak rate of torque development (RTDpk), and other kinetics parameters were determined. When gymnasts were compared with untrained boys, size-normalized EF MVC was 11%-20% higher, RTDpk was 32% higher, and times to 30% and 80% MVC were 16% and 55% shorter, respectively (p < 0.05). No corresponding differences were observed in KF. Furthermore, although the normalized EF MVC was 28% lower in gymnasts than in men (p < 0.001), their torque kinetics parameters were similar. These findings highlight the specificity of gymnastics training, which markedly elevated the torque kinetics of young, prepubertal boys to adult levels, but only moderately affected peak torque. It is suggested that neurologic adaptations, such as enhanced firing and activation rates or increased type II motor-unit recruitment, as well as changes in musculotendinous stiffness, could explain these findings. PMID:23980732

Dotan, Raffy; Mitchell, Cameron J; Cohen, Rotem; Gabriel, David; Klentrou, Panagiota; Falk, Bareket

2013-01-29

162

Factors Affecting the Functional Properties of Whey Protein Products: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous why protein products (WPP) have been developed as excellent food ingredients with unique functional properties. However, the functional properties of WPP are affected by several compositional and processing factors. Recently, novel processing technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, extrusion and tribomechanical activation have been used to modify the functional properties of WPP. Also, WPP have been used as

M. H. Abd El-Salam; Safinaz El-Shibiny; Aida Salem

2009-01-01

163

Reproductive schedule and factors affecting soldier production in the eusocial bamboo aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera, Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The reproductive characteristics of the soldier-producing aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola were studied in Kagoshima, Southern Japan, to know the factors affecting soldier production of eusocial aphids. The soldier proportion in aphid colonies was highest from October to November. In some large colonies, soldiers were observed in all seasons except in July when colony size was relatively small. Multiple regression analysis

H. Shibao

1999-01-01

164

ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

165

INSECTS AFFECTING PRODUCTION OF NATIVE LEGUME SEED IN THE GREAT BASIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several insects affect collection and production of Astragalus, Dalea and Hedysarum seed from wild and managed stands in the Great Basin. Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and seed weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) attack and destroy maturing seed at most locations that were collected or sampled in...

166

Spatiotemporal evolution of hairpin eddies, Reynolds stress, and polymer torque in polymer drag-reduced turbulent channel flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the influence of dynamic interactions between turbulent vortical structures and polymer stress on turbulent friction drag reduction, a series of simulations of channel flow is performed. We obtain self-consistent evolution of an initial eddy in the presence of polymer stresses by utilizing the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin (FENE-P) model. The initial eddy is extracted by the conditional averages for the second quadrant event from fully turbulent Newtonian flow, and the initial polymer conformation fields are given by the solutions of the FENE-P model equations corresponding to the mean shear flow in the Newtonian case. At a relatively low Weissenberg number We? (=50), defined as the ratio of the polymer relaxation time to the wall time scale, the generation of new vortices is inhibited by polymer-induced countertorques. Thus fewer vortices are generated in the buffer layer. However, the head of the primary hairpin is unaffected by the polymer stress. At larger We? values (?100), the hairpin head becomes weaker and vortex autogeneration and Reynolds stress growth are almost entirely suppressed. The temporal evolution of the vortex strength and polymer torque magnitude reveals that polymer extension by the vortical motion results in a polymer torque that increases in magnitude with time until a maximum value is reached over a time scale comparable to the polymer relaxation time. The polymer torque retards the vortical motion and Reynolds stress production, which in turn weakens flow-induced chain extension and torque itself. An analysis of the vortex time scales reveals that with increasing We?, vortical motions associated with a broader range of time scales are affected by the polymer stress. This is qualitatively consistent with Lumley's time criterion for the onset of drag reduction.

Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

2013-06-01

167

Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we discuss the stabilization of the rigid body dynamics by external torques (gas jets) and internal torques (momentum wheels). We compare the stabilizing quadratic feedback law for a single external torque recently analyzed in Bloch and Mars...

A. M. Bloch P. S. Krishnaprasad J. E. Marsden G. Sanchez de Alvarez

1990-01-01

168

40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque transducer verification and calibration...Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in...

2013-07-01

169

AX-5 Space Suit Bearing Torque Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit i...

S. Loewenthal V. Vykukal R. Mackendrick P. Culbertson

1990-01-01

170

Parasitic Torques of Saturised Asynchronous Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the analysis of field harmonics in an asynchronous machine. It is proved that with increasing saturation of the magnetic circuit, the influence of the higher space harmonics on the field form is reduced. This causes reduction of the parasitic torques. Results of theoretical calculations have been compared with measurements of synchronous and asynchronous parasitic torques, which

Michael Erlicki

1972-01-01

171

Electromagnetic torques and alignment of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain consequences of the high magnetic field associated with a rotating neutron star were studied. A general equation for the electromagnetic torque on the star is formulated. This consists of two distinct contributions, i.e. a retardation torque and a magnetospheric torque acting on the star. The retardation torque results naturally from a mathematical treatment of the retardation correction to the magnetic field of the star. A torque obtained from a Taylor series expansion was identified as a third-order term and its component along the rotation axis is consistent with the classical decelerating torque known in the past. The magnetospheric torque which results from the currents in the magnetosphere, is identified and included in the calculation. There is, however, no anomalous effeect on the alignment and spindown rate of the star. The calculation is extended to the quadrupole moment of the star. It is found that there is no effective aligning torque or anomalous spindown effect from the rotating quadrupole field of the star. The alignment of the star and a possible twisting motion about the dipole moment of the star are discussed.

Ng, K. K.

172

Torque analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torque capability of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives above rated speed is analyzed based on a proposed representation of the vector diagram. Mathematical equations and methods for graphical presentation of the torque capability are shown and applied to select motor parameters in a traction application. A commercially available salient pole PMSM is analyzed

A. K. Adnanes

1991-01-01

173

Direct torque control of permanent magnet drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many permanent magnet motor drives use an open loop form of torque control, based on the assumption that output torque is proportional to applied current. In a practical motor this assumption may not always be correct, due to suboptimal alignment of magnets, nonuniformity of magnetic material, current sensor nonlinearities, and current controller limitations. These factors, together with nonoptimized current references,

Chris French; Paul Acarnley

1996-01-01

174

Self tuning IPMSM direct torque controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online adaptive routine is presented for optimum direct torque control of Interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM). Optimum control is provided by minimizing of a predefined particular cost function which causes proper selecting of the voltage vector to minimize electrical torque variations. In addition, the required parameters of cost function are estimated continuously. For this purpose, IPMSM dynamic parameters

M. Reza Feyzi; M. Sabahi

2008-01-01

175

Performance of a constant torque pedal device.  

PubMed Central

A constant-torque oscillatory pedal-crank device using vertical movement of the feet is described and its performance compared to a conventional rotational cycle. Using a generator to measure the power output the constant-torque device produced 33% less power and thus has no practical value as an alternative to the conventional pedal-crank system. Images Figure 3

Sherwin, K.

1979-01-01

176

Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields…

Bohren, Craig F.

2011-01-01

177

Microfabricated ultrasensitive piezoresistive cantilevers for torque magnetometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

New types of piezoresistive cantilevers for torque magnetometry have been microfabricated and tested. The design is optimized to detect the flexion and torsion of the cantilever corresponding to a torque in two directions, which is induced by a microscopic magnetic sample mounted on the lever surrounded by an external magnetic field. The high sensitivity (up to ?10?14 N m) of

J Brugger; M Despont; C Rossel; H Rothuizen; P Vettiger; M Willemin

1999-01-01

178

Altering SARS Coronavirus Frameshift Efficiency Affects Genomic and Subgenomic RNA Production  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, differences in the amount of genomic and subgenomic RNA produced by coronaviruses with mutations in the programmed ribosomal frameshift signal of ORF1a/b were observed. It was not clear if these differences were due to changes in genomic sequence, the protein sequence or the frequency of frameshifting. Here, viruses with synonymous codon changes are shown to produce different ratios of genomic and subgenomic RNA. These findings demonstrate that the protein sequence is not the primary cause of altered genomic and subgenomic RNA production. The synonymous codon changes affect both the structure of the frameshift signal and frameshifting efficiency. Small differences in frameshifting efficiency result in dramatic differences in genomic RNA production and TCID50 suggesting that the frameshifting frequency must stay above a certain threshold for optimal virus production. The data suggest that either the RNA sequence or the ratio of viral proteins resulting from different levels of frameshifting affects viral replication.

Plant, Ewan P.; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Dinman, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Deborah R.

2013-01-01

179

A magneto-rheological fluid-based torque sensor for smart torque wrench application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the authors have developed a new application where MR fluid is being used as a sensor. An MR-fluid based torque wrench has been developed with a rotary MR fluid-based damper. The desired set torque ranges from 1 to 6 N.m. Having continuously controllable yield strength, the MR fluid-based torque wrench presents a great advantage over the regular available torque wrenches in the market. This design is capable of providing continuous set toque from the lower limit to the upper limit while regular torque wrenches provide discrete set torques only at some limited points. This feature will be especially important in high fidelity systems where tightening torque is very critical and the tolerances are low.

Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Washington, Gregory N.

2013-04-01

180

Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model solves the coupled differential equations for an electric motor driven by a dynamo (generator). The model can be used as to illustrate elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses about nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. The main window displays the dynamo angular velocity ?1, motor angular velocity ?2 and current I time series and a second window displays the phase space. The stator current Is (A), torque T (Nâ¢m), and resistance R (ohm) are adjustable. The Fixed Torque Dynamo and Motor Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_chaos_FixedTorqueDynamoAndMotor.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-23

181

In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

Kronberg, James W. (P.O. Box 385, Beach Island, SC 29841)

1991-01-01

182

In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-09-10

183

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

2011-03-24

184

Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion.

Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

2013-01-01

185

Analysis of the radiation force and torque exerted on a chiral sphere by a Gaussian beam.  

PubMed

Under the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, we calculate the radiation force and torque exerted on a chiral sphere by a Gaussian beam. The theory and codes for axial radiation force are verified when the chiral sphere degenerates into an isotropic sphere. We discuss the influence of a chirality parameter on the radiation force and torque. Linearly and circularly polarized incident Gaussian beams are considered, and the corresponding radiation forces and torques are compared and analyzed. The polarization of the incident beam considerably influences radiation force of a chiral sphere. In trapping a chiral sphere, therefore, the polarization of incident beams should be chosen in accordance with the chirality. Unlike polarization, variation of chirality slightly affects radiation torque, except when the imaginary part of the chirality parameter is considered. PMID:23571957

Shang, Qing-Chao; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Qu, Tan; Li, Zheng-Jun; Bai, Lu; Gong, Lei

2013-04-01

186

Fault-tolerant ripple-free torque control of brushless motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tolerance is critical for servomotors used in high-risk applications, such as aerospace, robots, and military. These motors should be capable of continued functional operation even if insulation failure or open-circuit of a winding occur. This paper presents a fault-tolerant (FT) ripple-free torque controller for brushless DC (BLDC) motors that can maintain accurate torque production with minimum power dissipation even

Farhad Aghili

2010-01-01

187

Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.  

PubMed

This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products. PMID:20510533

Lee, Keun Taik

2010-04-28

188

Herbivore and fungal pathogen exclusion affects the seed production of four common grassland species.  

PubMed

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

Dickson, Timothy L; Mitchell, Charles E

2010-08-11

189

Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species  

PubMed Central

Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs.

Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

2010-01-01

190

Optimization of key factors affecting hydrogen production from food waste by anaerobic mixed cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key factors (inoculums concentration, substrate concentration and citrate buffer concentration) affecting hydrogen yield (HY) and specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) from food waste in batch fermentation by anaerobic mixed cultures were optimized using Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design. The experiments were conducted in 120 ml serum bottles with a working volume of 70 mL. Under the optimal condition of 2.30 g-VSS\\/L

Chakkrit Sreela-or; Tsuyoshi Imai; Pensri Plangklang; Alissara Reungsang

2011-01-01

191

Factors affecting waterfowl breeding density and productivity estimates in the Northeast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1977-79, information useful for making breeding pair and brood surveys was obtained while studying black duck (Anas rubripes) habitat selection and productivity in south-central Maine. Surveys should be initiated in relation to sunrise and sunset time. Morning versus evening counts, familiarity with the survey area, wetland dynamics of the study area, wetland surface water area, and allotment of relative survey effort are discussed as they affect the conduct and results of brood surveys.

Longcore, J.R.; Ringelman, J.K.

1980-01-01

192

Browning of Model Orange Juice Solution: Factors Affecting the Formation of Decomposition Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model solution of orange juice was prepared and stored. Factors affecting browning and formation of such decomposition products as 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone (3OH2P), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, 5- hydroxymaltol, and 2-furoic acid were examined. As- corbic acid (AsA) was essential for browning, which was stimulated by amino acids and citric acid, and repressed by chelators and radical scavengers (RS). 3OH2P was derived

Yuki SHINODA; Hajime KOMURA; Seiichi HOMMA; Masatsune MURATA

2005-01-01

193

How Fo-ATPase generates rotary torque.  

PubMed Central

The F-ATPases synthesize ATP using a transmembrane ionmotive force (IMF) established by the electron transport chain. This transduction involves first converting the IMF to a rotary torque in the transmembrane Fo portion. This torque is communicated from Fo to the F1 portion where the energy is used to release the newly synthesized ATP from the catalytic sites according to Boyer's binding change mechanism. Here we explain the principle by which an IMF generates this rotary torque in the Fo ion engine.

Oster, G; Wang, H; Grabe, M

2000-01-01

194

A Computational Model of Torque Generation: Neural, Contractile, Metabolic and Musculoskeletal Components  

PubMed Central

The pathway of voluntary joint torque production includes motor neuron recruitment and rate-coding, sarcolemmal depolarization and calcium release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, force generation by motor proteins within skeletal muscle, and force transmission by tendon across the joint. The direct source of energetic support for this process is ATP hydrolysis. It is possible to examine portions of this physiologic pathway using various in vivo and in vitro techniques, but an integrated view of the multiple processes that ultimately impact joint torque remains elusive. To address this gap, we present a comprehensive computational model of the combined neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems that includes novel components related to intracellular bioenergetics function. Components representing excitatory drive, muscle activation, force generation, metabolic perturbations, and torque production during voluntary human ankle dorsiflexion were constructed, using a combination of experimentally-derived data and literature values. Simulation results were validated by comparison with torque and metabolic data obtained in vivo. The model successfully predicted peak and submaximal voluntary and electrically-elicited torque output, and accurately simulated the metabolic perturbations associated with voluntary contractions. This novel, comprehensive model could be used to better understand impact of global effectors such as age and disease on various components of the neuromuscular system, and ultimately, voluntary torque output.

Callahan, Damien M.; Umberger, Brian R.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

2013-01-01

195

Coulomb-like interaction in nematic emulsions induced by external torques exerted on the colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external mechanical torque on colloids immersed in a nematic liquid crystal can induce a Coulomb-like 1/r interaction between them [Lev and Tomchuk, Phys. Rev. E 59, 591 (1999); Lev , ibid. 65, 021709 (2002)]. In this paper we show that the director-mediated Coulomb-like interaction of two colloids is determined by the vectors ??(1) and ??(2) of the transverse external torques exerted upon these colloids. We derive the 1/r potential in which the scalar product -(??(1)•??(2)) of the two torques plays the role of the product of two electrostatic charges. The 1/r interaction is attractive for (??(1)•??(2))>0 and repulsive for (??(1)•??(2))<0 (“parallel torques” attract whereas “antiparallel torques” repel each other). The vector of transverse torque determines the two-component “elastic charge” (dyad), which is illustrated by the 1/r2 and 1/r3 terms in the elastic energy (the elastic analogs of the monopole-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions). The general status of the pairwise approach to nematic emulsions is considered in terms of the elastic charge density.

Pergamenshchik, V. M.; Uzunova, V. O.

2007-07-01

196

Coulomb-like interaction in nematic emulsions induced by external torques exerted on the colloids.  

PubMed

An external mechanical torque on colloids immersed in a nematic liquid crystal can induce a Coulomb-like 1/r interaction between them [Lev and Tomchuk, Phys. Rev. E 59, 591 (1999); Lev, ibid. 65, 021709 (2002)]. In this paper we show that the director-mediated Coulomb-like interaction of two colloids is determined by the vectors Gamma perpendicular (1) and Gamma perpendicular (2) of the transverse external torques exerted upon these colloids. We derive the 1/r potential in which the scalar product -(Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2)) of the two torques plays the role of the product of two electrostatic charges. The 1/r interaction is attractive for (Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2))>0 and repulsive for (Gamma perpendicular (1) x Gamma perpendicular (2))<0 ("parallel torques" attract whereas "antiparallel torques" repel each other). The vector of transverse torque determines the two-component "elastic charge" (dyad), which is illustrated by the 1/r2 and 1/r3 terms in the elastic energy (the elastic analogs of the monopole-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions). The general status of the pairwise approach to nematic emulsions is considered in terms of the elastic charge density. PMID:17677471

Pergamenshchik, V M; Uzunova, V O

2007-07-19

197

Radiative torques: analytical model and basic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to get a physical insight into grain alignment processes by studying basic properties of radiative torques (RATs). For this purpose we consider a simple toy model of a helical grain that reproduces well the basic features of RATs. The model grain consists of a spheroidal body with a mirror attached at an angle to it. Being very simple, the model allows analytical description of RATs that act upon it. We show a good correspondence of RATs obtained for this model and those of irregular grains calculated by DDSCAT. Our analysis of the role of different torque components for grain alignment reveals that one of the three RAT components does not affect the alignment, but induces only for grain precession. The other two components provide a generic alignment with grain long axes perpendicular to the radiation direction, if the radiation dominates the grain precession, and perpendicular to magnetic field, otherwise. The latter coincides with the famous predictions of the Davis-Greenstein process, but our model does not invoke paramagnetic relaxation. In fact, we identify a narrow range of angles between the radiation beam and the magnetic field, for which the alignment is opposite to the Davis-Greenstein predictions. This range is likely to vanish, however, in the presence of thermal wobbling of grains. In addition, we find that a substantial part of grains subjected to RATs gets aligned with low angular momentum, which testifies that most of the grains in diffuse interstellar medium do not rotate fast, that is, rotate with thermal or even subthermal velocities. This tendency of RATs to decrease grain angular velocity as a result of the RAT alignment decreases the degree of polarization, by decreasing the degree of internal alignment, that is, the alignment of angular momentum with the grain axes. For the radiation-dominated environments, we find that the alignment can take place on the time-scale much shorter than the time of gaseous damping of grain rotation. This effect makes grains a more reliable tracer of magnetic fields. In addition, we study a self-similar scaling of RATs as a function of ?/aeff. We show that the self-similarity is useful for studying grain alignment by a broad spectrum of radiation, that is, interstellar radiation field.

Lazarian, A.; Hoang, Thiem

2007-07-01

198

Correlation of Torque and Elbow Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the pitching motion, velocity is generated by the upper extremity kinetic chain on internal rotation of the shoulder and trunk translational\\/rotational motion. This generation of power places significant forces and torques on the elbow and shoulder. Elbow valgus torque and shoulder rotational torque are theoretically linked to elbow injury.Hypothesis: Pitchers experiencing higher levels of elbow valgus torque and

Adam W. Anz; Brandon D. Bushnell; Leah Passmore Griffin; Thomas J. Noonan; Michael R. Torry; Richard J. Hawkins

2010-01-01

199

Utilization of Torque Wheels for Active Damping of Flexible Manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of inertial actuators, such as torque wheels, for vibration damping of a single-link flexible manipulator is considered. The torque wheel is mounted at the end effector of the manipulator to provide a bending moment at the tip for vibration suppression and pointing purposes. The torque exerted by the torque wheel at the end-effector of the manipulator is achieved through

Farshad Khorrami; Alexander A. Gomez; Matthew D. Hills

1994-01-01

200

Instantaneous Torque Estimation in Sensorless Direct-Torque-Controlled Brushless DC Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in the direct torque control of permanent-magnet brushless dc motors is the estimation of the instantaneous electromagnetic torque, while sensorless control is often advantageous. A sliding-mode observer is employed to estimate the nonsinusoidal back-electromotive-force waveform, and a simplified extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the rotor speed. Both are combined to calculate the instantaneous electromagnetic torque.

Yong Liu; Zi Qiang Zhu; David Howe

2006-01-01

201

Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Magnet Designs With Skewing for Torque Ripple and Cogging Torque Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the torque ripple and cogging torque variation in surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) with skewed rotor. The effect of slot\\/pole combinations and magnet shapes on the magnitude and harmonic content of torque waveforms in a PMSM drive has been studied. Finite element analysis and experimental results show that the skewing with steps does not necessarily reduce the

Rakib Islam; Iqbal Husain; Abbas Fardoun; Kevin McLaughlin

2009-01-01

202

Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.

Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Ji?í; Lanta, Vojt?ch; Lepš, Jan

2010-05-01

203

Melatonin and its kynurenin-like oxidation products affect the microbicidal activity of neutrophils.  

PubMed

Activated phagocytes oxidize the hormone melatonin to N1-acethyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) in a superoxide anion- and myeloperoxidase-dependent reaction. We examined the effect of melatonin, AFMK and its deformylated-product N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) on the phagocytosis, the microbicidal activity and the production of hypochlorous acid by neutrophils. Neither neutrophil and bacteria viability nor phagocytosis were affected by melatonin, AFMK or AMK. However these compounds affected the killing of Staphylococcus aureus. After 60 min of incubation, the percentage of viable bacteria inside the neutrophil increased to 76% in the presence of 1 mM of melatonin, 34% in the presence of AFMK and 73% in the presence of AMK. The sole inhibition of HOCl formation, expected in the presence of myeloperoxidase substrates, was not sufficient to explain the inhibition of the killing activity. Melatonin caused an almost complete inhibition of HOCl formation at concentrations of up to 0.05 mM. Although less effective, AMK also inhibited the formation of HOCl. However, AFMK had no effect on the production of HOCl. These findings corroborate the present view that the killing activity of neutrophils is a complex phenomenon, which involves more than just the production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the action of melatonin and its oxidation products include additional activities beyond their antioxidant property. The impairment of the neutrophils' microbicidal activity caused by melatonin and its oxidation products may have important clinical implications, especially in those cases in which melatonin is pharmacologically administered in patients with infections. PMID:16242372

Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Carvalho, Sandra Regina Quintal; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Okada, Sabrina Sayori; Campa, Ana

2005-09-16

204

Proximity to forest edge does not affect crop production despite pollen limitation  

PubMed Central

A decline in pollination function has been linked to agriculture expansion and intensification. In northwest Argentina, pollinator visits to grapefruit, a self-compatible but pollinator-dependent crop, decline by approximately 50% at 1?km from forest edges. We evaluated whether this decrease in visitation also reduces the pollination service in this crop. We analysed the quantity and quality of pollen deposited on stigmas, and associated limitation of fruit production at increasing distances (edge: 10, 100, 500 and 1000?m) from the remnants of Yungas forest. We also examined the quantitative and qualitative efficiency of honeybees as pollen vectors. Pollen receipt and pollen tubes in styles decreased with increasing distance from forest edge; however, this decline did not affect fruit production. Supplementation of natural pollen with self- and cross-pollen revealed that both pollen quantity and quality limited fruit production. Despite pollen limitation, honeybees cannot raise fruit production because they often do not deposit sufficient high-quality pollen per visit to elicit fruit development. However, declines in visitation frequency well below seven visits during a flower's lifespan could decrease production beyond current yields. In this context, the preservation of forest remnants, which act as pollinator sources, could contribute to resilience in crop production. Like wild plants, pollen limitation of the yield among animal-pollinated crops may be common and indicative not only of pollinator scarcity, but also of poor pollination quality, whereby pollinator efficiency, rather than just abundance, can play a broader role than previously appreciated.

Chacoff, Natacha P; Aizen, Marcelo A; Aschero, Valeria

2008-01-01

205

Proximity to forest edge does not affect crop production despite pollen limitation.  

PubMed

A decline in pollination function has been linked to agriculture expansion and intensification. In northwest Argentina, pollinator visits to grapefruit, a self-compatible but pollinator-dependent crop, decline by approximately 50% at 1km from forest edges. We evaluated whether this decrease in visitation also reduces the pollination service in this crop. We analysed the quantity and quality of pollen deposited on stigmas, and associated limitation of fruit production at increasing distances (edge: 10, 100, 500 and 1000m) from the remnants of Yungas forest. We also examined the quantitative and qualitative efficiency of honeybees as pollen vectors. Pollen receipt and pollen tubes in styles decreased with increasing distance from forest edge; however, this decline did not affect fruit production. Supplementation of natural pollen with self- and cross-pollen revealed that both pollen quantity and quality limited fruit production. Despite pollen limitation, honeybees cannot raise fruit production because they often do not deposit sufficient high-quality pollen per visit to elicit fruit development. However, declines in visitation frequency well below seven visits during a flower's lifespan could decrease production beyond current yields. In this context, the preservation of forest remnants, which act as pollinator sources, could contribute to resilience in crop production. Like wild plants, pollen limitation of the yield among animal-pollinated crops may be common and indicative not only of pollinator scarcity, but also of poor pollination quality, whereby pollinator efficiency, rather than just abundance, can play a broader role than previously appreciated. PMID:18230596

Chacoff, Natacha P; Aizen, Marcelo A; Aschero, Valeria

2008-04-22

206

Selecting custom torque prescriptions for the straight-wire appliance.  

PubMed

Selecting custom torque prescriptions based on the treatment needs of each patient can reduce the amount of routine archwire torque adjustment needed and speed torque correction, thus reducing the total treatment time. Using the appropriate torque prescription prevents iatrogenic torque problems and allows most torque corrections to be done earlier with more resilient nickel-titanium and beta-titanium wires. As a result, fewer time-consuming final torque adjustments are needed with stainless steel finishing wires, resulting in shorter treatment time. PMID:23540633

Johnson, Earl

2013-04-01

207

Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

Koch, A.B.

1986-09-30

208

40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. Determine each weight's force by multiplying its NIST-traceable...dynamometer during calibration to reduce frictional static hysteresis. In this case, the reference torque is determined...

2010-07-01

209

Damping assembly for a torque converter clutch  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a turbine damped torque converter and clutch. It comprises: a pressure plate; a torque converter turbine; a torque converter impeller; means including a control chamber for the pressure plate means for controlling the apply and release of the clutch for engaging the clutch with the impeller; a torque converter output shaft; a planetary gear arrangement including an input gear drivingly connected with the pressure plate, a reaction gear drivingly connected with the turbine, an output member drivingly connected with the output shaft and pinion gear means meshing with the input gear and the reaction gear for drivingly interconnecting the turbine and the pressure plate at a drive ratio of the turbine to the pressure plate of less than 1:1; and one-way drive means disposed between the turbine and the output shaft for preventing the turbine from overrunning the output shaft.

Dull, D.C.

1989-12-26

210

Casimir Torque on Two Rotating Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the torque on two rotating particles and two rotating plates due to the thermal fluctuation and vacuum fluctuation. A general formula has been developed including the temperature difference on each plate and vacuum, and the different angular velocity on each plate. We show that the Casimir torque in absorbing material occurs whenever there is a difference in temperature or a relative angular velocity between the plates and the vacuum.

Chen, Xiang

2013-06-01

211

Polarization-induced torque in optical traps  

SciTech Connect

In the field of optical trapping and micromanipulation it is well known that linearly polarized Gaussian beams, which possess no inherent angular momentum, can exert an orienting torque on optically or geometrically anisotropic particles. Conservation of angular momentum requires that the application of such a torque be compensated for by an equivalent, and opposite, angular momentum flux in the beam. In the following paper we analyze this effect in terms of both the scattered field, and the mechanical torque experienced by the particle. It is demonstrated that, in general, the scattered field has a complicated form, carrying both spin and orbital angular momentum. However, we show that the variation of torque with rotation angle is identically equal to A+B sin(2{alpha}+{beta}) for arbitrarily shaped particles, where A, B, and {beta} are constants and {alpha} is the angular displacement of the major axis of the particle from the polarization direction. The scattered field, and the mechanical torque, are seen to reduce to qualitatively distinct forms that depend on the symmetry group of the scattering particle. Our findings are verified and illustrated by a series of numerical calculations of the forces and torques experienced by arbitrarily shaped particles trapped in linearly polarized Gaussian beams.

Simpson, Stephen H.; Benito, David C.; Hanna, Simon [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2007-10-15

212

Factors affecting cell growth and monoclonal antibody production in stirred reactors.  

PubMed

Environmental and cultural factors that could affect growth and cell viability of mouse-mouse hybridoma cells in culture were investigated. The aim was to determine conditions that could prolong viability and result in increased yields of monoclonal antibodies in stirred reactors. Factors studied included temperature, level of dissolved oxygen, nutrient depletion, and waste product accumulation. Growing cells at temperatures 3-9 degrees lower than optimum (37 degrees C) increased viability but monoclonal antibody production was lowered. A low level of dissolved oxygen (25% air saturation compared to 60% for optimum growth) prolonged cell viability and increased the monoclonal antibody yield by about 50%. Feeding cultures daily to maintain the glucose level above 1 mg/ml and at the same time feeding cells glutamine (150 micrograms/10(6) cells per day) maintained the level of viable cells at 1.7 X 10(6)/ml for at least 9 days and resulted in an antibody yield of 290 micrograms/ml, about a 70% increase over cultures fed either glucose or glutamine alone. Ammonium ion, added to cell populations at levels produced in cultures, stopped cell growth and decreased antibody production. Another waste product, lactic acid, had no toxic effect when added to media at levels found in cultures. These results agree with our suggestion that monoclonal antibody production is enhanced by maintaining cell viability over a prolonged period and provide a base for investigating modes of hybridoma cell propagation in fermentors. PMID:3944469

Reuveny, S; Velez, D; Macmillan, J D; Miller, L

1986-01-22

213

Physical factors affecting the cost and efficiency of sound production in the treefrog Hyla versicolor.  

PubMed

The metabolic cost, energy output and efficiency (i.e. the ratio of energy output to metabolic cost) of sound production were compared among male grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) as a function of body size and temperature. The effects of call length (in notes per call) and dominant frequency (in kHz) were also considered. Cost, determined from the amount of oxygen consumed, averaged 12.1 mJ per note and was dependent only upon body mass. Acoustic energy per note, determined from oscillograms of recorded calls, averaged 0.34 mJ and was dependent only upon temperature. Conventional theory suggests that the efficiency of sound production should be a function of the ratio of the linear size of the radiating structures to the wavelength of the sound generated (i.e. efficiency is assumed to be a function of the product of mass(0.33) and frequency), but efficiency in H. versicolor was found to be a function of the product of temperature(2.1) and mass(-1.08). Adjusting for temperature and body mass, the efficiency of sound production in H. versicolor (average 2.4 %) is greater than the efficiency of other frog species for which data are available. Temperature may affect acoustic energy output because trunk muscle contraction speed increases with temperature, which increases the velocity of airflow across the vocal cords. PMID:11104712

McLister, J D

2001-01-01

214

Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

Drake, J. M.; Cleland, E. E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M. D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D. B.; Grace, J. B.

2008-01-01

215

Production of Smoking Urges Through Imagery: The Impact of Affect and Smoking Abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of manipulations of affect and abstinence on urges to smoke produced through an imagery paradigm. One hundred smokers imagined audiotaped scripts describing positive affect and smoking urges, positive affect alone, negative affect and smoking urges, negative affect alone, neutral affect and smoking urges, and neutral affect alone. Each volunteer participated in 2 sessions scheduled 6

Peg M. Maude-Griffin; Stephen T. Tiffany

1996-01-01

216

Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets  

PubMed Central

Background Intracellular concentrations of adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) are many times greater than extracellular concentrations (1–10 mM versus 10–100 nM, respectively) and cellular release of ATP is tightly controlled. Transient rises in extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine have important signaling roles; and acting through purinergic receptors, can increase blood flow and oxygenation of tissues; and act as neurotransmitters. Increased blood flow not only increases substrate availability but may also aid in recovery through removal of metabolic waste products allowing muscles to accomplish more work with less fatigue. The objective of the present study was to determine if supplemental ATP would improve muscle torque, power, work, or fatigue during repeated bouts of high intensity resistance exercise. Methods Sixteen participants (8 male and 8 female; ages: 21–34 years) were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using a crossover design. The participants received either supplemental ATP (400 mg/d divided into 2 daily doses) or placebo for 15 d. After an overnight fast, participants underwent strength and fatigue testing, consisting of 3 sets of 50 maximal knee extensions performed on a Biodex® leg dynamometer. Results No differences were detected in high peak torque, power, or total work with ATP supplementation; however, low peak torque in set 2 was significantly improved (p < 0.01). Additionally, in set 3, a trend was detected for less torque fatigue with ATP supplementation (p < 0.10). Conclusions Supplementation with 400 mg ATP/d for 15 days tended to reduce muscle fatigue and improved a participant’s ability to maintain a higher force output at the end of an exhaustive exercise bout.

2012-01-01

217

How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?  

PubMed

Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation. PMID:21814829

Peltokorpi, Antti

2011-08-04

218

Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

Jamieson, K. S.; Simon, H. M. Ap; Bell, J. N. B.

2008-12-01

219

Actinomycetes Antagonizing Plant and Human Pathogenic Fungi. II. Factors Affecting Antifungal Production and Chemical Characterization of the Active Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the factors affecting the antifungal production of four actinomycetes species i.e. Streptomyces lydicus, S. ederensis, S. erumpens and S. antimycoticus. Glycerol was the best carbon source for antifungal production by the selected species followed by starch. Glutamic acid was found to be the best nitrogen source for antifungal production by S. lydicus and

ADEL A. EL-MEHALAWY; N. A. ABD-ALLAH; R. M. MOHAMED; M. R. ABU-SHADY

220

Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects.

Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

2011-01-01

221

Consumer preference for chicken breast may be more affected by information on organic production than by product sensory properties.  

PubMed

Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P < 0.05) and OSG (P < 0.001), more fibrous than OFG (P < 0.05) and OSG (P < 0.001), and leaving more residue than OFG (P < 0.05) and OSG (P < 0.001), whereas OSG was assessed as less juicy before swallowing than OFG and CC (P < 0.05) and less fibrous than OFG (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed by consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P < 0.001) and actual liking of organic breasts moved toward the expectancy. In particular, actual liking scores were higher than perceived liking in blind conditions (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 for OFG and OSG, respectively). We conclude that trained panelists were able to discriminate chicken breasts from different sources, whereas untrained consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market. PMID:23436534

Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A

2013-03-01

222

Prevailing Torque Locking Feature Wear-out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis provides much needed representative sample data for reuse life of fully seated and torqued locknuts. Most national requirements for prevailing torque locking fasteners only specify unseated reuse life. This could create a potentially dangerous situation if unseated is misinterpreted for seated. This thesis provides comparative data for seated verses unseated configuration. Six aerospace, 3 all-metal and 3 nylon insert, and one non-aerospace locknuts were tested at preloads levels of unseated, 66%, 75%, and 85% of yield of bolt. The locknuts tested are MS21043-4, NAS1291-4, NAS1805-4, MS17825-4, MS21044D4, NAS1021N4, and Grade 8. A fixture was created in order to allow for the simultaneous data collection of the applied preload and torque, along with the removal of preload without loosening the locknut. The results from testing indicate the number of reuse cycles is greater for nylon locknuts than the all-metal locknuts. Large losses, on the order of 20-50%, in prevailing torque occur between the first and second cycle of each locknut under all preloads. Tightening Torque required to achieve a certain preload was found to increase with reuse. Application of lubrication to nylon locknuts had a significant effect, reducing the reuse life and prevailing torque performance. The testing indicated the effect of preload reduced the number of reuse cycles to failure, failure occurs when the prevailing torque is measured outside the range of 3.5 to 30 in-lb. All locknuts survived unseated and 66% Y preload testing, except MS21043 which lasted about 14.5 reuse cycles at 66% Y and NAS1805 which survived 8 reuse cycles for unseated and 12.67 reuse cycles at 66% Y. NAS1805's loss of reuse life is due to hardness and material compatibility issues. The scatter of the torque measurements was low for the first three to five cycles, then as the coatings and lubrications are worn the scatter increases. The data collected from testing agrees with the torque friction equation.

Zimandy, Adam J. C.

223

Torque shudder protection device and method  

DOEpatents

A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY); De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Malvern, PA); Szczesny, Paul M. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1997-01-01

224

Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

Royak, Semyon (Beachwood, OH); Harbaugh, Mark M. (Richfield, OH)

2012-02-14

225

Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization negatively affects strigolactone production and exudation in sorghum.  

PubMed

Strigolactones (SLs) are essential host recognition signals for both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and SLs or their metabolites function as a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot and root architecture. Our previous study indicated that nitrogen (N) deficiency as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency in sorghum enhanced root content and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, one of the major SLs produced by sorghum. In the present study, we examined how N and P fertilization affects SL production and exudation in sorghum plants subjected to short- (5 days) or long-term (10 days) N or P deficiency and demonstrated their common and distinct features. The root contents and exudation of SLs in the N- or P-deficient sorghum plants grown for 6, 12 or 24 h with or without N or P fertilization were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In general, without fertilization, root contents and exudation of SLs stayed at similar levels at 6 and 12 h and then significantly increased at 24 h. The production of SLs responded more quickly to P fertilization than the secretion of SLs, while regulation of SL secretion began earlier after N fertilization. It is suggested that sorghum plants regulate SL production and exudation when they are subjected to nutrient deficiencies depending on the type of nutrient and degree of deficiency. PMID:23925853

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Yoneyama, Koichi

2013-08-08

226

Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield.  

PubMed

Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested. PMID:11858257

Logendra, L S; Gianfagna, T J; Specca, D R; Janes, H W

2001-08-01

227

A robust digital position control of brushless DC motor with dead beat load torque observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the robust position control of brushless DC (BLDC) motors is presented. The linear quadratic controller plus load torque observer is used to obtain an approximately linearized robust BLDC motor system for an AC servo, using the field-orientation method. The gains are obtained systematically from a discrete state space analysis. The robustness is obtained without affecting the overall

Jong Sun KO; Jung Hoon Lee; Se Kyo Chung; Myung Joong Youn

1993-01-01

228

How the Structure of Mesoscale Precipitation Systems Affects their Production of Transient Luminous Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Lang et al. (2010) analyzed the parent lightning of transient luminous events (TLEs) in the context of the structure and evolution of two mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). These two MCSs were very different - one a giant symmetric leading-line/trailing stratiform storm, and one a small asymmetric MCS that contained a mesoscale convective vortex. These structural differences were associated with substantially different TLE-parent lightning structure as well as TLE production. The results suggested that TLE (especially sprite) production, and TLE-parent positive charge altitude, depend on MCS morphology. Current work is focused on analyzing the structure, evolution, lightning behavior, and TLE production of additional MCSs over various regions of the United States. Several additional TLE-producing MCS cases already have been identified for the years 2008-2010, featuring a variety of organizational modes (symmetric, asymmetric, and other more exotic varieties) in different meteorological regimes (including some cold-season cases). More cases will be incorporated as they occur and are observed. Data sources include geostationary satellite imagery, Doppler radar, three-dimensional lightning mapping networks, ground-strike detection networks, charge moment change measurements, and low-light video observations. The ultimate goal is to further test the hypothesis that MCS structure affects TLE production, and if so to quantify its impact. Research on two Oklahoma case studies, a multicellular system that occurred on 24 March 2009 and a classic bow-echo MCS that occurred on 19 August 2009, is ongoing. Over a 2.5-h period, the March case produced 23 observed TLEs (all sprites) whose parent flashes occurred within 175 km of the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OKLMA). The median altitude of LMA sources during the TLEs was 5.9 km above Mean Sea Level (MSL), or -19.2 °C. The August storm produced, in 2.5 hours, 34 TLEs (all sprites) with 32 of those having parent flashes within 175 km of the OKLMA. The median altitude for those flashes was higher, 7.1 km MSL, though at a warmer temperature of -14.7 °C due to the time of season. Based on analysis of the radar structures and the lightning data, the two storms support the hypothesized effects of organizational mode on sprite production. In particular, sprite production by the August MCS appeared to benefit from its leading-line/trailing-stratiform structure, which likely led to a higher altitude for the dominant stratiform positive charge layer. This would increase charge moment change, a key metric for the production of sprites.

Lang, T. J.; Lyons, W.; Rutledge, S. A.; Cummer, S. A.; MacGorman, D. R.

2011-12-01

229

40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I...

2012-07-01

230

40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives...

2012-07-01

231

40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for...

2012-07-01

232

40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996...

2012-07-01

233

40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

2012-07-01

234

40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ...Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63âInitial...

2012-07-01

235

40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions...Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of...

2012-07-01

236

The effect of steam sterilization on the accuracy of spring-style mechanical torque devices for dental implants  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical torque devices (MTDs) are one of the most commonly recommended devices used to deliver optimal torque to the screw of dental implants. Recently, high variability has been reported about the accuracy of spring-style mechanical torque devices (S-S MTDs). Joint stability and survival rate of fixed implant supported prosthesis depends on the accuracy of these devices. Currently, there is limited information on the steam sterilization influence on the accuracy of MTDs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of steam sterilization on the accuracy (±10% of the target torque) of spring-style mechanical torque devices for dental implants. Materials and methods Fifteen new S-S MTDs and their appropriate drivers from three different manufacturers (Nobel Biocare, Straumann [ITI], and Biomet 3i [3i]) were selected. Peak torque of devices (5 in each subgroup) was measured before and after autoclaving using a Tohnichi torque gauge. Descriptive statistical analysis was used and a repeated-measures ANOVA with type of device as a between-subject comparison was performed to assess the difference in accuracy among the three groups of spring-style mechanical torque devices after sterilization. A Bonferroni post hoc test was used to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Before steam sterilization, all the tested devices stayed within 10% of their target values. After 100 sterilization cycles, results didn’t show any significant difference between raw and absolute error values in the Nobel Biocare and ITI devices; however the results demonstrated an increase of error values in the 3i group (P < 0.05). Raw error values increased with a predictable pattern in 3i devices and showed more than a 10% difference from target torque values (maximum difference of 14% from target torque was seen in 17% of peak torque measurements). Conclusion Within the limitation of this study, steam sterilization did not affect the accuracy (±10% of the target torque) of the Nobel Biocare and ITI MTDs. Raw error values increased with a predictable pattern in 3i devices and showed more than 10% difference from target torque values. Before expanding upon the clinical implications, the controlled and combined effect of aging (frequency of use) and steam sterilization needs more investigation.

Mahshid, Minoo; Saboury, Aboulfazl; Fayaz, Ali; Sadr, Seyed Jalil; Lampert, Friedrich; Mir, Maziar

2012-01-01

237

Thomas precession: Where is the torque  

SciTech Connect

Special relativity appears to violate the conservation of angular momentum {bold L} since it predicts that an accelerated gyroscope will precess, i.e., {bold L} will change in the absence of any applied torque. The paradox is resolved in a simple example by demonstrating that there is a torque present. The mass distribution in the gyroscope undergoes a relativistic distortion, and the center of mass is displaced away from the position of the accelerating force. The resulting torque {tau}={ital d}{bold L}/{ital dt}. The model also shows the physical origins of spin-orbit coupling and of the oscillating term.'' A related calculation shows why a moving magnetic dipole has an {ital electric} dipole moment.

Muller, R.A. (Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-04-01

238

The effect of media, product and message factors on ad persuasiveness: the role of affect and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of media, product and advertising strategy variables on consumers' thoughts and feelings are investigated. Both direct and indirect paths from the advertising variables to ad persuasiveness measures are also analysed with the indirect paths leading through affective and cognitive responses. Two hundred and forty television and magazine ads are analysed with respect to advertising variables, affect, cognition and

Arjun Chaudhuri

1996-01-01

239

Elastic and hydrodynamic torques on a colloidal disk within a nematic liquid crystal.  

PubMed

The orientationally dependent elastic energy and hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal disks with homeotropic surface anchoring suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) have been investigated. In the absence of external torques, the disks align with the normal of the disk face â parallel to the nematic director n[over ^]. When a magnetic field is applied, the disks rotate â by an angle ? so that the magnetic torque and the elastic torque caused by distortion of the nematic director field are balanced. Over a broad range of angles, the elastic torque increases linearly with ? in quantitative agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an electrostatic analogy. When the disks are rotated to angles ?>?/2, the resulting large elastic distortion makes the disk orientation unstable, and the director undergoes a topological transition in which ???-?. In the transition, a defect loop is shed from the disk surface, and the disks spin so that â sweeps through ? radians as the loop collapses back onto the disk. Additional measurements of the angular relaxation of disks to ?=0 following removal of the external torque show a quasi-exponential time dependence from which an effective drag viscosity for the nematic can be extracted. The scaling of the angular time dependence with disk radius and observations of disks rotating about â indicate that the disk motion affects the director field at surprisingly modest Ericksen numbers. PMID:23214598

Rovner, Joel B; Borgnia, Dan S; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L

2012-10-05

240

Elastic and hydrodynamic torques on a colloidal disk within a nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientationally dependent elastic energy and hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal disks with homeotropic surface anchoring suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) have been investigated. In the absence of external torques, the disks align with the normal of the disk face â parallel to the nematic director n?. When a magnetic field is applied, the disks rotate â by an angle ? so that the magnetic torque and the elastic torque caused by distortion of the nematic director field are balanced. Over a broad range of angles, the elastic torque increases linearly with ? in quantitative agreement with a theoretical prediction based on an electrostatic analogy. When the disks are rotated to angles ?>(?)/(2), the resulting large elastic distortion makes the disk orientation unstable, and the director undergoes a topological transition in which ???-?. In the transition, a defect loop is shed from the disk surface, and the disks spin so that â sweeps through ? radians as the loop collapses back onto the disk. Additional measurements of the angular relaxation of disks to ?=0 following removal of the external torque show a quasi-exponential time dependence from which an effective drag viscosity for the nematic can be extracted. The scaling of the angular time dependence with disk radius and observations of disks rotating about â indicate that the disk motion affects the director field at surprisingly modest Ericksen numbers.

Rovner, Joel B.; Borgnia, Dan S.; Reich, Daniel H.; Leheny, Robert L.

2012-10-01

241

Coupling between switching regulation and torque generation in bacterial flagellar motor  

PubMed Central

The bacterial flagellar motor plays a crucial role in both bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis. Recent experiments reveal that the switching dynamics of the motor depend on the rotation speed of the motor, and thus the motor torque, non-monotonically. Here we present a unified mathematical model which treats motor torque generation based on experimental torque-speed curves and the torque-dependent switching based on the conformational spread model. The model successfully reproduces the observed switching rate as a function of the rotation speed, and provides a generic physical explanation independent of most details. A stator affects the switching dynamics through two mechanisms: accelerating the conformational flipping rate of individual rotor-switching units, which contributes most when the stator works at a high torque and thus a low speed; and influencing a larger number of rotor-switching units within unit time, whose contribution is the greatest when the motor rotates at a high speed. Consequently, the switching rate shows a maximum at intermediate speed, where the above two mechanisms find an optimal output. The load-switching relation may serve as a mechanism for sensing the physical environment, similar to the chemotaxis mechanism for sensing the chemical environment. It may also coordinate the switch dynamics of motors within the same cell.

Bai, Fan; Minamino, Tohru; Wu, Zhanghan; Namba, Keiichi

2013-01-01

242

Coupling between switching regulation and torque generation in bacterial flagellar motor.  

PubMed

The bacterial flagellar motor plays a crucial role in both bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis. Recent experiments reveal that the switching dynamics of the motor depend on the rotation speed of the motor, and thus the motor torque, nonmonotonically. Here we present a unified mathematical model which treats motor torque generation based on experimental torque-speed curves and the torque-dependent switching based on the conformational spread model. The model successfully reproduces the observed switching rate as a function of the rotation speed, and provides a generic physical explanation independent of most details. A stator affects the switching dynamics through two mechanisms: accelerating the conformational flipping rate of individual rotor-switching units, which contributes most when the stator works at a high torque and thus a low speed; and influencing a larger number of rotor-switching units within unit time, whose contribution is the greatest when the motor rotates at a high speed. Consequently, the switching rate shows a maximum at intermediate speed, where the above two mechanisms find an optimal output. The load-switching relation may serve as a mechanism for sensing the physical environment, similar to the chemotaxis mechanism for sensing the chemical environment. It may also coordinate the switch dynamics of motors within the same cell. PMID:22680910

Bai, Fan; Minamino, Tohru; Wu, Zhanghan; Namba, Keiichi; Xing, Jianhua

2012-04-24

243

Changing medical doctor productivity and its affecting factors in rural China.  

PubMed

Using the data collected from the health facility-based survey, part of the national health service survey conducted in 1993 and 1998, this paper tries to examine changes in labour productivity among the county-level hospitals and township health centres in rural China, and to analyse factors affecting the changes. The results presented in the paper show that the average number of outpatient visits per doctor per day and the average number of inpatient days per doctor per day declined significantly over the period from 1986 to 1997. The main factors resulting in the reduction of productivity are associated with the increase of inappropriate staff recruitment in these health facilities, the significant decline of rural population covered by health insurance, particularly rural cooperative medical schemes (CMS), and the rapid rise of health care costs. The latter two factors also have brought about a reduction in the use of these health facilities by the rural population. The paper suggests that the government should tighten up the entrance of health and non-health staff into the rural health sector and develop effective measures aimed to avoid providing pervasive financial incentives to the over-provision of services and over-use of drugs. In addition, other measures that help to increase the demand for health services, such as the establishment of rural health insurance, should be considered seriously. PMID:15239207

Martineau, Tim; Gong, Youlong; Tang, Shenglan

244

Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

Khattab, Ghada

2001-05-01

245

Microvesicle formulations used in topical drugs and cosmetics affect product efficiency, performance and allergenicity.  

PubMed

Attempts to improve the formulations of topical products are continuing processes (ie, to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects, and protect ingredients from degradation). The development of micro- and nanovesicular systems has led to the marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics that use these technologies. Several articles have reported improved clinical efficacy by the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals in vesicular systems, and the numbers of publications and patents are rising. Some vesicular systems may deliver the drug deeper in the skin as compared to conventional vehicles, or even make transdermal delivery more efficient for a number of drugs. Vesicular systems may also allow a more precise drug delivery to the site of action (ie, the hair follicles) and thereby minimize the applied drug concentration, reducing potential side effects. On the other hand, this may increase the risk of other side effects. Few case reports have suggested that microvesicle formulations may affect the allergenicity of topical products. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge about the topical use of microvesicular systems and the dermatoallergologic aspects. PMID:20920408

Torp Madsen, Jakob; Ejner Andersen, Klaus

246

Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most closely correlated with the thrower's weight. When subject weight and height were controlled for, maximum shoulder abduction torque and maximum shoulder internal rotation torque were most strongly associated with elbow valgus torque, accounting for 85% of its variance (P <.001). When only kinematic variables were considered, maximum shoulder external rotation accounted for 33% of the variance in valgus torque. Given that the biomechanical variables correlated with peak valgus torque are not easily modifiable, limiting the number of innings pitched is likely the best way to reduce elbow injury in youth pitchers. PMID:15111908

Sabick, Michelle B; Torry, Michael R; Lawton, Richard L; Hawkins, Richard J

247

Design and Use of Brushless DC Motor Without Detent Torque.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two applications of motors which cannot accept a residual detent torque due to the rotor magnets are presented. The first application concerns the joint mechanism of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/HERA project. The brushless torque motor drives ...

N. Wavre

1990-01-01

248

Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid.  

PubMed

The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs. 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs. 97 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07). The piglet mortality during the first week of lactation tended to be higher for sows fed CLA than for CON sows (6.8 vs. 2.3%, respectively; P = 0.10), and the number of piglets that died or were moved to others sows to ensure survival during the first week was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows. PMID:23365381

Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Jensen, S K; Theil, P K

2012-12-01

249

Force\\/torque sensing applied to industrial robotic deburring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force\\/torque sensing is very important for several automatic and industrial robotic applications. Basically, if precise control of the forces that arise from contact between tools and parts is required to successfully complete the automatic task, then a force\\/torque sensor is needed along with some force\\/torque control technique. In this paper we focus on force\\/torque sensing aspects applied to industrial robotic

J. Norberto Pires; John Ramming; Stephen Rauch; Ricardo Araújo

2002-01-01

250

An automated procedure for analyzing the effects of vortex-induced fin pressure on roll torque for a finned body of revolution.  

SciTech Connect

In flight tests, certain finned bodies of revolution firing lateral jets experience slower spin rates than expected. The primary cause for the reduced spin rate is the interaction between the lateral jets and the freestream air flowing past the body. This interaction produces vortices that interact with the fins (Vortex-Fin Interaction (VFI)) altering the pressure distribution over the fins and creating torque that counteracts the desired spin (counter torque). The current task is to develop an automated procedure for analyzing the pressures measured at an array of points on the fin surfaces of a body tested in a production-scale wind tunnel to determine the VFI-induced roll torque and compare it to the roll torque experimentally measured with an aerodynamic balance. Basic pressure, force, and torque relationships were applied to finite elements defined by the pressure measurement locations and integrated across the fin surface. The integrated fin pressures will help assess the distinct contributions of the individual fins to the counter torque and aid in correlating the counter torque with the positions and strengths of the vortices. The methodology produced comparisons of the effects of VFI for varying flow conditions such as freestream Mach number and dynamic pressure. The results show that for some cases the calculated counter torque agreed with the measured counter torque; however, the results were less consistent with increased freestream Mach numbers and dynamic pressures.

Vijlee, Shazib Z.

2004-09-01

251

Consumers' willingness to pay for organic food : Factors that affect it and variation per organic product type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Seeks to provide answers to two questions: is willingness to pay (WTP) for organic products influenced by the same set of factors that affect purchasing of conventional foods? Does WTP for organic products vary according to different food categories? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Purchasers were approached during their food shopping in retail chains in Athens in July 2003. Sample inclusion

Athanasios Krystallis; George Chryssohoidis

2005-01-01

252

Humeral Torque in Professional Baseball Pitchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Spontaneous fracture of the humeral shaft in throwers is a rare but well-known phenomenon. Although it has been hypothesized that the biomechanics of the throw cause such fractures, it is not clear how or when the fractures occur in the pitching motion.Methods: The torque acting about the long axis of the humerus was calculated in 25 professional baseball pitchers

Michelle B. Sabick; Michael R. Torry; Young-Kyu Kim; Richard J. Hawkins

2004-01-01

253

High starting torque for AC SCR controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control strategy is proposed for AC thyristor controllers. The main feature of the proposed technique is that motors can start with high torque, while using an economical design. This allows the use of AC thyristor controllers for a wide range of applications, where they have not been used before. The method employs the AC thyristor controller as a discrete

Antonio Ginart; Rosana Esteller; A. Maduro; R. Piiiero; R. Moncada

1999-01-01

254

A force and torque tensegrity sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensegrity structures represent a special class of flexible structures, whose members can simultaneously perform the functions of strength, sensing, actuating, and feedback control. In this article we show how these structures intrinsic properties can be exploited to construct a smart sensor for simultaneous measurement of six different quantities: three orthogonal forces and three orthogonal torques. The static and dynamic characteristics

Cornel Sultan; Robert Skelton

2004-01-01

255

Torque and First-Class Levers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be done before students have studied the operation of a first-class lever. The activity could be used when discussing simple machines or torque. Although it involves the use of a lever, the activity is not really about simple

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

256

Development of a torque sensing robot arm for interactive communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint torque sensing is important for interactive robots, since the robot interacts with humans and the environment by not only the end effector but also the whole body. We have proposed a practical torque sensing technique which utilizes the flexible part of an harmonic drive gear. The sensing technique provides joint torque sensing without reducing the stiffness of the robot

M. Hashimoto; T. Hattori; M. Horiuchi; T. Kamata

2002-01-01

257

DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL FOR INDUCTION MOTOR USING INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose two approach intelligent techniques of improvement of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction motor such as fuzzy logic (FL) and artificial neural network (ANN), applied in switching select voltage vector .The comparison with conventional direct torque control (DTC), show that the use of the DTC_FL and DTC_ANN, reduced the torque, stator flux, and current ripples.

R. Toufouti; S. Meziane; H. Benalla

258

A sensorless torque and speed monitoring system for electrical machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the torque and speed monitoring system used in industrial process or electrical machine testing requires dedicated torque and speed sensors, which are expensive and difficult to install. To overcome these problems, a sensorless torque and speed monitoring system is developed and presented in this paper. The proposed system detects the input voltage and current of the induction motor,

Kidchop Waiyasusri; Somboon Sangwongwanich

2002-01-01

259

A modified direct torque control for induction motor sensorless drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct torque control (DTC) is known to produce quick and robust response in AC drives. However, during steady state, notable torque, flux and current pulsations occur. They are reflected in speed estimation, speed response, and also in increased acoustical noise. This paper introduces a new direct torque and flux control based on space-vector modulation (DTC-SVM) for induction motor sensorless drives.

Cristian Lascu; Ion Boldea; Frede Blaabjerg

2000-01-01

260

Noncontact capacitive torque sensor for use on a rotating axle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of the torque in a mechanically loaded axle is often required for automotive power-train and engine-control systems. Torque sensing has been performed by mainly using strain gauges connected to the axle with slip rings to allow the electrical contacting. Noncontact magnetic and optical techniques have also been used. In the proposed capacitive torque sensor, two angular displacement sensors

REINOUD F. WOLFFENBUTTEL; JENS A. FOERSTER

1990-01-01

261

Path Tracking Control Of A Manipulator Considering Torque Saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the minimum-time trajectory of a manipulator along a geometrically pre- scribed path is planned considering the manipu- lator dynamics and actuator torque limits, at least one of the joints is at the torque limit. The execution of such a trajectory by a conventional feedback control scheme results in torque satura- tion. Consequently, the tracking error cannot be suppressed and

Hirohiko Arai; Kazuo Tanie; Susumu Tachi

1992-01-01

262

The torque test as a measure of lateral dominance.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to assess the validity of the Torque Test as a measure of functional lateral dominance in children. One hundred forty-nine children were administered the Torque Test and The Harris Test of Lateral Dominance. A low but statistically significant correlation was found between torque and total lateral dominance. PMID:6663294

Kraemer, D; Canavan, P; Brannigan, G G; Hijikata, S

1983-12-01

263

Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study molecule reorientation initiated by absorption of resonant light, in D2 azo dye doped nematic liquid crystals. The photoexcitation of the dye subsystem creates a torque on the host, that is not collinear with the traditional dielectric torque. The temporal and geometrical characteristics of these torques are also different. Transient three dimensional molecular reorientation is detected through different paths

B. Saad; T. V. Galstyan; M. M. Denariez-Roberge; M. Dumont

1998-01-01

264

A direct torque controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of direct torque control (DTC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. The analysis of PMSMs shows that the increase of electromagnetic torque is proportional to the increase of the angle between the stator and rotor flux linkages and therefore fast torque response can be obtained by increasing the rotating speed of the stator flux

L. Zhong; M. F. Rahman; W. Y. Hu; K. W. Lim; M. A. Rahman

1999-01-01

265

Motion control of a robot arm using joint torque sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A motion control algorithm is presented for a robot arm having joint torque sensors that calculates part of the control input using the measurement of the torques at the joints. First, a dynamic model of each joint with a torque sensor is derived, which gives the inverse dynamics of the arm as recursive Newton-Euler equations consisting only of forward path

KAZUHIRO KOSUGE; H. Takeuchi; K. Furuta

1990-01-01

266

Force, Torque, and Stress Relaxation with Direct Laryngoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anesthetist exerts axial force on the laryngoscope handle to expose the glottis. The anesthetist must also apply a perpendicular force to balance the torque on the laryngoscope. Several studies have measured axial force during direct laryngoscopy, but none has meas- ured torque. This study used a newly designed laryn- goscope handle to measure force and torque simulta- neously during

Randolph H. Hastings; Craig Nghiem; Eric A. Wahrenbrock

1996-01-01

267

Direct mechanical torque sensor for model wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A torque sensor is developed to measure the mechanical power extracted by model wind turbines. The torque is measured by mounting the model generator (a small dc motor) through ball bearings to the hub and by preventing its rotation by the deflection of a strain-gauge-instrumented plate. By multiplying the measured torque and rotor angular velocity, a direct measurement of the

Hyung Suk Kang; Charles Meneveau

2010-01-01

268

The torque control of human power assisted electric bikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the issues of torque control strategies for light electric bike systems with human power assistance. The feature of this electric bike equipped with both usual electrical machine power and personal-dependent human power makes its operation distinct from other types of vehicle. To facilitate a reliable and smooth torque control design, a speculation of the human torque exerted

Pang-Chia Chen; Huan-Yu Linl; Shyue-Bin Chang; Yu-Che Huang

2010-01-01

269

Determination of the cutterhead torque for EPB shield tunneling machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutterhead torque is an important parameter for the design and operation of earth pressure balance (EPB) shields. Based on the analysis of several completed project cases from job sites, the conventional torque determination model based on experimentation proves rough enough to be improved. Composition and corresponding calculation method of cutterhead torque are presented, taking into account of cutterhead structure, cutting

Hu Shi; Huayong Yang; Guofang Gong; Lintao Wang

2011-01-01

270

40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 91.306 Section...Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any...weight or a force through a distance into a torque must be used in a horizontal...

2010-07-01

271

40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 90.306 Section...Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any...weight or a force through a distance into a torque must be used in a horizontal...

2009-07-01

272

40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 90.306 Section...Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any...weight or a force through a distance into a torque must be used in a horizontal...

2010-07-01

273

40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 91.306 Section...Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any...weight or a force through a distance into a torque must be used in a horizontal...

2009-07-01

274

Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: a biomechanical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most

Michelle B Sabick; Michael R Torry; Richard L Lawton; Richard J Hawkins

2004-01-01

275

Forearm torque strengths and discomfort profiles in pronation and supination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated maximum forearm pronation and supination torques and forearm discomfort, for intermittent torque exertions in supine and prone forearm angles for the right arm. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study that comprised two parts, the first of which involved measurement of maximum forearm torque in both twisting directions at five forearm angles including neutral. This was followed by

O'Sullivan LW; TJ Gallwey

2005-01-01

276

Joint torque measurement of a direct-drive arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analysis of joint torque sensors for a direct-drive arm is presented. The direct-drive arm is driven by high torque motors without reducers or other transmission. It can serve as a suitable device for implementing torque control schemes. The direct coupling of motors to their loads reduces friction, eliminates backlash and increases mechanical stiffness. All these are desirable

H. Asada; K. Youcef-Toumi; S. K. Lim

1984-01-01

277

14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Limit control forces and -torques. 23.397 Section 23.397 Aeronautics...23.397 Limit control forces and -torques. (a) In the control surface...pilot. (b) The limit pilot forces and torques are as follows: Control Maximum...

2013-01-01

278

Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The prediction of torque ripple is based on a set of normalized permeance and force data obtained from

F. Sahin; H. B. Ertan; K. Leblebicioglu

2000-01-01

279

14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5,000 pounds 1 Minimum forces or torques 2 Aileron: ...makes these specified minimum forces or torques inapplicable, values...corresponding to the present hinge moments obtained under § 23.415...6 of the specified minimum forces or torques, may be...

2010-01-01

280

14 CFR 23.397 - Limit control forces and -torques.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5,000 pounds 1 Minimum forces or torques 2 Aileron: ...makes these specified minimum forces or torques inapplicable, values...corresponding to the present hinge moments obtained under § 23.415...6 of the specified minimum forces or torques, may be...

2009-01-01

281

Increasing Elbow Torque Output of Stroke Patients by EMG-Controlled External Torque.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control algorithm for using homogenic EMG to control external assisting torque is developed for improving the elbow capability of stroke patients. The control signal to the manipulator is the difference between the weighted biceps and triceps EMG, so th...

C. C. Lin M. S. Ju H. S. Cheng

2001-01-01

282

40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...production facility is a new affected source or...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced...production facility is a new affected source...

2012-07-01

283

Staphylococcus aureus CcpA affects virulence determinant production and antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Carbon catabolite protein A (CcpA) is known to function as a major regulator of gene expression in different gram-positive organisms. Deletion of the ccpA homologue (saCOL1786) in Staphylococcus aureus was found to affect growth, glucose metabolization, and transcription of selected virulence determinants. In liquid culture, deletion of CcpA decreased the growth rate and yield; however, the effect was only transient during the exponential-growth phase as long as glucose was present in the medium. Depletion of glucose and production of lactate was delayed, while the level of excretion of acetate was less affected and was even higher in the mutant culture. On solid medium, in contrast, growth of the DeltaccpA mutant resulted in smaller colonies containing a lower number of CFU per colony. Deletion of CcpA had an effect on the expression of important virulence factors of S. aureus by down-regulating RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr locus, and altering the transcription patterns of hla, encoding alpha-hemolysin, and spa, encoding protein A. CcpA inactivation markedly reduced the oxacillin resistance levels in the highly methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COLn and the teicoplanin resistance level in a glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant S. aureus strain. The presence of CcpA in the capsular polysaccharide serotype 5 (CP5)-producing strain Newman abolished capsule formation and decreased cap operon transcription in the presence of glucose. The staphylococcal CcpA thus not only is involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism but seems to function as a modulator of virulence gene expression as well. PMID:16569828

Seidl, Kati; Stucki, Martin; Ruegg, Martin; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Harris, Llinos; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Bischoff, Markus

2006-04-01

284

Staphylococcus aureus CcpA Affects Virulence Determinant Production and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Carbon catabolite protein A (CcpA) is known to function as a major regulator of gene expression in different gram-positive organisms. Deletion of the ccpA homologue (saCOL1786) in Staphylococcus aureus was found to affect growth, glucose metabolization, and transcription of selected virulence determinants. In liquid culture, deletion of CcpA decreased the growth rate and yield; however, the effect was only transient during the exponential-growth phase as long as glucose was present in the medium. Depletion of glucose and production of lactate was delayed, while the level of excretion of acetate was less affected and was even higher in the mutant culture. On solid medium, in contrast, growth of the ?ccpA mutant resulted in smaller colonies containing a lower number of CFU per colony. Deletion of CcpA had an effect on the expression of important virulence factors of S. aureus by down-regulating RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr locus, and altering the transcription patterns of hla, encoding ?-hemolysin, and spa, encoding protein A. CcpA inactivation markedly reduced the oxacillin resistance levels in the highly methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COLn and the teicoplanin resistance level in a glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant S. aureus strain. The presence of CcpA in the capsular polysaccharide serotype 5 (CP5)-producing strain Newman abolished capsule formation and decreased cap operon transcription in the presence of glucose. The staphylococcal CcpA thus not only is involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism but seems to function as a modulator of virulence gene expression as well.

Seidl, Kati; Stucki, Martin; Ruegg, Martin; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Harris, Llinos; Berger-Bachi, Brigitte; Bischoff, Markus

2006-01-01

285

Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets  

PubMed Central

Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.

Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

2012-01-01

286

Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

2013-05-23

287

Handle displacement and operator responses to pneumatic nutrunner torque buildup.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate the workstation and tool effects on the responses of the powered hand tool operator reacting against the impulsive reaction forces that may be associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. The study demonstrated a means of direct measurement of force at the interface between the tool and the operator. Fifteen experienced male operators performed three independent work configurations: pistol grip and right angle tools used on the horizontal surface and pistol grip tools used on the vertical surface, in the laboratory. A full factorial experiment consisting of 36 conditions was designed to examine the effects of working height, distance, tool, and fastener joint hardness on handle displacement and grip forces. The results indicate that operator responses were affected by different factors depending on the work configuration. When pistol grip tools were used on the vertical surface, the mean handle displacement decreased from 9.9 degrees to 7.3 degrees as the working height increased from 30 cm below shoulder to 30 cm above shoulder. When right angle tools were used, the greatest handle displacement (51.1mm) and grip force (84.7% MVC) during torque reactions were measured at 30 cm below elbow and 40% forward reach away from the operator. This study provides quantitative information that can be used for workstation design and tool selection to reduce the torque reaction experienced by powered nutrunner operators. PMID:16202971

Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Dempsey, Patrick G; Chang, Chien-Chi

2005-10-03

288

Functional torque ratios and torque curve analysis of shoulder rotations in overhead athletes with and without impingement symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the peak torque, functional torque ratios, and torque curve profile of the shoulder rotators in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms so as to examine possible alterations in response to sports training and shoulder pain. Twenty-one overhead athletes with impingement symptoms were compared with 25 overhead athletes and 21 non-athletes, none of whom were symptomatic for

Gisele G. Zanca; Ana B. Oliveira; Michele F. Saccol; Benno Ejnisman; Stela M. Mattiello-Rosa

2011-01-01

289

Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that…

Hixon, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

290

Split torque type gearbox fault detection using acoustic emission and vibration sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison with a traditional planetary gearbox, the split torque gearbox (STG) potentially offers lower weight, increased reliability, and improved efficiency. These benefits have driven the helicopter OEMs to develop products using the STG. However, this may pose a challenge for the current gear analysis methods used in Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). Gear analysis uses time synchronous averages

David He; Ruoyu Li; Eric Bechhoefer

2010-01-01

291

GFP Affects Human T Cell Activation and Cytokine Production following In Vitro Stimulation  

PubMed Central

There are many Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) originating from diverse species that are invaluable to cell biologists today because of their ability to provide experimental visualization of protein expression. Since their initial discovery, they have been modified and improved to provide more stable variants with emission ranges spanning a wide array of colors. Due to their ease of expression both in-vitro and in-vivo, they are an attractive choice for use as markers in molecular biology. GFPs are generally assumed to have negligible effects on the cells to which they have been introduced. However, a growing number of reports indicate that this is not always the case. Consequently, because of GFP's ubiquitous use, it is important to document the nature and extent of unintended effects. In this report, we find that GFP affects T cell activation, leading to defects in clustering, upregulation of the activation marker CD25 and IL-2 cytokine production following stimulation in human primary T cells that also express TurboGFP. We utilized a reporter assay which has been routinely used to assay the NF-?B pathway and found reduced NF-?B activitation in stimulated HEK293 and HeLa cells that were co-transfected with TurboGFP, suggesting that GFP interferes with signaling through the NF-?B pathway. These findings indicate that the utilization of GFP-tagged vectors may negatively impact in vitro experiments in T cells, emphasizing the critical importance of controls to identify any GFP-induced effects.

Koelsch, Kristi A.; Wang, YuJing; Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Sawalha, Amr H.; Wren, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

292

Factors Affecting Yield and Safety of Protein Production from Cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae  

PubMed Central

The properties of Cephalosporium eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45° to 47°C, maximum protein yield at 45°C, and no growth at 25°C. It has an optimum pH of about 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH 6.0 and above in a liquid medium, or pH 7.0 and above on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45°C were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but some (around 16%) of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/liter [circa 45 g/liter, glucose equivalent]) was complete in around 20 h, yielding around 22.5 g/liter (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48 to 50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/liter). Resting and germinating spores (106 to 108 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and ?-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections.

Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K. F.; Levadoux, W. L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S. T.

1982-01-01

293

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

294

Factors affecting yield and safety of protein production from cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae  

SciTech Connect

The properties of C. eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45-47 degrees, maximum protein yield at 45 degrees, and no growth at 25 degrees. It has an optimum pH of approximately 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH of more than or equal to 6.0 in a liquid medium, or pH of more than or equal to 7.0 on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45 degrees were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but approximately 16% of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/l) was complete in approximately 20 h, yielding 22.5 g/l (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48-50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/l). Resting and germinating spores (10 to the power of 6 - 10 to the power of 8 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and gamma-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections.

Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K.F.; Levadoux, W.L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S.T.

1982-01-01

295

Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Do?an, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien

2013-05-01

296

Torque ripple in a Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine  

SciTech Connect

Interaction between a steady wind and a rotating, Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbine produces time periodic aerodynamic loads which cause time dependent torque variations, referred to as torque ripple, to occur in the mechanical link between the turbine and the electrical generator. There is concern for the effect of torque ripple upon fatigue life of drive train components and upon power quality. An analytical solution characterizing the phenomenon of torque ripple has been obtained which is based upon a Fourier expansion of the time dependent features of the problem. Numerical results for torque ripple, some experimental data, determination of acceptable levels and methods of controlling it, are presented and discussed.

Reuter, R.C. Jr.

1980-01-01

297

Prehension Synergies during Smooth Changes of the External Torque  

PubMed Central

We studied characteristics of digit action and their co-variation patterns across trials (prehension synergies) during static holding of an object while the external torque could change slowly and smoothly. The subjects held in the air an instrumented handle with an attachment that allowed a smooth change in the external torque over about 12 s; the load was always kept constant. Series of trials were performed under three conditions: The torque could be zero throughout the trial or it could change slowly requiring a smooth change of the effort from a non-zero pronation value to zero (PR-0) or from a non-zero supination value to zero (SU-0). The handle was kept vertical at all times. Indices of variance and co-variation of elemental variables (forces and moments of force produced by individual digits) stabilizing such performance variables as total normal force, total tangential force, and total moment of force were computed at two levels of an assumed control hierarchy. At the upper level, the task is shared between the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined digit with the mechanical action equal to that of the four fingers), while at the lower level, action of the virtual finger is shared among the actual four fingers. We analyzed the total moment of force as the sum of the moments of force produced by the thumb and virtual finger and also as the sum of the moments of force produced by the normal forces and tangential forces. The results showed that the adjustments in the total moment of force were produced primarily with changes in the moment produced by the virtual finger and by changes in the moment produced by the normal forces. The normal force of the thumb at the final state (which was the same across conditions) was larger in the two conditions with changes in the external torque. The safety margin was significantly higher in the PR-0 condition, and it dropped with the decrease in the external torque. A co-contraction index was computed to reflect moment of force production by the fingers acting against the total moment produced by the virtual finger. It was higher for the SU-0 condition. Most variance indices dropped with a decrease in the external torque. The co-variation indices, however, remained unchanged over the trial duration. They showed signs of a trade-off between the two levels of the assumed hierarchy: Larger indices at the higher level corresponded to smaller indices at the lower level. This study and the previous one (Sun et al. 2011) document several previously unknown features of prehensile tasks. The results show that characteristics of digit action and interaction in such tasks depend not only on the magnitudes of external constraints but on a variety of other factors including time changes in the constraints and their history.

Sun, Yao; Park, Jaebum; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

2011-01-01

298

Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.  

PubMed

Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

Münster, M; Meibom, P

2010-05-14

299

Nature and measurements of torque ripple of permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors  

SciTech Connect

Torque ripple of permanent-magnet motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. The four types are pulsating torque, fluctuating torque, reluctance cogging torque, and inertia and mechanical system torque. Pulsating torques are inherently produced by the trapezoidal back-emf`s and trapezoidal currents used in certain permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors. The torque ripples caused by pulsating torques may be reduced by purposely produced fluctuating counter torques. Air-gap torque measurements are conducted on a sample motor. Experimental results agree with theoretical expectations.

Hsu, J.S.; Scoggins, B.P.; Scudiere, M.B.; Marlino, L.D.; Adams, D.J.; Pillay, P.

1995-08-01

300

TMP21 regulates Abeta production but does not affect caspase-3, p53, and neprilysin.  

PubMed

The presenilin (PS)-dependent gamma-secretase activity refers to a high molecular mass-complex including, besides PS1 or PS2, three other proteins recently identified, namely nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2. This proteolytic complex has been shown to contribute to both gamma- and epsilon-cleavages of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), thereby generating beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD), respectively. TMP21, a member of the p24 cargo protein family, was recently shown to interact with PS complexes. Interestingly, TMP21 modulates gamma-secretase-mediated Abeta production but does not regulate epsilon-secretase-derived AICD formation [F. Chen, H. Hasegawa, G. Schmitt-ulms, T. Kawarai, C. Bohm, T. Katayama, Y. Gu, N. Sanjo, M. Glista, E. Rogaeva, Y. Wakutami, R. Pardossi-Piquard, X. Ruan, A. Tandon, F. Checler, P. Marambaud, K. Hansen, D. Westaway, P. St. George-Hyslop, P. Fraser, TMP21 is a presenilin complex component that modulates gamma- but not epsilon-secretase activities, Nature 440 (2006) 1208-1212]. Here we investigate the functional incidence of the over-expression or depletion of TMP21 on both intracellular and secreted Abeta recoveries and AICD-associated phenotypes. First we confirm that TMP21 depletion yields increased levels of secreted Abeta40. However, we demonstrate that both staurosporine-stimulated caspase-3 activation, p53 and neprilysin expression and activity were not affected by TMP21 over-expression or depletion. Overall, our functional data further reinforce the view that TMP21 behaves as a regulator of gamma- but not epsilon-cleavages generated by PS-dependent gamma-secretase complex. PMID:18405662

Dolcini, Virginia; Dunys, Julie; Sevalle, Jean; Chen, Fusheng; Guillot-Sestier, Marie-Victoire; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Fraser, Paul E; Checler, Frédéric

2008-04-09

301

ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation[S  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20–59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study. Neither ALOX5 protein nor arachidonic acid-derived LTB4, LTD4, and LTE4 varied by genotype, but 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (5-HETE), 6-trans-LTB4, 5-oxo-ETE, 15-HETE, and 5,15-diHETE levels were higher in subjects homozygous for the ALOX5 promoter allele containing five Sp1 element tandem repeats (“55” genotype) than in subjects with one deletion (d) (three or four repeats) and one common (“d5” genotype) allele or with two deletion (“dd”) alleles. The EPA-derived metabolites 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE and the DHA-derived metabolite 17-HDoHE had similar associations with genotype and increased with supplementation; 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE increased, and 5-oxo-ETE decreased to a greater degree in the 55 than in the other genotypes. This differential eicosanoid response is consistent with the previously observed interaction of these variants with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in predicting cardiovascular disease risk.

Stephensen, Charles B.; Armstrong, Patrice; Newman, John W.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Legault, Jillian; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Kelley, Darshan; Vikman, Susanna; Hartiala, Jaana; Nassir, Rami; Seldin, Michael F.; Allayee, Hooman

2011-01-01

302

Monitoring in torque-summed electromechanical actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to address cross-monitoring techniques (lumped and hardware) in a single-type torque-summed architecture. In the lumped cross-monitoring technique, all lanes will be represented by their lumped models, while in hardware cross-monitoring, three-phase equivalents will model each motor. The analysis is based on a 4-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with

Fawaz Annaz

2008-01-01

303

Regulation of nitic oxide production by salicylates and tenidap in human OA-affected cartilage, rat chondrosarcomas and bovine chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production in chondrocytes from three different species.Methods: We have estimated NO production by Griess method, and PGE2by RIA from the supernatant of articular cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis joints (OA-affected cartilage), rat chondrosarcomas (inex vivoconditions) and bovine chondrocytes (stimulated with cytokines+endotoxin inin vitroconditions) in

Mukundan G. Attur; Rajesh Patel; Paul E. DiCesare; German C. Steiner; Steven B. Abramson; Ashok R. Amin

1998-01-01

304

Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing.  

PubMed

Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (NW, BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (OW, BMI 25-30 kg·m-2), and 10 obese (OB, BMI> 30 kg·m-2) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers. PMID:23549387

Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

2013-04-01

305

The Spin Torque Lego - from spin torque nano-devices to advanced computing architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin transfer torque (STT), predicted in 1996 [1], and first observed around 2000, brought spintronic devices to the realm of active elements. A whole class of new devices, based on the combined effects of STT for writing and Giant Magneto-Resistance or Tunnel Magneto-Resistance for reading has emerged. The second generation of MRAMs, based on spin torque writing : the STT-RAM, is under industrial development and should be out on the market in three years. But spin torque devices are not limited to binary memories. We will rapidly present how the spin torque effect also allows to implement non-linear nano-oscillators, spin-wave emitters, controlled stochastic devices and microwave nano-detectors. What is extremely interesting is that all these functionalities can be obtained using the same materials, the exact same stack, simply by changing the device geometry and its bias conditions. So these different devices can be seen as Lego bricks, each brick with its own functionality. During this talk, I will show how spin torque can be engineered to build new bricks, such as the Spintronic Memristor, an artificial magnetic nano-synapse. I will then give hints on how to assemble these bricks in order to build novel types of computing architectures, with a special focus on neuromorphic circuits. [4pt] [1] J. C. Slonczewski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, 1 (1996) & L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 54, 9353 (1996)

Grollier, Julie

2013-03-01

306

Resonance Trapping due to Nebula Disk Torques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A protoplanet embedded in the solar nebula launches spiral density waves from its Lindblad resonances in the gas disk, and its gravitational attraction for these disturbances results in a mutual torque exerted between the protoplanet and the disk. Consequently the orbit of a sufficiently massive protoplanet may decay on a timescale shorter than the nebula lifetime, and this mechanism is most significant during the formation of the cores of the giant planets. Due to their increased mobility, migrating protoplanets may have been able to accrete large swaths of the disk and/or encounter other protoplanets. Thus disk torques may have played an important role in determining the formation history and orbit spacings of the giant planets. An interesting phenomenon also associated with orbit decay is resonance trapping, whereby a large body is able to halt further orbit decay of smaller bodies at commensurability resonances. Examples of this effect include the trapping of planetesimals experiencing aerodynamic gas drag and dust suffering Poynting-Robertson drag. Below we address the cosmogonic implications of resonance trapping of planetary embryos experiencing orbit decay due to nebula disk torques. The following employs an approach similar to Malhotra's (1993) discussion of the gas drag trapping problem.

Hahn, J. M.; Ward, W. R.

1996-03-01

307

Intrinsic domain wall flexing from current-induced spin torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin torque generated by coherent carrier transport in domain walls [1] is a major component in the development of spintronic devices [2]. We model spin torque in N'eel walls [3] using a piecewise linear transfer-matrix method [4] to calculate spin torque on interior wall segments. For a ? wall with a total positive torque (current left-to-right), we find the largest positive and negative spin torques left of the central region, 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the center. The wall's rightward push comes from the back of the wall; all other significant regions pull to the left. Adding a second wall (both walls with positive total torque) changes the first wall little, but produces spin torques in the second wall with large canceling torques on the left, and the push rightward from a smaller torque on the right. The gradient of torque across the wall generates an intrinsic domain wall flexing (distinct from extrinsic wall flexing from pinning centers [5]). Work supported by an ARO MURI.[4pt] [1] M. Yamanouchi et al., Nature 428, 539 (2004).[0pt] [2] S. Parkin et al., Science 320, 190 (2008)[0pt] [3] G. Vignale and M. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 098302 (2002)[0pt] [4] E. Golovatski and M. Flatt'e, Phys. Rev. B, 84, 115210 (2011)[0pt] [5] A. Balk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).

Golovatski, Elizabeth; Flatté, Michael

2012-02-01

308

Larval feeding behaviour affects the impact of staminate flower production on the suitability of balsam fir trees for spruce budworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, in conjunction with field rearing indicated that the feeding behaviour of the larvae, which is affected by the insect population density, significantly influenced the impact of balsam fir, Abies balsamea, staminate flowering on spruce budworm biology. At low budworm density, the production of pollen in the midcrown of host trees reduced the insect

Éric Bauce; Nathalie Carisey

1996-01-01

309

Modelling primary production in a coastal embayment affected by upwelling using dynamic ecosystem models and artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two modelling approaches, dynamic ecological simulation and neural network analysis, were used to describe and predict the main patterns of primary production temporal variability in a coastal embayment affected by upwelling (Ria de Arousa, Western Spanish Coast). A one dimensional, carbon based, size-dependent dynamic simulation model physically forced by solar radiation, temperature, upwelling index and mixed layer depth was developed

Rosa M. Barciela; Emilio Garc??a; Emilio Fernández

1999-01-01

310

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Ç Protection of Environment Ç 12 Ç 2013-07-01 Ç 2013-07-01 Ç false Ç Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources Ç 5 Ç Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Ç Protection of Environment Ç ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) Ç AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

2013-07-01

311

29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

2013-07-01

312

Presence of Torque teno sus virus in porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease in Croatia.  

PubMed

Torque teno virus (TTV) is ubiquitous and species-specific, and two different TTV species, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), have been described in domestic pigs and wild boars. Whether these two species are involved in clinical cases of porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease (PCVDs) remains unknown. This study investigates the presence of TTSuV in 85 fetuses, pigs and wild boars infected by PCV2 and affected by PCVDs other than postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. It also explores the genetic diversity of identified strains using phylogenetic analysis. The presence or absence of TTSuV was determined in 85 samples of PCV2-containing organs from 85 infected animals using a specific, one-step PCR method. A nucleotide distance matrix between sequences was computed to infer phylogeny based on a median-joining (MJ) network. TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and proliferative and necrotising pneumonia (PNP), and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in wild boars affected by PMWS. TTSuV1 showed low prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and PNP, and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed low prevalence in animals with reproductive disorders. MJ network analysis revealed significant genetic diversity among Croatian isolates. PMID:23104589

Novosel, D; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Lipej, Z

2012-10-26

313

Advanced Glycated End-Products Affect HIF-Transcriptional Activity in Renal Cells.  

PubMed

Advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) are ligands of the receptor for AGEs and increase in diabetic disease. MAPK organizer 1 (Morg1) via its binding partner prolyl-hydroxylase domain (PHD)-3 presumably plays a role in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and HIF-2? transcriptional activation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of AGEs on Morg1 expression and its correlation to PHD3 activity and HIF-transcriptional activity in various renal cell types. The addition of glycated BSA (AGE-BSA) significantly up-regulated Morg1 mRNA levels in murine mesangial cells and down-regulated it in murine proximal tubular cells and differentiated podocytes. These effects were reversible when the cells were preincubated with a receptor for ?-AGE antibody. AGE-BSA treatment induced a relocalization of the Morg1 cellular distribution compared with nonglycated control-BSA. Analysis of PHD3 activity demonstrated an elevated PHD3 enzymatic activity in murine mesangial cells but an inhibition in murine proximal tubular cells and podocytes after the addition of AGE-BSA. HIF-transcriptional activity was also affected by AGE-BSA treatment. Reporter gene assays and EMSAs showed that AGEs regulate HIF- transcriptional activity under nonhypoxic conditions in a cell type-specific manner. In proximal tubular cells, AGE-BSA stimulation elevated mainly HIF-1? transcriptional activity and to a lesser extent HIF-2?. We also detected an increased expression of the HIF-1? and the HIF-2? proteins in kidneys from Morg1 heterozygous (HZ) placebo mice compared with the Morg1 wild-type (WT) placebo-treated mice, and the HIF-1? protein expression in the Morg1 HZ streptozotocin-treated mice was significantly higher than the WT streptozotocin-treated mice. Analysis of isolated mesangial cells from Morg1 HZ (±) and WT mice showed an inhibited PHD3 activity and an increased HIF-transcriptional activity in cells with only one Morg1 allele. These findings are important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24030251

Bondeva, Tzvetanka; Heinzig, Juliane; Ruhe, Carola; Wolf, Gunter

2013-09-12

314

Factors affecting the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of cereals, fats and other food products.  

PubMed

Factors affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in oils and fats, cereals and related foodstuffs have been investigated. Levels of PAHs were low in retail fish and animal-derived oils and fats, such as butter, where the mean benzo(a)pyrene concentration was 0.06 microgram/kg. Higher and more variable amounts were present in retail vegetable oils for which the mean level of benzo(a)pyrene was 1.29 micrograms/kg. Margarine was the major dietary source of PAHs in the oils and fats total diet group accounting for 70% of the benzo(a)pyrene intake from these commodities. The levels of benzo(a)pyrene were less than 0.1 microgram/kg in white flour and similar amounts were found in bread showing that PAHs are not formed to any significant extent during baking of bread. Higher concentrations of up to 2.2 micrograms/kg benzo(a)pyrene were detected in cereal-derived products containing higher levels of edible oils such as pudding-based desserts, biscuits and cakes. The presence of vegetable oils as an ingredient also appeared to increase PAH levels in infant formulae as the mean benzo(a)pyrene content of 0.49 microgram/kg was four times higher than that found in skimmed milk. The mean value in the feed, after reconstituting the formulae with water, would however have been less than 0.1 microgram/litre. Investigations of rape seed drying showed no increase in any PAHs when cold, or electrically-heated air was used. Combustion gas drying had no effect for the larger PAHs such as benzo(a)pyrene but caused mean increases of between 41% and 126% for fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. These increases did not correlate with reductions in moisture content of the rape seed implying that the combustion conditions were more important to PAH contamination than the degree of exposure to combustion gases. Concentrations of these three PAHs and also benz(a)anthracene were all significantly reduced by up to a factor of five when crude oils were refined suggesting that carefully controlled direct drying need not contribute PAHs to refined oils and fats. PMID:1806403

Dennis, M J; Massey, R C; Cripps, G; Venn, I; Howarth, N; Lee, G

315

How does increased corn-ethanol production affect US natural gas prices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a push to increase biofuel production in the United States. The biofuel of choice, so far, has been ethanol produced from corn. The effects of increased corn-ethanol production on the consumer prices of food and energy continue to be studied and debated. This study examines, in particular, the effects of increased corn-ethanol production on

Jarrett Whistance; Wyatt Thompson

2010-01-01

316

Electromagnetic torques in the core and resonant excitation of decadal polar motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion of the rotation axis of the Earth contains decadal variations with amplitudes on the order of 10 mas. The origin of these decadal polar motions is unknown. A class of rotational normal modes of the core-mantle system termed torsional oscillations are known to affect the length of day (LOD) at decadal periods and have also been suggested as a possible excitation source for the observed decadal polar motion. Torsional oscillations involve relative motion between the outer core and the surrounding solid bodies, producing electromagnetic torques at the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). It has been proposed that the ICB torque can explain the excitation of the approximately 30-yr-period polar motion termed the Markowitz wobble. This paper uses the results of a torsional oscillation model to calculate the torques generated at Markowitz and other decadal periods and finds, in contrast to previous results, that electromagnetic torques at the ICB can not explain the observed polar motion.

Mound, Jon E.

2005-02-01

317

A global analysis of fine root production as affected by soil nitrogen and phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Fine root production is the largest component of belowground production and plays substantial roles in the biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The increasing availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to human activities is expected to increase aboveground net primary production (ANNP), but the response of fine root production to N and P remains unclear. If roots respond to nutrients as ANNP, fine root production is anticipated to increase with increasing soil N and P. Here, by synthesizing data along the nutrient gradient from 410 natural habitats and from 469 N and/or P addition experiments, we showed that fine root production increased in terrestrial ecosystems with an average increase along the natural N gradient of up to 0.5 per cent with increasing soil N. Fine root production also increased with soil P in natural conditions, particularly at P < 300 mg kg?1. With N, P and combined N + P addition, fine root production increased by a global average of 27, 21 and 40 per cent, respectively. However, its responses differed among ecosystems and soil types. The global average increases in fine root production are lower than those of ANNP, indicating that above- and belowground counterparts are coupled, but production allocation shifts more to aboveground with higher soil nutrients. Our results suggest that the increasing fertilizer use and combined N deposition at present and in the future will stimulate fine root production, together with ANPP, probably providing a significant influence on atmospheric CO2 emissions.

Yuan, Z. Y.; Chen, Han Y. H.

2012-01-01

318

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study has examined factors affecting the lifetime of selected small electrical appliances, to assist in the development of policies to extend these life-times (for the purpose of conserving resources, protecting the environment, and reducin...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

319

Factors Affecting Product Lifetime. A Study in Support of Policy Development for Waste Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study has examined factors affecting the lifetimes of selected small electrical appliances, to assist in the development of policies to extend these lifetimes (for the purposes of conserving resources, protecting the environment, and reduci...

W. D. Conn

1978-01-01

320

Phenomenology of current-induced spin-orbit torques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currents induce magnetization torques via spin-transfer when the spin angular momentum is conserved or via relativistic spin-orbit coupling. Beyond simple models, the relationship between material properties and spin-orbit torques is not known. Here, we present a novel phenomenology of current-induced torques that is valid for any strength of intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. In Pt|Co|AlOx, we demonstrate that the domain walls move in response to a novel relativistic dissipative torque that is dependent on the domain wall structure and that can be controlled via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Unlike the nonrelativistic spin-transfer torque, the new torque can, together with the spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer, move domain walls by means of electric currents parallel to the walls.

Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Brataas, Arne

2013-08-01

321

Self-tuning torque control of brushless motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ripple-free feedforward torque control (electronic commutation) of a brushless motor is applicable if the torque-angle relationship associated with the motor phases is accurately known. We propose a linear estimator technique, based on an electric model of the motor, which requires the measurements of phase current, voltage and motor angle to extract the Fourier coefficients of the phase torque-angle profile.

Farhad Aghili

1999-01-01

322

Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke  

PubMed Central

Background A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or co-contractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that non-neural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Methods Eighteen stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age and sex matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/s for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservation were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Results Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic, as well as nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r=0.640, p=0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r=0.508, p=0.009), but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. Conclusions The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of non-neural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke.

Eng, Janice J.; Lomaglio, Melanie J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

2011-01-01

323

Torque-speed relationship of the bacterial flagellar motor  

PubMed Central

Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar filaments driven by a rotary motor. Each of these tiny motors can generate an impressive torque. The motor torque vs. speed relationship is considered one of the most important measurable characteristics of the motor and therefore is a major criterion for judging models proposed for the working mechanism. Here we give an explicit explanation for this torque–speed curve. The same physics also can explain certain puzzling properties of other motors.

Xing, Jianhua; Bai, Fan; Berry, Richard; Oster, George

2006-01-01

324

A safe joint with a joint torque sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a safe joint with a joint torque sensor is presented. The safe joint, named “Spring-Clutch”, is a simple passive mechanism that consists of a spring, a cam, and a joint torque sensor. When the torque applied is less than a pre-set threshold, the Spring-Clutch acts as a rigid joint between the input and output. However, if the

Dong-Eun Choi; Gi-Hun Yang; Junho Choi; Woosub Lee; Changhyun Cho; Sungchul Kang

2011-01-01

325

FACTORS AFFECTING SILICOMANGANESE PRODUCTION USING MANGANESE RICH SLAG IN THE CHARGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicomanganese is widely used as a complex reducer and an alloying addition in the production of various grades of steel due to its economic and metallurgical advantages. It is also used as a semi-product in the manufacture of medium- and low-carbon ferromanganese and metallic manganese. Manganese-rich slag, resulting from high carbon ferromanganese production, has the advantages of high manganese content,

M. Eissa; A. Fath; A. Ahmed; A. El-Mohammad; K. El-Fawakhry

326

Reproducibility of surface EMG variables and peak torque during three sets of ten dynamic contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of the electromyogram (EMG) of dynamic contractions might be difficult because the movement per se introduces additional factors that could affect its characteristics. There is a lack of studies concerning the reproducibility of surface EMG registrations during dynamic contractions. The aim was to investigate the during-the-day reproducibility (using intra-class correlation; ICC) of the peak torque (PT) and the

Barbro Larsson; Bjarne Månsson; Christian Karlberg; Peter Syvertsson; Jessica Elert; Björn Gerdle

1999-01-01

327

Direct torque control of brushless DC motor with nonideal trapezoidal back EMF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a method of the torque control attenuating the undesired torque pulsation for brushless DC motor with nonideal trapezoidal back EMF is presented. It is the direct torque control method in which the applied output voltage is calculated from the reference torque and the torque of the previous step in the two-phase conducting period and in the commutation

Seog-Joo Kang; Seung-Ki Sul

1995-01-01

328

Torque-ripple minimization in switched reluctance motors using adaptive fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive fuzzy control scheme for the torque-ripple minimization of switched reluctance machines is presented. The fuzzy parameters are initially chosen randomly and then adjusted to optimize the control. The controller produces smooth torque up to the motor base speed. The torque is generated over the maximum positive torque-producing region of a phase. This increases the torque density and avoids

S. Mir; M. E. Elbuluk; I. Husain

1999-01-01

329

Speed and torque range increases of electric drives through compensation of flux weakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric drives for automobiles require at low speed for starting a torque which is a multiple of the rated torque, and for above rated speed a torque which is about the rated torque. Known (V\\/f) control results in a decreasing torque above rated operation while the (V · p)\\/(f · N) control -where the terminal voltage V = Vt is

E. F. Fuchs; M. H. Myat

2010-01-01

330

Evaluation of superposition technique for calculating cogging torque in permanent-magnet brushless machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the superposition method for calculating the cogging torque in permanent-magnet brushless machines, the resultant torque being synthesized from cogging torque components associated with a pair of magnets. Although finite-element analyses and measurements show that the resultant cogging torque cannot be synthesized directly from the torque components due to a single magnet, we use the concept of a fictitious

Z. Q. Zhu; S. Ruangsinchaiwanich; Y. Chen; D. Howe

2006-01-01

331

Anti-skid control system with torsion torque correction  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A anti-skid control system detects a torsion torque applied to each of the wheels of a vehicle, and controls a braking force on the basis of a corrected acceleration as a wheel acceleration is corrected by the detected torsion torque. The corrected acceleration Gc can approximately be expressed by Gc=(Kr/Iw)(.mu..multidot.W.multidot.r-Tb), where Iw, inertia moment of the wheel .omega., angular velocity of the wheel (the turning direction of the wheel when it advances is positive); Tt, torsion torque; .mu., friction coefficient of the road surface; W, load on the wheel; r, radius of the wheel; Tb, brake torque; Kr, constant.

1997-08-12

332

Parameters affecting the growth and hydrogen production of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen (H2) under anaerobic conditions. It offers a biological route to renewable H2 production from sunlight and water. Algal growth and H2 production kinetics must be understood in order to determine appropriate system parameters and develop photobioreactors. Algal biomass should be grown efficiently and economically to attain the

Bojan Tamburic; Fessehaye W. Zemichael; Geoffrey C. Maitland; Klaus Hellgardt

2011-01-01

333

Atmospheric oxygen and other conditions affecting the production of cereulide by Bacillus cereus in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus in food and laboratory media were investigated, using liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry and sperm motility inhibition bioassay for detection and quantitation. Oxygen was essential for production of the emetic toxin by B. cereus. When beans, rice or tryptic soy broth were inoculated with cereulide producing strains B203,

E. L. Jääskeläinen; M. M. Häggblom; M. A. Andersson; M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen

2004-01-01

334

They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

335

INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL BY-PRODUCTS AS SOIL SUPPLEMENTS AFFECT BLUEBERRY FRUIT QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of industrial and municipal by-products as constituents in soil-free media and as soil supplements on fruit quality of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were evaluated in this study. These by-products include coal ash, composted sewage and leaf compost. Combinations of ash and ...

336

Production of cercosporin toxin by the phytopathogenic Cercospora fungi is affected by diverse environmental signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercosporin is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by many phytopathogenic Cercospora spp. We investigated en- vironmental signals that have elaborate control of cercosporin production. Light is the most critical factor for cercosporin production. Cercospora nicotianae accumulated substantial quantities of cercosporin only when grown on a particular po- tato dextrose agar under light but produced little cercosporin on other brands of potato

Bang-Jau You; Miin-Hui Lee; Kuang-Ren Chung

2008-01-01

337

Evidence for thermal spin-transfer torque.  

PubMed

Large heat currents are obtained in Co/Cu/Co spin valves positioned at the middle of Cu nanowires. The second harmonic voltage response to an applied current is used to investigate the effect of the heat current on the switching of the spin valves. Both the switching field and the magnitude of the voltage response are found to be dependent on the heat current. These effects are evidence for a thermal spin-transfer torque acting on the magnetization and are accounted for by a thermodynamic model in which heat, charge and spin currents are linked by Onsager reciprocity relations. PMID:20481950

Yu, Haiming; Granville, S; Yu, D P; Ansermet, J-Ph

2010-04-09

338

Synchronous torque balance in multiple pump systems  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a new and unique method and apparatus for operating and running multiple pumps in a system together at a substantially synchronous torque to achieve a desired setpoint. Each of the multiple pumps may be operated with a variable speed drive. The present invention may also take the form of the system having the multiple pumps with a system controller for operating and running the multiple pumps, a pump for operating and running in such a system, a system control module for such a system controller, as well as a pump control module for running and operating such a pump.

2012-12-11

339

Spin torque-generated magnetic droplet solitons.  

PubMed

Dissipative solitons have been reported in a wide range of nonlinear systems, but the observation of their magnetic analog has been experimentally challenging. Using spin transfer torque underneath a nanocontact on a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), we have observed the generation of dissipative magnetic droplet solitons and report on their rich dynamical properties. Micromagnetic simulations identify a wide range of automodulation frequencies, including droplet oscillatory motion, droplet "spinning," and droplet "breather" states. The droplet can be controlled by using both current and magnetic fields and is expected to have applications in spintronics, magnonics, and PMA-based domain-wall devices. PMID:23493707

Mohseni, S M; Sani, S R; Persson, J; Nguyen, T N Anh; Chung, S; Pogoryelov, Ye; Muduli, P K; Iacocca, E; Eklund, A; Dumas, R K; Bonetti, S; Deac, A; Hoefer, M A; Akerman, J

2013-03-15

340

Dual pillar spin torque nano-oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Dual Pillar Spin Torque Nano Oscillator (DP-STNO) suitable for energy efficient information processing. The proposed DP-STNO consists of a low resistance Giant Magneto-Resistance path that allows ultra-low voltage biasing of the oscillating ferromagnetic-free-layer, and a high resistance Tunneling Magneto-Resistance path that provides amplified RF-signal and facilitates easy sensing mechanism. The free-layers of multiple DP-STNOs can be coupled through dipolar-fields to accomplish complex signal processing tasks, like edge-extraction from an image, with high energy efficiency.

Sharad, Mrigank; Yogendra, Karthik; Roy, Kaushik

2013-10-01

341

EDITORIAL: Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This cluster, consisting of five invited articles on spin-transfer torque, offers the very first review covering both magnetization reversal and domain-wall displacement induced by a spin-polarized current. Since the first theoretical proposal on spin-transfer torque—reported by Berger and Slonczewski independently—spin-transfer torque has been experimentally demonstrated in both vertical magnetoresistive nano-pillars and lateral ferromagnetic nano-wires. In the former structures, an electrical current flowing vertically in the nano-pillar exerts spin torque onto the thinner ferromagnetic layer and reverses its magnetization, i.e., current-induced magnetization switching. In the latter structures, an electrical current flowing laterally in the nano-wire exerts torque onto a domain wall and moves its position by rotating local magnetic moments within the wall, i.e., domain wall displacement. Even though both phenomena are induced by spin-transfer torque, each phenomenon has been investigated separately. In order to understand the physical meaning of spin torque in a broader context, this cluster overviews both cases from theoretical modellings to experimental demonstrations. The earlier articles in this cluster focus on current-induced magnetization switching. The magnetization dynamics during the reversal has been calculated by Kim et al using the conventional Landau--Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, adding a spin-torque term. This model can explain the dynamics in both spin-valves and magnetic tunnel junctions in a nano-pillar form. This phenomenon has been experimentally measured in these junctions consisting of conventional ferromagnets. In the following experimental part, the nano-pillar junctions with perpendicularly magnetized FePt and half-metallic Heusler alloys are discussed from the viewpoint of efficient magnetization reversal due to a high degree of spin polarization of the current induced by the intrinsic nature of these alloys. Such switching can be further operated at high frequency resulting in an oscillator, as shown in the article by Sulka et al. These results provide fundamental elements for magnetic random access memories. The later articles discuss domain-wall displacement. Again this phenomenon is also described by Shibata et al based on the LLG equation with spin-torque terms. This analytical model can explain the details of the depinning mechanism and a critical current for the displacement. Experimental observation is presented in the subsequent article by Malinowski et al, showing the depinning processes for the cases of intrinsic and extrinsic pinning sites. Here, the detailed magnetic moment configurations within the wall hold the dominant control over the critical current. These results can be used for future 3-dimensional magnetic memories, such as racetrack memory proposed by IBM. We sincerely hope this cluster offers an up-to-date understanding of macroscopic behaviour induced by spin-transfer torque and contributes to further advancement in this exciting research field. We are grateful to all the authors for spending their precious time and knowledge submitting to this cluster. We would also like to thank Professor Kevin O'Grady for his kind offer of the opportunity to make this review accessible to a general audience.

Hirohata, Atsufumi

2011-09-01

342

Factors affecting the production of eremofortin C and PR toxin in Penicillium roqueforti.  

PubMed Central

Eremofortin C (EC) and PR toxin are secondary metabolites of Penicillium roqueforti. Of 17 strains from the American Type Culture Collection that were studied for their ability to produce EC and PR toxin, 13 produced these metabolites. Toxin production by strains grown in solid media (10 cereals and 8 other agricultural products) was also investigated. Production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on cereals was greater than production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on legumes; fungi grown on corn produced the greatest amount of PR toxin. Addition of corn extracts to the culture medium greatly increased the production of EC and PR toxin in a coordinated manner, with no significant change in mycelial dry weight. The fungi produced the highest levels of EC and PR toxin at 20 to 24 degrees C depending on the strain. Toxin production was higher in stationary cultures than in cultures that were gently shaken at 120 rpm. The optimum pH for production of both EC and PR toxin was around pH 4.0. With regard to spore age, toxin levels did not change significantly when we used spores obtained from fungi that were grown at 24 degrees C for 3 up to 48 days.

Chang, S C; Wei, Y H; Wei, D L; Chen, Y Y; Jong, S C

1991-01-01

343

Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.  

PubMed

Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low. PMID:15751398

Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

2005-02-01

344

The affective and cognitive components of country image : Perceptions of American products in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to utilize the BIAS map from the social psychology literature to operationalize and simultaneously examine the effects of the affective and cognitive components of country image. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The researchers collected survey data using a snowball sample of undergraduates from a prominent university in Kuwait. The final sample consisted of 410 Kuwaitis

Amro A. Maher; Larry L. Carter

2011-01-01

345

Corneal Insult Affects the Production and Distribution of FGF2 within the Lacrimal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of FGF-2 within rabbit lacrimal glands and to determine whether corneal insult affects that distribution. The scarified corneas of experimental animals were inoculated either with adenovirus type 5 or buffer. Control animals were either untreated, or animals whose corneas were scarified. Twenty-one days later all animals were killed and the

Joel Schechter; Michael Wallace; Joseph Carey; Natalie Chang; Melvin Trousdale; Richard Wood

2000-01-01

346

Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

2008-01-01

347

HdaA, a class 2 histone deacetylase of Aspergillus fumigatus, affects germination and secondary metabolite production  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in regulation of gene expression through histone modifications. Here we show that the Aspergillus fumigatus HDAC HdaA is involved in regulation of secondary metabolite production and is required for normal germination and vegetative growth. Deletion of the hdaA gene increased the production of several secondary metabolites but decreased production of gliotoxin whereas over-expression hdaA increased production of gliotoxin. RT-PCR analysis of 14 non-ribosomal peptide synthases indicated HdaA regulation of up to 9 of them. A mammalian cell toxicity assay indicated increased activity in the over-expression strain. Neither mutant affected virulence of the fungus as measured by macrophage engulfment of conidia or virulence in a neutropenic mouse model.

Lee, Inhyung; Oh, Jee-Hwan; Shwab, E. Keats; Dagenais, Taylor R. T.; Andes, David; Keller, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

348

Temperature and pH affect the production of bacterial biofilm.  

PubMed

The effect of different cultivation temperatures (30 and 37 degrees C) and pH of the media (5.5, 7.5, 8.5) on the biofilm production was compared in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and O1 using the crystal-violet test for estimation of quantitative production of the biofilm. Decrease (46.4-98.4 %) in the biofilm production was observed at 37 degrees C in 8 of the tested strains (P. aeruginosa three strains, K pneumoniae two, V. cholerae non-O1 two, and V. cholerae O1 one strain) compared with the production at 30 degrees C. On the other hand, five strains (P. aeruginosa 1, K. pneumoniae 3, V. cholerae non-O1 1) exhibited under these conditions a higher biofilm production (103-143 %). However, this difference was not significant (p = 0.196). Increased pH lead to a higher biofilm production using all media tested. In P. aeruginosa the biofilm production at pH 8.5 was 139-244 %, at pH 7.5 136-164 % in comparison with pH 5.5. Similarly, in K. pneumoniae the biofilm production increased to 151-319 % at pH 8.5 while with the drop of pH to 7.5 the biofilm production was 113-177 % compared with pH 5.5. In V. cholerae non-O1 and O1 the biofilm production reached 204-329 % at pH 8.5, and 123-316 % at pH 7.5 (compared with the production at pH 5.5). An increase in biofilm production represented an average of 169 % (p = 0.001) at pH change from 5.5 to 7.5, with the rise of pH from 5.5 to 8.5 caused an average difference of 229 % (p = 0.001). PMID:20336508

Hostacká, A; Ciznár, I; Stefkovicová, M

2010-03-25

349

An alternate design paradigm for robust Spin-Torque Transfer Magnetic RAM (STT MRAM) from circuit\\/architecture perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-torque transfer magnetic RAM (STT MRAM) is a promising candidate for future embedded applications. It provides desirable memory attributes such as fast access time, low cost, high density and non-volatility. However, variations in process parameters can lead to a large number of cells to fail, severely affecting the yield of the memory array. In this paper, we provide a thorough

Jing Li; Patrick Ndai; Ashish Goel; Haixin Liu; Kaushik Roy

2009-01-01

350

An alternate design paradigm for robust spin-torque transfer magnetic RAM (STT MRAM) from circuit\\/architecture perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-Torque Transfer Magnetic RAM (STT MRAM) is a promising candidate for future embedded applications. It provides desirable memory attributes such as fast access time, low cost, high density and non-volatility. However, variations in process parameters can lead to a large number of cells to fail, severely affecting the yield of the memory array. In this paper, we provide a thorough

Jing Li; Patrick Ndai; Ashish Goel; Haixin Liu; Kaushik Roy

2009-01-01

351

Biomass and production of amphipods in low alkalinity lakes affected by acid precipitation.  

PubMed

Population biomass and production of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure) were found to be related to alkalinity (ranging from 0.2 to 58.1 mg liter(-1)) in 10 Canadian Shield lakes in south-central Ontario. Biomass and production of amphipods in the two lakes characterized by spring depressions of pH below 5.0 were found to be lower than those for populations inhabiting lakes that did not experience such acid pulses. The proportional biomass of amphipods in relation to the total littoral zoobenthos community was lower in lakes of low alkalinity than in circumneutral or hardwater lakes. Because production in these amphipod populations is known to depend closely on population abundance, the labour-intensive derivation of production rates yields relatively little information for biomonitoring that cannot be obtained from abundance data alone. PMID:15093505

France, R L

1996-01-01

352

How Does Household Production Affect Earnings Inequality: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although income inequality has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of household production. Economic theory predicts that households with less money income will produce more goods at home. Thus extended income, ...

H. Frazis J. Stewart

2006-01-01

353

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1) determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2) identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk) flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g) resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g). Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham, Drew S; Koepsel, Richard R; Ataai, Mohammad M; Domach, Michael M

2009-01-01

354

Making Requests: Illustrations of How Right-Hemisphere Brain Damage Can Affect Discourse Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines several factors that influence the production of requests for behavior. Using a role-play methodology, we elicited request productions from well-recovered patients with right-hemisphere brain damage (RHD) and from non brain-damaged control participants. The stimulus items represented variation both on interpersonal factors based on characteristics of the people in the interaction and on situational factors based on what

Hiram Brownell; Andrew Stringfellow

1999-01-01

355

Canola Oil Production and Nutrient Uptake as Affected by Phosphate Solubilizing and Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola (Brassica napus L.) is a very important agricultural and industrial crop. Hence, the effects of chemical and biological treatments on canola oil production and nutrient uptake, under calcareous conditions, were evaluated in a field experiment. Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and sulfur (S)-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus sp.) increased canola oil production by a maximum of 548 and 335 kg ha, respectively. P-solubilizing bacteria

S. Salimpour; K. Khavazi; H. Nadian; H. Besharati; Mohammad Miransari

2012-01-01

356

Screening of yeasts for production of xylitol fromd-xylose and some factors which affect xylitol yield in Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ability to convertd-xylose to xylitol was screened in 44 yeasts from five genera. All but two of the strains produced some xylitol with varying rates and yields. The best xylitol producers were localized largely in the speciesCandida guilliermondii andC. tropicalis. Factors affecting xylitol production by a selectedC. guilliermondii strain, FTI-20037, were investigated. The results showed that xylitol yield

Maria F. S. Barbosa; Maria B. de Medeiros; Ismael M. de Mancilha; Henry Schneider; Hung Lee

1988-01-01

357

Electromagnetic force and torque in ponderable media.  

PubMed

Maxwell's macroscopic equations combined with a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force are a complete and consistent set of equations. Not only are these five equations fully compatible with special relativity, they also conform with conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum. We demonstrate consistency with the conservation laws by showing that, when a beam of light enters a magnetic dielectric, a fraction of the incident linear (or angular) momentum pours into the medium at a rate determined by the Abraham momentum density, E x H/c(2), and the group velocity V(g) of the electromagnetic field. The balance of the incident, reflected, and transmitted momenta is subsequently transferred to the medium as force (or torque) at the leading edge of the beam, which propagates through the medium with velocity V(g). Our analysis does not require "hidden" momenta to comply with the conservation laws, nor does it dissolve into ambiguities with regard to the nature of electromagnetic momentum in ponderable media. The linear and angular momenta of the electromagnetic field are clearly associated with the Abraham momentum, and the phase and group refractive indices (n(p) and n(g)) play distinct yet definitive roles in the expressions of force, torque, and momentum densities. PMID:18795019

Mansuripur, Masud

2008-09-15

358

Intra-seasonal precipitation amount and pattern differentially affect primary production of two dominant species of Inner Mongolia grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding impacts of changed precipitation regimes on plant primary production at species level is critical for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. We examined the responses of two dominant species of Inner Mongolia grassland to altered seasonal precipitation regimes by a manipulated rainout shelter experiment. With the increase of precipitation amount, the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis increased below-ground biomass while the perennial bunchgrass Stipa grandis increased above-ground biomass. With the increase of the interval between rainfall events, biomass production of L. chinensis reduced significantly while S. grandis was not affected. Soil moisture and inorganic nitrogen are two dominant environmental factors affecting plant responses in biomass production. Plant functional traits, such as leaf area, leaf number, leaf photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency, also played important roles in affecting species’ responses to altered precipitation regimes. Our results clearly showed that two species differed significantly in their responses to altered intra-seasonal precipitation regimes, suggesting that the structure and functioning of grassland ecosystem may be significantly altered by specific species responses to future climate change.

Liu, Yanshu; Pan, Qingmin; Zheng, Shuxia; Bai, Yongfei; Han, Xingguo

2012-10-01

359

Glyphosate affects lignin content and amino acid production in glyphosate-resistant soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers report that some glyphosate-resistant soybean varieties are visually injured by glyphosate. Glyphosate is the main\\u000a herbicide that directly affects the synthesis of secondary compounds. In this work, we evaluated the effect of increasing\\u000a rates of glyphosate on lignin and amino acid content, photosynthetic parameters and dry biomass in the early maturity group\\u000a cultivar BRS 242 GR soybean. Plants were

Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole; Edicléia Aparecida Bonini; Rubem Silvério de Oliveira; Robert John Kremer; Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho

2010-01-01

360

Is the commercialisation of scientific research affecting the production of public knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judging by the large R&D-active companies that have slimmed down their research labs in recent years, it would seem that corporate research is increasingly managed as an economic asset that is predominantly driven by market forces and ruled by IPR strategies. Has this development significantly affected industry’s basic research and interactions with research communities in the public sector? This paper

Robert J. W. Tijssen

2004-01-01

361

Environment and management factors affecting Pekin duck production and welfare on commercial farms in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Forty-six flocks of commercially-reared Pekin ducks were studied in 23 houses differing in their ventilation and brooding systems, and water and feed resources, in order to identify factors affecting duck welfare in commercial practice.2.?A wide range of environmental variables were measured, together with the physical and plumage condition of the ducks at two ages, whilst companies supplied mortality and growth

T. A. Jones; M. S. Dawkins

2010-01-01

362

Different blood and sugar feeding regimes affect the productivity of Anopheles arabiensis colonies (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The success of the sterile insect technique for the management of mosquito populations depends on the release of large numbers of competitive sterile male insects. Sustainable mosquito production can only be obtained when proper mass-rearing equipment and adequate methods are available, including those to feed blood to the female mosquitoes. The blood feeding apparatus Hemotek consists of a small aluminum plate to which a collagen membrane is fixed and filled with blood kept warm by an electric heating element. A larger aluminum plate was developed to feed a larger number of female mosquitoes with blood that is kept at a constant temperature. The effect of different blood feeding regimes (feeding frequency and time the blood is kept in the Hemotek) and sugar deprivation before blood feeding on egg production of female Anopheles arabiensis Patton was tested. Egg production was higher when blood was offered to the mosquitoes every day as compared with every 2 or 4 d. Sugar deprivation for 7 h before blood feeding enhanced egg production by 50% compared with female mosquitoes that had continuous access to sugar. Neither male nor female survival was impaired. Finally, we showed that the same blood could be kept warm and used over several hours to feed mosquitoes in multiple cages without any impact on egg production or hatch rate. Being able to use the same blood over extended periods would save considerable time, handling, and funds. PMID:23540122

Damiens, D; Soliban, S M; Balestrino, F; Alsir, R; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

2013-03-01

363

"Hotness" stability of chicken hot-wing products as affected by preparation methods and storage.  

PubMed

Chicken hot-drumettes containing 2% cayenne pepper were prepared using three different cooking methods and stored under two different temperatures for "hotness" evaluation. Results demonstrated that the hotness of the samples were highest when products were cooked in a microwave oven, followed by convection oven, and least hot by deep-fat frying. Regardless of the cooking method, the degree of hotness of the hot-drumette decreased drastically during refrigerated storage. Results also indicated that the loss of hotness was associated with the increase of 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the product. The addition of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rosemary, and sodium nitrate during preparation or vacuum packaging retarded lipid oxidation of chicken hot-drumettes and retarded the loss of hotness of the products during refrigerated storage. PMID:9565248

Chang, M H; Chen, T C

1998-04-01

364

Predictive direct torque control for the PM synchronous machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that a predictive digital control combined with the principle of direct torque control (DTC) leads to an excellent dynamic behavior of the synchronous machine with surface-mounted permanent magnets and is a real alternative to the classical field-orientated control. The advantages are a DTC control scheme with constant switching frequency and a predictable torque ripple. The settling times

Mario Pacas; Jürgen Weber

2005-01-01

365

Evaluation of torque ripple in high performance synchronous reluctance machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous reluctance motors with multiple-segment rotor structures are considered. The presence of stator slots is taken into account with respect to torque ripple. An analytical model is presented, based on magnetic interaction between d and q axes, due to stator toothing. The effect of skewing is also considered. Its partial effect on torque ripple reduction due to the rotor anisotropy

A. Fratta; G. P. Troglia; A. Vagati; F. Villata

1993-01-01

366

Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic evolution of direct torque control from other drive types is explained. Qualitative comparisons with other drives are included. The basic concepts behind direct torque control are clarified. An explanation of direct self control and the field-orientation concepts implemented in the adaptive motor model block is presented. The reliance of the control method on fast processing techniques is stressed.

James N. Nash

1997-01-01

367

40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 91.306 Section 91...Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever...system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used to...

2013-07-01

368

40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration. 90.306 Section 90...Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever...system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be used to...

2013-07-01

369

Torque-control based compliant actuation of a quadruped robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the realm of legged locomotion, being compliant to external unperceived impacts is crucial when negotiating unstructured terrain. Impedance control is a useful framework to allow the robot to follow reference trajectories and, at the same time, handle external disturbances. To implement impedance control, high performance torque control in all joints is of great importance. In this paper, the torque

Michele Focchi; Thiago Boaventura; Claudio Semini; Marco Frigerio; Jonas Buchli; Darwin G. Caldwell

2012-01-01

370

Highly dynamic torque control of synchronous reluctance motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a direct torque controller of a synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) based on the stator current vector. The stator direct and quadrature voltages, which can generate the desired torque, are directly calculated from the machine model. A simple model without the core loss and a modified model which includes the core loss are considered in the proposed method.

Seog-Joo Kang; Seung-Ki Sul

1998-01-01

371

Self synchronizing torque control of reluctance motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new torque control scheme for synchronous reluctance motor drives that does not require any position transducer to synchronize the stator current vector with the rotor position, thus allowing a reliable and low cost realization as required in medium performance electric drives. The proposed torque control scheme is in some way a transposition of the well known

A. Consoli; G. Scarcella; A. Testa

1996-01-01

372

Highly dynamic torque control of synchronous reluctance motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a direct torque controller of a synchronous reluctance motor based on the stator current vector. The stator direct and quadrature voltages which can generate the desired torque are directly calculated from the machine model. A simple model without the core loss and a modified model which includes the core loss are considered in the proposed method. The

Seog-Joo Kang; Seung-Ki Sul

1996-01-01

373

Analytical approach to cogging torque calculation of PM brushless motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the approach to analytical calculation of the cogging torque in permanent-magnet (PM) brushless motors. Magnetic field energy in the air gap has been used to obtain the cogging torque equations. Two equations have been derived: with the PM circumferential width taken into account, and a simplified equation, i.e., without the effect of the finite width of the

Jacek F. Gieras

2004-01-01

374

Investigation of Magnetic Drag Torque in Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In permanent magnet (PM) brushless motors, a magnetic drag torque, which results from the effect of magnetic hysteresis, exists at low speeds but is often neglected. However, in some applications it can have potentially serious consequences. In this paper, a practical method for predicting the magnetic drag torque in a PM brushless motor is presented. It is based on the

Y. S. Chen; Z. Q. Zhu

2007-01-01

375

Analysis and simulation of a torque assist automated manual transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a power-shift automated manual transmission (AMT) characterised by a wet clutch, called assist clutch (ACL), replacing the fifth gear synchroniser. This torque assist mechanism becomes a torque transfer path during gearshifts, in order to overcome a typical dynamic problem of the AMTs, that is the driving force interruption.The mean power contributions

E. Galvagno; M. Velardocchia; A. Vigliani

2011-01-01

376

Torque, Academic Achievement, and Behavorial Problems in Early Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic problem has been the assessment of significant neuropsychological processes in an unobtrusive manner. A- literature search produced a simple neuropsychological procedure called the Torque Test claimed to successfully identify children at risk for academic problems and aberrant behavior. The purpose of the study was to investigate the Torque Test as a screening device for identifying children at risk

Thomas D. Carter; Richard R. DeBlassie

1984-01-01

377

Torque Measurements on Liquid Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torque exerted on nematic liquid crystals due to a rotating magnetic field is investigated. Measurements of this torque on EBBA, MBBA and a 1:1 mixture of these as a function of temperature, magnetic field and frequency of rotation are reported. Comparison with theory shows reasonable agreement and yields the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy and the twist viscosity as a function

P. J. Flanders; S. Shtrikman

1973-01-01

378

A design of inductive torque sensor for EPS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torque sensor is an important component of EPS system. The output characteristics of the sensor determine the performances of EPS system. This paper provides a design of torque senor for EPS system, using inductive electric bridge with sine-wave motivation. We designed a sine-wave driving source with properly stable frequency and amplitude, an intelligent adjusting circuit for the electric bridge based

Wang Huaqiang; Yan Wenjun

2010-01-01

379

Control of robot arms using joint torque sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a basic study of vibration control, disturbance rejection, and friction compensation in robots with flexible drive systems. First, the system gain characteristic at the antiresonance frequency is introduced to evaluate the vibratory behavior of the control system. Secondly, joint torque negative feedback is discussed. While it is shown that joint torque negative feedback has a good effect on vibration

Guoguang Zhang; J. Furusho

1998-01-01

380

Force and Torque Vary Between Laryngoscopists and Laryngoscope Blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the effects of patient characteristics on force of laryngoscopy, but little atten- tion has been paid to the importance of technique and equipment. This study investigated whether force, torque, head extension, and view varied significantly between laryngoscopists and compared force and torque using Macintosh 3 and Miller 2 blades. The study population consisted of ASA grade

Randolph H. Hastings; Edward D. Hon; Craig Nghiem; Eric A. Wahrenbrock

1996-01-01

381

Minimization of Torque Ripple in Brushless DC Motor Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torque characteristics of brushless dc motors are studied in terms of the EMF and the feed currents for two feeding schemes: two-phase feeding and three-phase feeding. Various techniques for minimizing torque ripple are considered and discussed. For three-phase feeding systems, a selective harmonics elimination technique is studied and its effectiveness is evaluated.

Hoang Le-Huy; Robert Perret; Rene Feuillet

1986-01-01

382

Concurrent design and manufacturing of aircraft torque tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of concurrent design and a manufacturing paradigm to aircraft torque tubes. The torque tubes are located inside the wing and push and pull the front leading flaps during landing. There are tubes on each side of the wing. The tubes are made up of magnesium through casting. The magnesium tubes are light but are poor

Kuang-Hua Chang; Ira H. Bryant

2004-01-01

383

Diesel Engine Indicated Torque Estimation Based on Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural networks ap- proach to estimate the indicated torque of a single-cylinder diesel engine from crank shaft angular position and velocity measurements. Since these variables can be measured using low-cost sensors, the estimator may be useful in the implementation of the control or diagnostics strategies that require cylinder indicated torque, a vari- ables that are

Yahya H. Zweiri; Lakmal D. Seneviratne

2007-01-01

384

Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an approach to improve the direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). The proposed DTC is based on fuzzy logic technique switching table, is described compared with conventional direct torque control (DTC). To test the fuzzy control strategy a simulation platform using MATLAB\\/SIMULINK was built which includes induction motor d-q model, inverter model,

R. Toufouti; S. Meziane; H. Benalla

2006-01-01

385

Surface modification of clutch plates to reduce disengaged drag torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscous drag torque in disengaged clutches is a significant source of power loss in modern transportation. The main way to reduce this drag torque is to introduce air between the plates when disengaged without reducing the transmission fluid flow eventually needed for reengagement. Six different groove patterns are tested experimentally to determine which have the lowest drag characteristics. Our computations

Chinar R. Aphale

2005-01-01

386

Control-based reduction of pulsating torque for PMAC machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control methods in torque pulsating reduction for surface-mounted permanent magnet motors are discussed in this paper. The pulsating torque is a consequence of the nonsinusoidal flux-density distribution caused by the interaction of the rotor's permanent magnets with the changing stator reluctance. The proposed control method is estimator based. To assure parameter convergence, Lyapunov's direct method is used in estimator design

B. Grcar; Peter Cafuta; G. Stumberger; A. M. Stankovic

2002-01-01

387

Torque and drag characteristics of a six bladed savonius rotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work has been carried out to study the aerodynamic characteristic i.e., drag coefficient torque coefficient etc. of a vertical axis type six bladed Savonius rotor. At first drag and torque characteristics of the six bladed Savonius rotor are determined by measuring the pressure distribution over the convex and concave surfaces of each blade at different angle of rotation.

Shamsun Nahar; Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

388

14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397 Section 29.397 Aeronautics and Space ...Surface and System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

2013-01-01

389

Torque ripple improvement for brushless DC miniature motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical investigation of the brushless DC miniature motor with permanent magnets is presented. Fundamental equations are derived, and the torque ripple is evaluated by utilizing the performance index, which is defined to be in proportion to the peak-to-peak pulsation of the motor velocity. The torque ripple arising from the flux distributions in a magnet is investigated, and the optimal

Y. Murai; Y. Kawase; K. Ohashi; K. Nagatake; K. Okuyama

1989-01-01

390

14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397 Section 27.397 Aeronautics and Space ...Surface and System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

2013-01-01

391

Noncontacting multiparametric sensor for shaft speed, torque, and position  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of greatest interest in bearing diagnostics are shaft torque. Shaft vibration is often monitored as a periodic change in shaft position. Typical bearing diagostic systems require separate sensors for monitoring shaft vibration and shaft torque. If these two parameters can be monitored with one sensor, a reduction in weight intrusion associated with the sensors would result. This would

A. Schwartzbart

1990-01-01

392

Torque ripple modeling of a permanent magnet synchronous motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent magnet synchronous motors feature high power density, high torque to inertia ratio and high conversion efficiency. These characteristics made them advantageous to use in specific applications such as robotics and traction. However, one of the major drawbacks of these motors is the torque ripple, being especially harmful when a high performance position and speed control is required. Usually, this

S. Rojas; M. A. Pe?rez; J. Rodri?guez; H. Zelaya

2010-01-01

393

Modeling torque transmissibility for automotive dry clutch engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry clutch is a fundamental component in many automotive drivelines. For instance, the clutch torque transmissibility characteristic severely influences gearshift performance in automated manual transmissions. In this paper a novel model of the torque transmissibility of dry clutches is proposed. The dependence of the transmissibility characteristic on wear, slip speed and friction pads geometry and the influence of the

Francesco Vasca; Luigi Iannelli; Adolfo Senatore; Maurizio Taglialatela Scafati

2008-01-01

394

Torque Transmissibility Assessment for Automotive Dry-Clutch Engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry clutches are widely used in conventional and in- novative automotive drivelines and represent a key element for automated manual transmissions (AMTs). In practical applica- tions, it is fundamental to model the clutch behavior through its torque transmissibility characteristic, i.e., the relationship between the throwout bearing position (or the pressure applied by the clutch actuator) and the torque transmitted through

Francesco Vasca; Luigi Iannelli; Adolfo Senatore; Gabriella Reale

2011-01-01

395

Analysis of tilting torque of steel ladle based on ANSYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel ladle is the important tool for containing and transiting in steel enterprises. Analysis of tilting torque steel ladle is very important for reasonable design of electric tipping mechanism of steel ladle. Based on the ANSYS, the varies of steel ladle total mass, centroid, moment of inertia, tilting torque etc. with tilting angle in steel ladle tipping process are studied.

Lei Yuyong; Yang Zhen; Liu Kefu; Jiang Daijun; Lv Hua; Du Wen-zheng

2011-01-01

396

Tidal Torques: A Critical Review of Some Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We review some techniques employed in the studies of torques due to bodily tides, and explain why the MacDonald formula for the tidal torque is valid only in the zeroth order of the eccentricity divided by the quality factor, while its time-average is val...

J. G. Williams M. Efroimsky

2009-01-01

397

Real time measurement of instantaneous torque by magnetostrictive sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel torque measurement system has been developed using a magnetostrictive sensor and a digital sensor processing technique. This system contains a miniature magnetostrictive sensor, a digital signal processor (DSP), and a rotary encoder. The miniature sensor does not require a special space for installation. Generally, inexpensive commercial steels with high strength are used for the torque drive shaft of

Y. Nishibe; Y. Nonomura; K. Tsukada; M. Takeuchi

1991-01-01

398

Torque trajectory tracking control of IM for EV's  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a direct flux and torque control scheme for electric vehicle (EV) induction motor (IM) drive is presented. The control algorithm utilizes the stator flux as the control variable and the flux level is selected in accordance with the torque demand of EVs to achieve the efficiency optimized drive performance. The proposed scheme allows a smooth transition into

Karel Jezernik; A. Sabanovic

2000-01-01

399

Motion control systems with ℋ? positive joint torque feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a new ℋ? joint torque feedback approach is proposed which takes into account the actuator's finite bandwidth dynamics, and minimizes the system's sensitivity to load torque disturbances and load dynamics. We also address implementation issues such as the development of a hydraulic dynamometer testbed for measurement of the disturbance sensitivity and of an innovative method for identifying

Farhad Aghili; Martin Buehler; John M. Hollerbach

2001-01-01

400

Environmental and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Production of Rubratoxin B by Penicillium rubrum Stoll 1  

PubMed Central

Rubratoxin B can be produced in a semisynthetic medium by Penicillium rubrum under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. Maximum production (552.0 mg/500 ml) was obtained with P. rubrum NRRL A-11785 grown in stationary cultures of Mosseray's simplified Raulin solution supplemented with 2.5% malt extract broth at ambient temperature. Zinc is required at levels of at least 0.4 mg per liter. In the absence of iron sulfate, there was a 50-fold reduction in rubratoxin B production but not in growth. No toxin was produced by this isolate in 5- or 7-liter fermentors.

Hayes, A. Wallace; Wyatt, Elwanda P.; King, Patricia A.

1970-01-01

401

Environmental parameters affecting xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The bioconversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate was influenced by cell inoculum level, age of inoculum\\u000a and hydrolyzate concentration. The maximum xylitol productivity (0.75?g?L?1?h?1) occurred in tests carried out with hydrolyzate containing 54.5?g?L?1 of xylose, using 3.0?g?L?1 of a 24-h-old inoculum. Xylitol productivity and cell concentration decreased with hydrolyzate

M G A Felipe; M Vitolo; I M Mancilha; S S Silva

1997-01-01

402

Experimental Investigation on Cold-Roll-Forming Process Effects of Forming Factors and Process Variables on Product Shape, Forming Loads and Torques in Forming Process for Fundamental Cross-Sectional Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of various forming factors and process variables on the forming of sheet metal products are discussed. The forming factors are identified and their contribution to the mechanical properties of the metal sheet are defined. The subjects discusse...

H. Suzuki M. Kiuchi S. Nakajima

1972-01-01

403

[Environmental factors affecting the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC 1593].  

PubMed

Actinobacillus succinogenes is a promising candidate for the production of bio-based succinic acid. Previously, we isolated a succinic acid-producing strain Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC 1593 from bovine rumen. In this paper, the influence of the environmental factors such as gas phase, pH, ORP, on succinic acid production by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 was studied. The results showed that CO2 was the optimum gas phase for anaerobic fermentation ofA. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 as well as one of the substrate for the succinic acid synthesis. Using MgCO3 as a pH regulator, the pH was maintained within 7.1-6.2 during the anaerobic fermentation for the cell growth and acid production of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593. Our results showed that low initial ORP was disadvantageous for the growth of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 and an ORP of -270 mV was demonstrated to be beneficial to the succinic acid production. By adding Na2S.9H2O to decrease ORP to -270 mV at the end of exponential growth phase in batch culture of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593, the succinic acid concentration reached 37 g/L and the yield of succinic acid was 129% at 48 h. This work might provide valuable information for further optimization of succinic acid fermentation by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593. PMID:18807991

Zheng, Pu; Zhou, Wei; Ni, Ye; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Sun, Zhihao

2008-06-01

404

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

405

Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over

André B. Pereira; Nilson A. Villa Nova; Antonio R. Pereira

2009-01-01

406

ETHANOL AND LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION AS AFFECTED BY SORGHUM GENOTYPE AND LOCATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environment, location, genotype, and other interactions have a significant influence on end-use quality characteristics of sorghum. The objective of this research was to study the effect of sorghum genotype and growth conditions on ethanol and lactic acid production. Eight sorghum varieties from t...

407

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus ochraceus as affected by methionine and structurally related compounds.  

PubMed

When 10(-2) M of L- or D-methionine was added to a synthetic medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source, ochratoxin production by Aspergillus ochraceus was strongly inhibited. At that concentration methionine derivatives, e.g., alpha-methyl-DL-methionine, DL-methionine sulfoxide, and L-methionine sulfone, did not inhibit ochratoxin production, whereas DL-methionine S-methyl sulfonium chloride (MMSC) inhibited ochratoxin production to a large extent. L-Methionine, as well as MMSC, also completely inhibited sclerotia formation, while D-methionine and DL-methionine sulfoxide caused only a partial inhibition. At lower concentrations (10(-3) and 10(-4) M), none of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects. In cases where strong ochratoxin inhibition was detected, fungal radial growth or mycelial dry weight was inhibited by only 10-25%, while the initial pH of the medium dropped from approximately 6.5 to approximately 4.4-5.0. Adjustment of the initial pH of media supplemented with 10(-2) M L-methionine, D-methionine, or MMSC to a pH of approximately 7.8 did not change the inhibitory effects on ochratoxin production in media containing L-methionine. On the other hand, sclerotia formation was restored in all three treatments. PMID:6883217

Lisker, N; Paster, N; Chet, I

1983-05-01

408

Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

409

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that

Alberto Jiménez; María A Santos; José L Revuelta

2008-01-01

410

Environmental, Management, and Genetic Factors Affecting Semen Production in Holstein Bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of environment, management, physiologi- cal status, and genetics on semen quality (volume of the ejaculate, sperm concentration, sperm motility, number of sperm, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate) of Canadian Holstein bulls. For this purpose, semen production data from 198 bulls were analyzed using mixed linear models. Young bulls

M. Mathevon; M. M. Buhr; J. C. M. Dekkers

1998-01-01

411

Estimating Factors Affecting Project Task Size in Product Development— An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the methodology used to determine the amount of human resources needed to develop products. It is based on an empirical study of five firms in different industries. The methods rely on technical experts operating within budget constraints. The specific methods vary from relatively ad-hoc approaches to database-driven, centralized, and validated approaches. This variation is largely correlated with

Katja Hölttä-Otto; Christopher L. Magee

2006-01-01

412

Nanofiber alignment and direction of mechanical strain affect the ECM production of human ACL fibroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fiber alignment and direction of mechanical stimuli on the ECM generation of human ligament fibroblast (HLF) were assessed. The nanofiber matrix was fabricated using electrospinning technique. To align the nanofibers, a rotating target was used. The HLFs on the aligned nanofibers were spindle-shaped and oriented in the direction of the nanofibers. The degree of ECM production was

Chang Hun Lee; Ho Joon Shin; In Hee Cho; Young-Mi Kang; In Ae Kim; Ki-Dong Park; Jung-Woog Shin

2005-01-01

413

HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

414

Identification of nutritional and environmental factors affecting sugarcane production in barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in Barbados has declined since the 1950s. Plant nutrition and fertilization deficiencies are generally believed to negatively influence yields in Barbados. The objective of this study was to identify nutritional and environmental factors related to sugarcane yields. Leaf analyses, respective crop yields, and other data were collected from the Barbados Sugar Industry Ltd. during the period 1985–1990. The

D. L. Anderson; H. G. de Boer; K. M. Portier

1995-01-01

415

An Assessment of Critical Factors Affecting Modes of Entry Substitution Patterns in Foreign Product Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern which international firms substitute modes of entry in foreign product markets could be gradual in the chain from exporting to investment (incremental approach) or involve large spectacular leaps (non-incremental approach). Although many studies have elucidated these two approaches, they have not discussed factors which influence firms' choice of either approach. Previous studies have concentrated on determinants of one

Sam C. Okoroafo

1990-01-01

416

Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing gilts as affected by environmental temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat and moisture production (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) standards were from data collected in the early 1950. This study is one of a series of...

417

Utilization of Different Soy Products as Affected by Age in Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to eval- uate the utilization of several different soy products at different ages in New Hampshire × Columbian male chicks. Six pens of eight chicks were fed dextrose-protein source diets (23% CP) containing 1 of 10 different protein sources from 0 to 21 d of age. Excreta were collected at 0 to 2, 3 to 4,

A. B. Batal; C. M. Parsons

418

Crop Species Diversity Affects Productivity and Weed Suppression in Perennial Polycultures under Two Management Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species diversity can increase natural grass- lands productivity but the effect of diversity in agricultural systems is not well understood. Our objective was to measure the effects of spe- cies composition, species richness, and har- vest management on crop and weed biomass in perennial herbaceous polycultures. In 2003, 49 combinations of seven species (legumes, C3 and C4 grasses) including all

Valentín D. Picasso; E. Charles Brummer; Matt Liebman; Philip M. Dixon; Brian J. Wilsey

2008-01-01

419

Torque Expressions and Equivalent Circuits for Salient Pole Synchronous Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different torque expressions are proposed for salient pole synchronous machines. One is the traditional torque-voltage equation. The other is a torque-current equation and has been recently used for permanent magnet synchronous motors. Both these expressions have two terms. According to a general interpretation, one of the terms represents the magnet torque and the second term represents the reluctance torque. However, the corresponding terms in these two expressions do not give the same value when the expressions are used for an interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor. The aim of this study is to demonstrate this disagreement and identify the reason for the same by using two different equivalent circuits for salient pole synchronous machines.

Kondo, Minoru

420

Development of a small capacity deadweight torque standard machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed a 100 N m deadweight torque standard machine. The machine consists of a torque arm, an air bearing, six weight stacks, a main body and a control system. It can be operated almost fully automatically. The machine can generate torque from 0.1 N m to 110 N m with a relative expanded uncertainty of 5.0 × 10-4 for 0.1 N m to 1 N m and 5.0 × 10-5 for 1 N m to 110 N m. The machine was compared with a 2 kN m deadweight torque machine. In the comparison, the relative deviation was less than 5 × 10-5, the declared expanded uncertainty of the torque standard machines, and therefore we confirmed the accuracy of the machine.

Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kang, Dae-Im

2007-11-01

421

Atmospheric oxygen and other conditions affecting the production of cereulide by Bacillus cereus in food.  

PubMed

Factors influencing the production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus in food and laboratory media were investigated, using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and sperm motility inhibition bioassay for detection and quantitation. Oxygen was essential for production of the emetic toxin by B. cereus. When beans, rice or tryptic soy broth were inoculated with cereulide producing strains B203, B116 (recent food isolates) or the strain F-4810/72, high amounts (2 to 7 microg ml(-1) or g(-1) wet wt) of cereulide accumulated during 4-day storage at room temperature. In parallel cultures and foods, stored under nitrogen atmosphere (> 99.5% N2), less than 0.05 microg of cereulide ml(-1) or g(-1) wet wt accumulated. The outcome of the bioassay matched that of the chemical assay, with no indication of interference by substances in the rice or beans. Boiling for 20 to 30 min did not inactivate cereulide or cereulide producing strains in rice or the beans. Adding l-leucine and l-valine (0.3 g l(-1)) stimulated cereulide production 10- to 20-fold in R2A and in rice water agar. When the B. cereus strains were grown on agar media under permissive conditions (air, room temperature), cereulide was produced overnight with little or no increase when the incubation was extended to 4 days. In broth culture, the production of cereulide started later than 16-24 h. Anoxic storage prevented cereulide production also when the amino acids had been supplied. Packaging with modified atmosphere low in oxygen may thus be used to reduce the risk of cereulide formation during storage of food. PMID:15358508

Jääskeläinen, E L; Häggblom, M M; Andersson, M A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

2004-10-01

422

A mutation in the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae wxoD gene affects xanthan production and chemotaxis.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The effect of a mutation in the wxoD gene, that encodes a putative O-antigen acetylase, on xanthan production as well as bacterial chemotaxis was investigated. The mutation increased xanthan production by 52 %. The mutant strain was non-motile on semi-solid agar swarm plates. In addition, several genes involved in chemotaxis, including the cheW, cheV, cheR, and cheD genes, were down-regulated by a mutation in the wxoD gene. Thus, the mutation in the wxoD gene affects xanthan production as well as bacterial chemotaxis. However, the wxoD gene is not essential for the virulence of X. oryzae. PMID:23881323

Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

2013-07-24

423

On torque ripple reduction in current-fed switched reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a basic control issue in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives-the production of a ripple-free torque. Simple and largely model-independent conventional supply waveforms are not able to satisfy this requirement. The goal of this paper is to improve SRM dynamical performance by compensating for motor nonlinearities, while maintaining the robustness of conventional methods. The method is based on

A. M. Stankovic; G. Tadmor; Z. J. Coric; I. Agirman

1999-01-01

424

Low torque ripple control of current-fed switched reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses a basic control issue in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives-the production of ripple-free torque. Simple and largely model-independent conventional switching patterns are not able to satisfy this requirement. Our goal is to improve SRM dynamical performance by compensating for motor nonlinearities while maintaining the robustness of conventional methods in a simple position and current feedback. Our method

A. M. Stankovic; GILEAD TADMOR; Z. J. Coric

1996-01-01

425

Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and\\u000a respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological\\u000a mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the\\u000a target of attention of many researchers from all over

André B. Pereira; Nilson A. Villa Nova; Antonio R. Pereira

426

FOLIAR BORON ENHANCES LEAF CHLOROSIS AND DOES NOT AFFECT PECAN PRODUCTION AND NUT QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrow range between boron (B) deficiency and toxicity compared with other micronutrients is a serious problem for sustainable production of pecan throughout the southwest United States of America. However, performance of pecan under foliar B is lacking. Five B treatments (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kg B ha, water spray) were applied to 27 years old trees of pecan variety

Shad Khan Khalil; John Mexal; Abdur Rehman; Amanullah; Fida Muhammad; Amir Zaman Khan

2011-01-01

427

Competition Affects the Production of First Backcross Offspring on F 1 -hybrids, Brassica Napus × B. Rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Interspecific F1-hybrids may arise in fields with transplastomic oilseed rape where B. rapa occurs as a weed. Spilled seeds, including transplastomic F1-hybrids with B. rapa, may germinate, which creates an opportunity for production of transplastomic BC1 with B. rapa as father (BC1r). Field trials were made with three different proportions of B. napus, B. rapa and F1-hybrids and three different

Marina Mosbæk Johannessen; Christian Damgaard; Bente Anni Andersen; Rikke Bagger Jørgensen

2006-01-01

428

TNT transformation products are affected by the growth conditions of Raoultella terrigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and related nitroaromatic compounds are commonly found in soil and groundwater\\u000a at former explosive plants. The bacterium, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, isolated from a contaminated site, converts TNT into the corresponding amino products. Radio-HPLC analysis with\\u000a [14C]TNT identified aminodinitrotoluene, diaminonitrotoluene and azoxy-dimers as the main metabolites. Transformation rate and\\u000a the type of metabolites that predominated

Harald Claus; Nina Perret; Tobias Bausinger; Gregor Fels; Johannes Preuß; Helmut König

2007-01-01

429

Tetrazolium-based Assays for Cellular Viability: A Critical Examination of Selected Parameters Affecting Formazan Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen acceptor 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyItetra- zolium bromide (Mil) is commonlyutilized to estimate cellular viability in drug screening protocols. The present investigation was prompted, in part, by observations that reduction of MTT to its colored reaction product, MTT formazan, varied between cell lines and with culture age. A correlation was established between the D-glucoseconcentration of the culture mediumat the time of

David T. Vistica; Philip Skehan; Dominic Scudiero; Anne Monks; Angela Pittman; Michael R. Boyd

1991-01-01

430

Nitrous oxide production by nitrification and denitrification in soil aggregates as affected by O 2 concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emitted by soils can be produced either by denitrification in anoxic conditions or by nitrification in presence of O2. The relative importance of the two processes, particularly under varied partial pressures of O2, is not always known. This paper focuses on the influence of O2 concentration on N2O production by nitrification and denitrification in an arable Orthic Luvisol.

K Khalil; B Mary; P Renault

2004-01-01

431

Factors affecting the production of 4-ethylphenol by the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in enological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of p-coumaric acid into 4-ethylphenol was studied in Dekkera bruxellensis ISA 1791 under defined conditions in synthetic media. The production of 4-ethylphenol occurred roughly between mid-exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase. This behaviour was observed when glucose was the only energy and carbon source, the conversion rate being close to 90%. Ethanol, as the

L. Dias; S. Pereira-da-Silva; M. Tavares; M. Malfeito-Ferreira; V. Loureiro

2003-01-01

432

Temperature and carbon source affect the production and secretion of a thermostable ?-xylosidase by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the temperature of growth and carbon source on the production and secretion of ?-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) by the thermotolerant fungi Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in submerged cultures. In cultures developed at optimal temperature (30°C), the enzyme was predominantly cell-bound, while in cultures developed at higher temperature (42°C), the ?-xylosidase activity was predominantly found in the cell-free filtrates.

Veridiana Lenartovicz; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Fabiana Guillen Moreira; Rosane Marina Peralta

2003-01-01

433

Density and Cutting Height Affect Production of Celosia (Celosia argentea L.) in the Humid Tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) is the only region of the world where per capita food production has steadily declined over the past three decades. Field experiments were therefore curried out at Ibadan, Nigeria during the early (April-July) and late (August-November) rainy seasons of 1997 to determine the best density and culling height for concurrent seed and shoot (leaf + stem) yields

David O. Ojo

2001-01-01

434

Cyanide exposure affects the production and excretion of ammonia by the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ammonia in the plasma of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti exposed to cyanide for 1–6 days were significantly greater than the respective values of the controls. This was due to an increase in the production of NH3 in the muscle and an increase in the retention of NH3 and\\/or NH4+ in the blood of the cyanide-exposed fish when

Shit F Chew; Elaine Goh; Cheng B Lim; Yuen K Ip

1998-01-01

435

Do Interactions of Land Use and Climate Affect Productivity of Waterbirds and Prairie-Pothole Wetlands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of aquatic invertebrates on migration and breeding areas influences recruitment of ducks and shorebirds. In wetlands\\u000a of Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), aquatic invertebrate production primarily is driven by interannual fluctuations of water\\u000a levels in response to wet-dry cycles in climate. However, this understanding comes from studying basins that are minimally\\u000a impacted by agricultural landscape modifications. In the past 100–150 years,

Michael J. Anteau

436

Culture pH affects exopolysaccharide production in submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum, the pH optimum for cell growth has been shown to be lower than that for exopolysaccharides (EPS) formation. Therefore, in\\u000a the present study, a two-stage pH-control strategy was employed to maximize the productions of mycelial biomass and EPS. When\\u000a compared, a batch culture without pH control had a maximum concentration of EPS and endopolysaccharides,

Hyun Mi Kim; Moon Ki Park; Jong Won Yun

2006-01-01

437

Torque-balanced extendable fiber optic cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extendable fiber optic cable includes an inner tubular core, a viscous gel received in the tubular core, a plurality of optical fibers suspended in the gel, reinforcing fibers which are braided around the inner core, and an elastomeric outer cover which is received over the reinforcing fibers. The cable is first formed in a straight configuration and then formed into a plurality of coiled segments wherein adjacent coiled segments are wound in alternating directions, i.e. clockwise, counterclockwise, clockwise, etc. Straight segments of wire are provided between the coiled segments wherein the cable is stretchable up to 50% of its relaxed length. The alternating coil segments prevent the cable from twisting and transmitting torque forces to the optical fibers.

Sansone, Louis E.; Simonds, Gregory

1993-10-01

438

Forces and Torques on Rotating Spirochete Flagella  

PubMed Central

Spirochetes are a unique group of motile bacteria that are distinguished by their helical or flat-wave shapes and the location of their flagella, which reside within the tiny space between the bacterial cell wall and the outer membrane (the periplasm). In Borrelia burgdorferi, rotation of the flagella produces cellular undulations that drive swimming. How these shape changes arise due to the forces and torques that act between the flagella and the cell body is unknown. It is possible that resistive forces come from friction or from fluid drag, depending on whether or not the flagella are in contact with the cell wall. Here, we consider both of these cases. By analyzing the motion of an elastic flagellum rotating in the periplasmic space, we show that the flagella are most likely separated from the bacterial cell wall by a lubricating layer of fluid. This analysis then provides drag coefficients for rotation and sliding of a flagellum within the periplasm.

Yang, Jing; Huber, Greg; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

2012-01-01

439

Spin transfer torque in ferroelectric tunnel junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide interest for spintronics grows up every year, magnetic oscillators and resistance switchers became an important part of electronics with promising applications such as tunable microwave radiation, magnetic memory cells, magnetic field sensors, etc. A non-equilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier was studied. The exact solutions of the free electron Schr"odinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by Bessel and Airy functions. As a result, bias-dependence of the tunneling magneto- and electro-resistance are obtained. The barrier asymmetry induced by the ferroelectric polarization produces strong modifications compared to regular tunnel junctions in the bias-dependence of the transport properties. Furthermore, manipulating the electric polarity of the barrier provides a way to control the magnitude and sign of the spin transfer torque.

Useinov, Arthur; Manchon, Aurelien

2013-03-01

440

Interaction torque contributes to planar reaching at slow speed  

PubMed Central

Background How the central nervous system (CNS) organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT) which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer reaching in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed reaching movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz). Torque components, muscle torque (MUS), interaction torque (INT), gravity torque (G), and net torque (NET) were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G) was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction) to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to) INT. The trajectory of reach was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at slow speeds. Muscle torques at the two joints were not directly related to each other to produce coordinated joint movement during a reach. These results support Bernstein's idea that coordinated movement is not completely determined by motor command in multi-joint motion. Based on the data presented in this study and the work of others, a model for the connection between joint torques (muscle and passive torques including interaction torque) and joint coordination is proposed.

Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tagami, Yoshiyuki; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Hoshi, Fumihiko; Nagasaki, Hiroshi

2008-01-01

441

Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Affect Citrinin Production in the Filamentous Fungus Monascus ruber  

PubMed Central

During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the 13C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, or [1,2-13C]acetate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and the fatty acid synthesis pathway, to produce a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoic acid) which was then bound to the chromophore by a trans-esterification reaction. Hence, to enhance pigment production, we tried to short-circuit the de novo synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by adding them to the culture broth. Of fatty acids with carbon chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbon atoms, only octanoic acid showed a 30 to 50% stimulation of red pigment production, by a mechanism which, in contrast to expectation, did not involve its direct trans-esterification on the chromophore backbone. However, the medium- and long-chain fatty acids tested were readily assimilated by the fungus, and in the case of fatty acids ranging from 8 to 12 carbon atoms, 30 to 40% of their initial amount transiently accumulated in the growth medium in the form of the corresponding methylketone 1 carbon unit shorter. Very interestingly, these fatty acids or their corresponding methylketones caused a strong reduction in, or even a complete inhibition of, citrinin production by M. ruber when they were added to the medium. Several data indicated that this effect could be due to the degradation of the newly synthesized citrinin (or an intermediate in the citrinin pathway) by hydrogen peroxide resulting from peroxisome proliferation induced by medium-chain fatty acids or methylketones.

Hajjaj, Hassan; Klaebe, Alain; Goma, Gerard; Blanc, Philippe J.; Barbier, Estelle; Francois, Jean

2000-01-01

442

Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice.  

PubMed

The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space. PMID:11542385

Goldman, K R; Mitchell, C A

1999-08-01

443

Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of??biological soil crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Bowker, M. A.; Koch, G. W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N. C.

2008-01-01

444

Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product insect pests.  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassays were conducted to assess pyrole chlorfenapyr as a potential grain protectant against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Prostephanus truncatus, Tribolium confusum, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. Factors such as dose (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ppm), exposure interval (7 and 14 days), temperature (20, 25, and 30°C), relative humidity (RH; 55 and 75%), and commodity (wheat, maize, barley, and paddy rice) were evaluated. Progeny production was assessed after 74 days of exposure. For L. bostrychophila and T. confusum the increase of dose increased mortality. After 7 or 14 days of exposure, mortality was low at doses of ? 1 ppm and did not exceed 23 or 36%, respectively, for L. bostrychophila or 13 or 58%, respectively, for T. confusum. After 14 days of exposure, mortality of S. oryzae at 30°C and 75% RH was 82.2%. Mortality of P. truncatus was considerably higher than that of the other species. At 0.5 ppm, mortality exceeded 81% after 7 days of exposure and 91% after 14 days of exposure. Progeny production of L. bostrychophila was extremely high. Very few progeny were found for T. confusum. For S. oryzae, offspring emergence was high, except at 20°C and 55% RH. For P. truncatus, progeny production in the treated maize was not avoided, even at 10 ppm. In the case of S. oryzae, at 0.1 ppm and after 14 days of exposure, mortality in wheat was higher than in the other three commodities. For R. dominica, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm for paddy rice but reached 74.4% in barley after 14 days of exposure. For T. confusum, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm in all commodities. For progeny production counts, for S. oryzae or R. dominica, adult emergence was higher in paddy rice than in the other three commodities. Finally, overall T. confusum progeny was low. Chlorfenapyr efficacy varied remarkably among the combinations tested, and it may be a viable grain protectant in combination with other insecticides. PMID:21819655

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Hatzikonstantinou, Ann N; Kavallieratou, Helen N

2011-08-01

445

TNT transformation products are affected by the growth conditions of Raoultella terrigena.  

PubMed

High concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and related nitroaromatic compounds are commonly found in soil and groundwater at former explosive plants. The bacterium, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, isolated from a contaminated site, converts TNT into the corresponding amino products. Radio-HPLC analysis with [(14)C]TNT identified aminodinitrotoluene, diaminonitrotoluene and azoxy-dimers as the main metabolites. Transformation rate and the type of metabolites that predominated in the culture medium and within the cells were significantly influenced by the culture conditions. The NAD(P)H-dependent enzymatic reduction of nitro-substituted compounds by cell-free extracts of R. terrigena was evaluated in vitro. PMID:17136570

Claus, Harald; Perret, Nina; Bausinger, Tobias; Fels, Gregor; Preuss, Johannes; König, Helmut

2006-11-30

446

Factors affecting aerobic recovery heat production and recovery ratio of frog sartorius.  

PubMed Central

1. Sartorius muscles of Rana temporaria, equilibrated at 20 degrees C in Ringer solution buffered with phosphates, were stimulated isometrically for 0.2 up to 0.75 s at lengths varying from 1.03 to 1.48 times rest length, L0. The aerobic recovery heat was measured for 10.5 min after contraction. 2. The recovery heat production had a complex time course, showing a variable delay to maximum, declining thereafter. In most cases, the rate of heat production did not decrease monotonically; attention was focused on the slow exponential decay which only persisted from 1.5-5 min after contraction. This latter part of the time course was considered as strictly aerobic and characterized by the time constant tau s. 3. Increasing the tetanus duration from 0.2 to 0.75 s increased initial heat Qi and recovery heat Qr in proportion, so that the recovery ratio R (Qr/Qi) did not change; it was equal to 1.29 +/- 0.03 (S.E.M.; n = 44) for muscles at about L0. The kinetics of heat production were modified with longer tetani; in particular, tau s was increased from 2.2 to 5.2 min. 4. When muscles were stretched beyond L0, as long as there was no increase of the resting heat rate (stretch response or 'Feng effect'), recovery heat production had a similar evolution to that in muscles at about L0; R was constant and equal to 1.21 +/- 0.03 (n = 46). 5. When muscles were sufficiently stretched to develop a stretch response, R increased proportionally to the stretch response. The effect seemed independent of the contractile machinery, as it vanished concomitantly with the stretch response, while force and Qi remained unchanged for the length considered. The kinetics were also modified--the delay to maximum was no longer detected and tau s most likely increased. 6. Substitution of 60% of the NaCl of the Ringer solution by NaI (mol/mol) produced a significant increase of R, mainly due to the increase of Qr. 7. The results show that neither the time course nor the amount of aerobic recovery heat Qr are strictly determined by the amount of initial heat Qi. The hypothesis is discussed that Qr might include a variable fraction due to processes which are not directly implicated in the actin-myosin interactions, possibly those involving the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the rate of resting metabolism. Images Fig. 3

Godfraind-De Becker, A

1989-01-01

447

Quantitative trait loci affecting milk production traits on bovine chromosome 6 in zebuine Gyr breed.  

PubMed

Fourteen Brazilian dairy Gyr sire families with 657 daughters were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6 by using a daughter design for 5 economic traits: milk, fat, and protein production, fat and protein percentage. The cows and sires were genotyped for 27 microsatellites with average spacing between markers of 4.9 cM. In the analyses across 14 families, for the largest significant families, and within family, a QTL was located for milk yield and fat yield close to marker BMS2508 at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level across families and 1% chromosome-wide within families. For fat percentage, a QTL near DIK4482 was identified at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level when all families were analyzed together and at the 1% chromosome-wide significance level within the largest significant families. The different analyses yielded results that were generally consistent for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage. The order of the markers in the derived map was consistent with that in the consensus map. Some QTL and candidate genes in dairy cattle for milk production traits are probably preserved in Bos taurus and Bos indicus. PMID:21257065

Silva, A A; Azevedo, A L S; Verneque, R S; Gasparini, K; Peixoto, M G C D; da Silva, M V G B; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Machado, M A

2011-02-01

448

Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (P<0.001). For OC the expected liking was significantly higher (P<0.001) than the perceived liking expressed in blind conditions (negative disconfirmation), whereas for CC the expected liking was significantly lower (P<0.001) than the perceived liking expressed in blind conditions (positive disconfirmation). Consumers assimilated their liking for OC in the direction of expectations, as the difference actual vs. perceived liking was significant (P<0.001). However the assimilation was not complete, as also the difference actual liking vs. expected liking was significant (P<0.001). Consumers showed a willingness to pay OC (mean+/-se=4.20+/-0.13 euro/100 g) higher than the local retail price for conventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms. PMID:20196900

Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

2010-03-03

449

PilA localization affects extracellular polysaccharide production and fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed

Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of complex developmental processes involving vegetative swarming and fruiting body formation. Social (S-) gliding motility, one of the two motility systems used by M. xanthus, requires at least two cell surface structures: type IV pili (TFP) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). Extended TFP that are composed of thousands of copies of PilA retract upon binding to EPS and thereby pull the cell forward. TFP also act as external sensor to regulate EPS production. In this study, we generated a random PilA mutant library and identified one derivative, SW1066, which completely failed to undergo developmental processes. Detailed characterization revealed that SW1066 produced very little EPS but wild-type amounts of PilA. These mutated PilA subunits, however, are unable to assemble into functional TFP despite their ability to localize to the membrane. By preventing the mutated PilA of SW1066 to translocate from the cytoplasm to the membrane, fruiting body formation and EPS production were restored to the levels observed in mutant strains lacking PilA. This apparent connection between PilA membrane accumulation and reduction in surface EPS implies that specific cellular PilA localization are required to maintain the EPS level necessary to sustain normal S-motility in M. xanthus. PMID:20444090

Yang, Zhe; Lux, Renate; Hu, Wei; Hu, Chuhong; Shi, Wenyuan

2010-04-23

450

PilA localization affects extracellular polysaccharide production and fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus  

PubMed Central

Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium capable of complex developmental processes involving vegetative swarming and fruiting body formation. Social (S-) gliding motility, one of the two motility systems employed by M. xanthus, requires at least two cell surface structures: type IV pili (TFP) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). Extended TFP which are composed of thousands of copies of PilA retract upon binding to EPS and thereby pull the cell forward. TFP also act as external sensor to regulate EPS production. In this study, we generated a random PilA mutant library and identified one derivative, SW1066, which completely failed to undergo developmental processes. Detailed characterization revealed that SW1066 produced very little EPS but wild-type amounts of PilA. These mutated PilA subunits, however, are unable to assemble into functional TFP despite their ability to localize to the membrane. By preventing the mutated PilA of SW1066 to translocate from the cytoplasm to the membrane, fruiting body formation and EPS production was restored to the levels observed in mutant strains lacking PilA. This apparent connection between PilA membrane accumulation and reduction in surface EPS implies that specific cellular PilA localization are required to maintain the EPS level necessary to sustain normal S-motilityin M. xanthus.

Yang, Zhe; Lux, Renate; Hu, Wei; Hu, Chuhong; Shi, Wenyuan

2010-01-01

451

Egg-Laying "Intermorphs" in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage  

PubMed Central

We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ?1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic.

Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jurgen

2013-01-01

452

Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide supplementation affects nutrient digestibility, fermentation end-product production, and large bowel microbiota of the dog.  

PubMed

A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained increased concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of DM. Adult dogs assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design were fed 6 diets, each containing a different concentration of supplemental GGMO (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) that replaced dietary cellulose. Total tract DM and OM apparent digestibilities increased (P < 0.001) linearly, whereas total tract CP apparent digestibility decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acids increased (P ? 0.001) linearly, whereas butyrate concentration decreased (P ? 0.001) linearly with increasing dietary concentrations of GGMO. Fecal pH decreased (P ? 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased, whereas fecal score increased quadratically (P ? 0.001). Fecal phenol (P ? 0.05) and indole (P ? 0.01) concentrations decreased linearly with GGMO supplementation. Fecal biogenic amine concentrations were not different among treatments except for phenylethylamine, which decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal microbial concentrations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium perfringens were not different among treatments. A quadratic increase (P ? 0.01) was noted for Bifidobacterium spp. as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. The data suggest positive nutritional properties of supplemental GGMO when incorporated in a good-quality dog food. PMID:20852078

Faber, T A; Hopkins, A C; Middelbos, I S; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

2010-09-17

453

Torque and Rotational Speed Estimation with Parameter Identification of Line-Start Induction Motor for Motor-Operated Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for estimating the torque and rotational speed of line-start induction motors for motor-operated valves. Routine inspections of the valves are carried out because motor-operated valves are used in momentous plants such as power plants where securing, the reliability of the valves are very important. Movement environments in these plants are characterized by high temperature and humidity and therefore, it is difficult to position sensors near motors. In such a case, we must troubleshoot the system without using torque or speed sensors. The proposed method can estimate the torque and speed of an induction motor by using currents and voltages near the switchboard. Furthermore, we propose the parameter identification of mutual inductance by comparing the scalar and vector products between currents and voltages. The proposed method is validated by experimental results.

Takahashi, Akiko; Oguro, Ryuichi; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Nagaiwa, Keiichiro

454

A Possible Output Area of Torque and Suspension Force in a Switched Reluctance Type Bearingless Motor with One Phase Excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switched reluctance type bearingless motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. Therefore, these motors can control radial rotor positions with magnetic force actively. Production of suspension force for rotor shaft magnetic suspension is explained with differential stator windings. In the previous paper, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force generated by one phase excitation were derived from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. From the derived theoretical formulae, it is found that there exist cross coupling between the instantaneous torque and the suspension force. This paper derives a possible output area of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force considering the cross coupling in order to realize a stable operation. It is shown with experimental results that the possible output area of the proposed motors is very accurate in terms of practical application.

Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

455

A Possible Output Area of Torque and Suspension Force in a Switched Reluctance Type Bearingless Motor with One Phase Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switched reluctance type bearingless motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. Therefore, these motors can control radial rotor positions with magnetic force actively. Production of suspension force for rotor shaft magnetic suspension is explained with differential stator windings. In the previous paper, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force generated by one phase

Masatsugu Takemoto; Akira Chiba; Hirofumi Akagi; Tadashi Fukao

2004-01-01

456

Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate potential tuber yield at a commercial scale. The performance test shows that it can then be used to forecast harvest time, and also as an effective tool to predict the suitability of potential regions to the cultivation of potato crop, cultivar Itararé, at the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

457

Laying hen productivity as affected by energy, supplemental fat, and linoleic acid concentration of the diet.  

PubMed

A trial using 720 Isabrown hens was conducted to determine the influence of energy (AMEn), supplemental fat (SFAT), and linolenic acid (LIN) concentration of the diet on performance and weight of eggs and egg components throughout the laying cycle (22 to 65 wk of age). There were six treatments whose calculated AMEn, SFAT, and LIN content were, respectively: 1) 2,810 kcal/kg, 0%, 1.15%; 2) 2,810 kcal/kg, 4%, 1.15%; 3) 2,810 kcal/kg, 4%, 1.65%; 4) 2,680 kcal/kg, 0%, 1.15%; 5) 2,680 kcal/kg, 4%, 1.15%; and 6) 2,680 kcal/kg, 4%, and 1.65%. All diets were formulated to have the same crude protein, lysine, TSAA, calcium, and nonphytin phosphorus levels per kilocalorie of AMEn. The data were analyzed with SFAT constant (4%) and AMEn, and LIN variables (Diets 2, 3, 5, and 6) and with LIN constant (1.15%) and AMEn and SFAT variables (Diets 1, 2, 4, and 5). When LIN was maintained at a constant of 1.15%, an increase in the AMEn of the diets from 2,680 to 2,810 kcal/kg decreased feed intake by 4% (P < 0.001). Increasing AMEn also improved feed conversion per dozen eggs and per kilogram of eggs by 4.9 and 4.7% (P < 0.05), respectively, and increased BW gain by 55.7% (P < 0.05). Egg production rate, egg weight, egg mass output, and energy intake were not modified by treatments. An increase in SFAT within both energy levels from 0 to 4% improved all of the traits studied except feed conversion. Supplemental fat increased both yolk and albumen weight, but the effect was more pronounced on the latter. When SFAT was maintained constant at 4%, an increase in AMEn of the diets decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion per dozen and per kilogram of eggs by 5.7, 5.5, and 5.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). An increase in LIN content from 1.15 to 1.65% did not modify any of the parameters studied. The results indicate that SFAT consistently improves productivity of hens and egg weight and that the LIN requirement for maximal productivity is 1.15% or less. The beneficial effects of adding SFAT to diets containing more than 1.15% LIN are due to the fat itself rather than to an increase in LIN or AMEn of the diet. PMID:10560827

Grobas, S; Mendez, J; De Blas, C; Mateos, G G

1999-11-01

458

Algorithm for calculating torque base in vehicle traction control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing research on the traction control system(TCS) mainly focuses on control methods, such as the PID control, fuzzy logic control, etc, aiming at achieving an ideal slip rate of the drive wheel over long control periods. The initial output of the TCS (referred to as the torque base in this paper), which has a great impact on the driving performance of the vehicle in early cycles, remains to be investigated. In order to improve the control performance of the TCS in the first several cycles, an algorithm is proposed to determine the torque base. First, torque bases are calculated by two different methods, one based on states judgment and the other based on the vehicle dynamics. The confidence level of the torque base calculated based on the vehicle dynamics is also obtained. The final torque base is then determined based on the two torque bases and the confidence level. Hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) simulation and vehicle tests emulating sudden start on low friction roads have been conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. The control performance of a PID-controlled TCS with and without the proposed torque base algorithm is compared, showing that the proposed algorithm improves the performance of the TCS over the first several cycles and enhances about 5% vehicle speed by contrast. The proposed research provides a more proper initial value for TCS control, and improves the performance of the first several control cycles of the TCS.

Li, Hongzhi; Li, Liang; Song, Jian; Wu, Kaihui; Qiao, Yanjuan; Liu, Xingchun; Xia, Yongguang

2012-11-01

459

Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.  

PubMed

The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples. PMID:23262008

Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

2012-11-29

460

Investigation of the factors affecting adult fly production in biosolid cake.  

PubMed

The seasonal pattern of adult fly production in both fresh and aged biosolid cake was established by the exposure of biosolid cake to natural conditions in the central coastal region of Perth, Western Australia, over the course of a year. Relationships between fly emergence and six factors (weeks exposed, pH, NH(4), rainfall, temperature, and moisture) suspected of facilitating the attraction of adult flies to biosolid cake were measured. The aim was to study the production of adult flies with regard to weeks exposed in different seasons to establish a "best practice" storage procedure for aged biosolid cake. Four fly species were collected during the study; Musca domestica L. (house fly), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (stable fly), Fannia canicularis L. (lesser house fly), and Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (false stable fly). Of the 5,303 flies identified, >97% of these were either M. domestica or S. calcitrans. Adult flies emerged from biosolid cake all year round with a sharp decline in winter. The number of emerged flies peaked in summer (3,163 flies) and declined during autumn (1,545 flies) and spring (532 flies). Significant positive relationships were observed between the number of adult flies emerging from biosolid cake and ambient temperature, NH(4) content, and weeks exposed. Higher ambient temperatures and a higher NH(4) content of the biosolid cake were associated with increased number of adult flies emerging from the biosolid cake. Similarly, the majority of flies emerged from biosolid cake in the first 10 wk of exposure to fly activity. PMID:19508771

Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

2009-06-01

461

Phenotypes and gene expression profiles of Saccharopolyspora erythraea rifampicin-resistant (rif) mutants affected in erythromycin production  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence from previous works that bacterial secondary metabolism may be stimulated by genetic manipulation of RNA polymerase (RNAP). In this study we have used rifampicin selection as a strategy to genetically improve the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Results Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif) mutants were isolated from the parental strain NRRL2338 and two rif mutations mapping within rpoB, S444F and Q426R, were characterized. With respect to the parental strain, S444F mutants exhibited higher respiratory performance and up to four-fold higher final erythromycin yields; in contrast, Q426R mutants were slow-growing, developmental-defective and severely impaired in erythromycin production. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that these rif mutations deeply changed the transcriptional profile of S. erythraea. The expression of genes coding for key enzymes of carbon (and energy) and nitrogen central metabolism was dramatically altered in turn affecting the flux of metabolites through erythromycin feeder pathways. In particular, the valine catabolic pathway that supplies propionyl-CoA for biosynthesis of the erythromycin precursor 6-deoxyerythronolide B was strongly up-regulated in the S444F mutants, while the expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster of erythromycin (ery) was not significantly affected. In contrast, the ery cluster was down-regulated (<2-fold) in the Q426R mutants. These strains also exhibited an impressive stimulation of the nitrogen regulon, which may contribute to lower erythromycin yields as erythromycin production was strongly inhibited by ammonium. Conclusion Rifampicin selection is a simple and reliable tool to investigate novel links between primary and secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in S. erythraea and to improve erythromycin production. At the same time genome-wide analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays allowed information to be gained about the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory/inhibitory effects of the rif mutations on erythromycin production.

Carata, Elisabetta; Peano, Clelia; Tredici, Salvatore M; Ferrari, Francesco; Tala, Adelfia; Corti, Giorgio; Bicciato, Silvio; De Bellis, Gianluca; Alifano, Pietro

2009-01-01

462

Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.

Gipper, Patrick D.

463

Surface modification of clutch plates to reduce disengaged drag torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscous drag torque in disengaged clutches is a significant source of power loss in modern transportation. The main way to reduce this drag torque is to introduce air between the plates when disengaged without reducing the transmission fluid flow eventually needed for reengagement. Six different groove patterns are tested experimentally to determine which have the lowest drag characteristics. Our computations using Fluent showed that the contact angle made by oil with the stationary plate is critical in determining aeration initiation. Experiments coating the stationary plate with an oleophobic substance like Teflon, confirmed these simulations. We will show torque comparisons and visualization through a quartz disk acting as one of the clutch plates.

Aphale, Chinar R.

2005-11-01

464

Time Domain Mapping of Spin Torque Oscillator Effective Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic dynamics of spin torque oscillators can be described in terms of magnetization drift and diffusion over a current-dependent effective energy surface given by the Fokker-Planck equation. Here we present a method that directly probes this effective energy surface via time-resolved measurements of the microwave voltage generated by a spin torque oscillator. We show that the effective energy approach provides a simple recipe for predicting spectral linewidths and line shapes near the generation threshold. Our time domain technique also accurately measures the fieldlike component of spin torque in a wide range of the voltage bias values.

Rowlands, Graham E.; Katine, Jordan A.; Langer, Juergen; Zhu, Jian; Krivorotov, Ilya N.

2013-08-01

465

Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1, a control diet (CON1) and diets supplemented with 56 mg of DADS/kg of dry matter (DM), 3g of YP/kg of DM, or 25 g of CAFU/kg of DM were evaluated. In experiment 2, an inert saturated fat source in the control diet (CON2) was exchanged isolipidically for an extruded linseed source (100g/kg of DM; UNSAT) or a mixture of C8:0 and C10:0 (MCFA; 20.3g/kg of DM). In experiment 2, a higher inclusion level of DADS (200mg/kg of DM) was also tested. Both experiments were conducted using 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 d and were subsequently kept in respiration chambers for 5 d to evaluate methane production, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance. Feed intake was restricted to avoid confounding effects of possible differences in ad libitum feed intake on methane production. Feed intake was, on average, 17.5 and 16.6 kg of DM/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. None of the additives reduced methane production in vivo. Methane production in experiment 1 was 450, 453, 446, and 423 g/d for CON1 and the diets supplemented with DADS, YP, and CAFU, respectively. In experiment 2, methane production was 371, 394, 388, and 386 g/d for CON2 and the diets supplemented with UNSAT, MCFA, and DADS, respectively. No effects of the additives on energy balance or neutral detergent fiber digestibility were observed. The addition of MCFA increased milk fat content (5.38% vs. 4.82% for control) and fat digestibility (78.5% vs. 59.8% for control), but did not affect milk yield or other milk components. The other products did not affect milk yield or composition. Results from these experiments emphasize the need to confirm methane reductions observed in vitro with in vivo data. PMID:21605778

van Zijderveld, S M; Dijkstra, J; Perdok, H B; Newbold, J R; Gerrits, W J J

2011-06-01

466
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