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Sample records for affects torque production

  1. Torque Production in a Halbach Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated the investigation of torque production in a Halbach machine for the Levitated Ducted Fan (LDF) Project to obtain empirical data in determining the feasibility of using a Halbach motor for the project. LDF is a breakthrough technology for "Electric Flight" with the development of a clean, quiet, electric propulsor system. Benefits include zero emissions, decreased dependence on fossil fuels, increased efficiency, increased reliability, reduced maintenance, and decreased operating noise levels. A commercial permanent magnet brushless motor rotor was tested with a custom stator. An innovative rotor utilizing a Halbach array was designed and developed to fit directly into the same stator. The magnets are oriented at 90deg to the adjacent magnet, which cancels the magnetic field on the inside of the rotor and strengthens the field on the outside of the rotor. A direct comparison of the commercial rotor and the Halbach rotor was made. In addition, various test models were designed and developed to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that a Halbach array based motor can provide significant improvements in electric motor performance and reliability.

  2. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Maxwell, Don E; Beer, David

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introduced new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.

  3. Skinfold thickness affects the isometric knee extension torque evoked by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Flávia V. A.; Vieira, Amilton; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.; Bottaro, Martim; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Durigan, João L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT) on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. METHOD: First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm) vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm) SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01) while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01). A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017). A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness) affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies. PMID:26647748

  4. Technical Errors May Affect Accuracy of Torque Limiter in Locking Plate Osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savin, David D; Lee, Simon; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Pastor, Andrew; Garapati, Rajeev; Goldberg, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    In locking plate osteosynthesis, proper surgical technique is crucial in reducing potential pitfalls, and use of a torque limiter makes it possible to control insertion torque. We conducted a study of the ways in which different techniques can alter the accuracy of torque limiters. We tested 22 torque limiters (1.5 Nm) for accuracy using hand and power tools under different rotational scenarios: hand power at low and high velocity and drill power at low and high velocity. We recorded the maximum torque reached after each torque-limiting event. Use of torque limiters under hand power at low velocity and high velocity resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.49 (0.15) Nm and 3.73 (0.79) Nm. Use under drill power at controlled low velocity and at high velocity also resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.47 (0.14) Nm and 5.37 (0.90) Nm. Maximum single measurement obtained was 9.0 Nm using drill power at high velocity. Locking screw insertion with improper technique may result in higher than expected torque and subsequent complications. For torque limiters, the most reliable technique involves hand power at slow velocity or drill power with careful control of insertion speed until 1 torque-limiting event occurs. PMID:26991576

  5. Scattering and Extinction Torques: How Plasmon Resonances Affect the Orientation Behavior of a Nanorod in Linearly Polarized Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohao; Cheng, Chang; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-01-21

    Linearly polarized light can exert an orienting torque on plasmonic nanorods. The torque direction has generally been considered to change when the light wavelength passes through a plasmon longitudinal resonance. Here, we use the Maxwell stress tensor to evaluate this torque in general terms. According to distinct light-matter interaction processes, the total torque is decomposed into scattering and extinction torques. The scattering torque tends to orient plasmonic nanorods parallel to the light polarization, independent of the choice of light wavelength. The direction of the extinction torque is not only closely tied to the excitation of plasmon resonance but also depends on the specific plasmon mode around which the light wavelength is tuned. Our findings show that the conventional wisdom that simply associates the total torque with the plasmon longitudinal resonances needs to be replaced with an understanding based on the different torque components and the details of spectral distribution. PMID:26720710

  6. Current-induced spin torque resonance of magnetic insulators affected by field-like spin-orbit torques and out-of-plane magnetizations

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takahiro Takahashi, Saburo; Schreier, Michael; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2015-05-07

    The spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and a normal metal with spin-orbit interaction such as Pt is addressed theoretically. We model the ST-FMR for all magnetization directions and in the presence of field-like spin-orbit torques based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary conditions. ST-FMR experiments may expose crucial information about the spin-orbit coupling between currents and magnetization in the bilayers.

  7. Current-induced spin torque resonance of magnetic insulators affected by field-like spin-orbit torques and out-of-plane magnetizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Takahiro; Schreier, Michael; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo

    2015-05-01

    The spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as Y3Fe5O12 and a normal metal with spin-orbit interaction such as Pt is addressed theoretically. We model the ST-FMR for all magnetization directions and in the presence of field-like spin-orbit torques based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary conditions. ST-FMR experiments may expose crucial information about the spin-orbit coupling between currents and magnetization in the bilayers.

  8. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  9. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  10. Does Gracilis Tendon Harvest During ACL Reconstruction with a Hamstring Autograft Affect Torque of Muscles Responsible for Shin Rotation?

    PubMed Central

    Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a combined semitendinosus and gracilis (STGR) graft there are large deficits in the internal rotation strength, which has led some authors to recommend harvest of only ST tendon whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the isometric (IT) and peak torque (PT) of the muscles responsible for shin rotation in patients after ACLR with an ST or with an STGR graft. Material/Methods Twenty patients with an ST graft and 20 patients with a combined STGR graft underwent a 6-month postoperative rehabilitation program after ACLR. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the IT and PT of the muscles responsible for internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the shin were measured. The results were compared to the results of a control group. Additionally, to determine the reliability of the dynamometer for clinical research, a test-retest assessment was performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups of participants. Nevertheless, in the STGR group there was a statistically significant difference between the IT of muscles internally rotating the shin in the involved knee and uninvolved knee at 25° of the internal shin rotation. Conclusions Comparison of IT and PT measurements performed after 24 weeks of postoperative rehabilitation generally showed no differences between patients after ACLR with the use of ST graft and patients who received a combination graft consisting of STGR. Nevertheless, there was an influence of GR harvest on internal shin rotation torque at a deep internal rotation angle. PMID:26190033

  11. Low-level laser therapy affects osseointegration in titanium implants: resonance frequency, removal torque, and histomorphometric analysis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a diode gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) low-level laser device on the healing and attachment of titanium implants in bone. Materials and Methods Thirteen New Zealand white male rabbits weighing 3.0±0.5 kg were used for this study. Dental titanium implants (3.75 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length, US II RBM plus fixture; Osstem, Seoul, Korea) were implanted into both femurs of each rabbit. The rabbits were randomly divided into a LLLT group and a control group. The LLLT was initiated immediately after surgery and then repeated daily for 7 consecutive days in the LLLT group. Six weeks and 12 weeks after implantation, we evaluated and compared the osseointegration of the LLLT group and control group, using histomorphometric analysis, removal torque testing, and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The results were statistically significant when the level of probability was 0.05 or less based on a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The implant survival rate was about 96%. Histologically and histomorphometrically, we observed that the titanium implants were more strongly attached in LLLT group than in control group. However, there was no significant difference between the LLLT group and control group in removal torque or RFA. Conclusion Histologically, LLLT might promote cell-level osseointegration of titanium implants, but there was no statistically significant effects. PMID:26904488

  12. Torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fgeppert, E.

    1984-09-01

    Mechanical means for sensing turning torque generated by the load forces in a rotary drive system is described. The sensing means is designed to operate with minimal effect on normal operation of the drive system. The invention can be employed in various drive systems, e.g., automotive engine-transmission power plants, electric motor-operated tools, and metal cutting machines. In such drive systems, the torque-sensing feature may be useful for actuation of various control devices, such as electric switches, mechanical clutches, brake actuators, fluid control valves, or audible alarms. The torque-sensing function can be used for safety overload relief, motor de-energization, engine fuel control transmission clutch actuation, remote alarm signal, tool breakage signal, etc.

  13. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  14. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  15. Factors affecting production of catalase by Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Wagner, D L; Veltri, B J; Gregory, E M

    1978-01-01

    Several variables affected the production of catalase by members of the "Bacteroides fragilis group" of anaerobic bacteria. Both media yielded higher catalase levels than the respective agar media. Addition of hemin to media after autoclave sterilization, rather than before, significantly increased production of catalase. Both of these variables could be related to the available hemin concentration present in the medium being tested. Significantly higher amounts of hemin were required for catalase production than were required for growth. For catalase production by B. fragilis ATCC 25285, 1 microgram of hemin per ml was required. Of the various media tested, the use of chopped meat broth resulted in the highest levels of catalase production (up to 50 to 60 U of catalase per mg of protein). Of the various species and DNA homology groups tested, strains of B. fragilis and Bacteroides distasonis were catalase positive. Strains of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, and Bacteroides eggerthi possessed variable catalase activity. Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and DNA homology groups "3452A" and "subsp. a" were catalase negative. A catalase well test, in which equal volumes of 3% H2O2 and chopped meat culture are mixed, is described and recommended for routine catalase tests. PMID:730827

  16. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  17. Affect-induced changes in speech production.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jennifer; Paus, Tomás

    2002-10-01

    To determine how sad affect (or brief sad mood) interacts with paralinguistic aspects of speech, we investigated the effect of a happy or sad mood induction on speech production in 49 healthy volunteers. Several speech parameters measuring speech rate, loudness and pitch were examined before and after a standardized mood-induction procedure that involved viewing facial expressions. Speech samples were collected during the self-initiated reading of emotionally "neutral" sentences; there was no explicit demand to produce mood-congruent speech. Results indicated that, after the mood induction, the speech of participants in the sad group was slower, quieter and more monotonous than the speech of participants in the happy group. This speech paradigm provides a model for studying how changes in mood states interact with the motor control of speech. PMID:12355282

  18. Hex ball torque test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, B. A.; Foster, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed on four flight-type hex ball universal joints in order to characterize and determine the actual load-carrying capability of this device. The universal joint is a part of manual actuation rods for scientific instruments within the Hubble Space Telescope. It was found that the hex ball will bind slightly during the initial load application. This binding did not affect the function of the universal joint, and the units would wear-in after a few additional loading cycles. The torsional yield load was approximately 50 ft-lb, and was consistent among the four test specimens. Also, the torque required to cause complete failure exceeded 80 ft-lb. It is concluded that the hex ball universal joint is suitable for its intended applications.

  19. Variability in Laboratory vs. Field Testing of Peak Power, Torque, and Time of Peak Power Production Among Elite Bicycle Motocross Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variation in elite male bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists' peak power, torque, and time of power production during laboratory and field-based testing. Eight elite male BMX riders volunteered for the study, and each rider completed 3 maximal sprints using both a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) ergometer in the laboratory and a portable SRM power meter on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The results revealed a significantly higher peak power (p ≤ 0.001, 34 ± 9%) and reduced time of power production (p ≤ 0.001, 105 ± 24%) in the field tests when compared with laboratory-derived values. Torque was also reported to be lower in the laboratory tests but not to an accepted level of significance (p = 0.182, 6 ± 8%). These results suggest that field-based testing may be a more effective and accurate measure of a BMX rider's peak power, torque, and time of power production. PMID:26313579

  20. Establishing a relationship between maximum torque production of isolated joints to simulate EVA ratchet push-pull maneuver: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Abhilash; Maida, James; Hasson, Scott; Greenisen, Michael; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    As manned exploration of space continues, analytical evaluation of human strength characteristics is critical. These extraterrestrial environments will spawn issues of human performance which will impact the designs of tools, work spaces, and space vehicles. Computer modeling is an effective method of correlating human biomechanical and anthropometric data with models of space structures and human work spaces. The aim of this study is to provide biomechanical data from isolated joints to be utilized in a computer modeling system for calculating torque resulting from any upper extremity motions: in this study, the ratchet wrench push-pull operation (a typical extravehicular activity task). Established here are mathematical relationships used to calculate maximum torque production of isolated upper extremity joints. These relationships are a function of joint angle and joint velocity.

  1. A Comparison of the Effect of Kettlebell Swings and Isolated Lumbar Extension Training on Acute Torque Production of the Lumbar Extensors.

    PubMed

    Edinborough, Luke; P Fisher, James; Steele, James

    2016-05-01

    Edinborough, L, Fisher, JP, and Steele, J. A comparison of the effect of kettlebell swings and isolated lumbar extension training on acute torque production of the lumbar extensors. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1189-1195, 2016-The aim of this study was to use a fatigue response test to measure the muscular fatigue (defined as a reduction in torque production) sustained by the lumbar extensors after a single set of kettlebell swings (KBS) in comparison with isolated lumbar extensions (ILEX) and a control condition (CON). The purpose of which is to measure the physiological response of KBS against an already established modality. Subsequent data provide insight of the efficacy of kettlebells swings in strengthening the lumbar muscles and lower back pain treatment. Eight physically active males participated in a repeated measures design where participants completed all conditions. There were statistically significant reductions in maximal torque, reported as strength index (SI), after both KBS and ILEX exercise. A statistically significant difference was found for reductions in maximal torque between CON and both KBS (p = 0.005) and ILEX (p = 0.001) and between KBS and ILEX (p = 0.039). Mean reduction and effect sizes were -1824 ± 1127.12 (SI) and -1.62 for KBS and -4775.6 ± 1593.41 (SI) and -3.00 for ILEX. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between KBS and ILEX for rate of perceived exertion (p = 0.012). Data suggest that both KBS and ILEX were able to fatigue the lumbar extensors. Isolated lumbar extension was able to generate a greater level of fatigue. However, contrary to previous research, the KBS was able to elicit a physiological response, despite the lack of pelvic restraint supporting the potential to strengthen the lumbar extensors. PMID:26439790

  2. Parameters Affecting Solvent Production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    PubMed Central

    Dabrock, Birgit; Bahl, Hubert; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/100 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol. PMID:16348691

  3. Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. )

    1992-04-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

  4. Coordination of muscle torques stabilizes upright standing posture: an UCM analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunse; Reimann, Hendrik; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    The control of upright stance is commonly explained on the basis of the single inverted pendulum model (ankle strategy) or the double inverted pendulum model (combination of ankle and hip strategy). Kinematic analysis using the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach suggests, however, that stability in upright standing results from coordinated movement of multiple joints. This is based on evidence that postural sway induces more variance in joint configurations that leave the body position in space invariant than in joint configurations that move the body in space. But does this UCM structure of kinematic variance truly reflect coordination at the level of the neural control strategy or could it result from passive biomechanical factors? To address this question, we applied the UCM approach at the level of muscle torques rather than joint angles. Participants stood on the floor or on a narrow base of support. We estimated torques at the ankle, knee, and hip joints using a model of the body dynamics. We then partitioned the joint torques into contributions from net, motion-dependent, gravitational, and generalized muscle torques. A UCM analysis of the structure of variance of the muscle torque revealed that postural sway induced substantially more variance in directions in muscle torque space that leave the Center of Mass (COM) force invariant than in directions that affect the force acting on the COM. This difference decreased when we decorrelated the muscle torque data by randomizing across time. Our findings show that the UCM structure of variance exists at the level of muscle torques and is thus not merely a by-product of biomechanical coupling. Because muscle torques reflect neural control signals more directly than joint angles do, our results suggest that the control strategy for upright stance involves the task-specific coordination of multiple degrees of freedom. PMID:26879770

  5. Light-Torqued Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith; Kourmanov, Bakhit; Walker, Thad

    2003-03-01

    Light torques that use polarization are a novel and important way to control nanoparticles, to produce nanomotors, and to measure fundamental properties of individual nanoparticles. They are a potentially powerful tool for investigating rheological nanoenvironments and biomolecular motors. Here we study light torques applied to 250 nm diameter glass nanorods in a single-beam optical trap. Light-torque operated nanomotors move at speeds that depend on the torque magnitude, the viscosity of the surrounding medium, and the rotation rate of the electric field vector of the linearly polarized trapping light. We will also discuss the surprising observation of nanorocker behavior.

  6. Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

  7. Angular Acceleration Without Torque?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.2

  8. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  9. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  10. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  11. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  12. The torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium “rotor-bead” experiments. PMID:25019813

  13. Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments.

  14. Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA.

    PubMed

    Banigan, Edward J; Marko, John F

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments. PMID:25019813

  15. Web-Based Foreign Language Reading: Affective and Productive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pedagogically guided web-based reading can improve skimming and scanning significantly (i.e., increased productive outcomes) and whether it can enhance student participation and motivation (i.e., increased affective outcomes). Forty-six students enrolled in two German 3 classes at the high school level were…

  16. Electromagnetic Torque in Tokamaks with Toroidal Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Nikolas Christopher

    Toroidal rotation and rotation shear strongly influences stability and confinement in tokamaks. Breaking of the toroidal symmetry by fields orders of magnitude smaller than the axisymmetric field can, however, produce electromagnetic torques that significantly affect the plasma rotation, stability and confinement. These electromagnetic torques are the study of this thesis. There are two typical types of electromagnetic torques in tokamaks: 1) "resonant torques" for which a plasma current defined by a single toroidal and single poloidal harmonic interact with external currents and 2) "nonresonant torques" for which the global plasma response to nonaxisymmetric fields is phase shifted by kinetic effects that drive the rotation towards a neoclassical offset. This work describes the diagnostics and analysis necessary to evaluate the torque by measuring the rate of momentum transfer per unit area in the vacuum region between the plasma and external currents using localized magnetic sensors to measure the Maxwell stress. These measurements provide model independent quantification of both the resonant and nonresonant electromagnetic torques, enabling direct verification of theoretical models. Measured values of the nonresonant torque are shown to agree well with the perturbed equilibrium nonambipolar transport (PENT) code calculation of torque from cross field transport in nonaxisymmetric equilibria. A combined neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory, valid across a wide range of kinetic regimes, is fully implemented for the first time in general aspect ratio and shaped plasmas. The code captures pitch angle resonances, reproducing previously inaccessible collisionality limits in the model. The complete treatment of the model enables benchmarking to the hybrid kinetic MHD stability codes MARS-K and MISK, confirming the energy-torque equivalency principle in perturbed equilibria. Experimental validations of PENT results confirm the torque applied by nonaxisymmetric coils is often proportional to the energy put into the dominant ideal MHD kink mode. This reduces the control of nonresonant torque to a single mode model, enabling efficient feed forward optimization of applied fields. Initial results including the anisotropic kinetic pressure tensor directly in the plasma eigenmode calculations are presented here, and may eventually provide accurate metrics for multimodal coupling similar to the established single mode metrics.

  17. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  18. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  19. Effect of stripe height on the critical current density of spin-torque noise in a tunneling magnetoresistive read head with a low resistance area product below 1.0 Ω μm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yasushi Fan, Peng; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-05-07

    To understand the spin-torque effect on the noise in tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) read heads, the GHz range noise spectra of TMR read heads with a narrow track width (w = 36 nm), and various stripe heights (h) are investigated as a function of the external magnetic field (H{sub ex}) and dc bias current density (j). The strong noise peak intensity depends on both H{sub ex} and j, indicating that the spin-torque affects the thermal mag-noise under a positive (negative) j for a positive (negative) H{sub ex}, regardless of h in the TMR heads. Due to the increased shape anisotropy, the critical current density (j{sub c}), where the non-thermal fluctuation noise originates from the spin-torque, increases markedly as the head dimension is reduced, and the maximum value of j{sub c} is approximately +1.5 × 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2} for a head with w = 36 nm and h = 15 nm. These results demonstrate that the non-thermal fluctuation noise originating from the spin-torque in the TMR head can be suppressed in the current density range below 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, as the head dimension is reduced and the shape anisotropy is increased.

  20. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  1. MET2 affects production of hydrogen sulfide during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    The production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during yeast fermentation contributes negatively to wine aroma. We have mapped naturally occurring mutations in commercial wine strains that affect production of H2S. A dominant R310G mutant allele of MET2, which encodes homoserine O-acetyltransferase, is present in several wine yeast strains as well as in the main lab strain S288c. Reciprocal hemizygosity and allele swap experiments demonstrated that the MET2 R310G allele confers reduced H2S production. Mutations were also identified in genes encoding the two subunits of sulfite reductase, MET5 and MET10, which were associated with reduced H2S production. The most severe of these, an allele of MET10, showed five additional phenotypes: reduced growth rate on sulfate, elevated secretion of sulfite, and reduced production in wine of three volatile sulfur compounds: methionol, carbon disulfide and methylthioacetate. Alleles of MET5 and MET10, but not MET2, affected H2S production measured by colour assays on BiGGY indicator agar, but MET2 effects were seen when bismuth was added to agar plates made with Sauvignon blanc grape juice. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that H2S production during wine fermentation results predominantly from enzyme activity in the sulfur assimilation pathway. Lower H2S production results from mutations that reduce the activity of sulfite reductase, the enzyme that produces H2S, or that increase the activity of L-homoserine-O-acetyltransferase, which produces substrate for the next step in the sulfur assimilation pathway. PMID:24841117

  2. Food and predators affect egg production in song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael; Smith, James N M

    2006-10-01

    Although the possibility that food and predators may interact in limiting avian populations has long been recognized, there have been few attempts to test this experimentally in the field. We conducted a manipulative food addition experiment on the demography of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) across sites that varied in predator abundance, near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, over three consecutive breeding seasons. We previously showed that food and predators had interactive effects on annual reproductive success (young fledged per female). Here, we report the effects on egg production. Our results show that food limits the total number of eggs laid over the breeding season ("total egg production") and that interactive food and predator effects, including food effects on nest predation, determine how those eggs are "parceled out" into different nests. Food addition alone significantly affected total egg production, and there was no significant interannual variability in this result. At the same time, both food and predators affected the two determinants of total egg production: "clutch number" (total number of clutches laid) and average clutch size. Both clutch number and size were affected by a food x predator x year interaction. Clutch number was lower at low-predator locations because there was less nest predation and thus less renesting. Food addition also significantly reduced nest predation, but there was significant interannual variation in this effect. This interannual variation was responsible for the food x predator x year interactions because the larger the effect of food on nest predation in a given year, the smaller was the effect of food on clutch number; and the smaller the effect of food on clutch number, the larger was the effect of food on clutch size. Potential predator and year effects on total egg production were thus cancelled out by an inverse relationship between clutch number and clutch size. We suggest that combined food and predator effects on demography could be the norm in both birds and mammals. PMID:17089655

  3. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, “How does burnout affect physician productivity?” Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between burnout and productivity. However, there is variation depending on the type of productivity outcome examined. Conclusions There is evidence that burnout is associated with decreased productivity. However, this line of inquiry is still developing. A number of gaps are yet to be filled including understanding how to quantify the changes in productivity related to burnout. PMID:25066375

  4. Torques do not influence proprioceptive localization of the hand.

    PubMed

    Kuling, I A; Brenner, E; Smeets, J B J

    2015-01-01

    Because muscle torques counteracting gravity vary systematically during a movement of the arm, it has been suggested that torque differences that occur during a movement provide important information for judging the distance moved away from the body. To test this suggestion, we examined whether external vertical forces applied to the hand (and the torque differences due to these forces) influence proprioception. In a first experiment, the added vertical forces were constant, resulting in a change in torque that was proportional to the gravitational torque, as when holding an object in your hand. This did not affect proprioception. In a second experiment, gradient force fields were used to dramatically change the torque differences. Again, no effect on proprioception was found. Thus, vertical forces caused by hand-held objects do not play an important role in judging the position or movement of the hand. PMID:25200177

  5. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  6. Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) viral loads in serum of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected and healthy pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Wendlant, Adriéli; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Schmidt, Candice; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2015-08-01

    Associations between Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) and the occurrence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) have been reported with controversial results. Currently, no studies have been performed comparing simultaneously viral loads of TTSuVs and PCV2. To examine the role for TTSuVs in PMWS-affected animals, a SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) was designed to detect and quantify TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and PCV2 genomes in swine sera. TTSuV1 genome loads were significantly higher in healthy adults than in young and SPF animals (p<0.05) suggesting that the prevalence of TTSuV1 infection increases with age and bears no association with PMWS. Regarding TTSuV2, no significant variation was detected in viral loads within any of the groups. As expected, PCV2 genome loads were higher in PMWS-affected swine than in healthy or SPF animals (p<0.001). These findings provide clear evidence to indicate that neither TTSuV1 nor TTSuV2 viral loads have any correlation with the occurrence of PMWS. PMID:26267087

  7. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  8. Torque multiplier subsea tool

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, F. M.; Baugh, B. F.; Palany, H. C.

    1985-10-22

    A torque multiplier subsea tool for setting a seal between a casing hanger and a subsea wellhead includes a mandrel having a sun gear with axial elongate teeth. An outer barrel is disposed around the mandrel forming an annulus therebetween. A planetary gear assembly is disposed in the annulus between the barrel and the sun gear to transmit to the barrel a torque which is higher in magnitude than that applied to the mandrel. A connector body disposed around the mandrel, below the planetary gear assembly, includes radially movable dogs for engaging the casing hanger. The barrel engages the sealing assembly and transmits the increased torque thereto to advance the sealing assembly downwards and to set the seal. The mandrel advances downwards with the sealing assembly and releases the dogs from the casing hanger. An emergency release mechanism is provided to advance the mandrel downwards to release the dogs in the event such downward movement is prevented during normal seal setting operation.

  9. Detailed methodology for determining torque limits to maximize preload for high-strength threaded fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissam, D. Andy

    High-strength threaded fasteners are an amazing product of engineering, and one of the most common methods of making structural attachments. They are frequently used in structural joints because of two important features: such fasteners allow disassembly and reassembly of the joint, and they can generate high clamping loads called preload. To achieve the full benefit of threaded fasteners, the initial preload must be maximized. The benefits of high preload are well documented and include improved fatigue resistance, increased joint stiffness, and better resistance to vibration loosening. For joints in shear, preload resists relative motion, or slip, of the clamped members. Many factors, like elastic interactions and embedment, tend to lower the initial preload placed on the fastener. These factors provide additional motivation to maximize the initial preload. Also, in aerospace applications, maximized preloads help to achieve the full structural capacity from the fasteners, thereby minimizing weight. Of the available methods for controlling fastener preload, "torque control" is the most common. Unfortunately, determining the torque to maximize preload is problematic and greatly complicated by the large preload scatter generally seen with torque control. This dissertation presents a detailed methodology for generating torque limits to maximize preload for high-strength threaded fasteners. The methodology accounts for the large scatter in preload found with torque control, and therefore, addresses the statistical challenges of dealing with preload uncertainty. In developing this methodology, the probabilities of yielding the bolt during installation were calculated. To calculate these probabilities, the expected scatter in effective stress had to be determined. The scatter (or uncertainty) in the bolt's effective stress was shown to be less than the scatter in bolt preload. This result was observed in the torque-tension test data and also predicted by propagation of uncertainty theory. Prevailing torque is the torque required to overcome a locking feature in a fastener. The locking feature, typically added to the nut, helps to maintain preload and provide resistance to vibration loosening. Using this methodology, the prevailing torque of each locking nut is measured at installation to ensure that it is within specification. However, the measured prevailing torque is not added to the specified torque limit because its effect is already included in the torque limit value. Prevailing torque was shown to slightly reduce the achievable preload. Finally, the methodology was developed for specific fastener combinations; defined as a specific bolt type, nut, washer, and lubricant. Since friction is known to be the main influence on preload and preload scatter, testing specific fastener combinations limits the variables that affect friction. Once a torque limit is determined for a specific fastener combination, it can be applied to any joint using that combination. Taking this approach eliminates the need and the cost of lot-specific or joint-specific testing. A wide range of torque-tension fastener testing was conducted in support of this work. The results from this research should enable design engineers and structural analysts to produce more optimized bolted joints, leading to better structural designs.

  10. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Ament, Kai; Krasikov, Vladimir; Allmann, Silke; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L W; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene encoding salicylic acid methyl transferase (SAMT). Silencing of SAMT led to a major reduction in SAMT expression and MeSA emission upon herbivory by spider mites, without affecting the induced emission of other volatiles (terpenoids). The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, which preys on T. urticae, could not discriminate between infested and non-infested SAMT-silenced lines, as it could for wild-type tomato plants. Moreover, when given the choice between infested SAMT-silenced and infested wild-type plants, they preferred the latter. These findings are supportive of a major role for MeSA in this indirect defence response of tomato. SAMT-silenced tomato plants were less susceptible to a virulent strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, indicating that the direct defense responses in the roots are also affected in these plants. Our studies show that the conversion of SA to MeSA can affect both direct and indirect plant defence responses. PMID:20059742

  11. Torque-Wrench Extension Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, T. J.; Trujillo, D. D.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Torque-wrench extension arm makes possible to apply torque to bolt, screw, or nut inaccessible to conventional wrenches or in areas where wrench cannot be manipulated. Used in narrow pockets and behind panels and walls.

  12. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  13. Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1993-01-01

    All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  14. Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1993-11-01

    All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  15. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-04-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ψ, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  16. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  17. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical

  18. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

  19. Mesoscale physical variability affects zooplankton production in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebra, L.; Harris, R. P.; Head, E. J. H.; Yashayaev, I.; Harris, L. R.; Hirst, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    Surface distribution (0-100 m) of zooplankton biomass and specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activity, as a proxy of structural growth, were assessed during winter 2002 and spring 2004 in the Labrador Sea. Two fronts formed by strong boundary currents, several anticyclonic eddies and a cyclonic eddy were studied. The spatial contrasts observed in seawater temperature, salinity and fluorescence, associated with those mesoscale structures, affected the distributions of both zooplankton biomass and specific AARS activity, particularly those of the smaller individuals. Production rates of large organisms (200-1000 ?m) were significantly related to microzooplankton biomass (63-200 ?m), suggesting a cascade effect from hydrography through microzooplankton to large zooplankton. Water masses defined the biomass distribution of the three dominant species: Calanus glacialis was restricted to cold waters on the shelves while Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus finmarchicus were widespread from Canada to Greenland. Zooplankton production was up to ten-fold higher inside anticyclonic eddies than in the surrounding waters. The recent warming tendency observed in the Labrador Sea will likely generate weaker convection and less energetic mesoscale eddies. This may lead to a decrease in zooplankton growth and production in the Labrador basin.

  20. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  1. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  2. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  3. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  4. A Fluctuating Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson; Gómez, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    The existence of a fluctuating torque generates a wide variety of possible orbits. This situation contrasts with those examples where the torque vanishes and the angular momentum remains constant. Here we study a two dimensional example with a logarithmic effective potential V(x,y)= 12,,^2o,[ x^2 + (y/b)^2], with a small deviation from the axis symmetry given by the constant b with b < 1. Briefly, the effective potential models the gravitational force exerted by the N point particles on a test object. This potential is used to learn about the dynamics of galaxies and among other features, generates a fluctuating torque which is our main interest here. There is not an analytical solution for these two equations of motion. A simple numerical approach (provided) is required. Also, a change on the initial conditions may generate a different shape for the orbit. This apparently simple potential, represents a challenge for the students. We propose it as a good pedagogical tool for reviewing the main concepts of newtonian dynamics.

  5. Surface action potentials related to torque output in paraplegics' electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    Rabischong, E

    1996-10-01

    We recorded in 15 complete paraplegic patients the torque output and the surface action potentials (SAP) produced by the electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle during an isometric contraction lasting 126 s. We studied the evolution during the test of the peak to peak amplitude, the latency from the onset of stimulation, the rising time to peak, the peak to peak duration, the area of the recorded SAPs and we tried to relate those data to the torque production. Results were extremely different among patients but the general behaviour facing this test was comparable. After a short increase the mechanical output decreased and reached a plateau (range from 7.13 to 53.5% of initial value). The peak to peak amplitude first increased and then decreased, and was not related to the torque production. The latency, the rising time to peak and the peak to peak duration continuously increased to a maximum and then plateaued or slightly decreased after different courses of time. The latency from the onset of stimulation was less affected by the test than the rising time to peak and the peak to peak duration. Therefore, the nerve conduction velocity and the neuromuscular junction transmission did not vary to a great extent compared to the muscle fibre conduction velocity. The area of the rectified SAPs first increased and then decreased and was not related to the torque decrease. PMID:8892238

  6. Nanowire spin torque oscillator driven by spin orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zheng; Smith, Andrew; Yang, Liu; Youngblood, Brian; Lindner, Jürgen; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O; Krivorotov, Ilya N

    2014-01-01

    Spin torque from spin current applied to a nanoscale region of a ferromagnet can act as negative magnetic damping and thereby excite self-oscillations of its magnetization. In contrast, spin torque uniformly applied to the magnetization of an extended ferromagnetic film does not generate self-oscillatory magnetic dynamics but leads to reduction of the saturation magnetization. Here we report studies of the effect of spin torque on a system of intermediate dimensionality--a ferromagnetic nanowire. We observe coherent self-oscillations of magnetization in a ferromagnetic nanowire serving as the active region of a spin torque oscillator driven by spin orbit torques. Our work demonstrates that magnetization self-oscillations can be excited in a one-dimensional magnetic system and that dimensions of the active region of spin torque oscillators can be extended beyond the nanometre length scale. PMID:25476073

  7. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  8. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern. PMID:25788237

  9. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  10. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  11. Casimir torque between nanostructured plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérout, R.; Genet, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate in detail the Casimir torque induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations between two nanostructured plates. Our calculations are based on the scattering approach and take into account the coupling between different modes induced by the shape of the surface which are neglected in any sort of proximity approximation or effective medium approach. We then present an experimental setup aiming at measuring this torque.

  12. Momentum Confinement at Low Torque

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, W M; Burrell, K H; deGrassie, J S; Budny, R; Groebner, R J; Heidbrink, W W; Kinsey, J E; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; Mikkelsen, D; Nazikian, R; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Scott, S D; Van Zeeland, M A; Zarnstorff, M C

    2007-06-26

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

  13. Cam-Design Torque Wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schick, P. H. J.; Gattuso, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    New Torque wrench for electrical connnectors automatically tightens its grip with increasing torque to insure against slippage. Tool requires only minimal clearance between connector and adjacent structures or components. Wrench is operated with one hand and can be used on connectors of various shapes.

  14. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  15. Discourse Goals Affect the Process and Product of Nominal Metaphor Production.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Akira; Sakamoto, Maki

    2015-10-01

    Although a large number of studies have addressed metaphor comprehension, only a few attempts have so far been made at exploring the process of metaphor production. Therefore, in this paper, we address the problem of how people generate nominal metaphors or identify an apt vehicle for a given topic of nominal metaphors. Specifically, we examine how the process and product of metaphor production differ between two discourse goals of metaphor, namely an explanatory purpose (e.g., to clarify) and a literary purpose (e.g., to aesthetically pleasing). Experiment 1 analyzed the metaphors (or vehicles) generated in the metaphor production task, and demonstrated that people identified more prototypical exemplars of the property to be attributed to the topic as a vehicle for explanatory metaphors than for literary metaphors. In addition, it was found that metaphors generated for the explanatory purpose were more apt and conventional, and had high topic-vehicle similarity than those generated for the literary purpose, while metaphors generated for the literary purpose were more familiar and imageable than those for the explanatory purpose. Experiment 2 used a priming paradigm to assess the online availability of prototypical and less prototypical members of the topic property during metaphor production. The result was that both prototypical and less prototypical members were activated in producing literary metaphors, while neither members were activated in the production of explanatory metaphors. These findings indicate that the process of metaphor production is affected by discourse goals of metaphor; less prototypical members of the category are searched for a vehicle during the production of literary metaphors, and thus literary metaphors are generated with less prototypical vehicles than explanatory metaphors. PMID:24924472

  16. Thermal Spin Transfer Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-03-01

    The coupling between spin and charge in electronic transport is studied in the field of spintronics. Heat currents are coupled to both charge and spin currents as well [1]. This extension of spintronics to what may be called ``spin caloritronics'' recently enjoys renewed attention [2]. The spin-transfer torque associated with electric currents can excite magnetizations in nanostructures, switching magnetic configuration in spin valves and move domain walls in magnetic wires when exceeding critical values of the order of 10^7Acm-2 [3]. Also heat currents transfer spin angular momentum [4], either intrinsically or via the thermoelectric generation of particle spin currents. We predict that temperature differences of the order of 100 K over typical metallic nanostructures cause effects equivalent to the critical charge current densities. In this talk I will give a brief review of various aspects of spin caloritronics with emphasis on thermal spin transfer torques. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Moosa Hatami, Qinfang Zhang, Paul Kelly, Hans Joakim Skadsem, Arne Brataas and Sadamichi Maekawa. [4pt] [1] M. Johnson and R.H. Silsbee, Phys. Rev. B 35, 4959 (1987).[0pt] [2] International Workshop on Spin Caloritronics, Lorentz Center of Leiden University, 9-13 February 2009, http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2009/323/info.php3?wsid=323[0pt] [3] D. C. Ralph and M. D. Stiles, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 1190 (2008).[0pt] [4] M. Hatami, G.E.W. Bauer, Q. Zhang, and P.J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 066603 (2007).

  17. Planting Date Affects Production and Quality of Grass Pea Forage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising cost of commercial nitrogen (N) fertilizer has generated interest in including legumes in cropping systems. Research on agronomic practices required to integrate legumes into cereal-based systems of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is required. This study examined how planting date affect...

  18. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  19. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children’s Lexical Production

    PubMed Central

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  20. Statistical frequency in perception affects children's lexical production.

    PubMed

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-06-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  1. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP, indicating the importance of newly synthesized non-structural carbohydrates for soil respiration. We conclude that the instant effect of soil temperature and transpiration in combination with the time-lagged effect of GPP governed the diel changes in soil CO2 production at our site. If measurements are carried out at night or during daytime only, then this can lead to considerable misinterpretations of CO2 production rates. Hence we recommend that estimates of respiration rates at a specific site should include both nocturnal and daytime processes.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF CARBONYL SULFIDE IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory studies indicate that the photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in seawater can result from the photosensitized reaction of organosulfur compounds. Because natural photosensitizers are more prevalent in coastal waters than the open ocean, these results...

  3. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  4. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; El-Sahn, Malak A; El-Banna, Amr A

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  5. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  6. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  7. How Soil Roughness Affects Runoff and Sediment Production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of soil surface roughness on runoff and sediment production have not been clearly quantified, mostly due to the lack of a logical separation between geometric (i.e., surface microtopography) and process (i.e., runoff generation, soil detachment by raindrop and runoff) scales. In this resea...

  8. Bacterial Community Affects Toxin Production by Gymnodinium catenatum

    PubMed Central

    Albinsson, Maria E.; Negri, Andrew P.; Blackburn, Susan I.; Bolch, Christopher J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01) and grown with: 1) complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2) simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3) a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell) of clonal offspring (134–197 fmol STX cell−1) was similar to the parent cultures (169–206 fmol STX cell−1), however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134–146 fmol STX cell−1) than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152–176 fmol STX cell−1). Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day−1) was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell−1 day−1) did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX production of dinoflagellates. In G. catenatum the mechanism appears likely to be due to bacterial effects on dinoflagellate physiology rather than bacterial biotransformation of PST toxins. PMID:25117053

  9. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  10. Quick torque coupling

    DOEpatents

    Luft, Peter A.

    2009-05-12

    A coupling for mechanically connecting modular tubular struts of a positioning apparatus or space frame, comprising a pair of toothed rings (10, 12) attached to separate strut members (16), the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12) mechanically interlocking in both an axial and circumferential manner, and a third part comprising a sliding, toothed collar (14) the teeth (22) of which interlock the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12), preventing them from disengaging, and completely locking the assembly together. A secondary mechanism provides a nesting force for the collar, and/or retains it. The coupling is self-contained and requires no external tools for installation, and can be assembled with gloved hands in demanding environments. No gauging or measured torque is required for assembly. The assembly can easily be visually inspected to determine a "go" or "no-go" status. The coupling is compact and relatively light-weight. Because of it's triply interlocking teeth, the connection is rigid. The connection does not primarily rely on clamps, springs or friction based fasteners, and is therefore reliable in fail-safe applications.

  11. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  12. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  13. Does thalidomide affect IL-2 response and production?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L P; Schlegel, P G; Baker, J; Chen, Y; Chao, N J

    1995-08-01

    The exact mechanism of immunosuppression by thalidomide is poorly understood. A common denominator in the pathogenesis of graft-vs.-host disease, graft rejection, reactional lepromatous leprosy, and autoimmune disorders modulated by thalidomide is the activation of T lymphocytes culminating in the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors, and the induction of proliferation. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on the production of IL-2 by the human leukemia cell line Jurkat through induction of IL-2 gene enhancer activity and through the presence of IL-2 in supernatants. beta-galactosidase activity, encoded by a reporter lac z construct and controlled by a transcription factor in thalidomide-treated PMA- and ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, was similar (97 +/- 1.33%; p > 0.1) to non-thalidomide-treated controls at all drug concentrations tested. IL-2 enhancer-driven beta-galactose activity of thalidomide-treated and stimulated cells was also similar to that of untreated controls (p > 0.2). The IL-2 production of activated nontransfected Jurkat cells was gauged by using the IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2 as a readout and by ELISA. Jurkat cells were subcloned by limiting dilution. Bulk cultures and three subclones (J.5.2.5., J.5.2.9., and J.5.3.8.) were assayed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after PHA/PMA-induced stimulation. No inhibitory effect on the IL-2 production by thalidomide could be detected at any of the drug concentrations tested (5-30 micrograms/mL), whereas 10 to 100 ng/mL of cyclosporine inhibited the IL-2 production by 95 to 100%. In addition, we observed neither inhibition of IL-2-dependent proliferation of HT-2 nor inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells by thalidomide at all drug concentrations used (5-30 micrograms/mL). These results do not support the possibility of a modulatory effect on the immune response by thalidomide via IL-2 production and IL-2 response. PMID:7635184

  14. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  15. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  16. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  17. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  18. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  19. Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources(1).

    PubMed

    Hofvendahl; Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-02-01

    Parameters affecting the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production are summarized and discussed: microorganism, carbon- and nitrogen-source, fermentation mode, pH, and temperature. LA production is compared in terms of LA concentration, LA yield and LA productivity. Also by-product formation and LA isomery are discussed. PMID:10689064

  20. Factors affecting growth and urease production by Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A L; El-Shanawany, A A; Omar, S A

    1996-01-01

    Among Trichophyton spp. examined for urease production, T. rubrum was negative, whereas T. mentagrophytes appeared to be the most active species. Urease was not detected in cell-free culture fluids of the tested fungi. The endocellular urease of the test fungi was essentially constitutive. Moreover, addition of urea to the growth medium of these organisms markedly inhibited their mycelial biomass and ureolytic yield. Environmental factors showed variable effects on the test fungi and there was no correlation between mycelial growth and urease activity of these fungi. PMID:9091827

  1. Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).

  2. Pressurized fluid torque driver control and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  3. Do You Get What You Deserve? Factors Affecting the Relationship between Productivity and Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Using a sample of 5,645 academics in 200 colleges and universities across all academic fields, this study investigates factors affecting the relationship between productivity, measured by publication, and pay. Results indicate that productivity significantly affected pay in private, high quality institutions and research-oriented departments.…

  4. Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

  5. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  7. How hollow melanosomes affect iridescent colour production in birds.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Chad M; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2013-09-22

    Developmental constraints and trade-offs can limit diversity, but organisms have repeatedly evolved morphological innovations that overcome these limits by expanding the range and functionality of traits. Iridescent colours in birds are commonly produced by melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) organized into nanostructured arrays within feather barbules. Variation in array type (e.g. multilayers and photonic crystals, PCs) is known to have remarkable effects on plumage colour, but the optical consequences of variation in melanosome shape remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of spectrophotometric, experimental and theoretical methods to test how melanosome hollowness--a morphological innovation largely restricted to birds--affects feather colour. Optical analyses of hexagonal close-packed arrays of hollow melanosomes in two species, wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and violet-backed starlings (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), indicated that they function as two-dimensional PCs. Incorporation of a larger dataset and optical modelling showed that, compared with solid melanosomes, hollow melanosomes allow birds to produce distinct colours with the same energetically favourable, close-packed configurations. These data suggest that a morphological novelty has, at least in part, allowed birds to achieve their vast morphological and colour diversity. PMID:23902909

  8. Sequences affecting the regulation of solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Miles C; Huang, Ke-xue; Harrison, Mary L; Rudolph, Frederick B; Bennett, George N

    2003-07-01

    The high solvent phenotype of Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants B and H was complemented by the introduction of a plasmid that contains either an intact or partially-deleted copy of solR, restoring acetone and butanol production to wild-type levels. This demonstrates that the solR open reading frame on pSOLThi is not required to restore solvent levels. The promoter region upstream of alcohol dehydrogense E (adhE) was examined in efforts to identify sites that play major roles in the control of expression. A series of adhE promoter fragments was constructed and the expression of each in acid- and solvent-phases of growth was analyzed using a chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase reporter system. Our results show that a region beyond the 0A box is needed for full induction of the promoter. Additionally, we show that the presence of sequences around a possible processing site designated S2 may have a negative role in the regulation of adhE expression. PMID:12774196

  9. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Peterson, B V; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1996-10-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants. PMID:11536781

  10. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  11. Current-induced switching of perpendicularly magnetized magnetic layers using spin torque from the spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luqiao; Lee, O J; Gudmundsen, T J; Ralph, D C; Buhrman, R A

    2012-08-31

    We show that in a perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co bilayer the spin-Hall effect (SHE) in Pt can produce a spin torque strong enough to efficiently rotate and switch the Co magnetization. We calculate the phase diagram of switching driven by this torque, finding quantitative agreement with experiments. When optimized, the SHE torque can enable memory and logic devices with similar critical currents and improved reliability compared to conventional spin-torque switching. We suggest that the SHE torque also affects current-driven magnetic domain wall motion in Pt/ferromagnet bilayers. PMID:23002867

  12. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-10-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  13. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  14. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

  15. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

  16. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

  17. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

  18. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character and Scope of the Section...

  19. Spin-torque building blocks.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, N; Cros, V; Grollier, J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the spin-torque effect has made magnetic nanodevices realistic candidates for active elements of memory devices and applications. Magnetoresistive effects allow the read-out of increasingly small magnetic bits, and the spin torque provides an efficient tool to manipulate - precisely, rapidly and at low energy cost - the magnetic state, which is in turn the central information medium of spintronic devices. By keeping the same magnetic stack, but by tuning a device's shape and bias conditions, the spin torque can be engineered to build a variety of advanced magnetic nanodevices. Here we show that by assembling these nanodevices as building blocks with different functionalities, novel types of computing architecture can be envisaged. We focus in particular on recent concepts such as magnonics and spintronic neural networks. PMID:24343514

  20. Spin-torque building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, N.; Cros, V.; Grollier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the spin-torque effect has made magnetic nanodevices realistic candidates for active elements of memory devices and applications. Magnetoresistive effects allow the read-out of increasingly small magnetic bits, and the spin torque provides an efficient tool to manipulate -- precisely, rapidly and at low energy cost -- the magnetic state, which is in turn the central information medium of spintronic devices. By keeping the same magnetic stack, but by tuning a device's shape and bias conditions, the spin torque can be engineered to build a variety of advanced magnetic nanodevices. Here we show that by assembling these nanodevices as building blocks with different functionalities, novel types of computing architecture can be envisaged. We focus in particular on recent concepts such as magnonics and spintronic neural networks.

  1. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  2. DTC Based Induction Motor Speed Control Using 10-Sector Methodology for Torque Ripple Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithra, S.; Dinesh Krishna, A. S.; Shridharan, S.

    2014-09-01

    A direct torque control (DTC) drive allows direct and independent control of flux linkage and electromagnetic torque by the selection of optimum inverter switching modes. It is a simple method of signal processing which gives excellent dynamic performance. Also transformation of coordinates and voltage decoupling are not required. However, the possible discrete inverter switching vectors cannot always generate exact stator voltage required, to obtain the demanded electromagnetic torque and flux linkages. This results in the production of ripples in the torque as well as flux waveforms. In the present paper a torque ripple reduction methodology is proposed. In this method the circular locus of flux phasor is divided into 10 sector as compared to six sector divisions in conventional DTC method. The basic DTC scheme and the 10-sector method are simulated and compared for their performance. An analysis is done with sector increment so that finally the torque ripple varies slightly as the sector is increased.

  3. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  4. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  5. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  6. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  7. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  8. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  10. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  12. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... including dynamometer torque measurement transducers and systems upon initial installation and after major... net hanging torque, NIST-traceable within ±1% uncertainty, and account for it as part of the reference... lever arm length are not used as part of the reference torque determination) or by operating...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... including dynamometer torque measurement transducers and systems upon initial installation and after major... net hanging torque, NIST-traceable within ±1% uncertainty, and account for it as part of the reference... lever arm length are not used as part of the reference torque determination) or by operating...

  15. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  16. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  17. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  18. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  19. Maxwell stress induced optical torque upon gold prolate nanospheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Ying-Syuan; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study theoretically analyzes the surface traction on an elongated Au prolate nanospheroid to examine the resultant optical torque exerted by an optical tweezers. The multiple multipole method is applied to evaluate quantitatively the electromagnetic field induced by a linearly polarized plane wave illuminating a nanospheroid, then obtaining the surface traction in terms of Maxwell stress tensor. The optical torque is calculated by the surface integral of the cross product of position vector and traction over the nanospheroid's surface. Our results show that two pairs of positive and negative traction zones at the two apexes of the nanospheroid play a critical role. Furthermore, the resultant optical torque is wavelength-dependent. If the wavelength is shorter than the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanospheroid, the optical torque rotates the long axis of nanospheroid perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident wave. In contrast, if the wavelength is longer than the LSPR the long axis is pushed parallel to the polarization direction. The turning point with a null torque, between the perpendicular and parallel modes, is at the LSPR. The optical performance of Au nanospheroid is equivalent to that of Au NR with the same volume and aspect ratio, but the LSPR of Au NR is little red-shifted from that of an equivalent prolate spheroid.

  20. Quenched Slonczewski windmill in spin-torque vortex oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluka, V.; Kákay, A.; Deac, A. M.; Bürgler, D. E.; Hertel, R.; Schneider, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present a combined analytical and numerical study on double-vortex spin-torque nano-oscillators and describe a mechanism that suppresses the windmill modes. The magnetization dynamics is dominated by the gyrotropic precession of the vortex in one of the ferromagnetic layers. In the other layer, the vortex gyration is strongly damped. The dominating layer for the magnetization dynamics is determined by the sign of the product between sample current and the chiralities. Measurements on Fe/Ag/Fe nanopillars support these findings. The results open up a new perspective for building high quality-factor spin-torque oscillators operating at selectable, well-separated frequency bands.

  1. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is a major byproduct from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotole...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  6. Torque generation mechanism of ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John; Maric, Sladjana; Scoppa, M.; Cheung, M.

    2010-03-01

    ATP synthase is a rotary motor that produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical currency of life. Our proposed electric field driven torque (EFT) model of FoF1-ATP synthase describes how torque, which scales with the number of c-ring proton binding sites, is generated by the proton motive force (pmf) across the mitochondrial inner membrane. When Fo is coupled to F1, the model predicts a critical pmf to drive ATP production. In order to fully understand how the electric field resulting from the pmf drives the c-ring to rotate, it is important to examine the charge distributions in the protonated c-ring and a-subunit containing the proton channels. Our calculations use a self-consistent field approach based on a refinement of reported structural data. The results reveal changes in pKa for key residues on the a-subunit and c-ring, as well as titration curves and protonation state energy diagrams. Health implications will be briefly discussed.

  7. Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, T. D. Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-02-10

    Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.

  8. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  9. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  10. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source Emissions must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at... tire cord production affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds... Table 16 to this subpart must not exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of...

  13. Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the…

  14. EARTHWORM ADDITIONS AFFECT LEACHATE PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN LOSSES IN TYPICAL MIDWESTERN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworms affect soil structure and the movement of agrochemicals. Yet, there are few field-scale studies that quantify the effect of earthworms on dissolved nitrogen fluxes in agroecosystems. We investigated the influence of biannual deep-burrowing earthworm additions on leachate production and qu...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  16. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  17. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  18. Reconstructing the intermittent dynamics of the torque in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Pedro G.; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    We apply a framework introduced in the late nineties to analyze load measurements in off-shore wind energy converters (WEC). The framework is borrowed from statistical physics and properly adapted to the analysis of multivariate data comprising wind velocity, power production and torque measurements, taken at one single WEC. In particular, we assume that wind statistics drives the fluctuations of the torque produced in the wind turbine and show how to extract an evolution equation of the Langevin type for the torque driven by the wind velocity. It is known that the intermittent nature of the atmosphere, i.e. of the wind field, is transferred to the power production of a wind energy converter and consequently to the shaft torque. We show that the derived stochastic differential equation quantifies the dynamical coupling of the measured fluctuating properties as well as it reproduces the intermittency observed in the data. Finally, we discuss our approach in the light of turbine monitoring, a particular important issue in off-shore wind farms.

  19. The role of interaction torque and muscle torque in the control of downward squatting

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Murakami, Kenichi; Kawakami, Shingo; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were first to analyze the multijoint dynamics of downward squatting, and to examine the contribution of interaction torque and muscle torque to net torque, and second, to examine mechanisms of movement control. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 healthy men with a mean age of 21.0 ± 1.2 years (range, 19–24 years). [Methods] Squatting tasks with the trunk in two positions, an erect and anterior tilt position, were performed by the subjects. Net, interaction, muscle, and gravity torque were calculated according to the Lagrange equation using 3D tracking data. [Results] The contribution ratio of interaction torque to net torque was approximately 90%, irrespective of the joint and task. In contrast, muscle torque showed complicated behavior to compensate for gravity torque. A combined muscle and gravity torque profile showed flexion or dorsiflexion immediately after the initiation of the movement, and it later changed to extension or plantar flexion. [Conclusion] The torque that contributes almost exclusively to the net torque was interaction torque. The combination of muscle and gravity torque at the knee joint and the hip joint is important for movement control, independent of the starting position. PMID:27065552

  20. The role of interaction torque and muscle torque in the control of downward squatting.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Murakami, Kenichi; Kawakami, Shingo; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were first to analyze the multijoint dynamics of downward squatting, and to examine the contribution of interaction torque and muscle torque to net torque, and second, to examine mechanisms of movement control. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 healthy men with a mean age of 21.0 ± 1.2 years (range, 19-24 years). [Methods] Squatting tasks with the trunk in two positions, an erect and anterior tilt position, were performed by the subjects. Net, interaction, muscle, and gravity torque were calculated according to the Lagrange equation using 3D tracking data. [Results] The contribution ratio of interaction torque to net torque was approximately 90%, irrespective of the joint and task. In contrast, muscle torque showed complicated behavior to compensate for gravity torque. A combined muscle and gravity torque profile showed flexion or dorsiflexion immediately after the initiation of the movement, and it later changed to extension or plantar flexion. [Conclusion] The torque that contributes almost exclusively to the net torque was interaction torque. The combination of muscle and gravity torque at the knee joint and the hip joint is important for movement control, independent of the starting position. PMID:27065552

  1. [Slowing of turbine under different pressures (torque)].

    PubMed

    Gütschow, F

    1989-07-01

    A comparative examination of in vivo measured revolutions proves that turbines with torque have a 100% wider usable revolution band than conventional ones. The resulting increased grinding capacity may seen at first sight as a positive effect, but is combined with a more than proportional increasing heat development. Literature, research and own considerations allow the statement, that revolutions used today and the possible pressures make a sufficient cooling of the grinded surface a problem. In order to reduce the recent distinct increase of preparation damages, a reduction of the possible exerted pressure as well as the current level of revolutions must be called for. In the same way as usual in the production industry the optimum rate of grinding capacity to heat development should be determined for each grinding instrument. In this respect not only the turbine is a step into a wrong direction. PMID:2700859

  2. Magnetic field control. [electromechanical torquing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeussermann, W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A torque control for an electromechanical torquing device of a type where a variable clearance occurs between a rotor and field is described. A Hall effect device senses the field present, which would vary as a function of spacing between field and rotor. The output of the Hall effect device controls the power applied to the field so as to provide a well defined field and thus a controlled torque to the rotor which is well defined.

  3. Zero-torque spanner wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Wrench converts gripping action of hand to rotary motion without imparting reactive moments or forces on part being turned or on operator. Wrench should be useful in undersea operations and other delicate work where reactive forces and torques have to be controlled. In design for valve tightening, tool resembles cross between conventional spanner wrench and pilers. One handle engages valve body; second handle has ratchet pawl that engages toothed coupling ring on perimeter of valve handle. When operator squeezes wrench handles, valve handle rotates with respect to valve body.

  4. Gate-dependent spin-torque in a nanoconductor-based spin-valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottet, Audrey

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses the spin-torque effect in a spin-valve made out of two ferromagnetic leads connected through a coherent nanoconductor (NC), in the limit where a single channel of the NC lies near the Fermi energy of the leads. Due to quantum interferences inside the NC, the spin-torque presents clear qualitative differences with respect to the case of a multichannel disordered spin-valve. In particular, it can be modulated with the NC gate voltage. In principle, this modulation can be observed experimentally, assuming that the spin-torque affects a ferromagnetic nanodomain in direct contact with the NC.

  5. Balancing Control for Dispersed Generators Considering Torsional Torque Suppression and AVR Performance for Synchronous Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Omine, Eitaro; Hayashi, Daisuke; Muhando, Endusa Billy; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Electric utility deregulation made possible for PPSs (Power Producer and Supplier) to entry the electricity market. PPSs are supposed to achieve 30-minute balancing control for stable supply of electric power. Meanwhile, load rejection and instantaneous voltage drop greatly affect turbine shafting, that is torsional torque oscillation. Therefore, PPSs have to consider reduction of torsional torque to prevent generator shaft damage. This paper propose the control system which enables to achieve both 30-minute balancing control and reduction of torsional torque by using H∞ controller. The effectiveness of proposed controller will be verified by using MATLAB.

  6. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind 2014 (TORQUE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Bak, Christian; Bechmann, Andreas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Dellwik, Ebba; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Giebel, Gregor; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Jensen, Dorte Juul; Larsen, Gunner; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Natarajan, Anand; Rathmann, Ole; Sathe, Ameya; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Nørkær Sørensen, Niels

    2014-06-01

    The 186 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the fifth Science of Making Torque from Wind conference, which is organized by the European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE, www.eawe.eu). The conference, also called Torque 2014, is held at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) 17-20 June 2014. The EAWE conference series started in 2004 in Delft, the Netherlands. In 2007 it was held in Copenhagen, in 2010 in Heraklion, Greece, and then in 2012 in Oldenburg, Germany. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown approximately by 25% annually over the last couple of decades and covers now 2-3% of the global electrical power consumption. In order to make a significant impact on one of the large challenges of our time, namely global warming, the growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research and education in wind turbine aerodynamics and wind resources, the two topics which are the main subjects of this conference. Similar to the growth in electrical power production by wind is the growth in scientific papers about wind energy. Over the last decade the number of papers has also grown by about 25% annually, and many research based companies all over the world are founded. Hence, the wind energy research community is rapidly expanding and the Torque conference series offers a good opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. We hope that the Torque 2014 will heighten the quality of the wind energy research, while the participants will enjoy each others company in Copenhagen. Many people have been involved in producing the Torque 2014 proceedings. The work by more than two hundred reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of sixteen ''section editors'' all from DTU Wind Energy: Christian Bak, Andreas Bechmann, Ferhat Bingöl, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolay Dimitrov, Gregor Giebel, Martin O L Hansen, Dorte Juul Jensen, Gunner Larsen, Helge Aagaard Madsen, Jakob Mann, Anand Natarajan, Ole Rathmann, Ameya Sathe, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Niels Nørkær Sørensen, who are all co-editors of these proceedings. The resources provided by the Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research grant no. 09-067216 and the Danish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education Technology and Production, grant no. 11- 117018 are gratefully acknowledged. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive help and support from the editorial team at IoP, especially Sarah Toms and Anete Ashton, during the reviewing process of these proceedings. We are looking forward to meeting you in Copenhagen and also to Torque 2016, which will take place at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. Roskilde, Denmark, June 2014 Ebba Dellwik, Ameya Sathe and Jakob Mann Technical University of Denmark EAWE DTU

  7. Torque converter and assembly utilizing same

    SciTech Connect

    Pitassi, V.E.; Fernandez, A.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a torque converter for converting a first torque to a second torque. It comprises: a housing; an input shaft having the first torque; a driving sun gear rotatable about a first axis, the input shaft being coupled to the sun gear; a driven carrier including a shaft portion rotatable about the first axis; a first planetary shaft mounted on the driven carrier coaxillay with a second axis parallel to the first axis; a first planetary gear meshing with and driven by the sun gear and mounted on the first planetary shaft so that the first planetary gear is rotatable about the second axis; a first mass eccentric to the second axis and coupled to the first planetary gear for rotation together about the second axis; first and second unidirectional clutches connected to the shaft portion of the driven carrier and operating in opposite directions; an output torque shaft, one if the first and second unidirectional clutches being coupled to the output torque shaft to transmit the second torque thereto in a pulsating fashion and to permit continuous rotation of the output torque shaft and the other one of the first and second unidirectional clutches being connected to the housing to transmit an algebraic addition of the first and second torques together.

  8. Light torque nanocontrol, nanomotors and nanorockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith; Kourmanov, Bakhit; Walker, Thad G.

    2002-09-01

    In a novel application of light torques, we manipulate and control the rotation of nanorods. We apply light torques to 250 nm diameter glass nanorods in a single-beam optical trap. Light-torque operated nanomotors whir at moderate speeds that depend on several factors, including the magnitude of the light torque, the viscosity of the surrounding medium, and the rotation rate of the electric field vector of the linearly polarized trapping light. Two new modes of behavior - rocking motion and saltatory motion - are also described and explained.

  9. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Philip G. (Metropolis, IL); Underwood, Daniel E. (Paducah, KY)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  10. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech.

    PubMed

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Göksun, Tilbe; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Does phonological similarity affect gesture production in the absence of speech?Participants produced gestures from pictures with no words presented or spoken.Same pictures and gestures but different training labels were used.Phonologically similar labels led to more errors in subsequent gestures.Thus, phonological similarity affects gesture production in the absence of speech. Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle's cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels "twist" and "twirl" (similar condition), while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels "unscrew" and "twirl" (dissimilar condition). During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems. PMID:26441724

  11. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Göksun, Tilbe; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Does phonological similarity affect gesture production in the absence of speech?Participants produced gestures from pictures with no words presented or spoken.Same pictures and gestures but different training labels were used.Phonologically similar labels led to more errors in subsequent gestures.Thus, phonological similarity affects gesture production in the absence of speech. Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle's cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels “twist” and “twirl” (similar condition), while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels “unscrew” and “twirl” (dissimilar condition). During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems. PMID:26441724

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Emission Point Specific Limitations 3 Table 3 to... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production Pt. 63, Subpt. III, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63—Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources... Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4...

  14. Dimensionality of joint torques and muscle patterns for reaching

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marta; D'Andola, Mattia; Portone, Alessandro; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activities underlying many motor behaviors can be generated by a small number of basic activation patterns with specific features shared across movement conditions. Such low-dimensionality suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) relies on a modular organization to simplify control. However, the relationship between the dimensionality of muscle patterns and that of joint torques is not fixed, because of redundancy and non-linearity in mapping the former into the latter, and needs to be investigated. We compared the torques acting at four arm joints during fast reaching movements in different directions in the frontal and sagittal planes and the underlying muscle patterns. The dimensionality of the non-gravitational components of torques and muscle patterns in the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal domains was estimated by multidimensional decomposition techniques. The spatial organization of torques was captured by two or three generators, indicating that not all the available coordination patterns are employed by the CNS. A single temporal generator with a biphasic profile was identified, generalizing previous observations on a single plane. The number of spatiotemporal generators was equal to the product of the spatial and temporal dimensionalities and their organization was essentially synchronous. Muscle pattern dimensionalities were higher than torques dimensionalities but also higher than the minimum imposed by the inherent non-negativity of muscle activations. The spatiotemporal dimensionality of the muscle patterns was lower than the product of their spatial and temporal dimensionality, indicating the existence of specific asynchronous coordination patterns. Thus, the larger dimensionalities of the muscle patterns may be required for CNS to overcome the non-linearities of the musculoskeletal system and to flexibly generate endpoint trajectories with simple kinematic features using a limited number of building blocks. PMID:24624078

  15. Dimensionality of joint torques and muscle patterns for reaching.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marta; D'Andola, Mattia; Portone, Alessandro; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activities underlying many motor behaviors can be generated by a small number of basic activation patterns with specific features shared across movement conditions. Such low-dimensionality suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) relies on a modular organization to simplify control. However, the relationship between the dimensionality of muscle patterns and that of joint torques is not fixed, because of redundancy and non-linearity in mapping the former into the latter, and needs to be investigated. We compared the torques acting at four arm joints during fast reaching movements in different directions in the frontal and sagittal planes and the underlying muscle patterns. The dimensionality of the non-gravitational components of torques and muscle patterns in the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal domains was estimated by multidimensional decomposition techniques. The spatial organization of torques was captured by two or three generators, indicating that not all the available coordination patterns are employed by the CNS. A single temporal generator with a biphasic profile was identified, generalizing previous observations on a single plane. The number of spatiotemporal generators was equal to the product of the spatial and temporal dimensionalities and their organization was essentially synchronous. Muscle pattern dimensionalities were higher than torques dimensionalities but also higher than the minimum imposed by the inherent non-negativity of muscle activations. The spatiotemporal dimensionality of the muscle patterns was lower than the product of their spatial and temporal dimensionality, indicating the existence of specific asynchronous coordination patterns. Thus, the larger dimensionalities of the muscle patterns may be required for CNS to overcome the non-linearities of the musculoskeletal system and to flexibly generate endpoint trajectories with simple kinematic features using a limited number of building blocks. PMID:24624078

  16. Magnetically Torqued Thin Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluźniak, W.; Rappaport, S.

    2007-12-01

    We compute the properties of a geometrically thin, steady accretion disk surrounding a central rotating, magnetized star. The magnetosphere is assumed to entrain the disk over a wide range of radii. The model is simplified in that we adopt two (alternate) ad hoc, but plausible, expressions for the azimuthal component of the magnetic field as a function of radial distance. We find a solution for the angular velocity profile tending to corotation close to the central star and smoothly matching a Keplerian curve at a radius where the viscous stress vanishes. The value of this ``transition'' radius is nearly the same for both of our adopted B-field models. We then solve analytically for the torques on the central star and for the disk luminosity due to gravity and magnetic torques. When expressed in a dimensionless form, the resulting quantities depend on one parameter alone, the ratio of the transition radius to the corotation radius. For rapid rotators, the accretion disk may be powered mostly by spin-down of the central star. These results are independent of the viscosity prescription in the disk. We also solve for the disk structure for the special case of an optically thick alpha disk. Our results are applicable to a range of astrophysical systems including accreting neutron stars, intermediate polar cataclysmic variables, and T Tauri systems.

  17. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; P<0.02) and increased hydrogen (P<0.03) emissions in both experiments. Furthermore, the effect of nitrate on gaseous emissions was accompanied by an increased rumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/ g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  18. Herbivore and fungal pathogen exclusion affects the seed production of four common grassland species.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Timothy L; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  19. Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Joanna; Buśko, Krzysztof; Pastuszak, Anna; Boguszewska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N x m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (−0.69, −0.81, −0.71 and −0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo. PMID:23487284

  20. MUSCLE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, AND TORQUE VARIABILITY: EFFECTS OF AGE AND MOBILITY STATUS

    PubMed Central

    KENT-BRAUN, JANE A.; CALLAHAN, DAMIEN M.; FAY, JESSICA L.; FOULIS, STEPHEN A.; BUONACCORSI, JOHN P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P < 0.001). Although fatigue did not differ between groups (P = 0.53), torque variability differed by group (P = 0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P = 0.010). Conclusions These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. PMID:23674266

  1. Factors affecting waterfowl breeding density and productivity estimates in the Northeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Ringelman, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    During 1977-79, information useful for making breeding pair and brood surveys was obtained while studying black duck (Anas rubripes) habitat selection and productivity in south-central Maine. Surveys should be initiated in relation to sunrise and sunset time. Morning versus evening counts, familiarity with the survey area, wetland dynamics of the study area, wetland surface water area, and allotment of relative survey effort are discussed as they affect the conduct and results of brood surveys.

  2. High torque bellows seal rotary drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, A. J.; Macomber, J. W.; Adams, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Bellows seal rotary drive device was developed which allows high torque transmission through sealed compartments. Bearing friction which would normally be carried by sealing bellows in comparable devices is absorbed by universal-gimbal joint. It can be used to transmit high torque, low speed, rotary motion through sealed barriers to prevent contamination or escape of fluids.

  3. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  4. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  5. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  6. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  7. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  8. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  9. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce

  10. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

  11. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  12. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  13. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  14. Measuring Micro-Friction Torque in MEMS Gas Bearings.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xudong; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement of micro-friction torque in MEMS gas bearings, which has been a challenging research topic for years, is realized by a system designed in this paper. In the system, a high accuracy micro-force sensor and an electronically-driven table are designed, fabricated and utilized. With appropriate installation of the sensor and bearings on the table, the engine rotor can be driven to rotate with the sensor using a silicon lever beam. One end of the beam is fixed to the shaft of the gas bearing, while the other end is free and in contact with the sensor probe tip. When the sensor begins to rotate with the table, the beam is pushed by the sensor probe to rotate in the same direction. For the beam, the friction torque from the gas bearing is balanced by the torque induced by pushing force from the sensor probe. Thus, the friction torque can be calculated as a product of the pushing force measured by the sensor and the lever arm, which is defined as the distance from the sensor probe tip to the centerline of the bearing. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this system, with a sensitivity of 1.285 mV/μN·m in a range of 0 to 11.76 μN·m when the lever arm is 20 mm long. The measuring range can be modified by varying the length of the lever arm. Thus, this system has wide potential applications in measuring the micro-friction torque of gas bearings in rotating MEMS machines. PMID:27213377

  15. Measuring Micro-Friction Torque in MEMS Gas Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xudong; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    An in situ measurement of micro-friction torque in MEMS gas bearings, which has been a challenging research topic for years, is realized by a system designed in this paper. In the system, a high accuracy micro-force sensor and an electronically-driven table are designed, fabricated and utilized. With appropriate installation of the sensor and bearings on the table, the engine rotor can be driven to rotate with the sensor using a silicon lever beam. One end of the beam is fixed to the shaft of the gas bearing, while the other end is free and in contact with the sensor probe tip. When the sensor begins to rotate with the table, the beam is pushed by the sensor probe to rotate in the same direction. For the beam, the friction torque from the gas bearing is balanced by the torque induced by pushing force from the sensor probe. Thus, the friction torque can be calculated as a product of the pushing force measured by the sensor and the lever arm, which is defined as the distance from the sensor probe tip to the centerline of the bearing. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this system, with a sensitivity of 1.285 mV/μN·m in a range of 0 to 11.76 μN·m when the lever arm is 20 mm long. The measuring range can be modified by varying the length of the lever arm. Thus, this system has wide potential applications in measuring the micro-friction torque of gas bearings in rotating MEMS machines. PMID:27213377

  16. Spatiotemporal evolution of hairpin eddies, Reynolds stress, and polymer torque in polymer drag-reduced turbulent channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-06-01

    To study the influence of dynamic interactions between turbulent vortical structures and polymer stress on turbulent friction drag reduction, a series of simulations of channel flow is performed. We obtain self-consistent evolution of an initial eddy in the presence of polymer stresses by utilizing the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin (FENE-P) model. The initial eddy is extracted by the conditional averages for the second quadrant event from fully turbulent Newtonian flow, and the initial polymer conformation fields are given by the solutions of the FENE-P model equations corresponding to the mean shear flow in the Newtonian case. At a relatively low Weissenberg number Weτ (=50), defined as the ratio of the polymer relaxation time to the wall time scale, the generation of new vortices is inhibited by polymer-induced countertorques. Thus fewer vortices are generated in the buffer layer. However, the head of the primary hairpin is unaffected by the polymer stress. At larger Weτ values (≥100), the hairpin head becomes weaker and vortex autogeneration and Reynolds stress growth are almost entirely suppressed. The temporal evolution of the vortex strength and polymer torque magnitude reveals that polymer extension by the vortical motion results in a polymer torque that increases in magnitude with time until a maximum value is reached over a time scale comparable to the polymer relaxation time. The polymer torque retards the vortical motion and Reynolds stress production, which in turn weakens flow-induced chain extension and torque itself. An analysis of the vortex time scales reveals that with increasing Weτ, vortical motions associated with a broader range of time scales are affected by the polymer stress. This is qualitatively consistent with Lumley's time criterion for the onset of drag reduction.

  17. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.

  18. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  19. Proximity to forest edge does not affect crop production despite pollen limitation

    PubMed Central

    Chacoff, Natacha P; Aizen, Marcelo A; Aschero, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    A decline in pollination function has been linked to agriculture expansion and intensification. In northwest Argentina, pollinator visits to grapefruit, a self-compatible but pollinator-dependent crop, decline by approximately 50% at 1 km from forest edges. We evaluated whether this decrease in visitation also reduces the pollination service in this crop. We analysed the quantity and quality of pollen deposited on stigmas, and associated limitation of fruit production at increasing distances (edge: 10, 100, 500 and 1000 m) from the remnants of Yungas forest. We also examined the quantitative and qualitative efficiency of honeybees as pollen vectors. Pollen receipt and pollen tubes in styles decreased with increasing distance from forest edge; however, this decline did not affect fruit production. Supplementation of natural pollen with self- and cross-pollen revealed that both pollen quantity and quality limited fruit production. Despite pollen limitation, honeybees cannot raise fruit production because they often do not deposit sufficient high-quality pollen per visit to elicit fruit development. However, declines in visitation frequency well below seven visits during a flower's lifespan could decrease production beyond current yields. In this context, the preservation of forest remnants, which act as pollinator sources, could contribute to resilience in crop production. Like wild plants, pollen limitation of the yield among animal-pollinated crops may be common and indicative not only of pollinator scarcity, but also of poor pollination quality, whereby pollinator efficiency, rather than just abundance, can play a broader role than previously appreciated. PMID:18230596

  20. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  1. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  2. Stabilization and parameter identification of tumbling space debris with bounded torque in postcapture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin; Yuan, Jianping

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a new control scheme for the problem of a space robot after capturing an unknown tumbling target, such as space debris. Robotic capturing the target may destabilize the base of spacecraft and control torque is bounded which would affect the performance of attitude control system. To stabilize the base with bounded torque in postcapture scenario, a new control scheme which utilizes the control torque to balance angular momentum and motion of the manipulator to compensate limitation of the torque, is proposed. Considering uncertainties of the target, parameter identification technique for tumbling target with linear momentum is utilized to correct parameters of the controller. To verify validity and feasibility of the proposed concept, a planar space robot capturing small, medium and large target with or without linear momentum is studied. The results show that the whole system is stabilized finally and all the inertial parameters of the target converge to their real values.

  3. The effect of rotating platform TKA on strain distribution and torque transmission on the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Malinzak, Robert A; Small, Scott R; Rogge, Renee D; Archer, Derek B; Oja, Jordan W; Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A

    2014-03-01

    Limited experimental data exist comparing the mechanical response of the tibial cortex between fixed and rotating platform (RP) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), particularly in the revision setting. We asked if RP-TKA significantly affects tibiofemoral torque and cortical stain response in both the primary and revision settings. Fixed and RP tibial trays were implanted into analogue tibias and biomechanically tested under axial and torsional loading. Torque and strain response were analyzed using digital image correlation. Fixed bearing designs exhibited 13.8 times greater torque (P<0.01), and 69% (P<0.01) higher cortical strain than RP designs. Strain response was similar in the primary and revision cohorts. The decrease in torque transfer could act as a safeguard to reduce stress, micromotion and torsional fatigue in scenario of poor bone stock. PMID:24290741

  4. International Space Station Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment: Effects of Flywheel Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    The Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment is currently under development for the International Space Station; two counter-rotating flywheels will be levitated with magnetic bearings and placed in vacuum housings. The primary objective of the experiment is to store and discharge energy, in combination with existing batteries, into the electrical power system. The secondary objective is to use the flywheels to exert torque on the Station; a simple torque profile has been designed so that the Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes will be assisted in maintaining torque equilibrium attitude. Two energy storage contingencies could result in the inadvertent application of torque by the flywheels to the Station: an emergency shutdown of one flywheel rotor while the other remains spinning, and energy storage with only one rotor instead of the counterrotating pair. Analysis of these two contingencies shows that attitude control and the microgravity environment will not be adversely affected.

  5. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  9. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  10. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  11. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  18. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  19. Switching Torque Converter: Concept and Preliminary Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Koichi; Ikei, Yasushi

    It is preferable to refrain from switching the torque in mechanical systems because the abrupt change tends to cause vibration and noise. However, such vibration can be beneficial if it is used to store mechanical energy. Moreover, torque switching operations at higher frequencies are becoming possible because of the recent advances in clutch devices. This paper describes a novel torque conversion mechanism based on torque switching operations. The fundamental principle of the mechanism is the reciprocal translation between the work to and from axles and the rotational energy of a flywheel. Clutches are used to intermittently connect or disconnect the axles with the flywheel; the output torque is controlled by changing the time ratio of the connection. By performing switching operations at a higher frequency, almost continuous torque conversion can be realized. A prototype was created using electrorheological fluid clutches, and it showed the potential for torque conversion. The performance of the prototype was also analyzed by numerical simulation; this showed that the prototype worked in accordance with the principle. Moreover, the potential capability of the principle was investigated using a numerical model and the results suggest that by improving the mechanical design, a considerable improvement in performance is possible.

  20. Magnetostrictive torque sensor and its output characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Munekatsu

    1993-05-01

    A magnetostrictive torque sensor which can be installed in an automobile transmission to measure torque has been developed. The sensor shaft consists of two grooved sections. An ac bridge circuit formed by two coils surrounding the grooved sections and two fixed resistors is used to detect torque. The shaft material is a newly developed Cr-Mo steel. The sensitivity of the sensor is stable over a wide temperature range. However, the zero point of the sensor output drifted as much as 10% of the full scale of the sensor when the temperature was uniformly raised by 50 °C. To solve the temperature drift problem, the output characteristics of the bridge circuit were examined. It was found that the output signal (sinusoidal wave) from an initially balanced bridge consisted of torque and temperature components. Each component showed a constant phase angle. The torque phase angle was a fixed value whereas that of the temperature was controllable. A method was devised for separating the temperature phase angle from the torque one by about 90° and then eliminating the temperature component from the output signal. The resulting temperature drift of the sensor was less than 1% of the full measurement scale per 50 °C. This paper describes the shaft material, magnetostrictive properties of the shaft, torque and temperature dependence of coil impedances and output characteristics of the bridge circuit.

  1. Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, J.M.; Cleland, E.E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M.D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D.B.; Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

  2. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to further explore the trait of genome size for understanding global patterns of forest productivity.

  3. Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15 months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355

  4. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies. PMID:27066237

  5. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  6. Magnetic torque on a rotating superconducting sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The London theory of superconductivity is used to calculate the torque on a superconducting sphere rotating in a uniform applied magnetic field. The London theory is combined with classical electrodynamics for a calculation of the direct effect of excess charge on a rotating superconducting sphere. Classical electrodynamics, with the assumption of a perfect Meissner effect, is used to calculate the torque on a superconducting sphere rotating in an arbitrary magnetic induction; this macroscopic approach yields results which are correct to first order. Using the same approach, the torque due to a current loop encircling the rotating sphere is calculated.

  7. Two Penicillium camembertii mutants affected in the production of cyclopiazonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Geisen, R; Glenn, E; Leistner, L

    1990-01-01

    Penicillium camembertii was mutated and screened for cyclopiazonic acid-negative mutants. With a simple and rapid mini-extraction method for detection of cyclopiazonic acid production, we were able to isolate two strains which were affected in the production of this metabolite. One strain had completely lost the ability to synthesize detectable amounts of this secondary metabolite, whereas the other mutant produced 50 to 100 times less cyclopiazonic acid than the wild type. Also, the former strain had a changed morphology compared with the wild type. This morphological alteration appears to be coupled to the inability to produce cyclopiazonic acid because morphological revertants were able to synthesize cyclopiazonic acid to a level comparable to the wild type. The second mutant accumulated a new metabolite which was detectable by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. This new metabolite, however, appears not to be a direct precursor of cyclopiazonic acid. Images PMID:2268164

  8. Tidal Torques are the Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, H.

    2012-12-01

    Angular momentum conservation places severe restrictions on the possible steady-state differential rotation of any body. The only terms that survive the time-averaging of the zonal momentum equation (which expresses this conservation rule) are due to tidal torques, Lorentz (magnetic) forces, and friction. These terms are all much smaller than the canceling terms due to Coriolis forces and Reynolds stresses. So numerical models which do not solve the equations of motion exactly will inevitably give erroneous results. On the other hand, the time-average equations are straightforward to solve analytically. The results are that the balance between tidal torques and friction determines the differential rotation; and the tidal dissipation and friction together determine the diabatic heating which maintains the required baroclinicity (horizontal temperature gradients). In conducting regions, the dynamo equation and the time-average zonal momentum equation form a nonlinear, but dissipative, system which is mathematically equivalent to the famous Lorenz system. The behavior of the resulting αω dynamo can be quite various, but depends on only a few parameters (the strength of the α-effect [α], the strength of the differential rotation [ω], and the magnetic Prandtl number [ν/λ] being the most important). It is totally independent of the Coriolis force, which does not appear in the time-average zonal balance. Equilibrium is reached when there is a balance between the Lorentz force and friction with B2R2 ~ ρλν(D - Dmin), where the dynamo number D ~ αωR2/λ2. The time and spatial dependence of the dynamo is a function of D as indicated in the Table. In particular, there is a critical value of D above which the steady-state solutions of the dynamo are unstable, resulting in possible chaotic behavior. The jets and thermal structure of the neutral atmosphere principally depend on the tidal forcing frequency, the (vertical) thermal structure of the troposphere, the viscosity, and the Prandtl number. These parameters can be determined by straightforward assimilation of the observed winds and temperatures into a nearly linear model based on the strengths of tidal modes. This simple approach explains all of the observed differential rotations and hydromagnetic dynamos in the solar system.t;

  9. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  10. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    PubMed

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation. PMID:21814829

  11. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30μl inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  12. Leucine metabolism regulates TRI6 expression and affects deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Narayanan, Swara; Walkowiak, Sean; Wang, Li; Joshi, Manisha; Rocheleau, Hélène; Ouellet, Thérèse; Harris, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    TRI6 is a positive regulator of the trichothecene gene cluster and the production of trichothecene mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON)] and acetylated forms such as 15-Acetyl-DON) in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. As a global transcriptional regulator, TRI6 expression is modulated by nitrogen-limiting conditions, sources of nitrogen and carbon, pH and light. However, the mechanism by which these diverse environmental factors affect TRI6 expression remains underexplored. In our effort to understand how nutrients affect TRI6 regulation, comparative digital expression profiling was performed with a wild-type F. graminearum and a Δtri6 mutant strain, grown in nutrient-rich conditions. Analysis showed that TRI6 negatively regulates genes of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Feeding studies with deletion mutants of MCC, encoding methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase, one of the key enzymes of leucine metabolism, showed that addition of leucine specifically down-regulated TRI6 expression and reduced 15-ADON accumulation. Constitutive expression of TRI6 in the Δmcc mutant strain restored 15-ADON production. A combination of cellophane breach assays and pathogenicity experiments on wheat demonstrated that disrupting the leucine metabolic pathway significantly reduced disease. These findings suggest a complex interaction between one of the primary metabolic pathways with a global regulator of mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26248604

  13. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  14. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  15. Transmission of torque at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian; Oğuz, Erdal C.; Speck, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Löwen, Hartmut; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In macroscopic mechanical devices, torque is transmitted through gearwheels and clutches. In the construction of devices at the nanoscale, torque and its transmission through soft materials will be a key component. However, this regime is dominated by thermal fluctuations leading to dissipation. Here we demonstrate the principle of torque transmission for a disc-like colloidal assembly exhibiting clutch-like behaviour, driven by 27 particles in optical traps. These are translated on a circular path to form a rotating boundary that transmits torque to additional particles confined to the interior. We investigate this transmission and find that it is determined by solid-like or fluid-like behaviour of the device and a stick-slip mechanism reminiscent of macroscopic gearwheels slipping. The transmission behaviour is predominantly governed by the rotation rate of the boundary and the density of the confined system. We determine the efficiency of our device and thus optimize conditions to maximize power output.

  16. Torque equilibrium attitude control for Skylab reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    All the available torque equilibrium attitudes (most were useless from the standpoint of lack of electrical power) and the equilibrium seeking method are presented, as well as the actual successful application during the 3 weeks prior to Skylab reentry.

  17. Current-induced spin-orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Pietro; Miron, Ioan Mihai

    2011-08-13

    The ability to reverse the magnetization of nanomagnets by current injection has attracted increased attention ever since the spin-transfer torque mechanism was predicted in 1996. In this paper, we review the basic theoretical and experimental arguments supporting a novel current-induced spin torque mechanism taking place in ferromagnetic (FM) materials. This effect, hereafter named spin-orbit (SO) torque, is produced by the flow of an electric current in a crystalline structure lacking inversion symmetry, which transfers orbital angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system owing to the combined action of SO and exchange coupling. SO torques are found to be prominent in both FM metal and semiconducting systems, allowing for great flexibility in adjusting their orientation and magnitude by proper material engineering. Further directions of research in this field are briefly outlined. PMID:21727120

  18. Damping assembly for a torque converter clutch

    SciTech Connect

    Dull, D.C.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a turbine damped torque converter and clutch. It comprises: a pressure plate; a torque converter turbine; a torque converter impeller; means including a control chamber for the pressure plate means for controlling the apply and release of the clutch for engaging the clutch with the impeller; a torque converter output shaft; a planetary gear arrangement including an input gear drivingly connected with the pressure plate, a reaction gear drivingly connected with the turbine, an output member drivingly connected with the output shaft and pinion gear means meshing with the input gear and the reaction gear for drivingly interconnecting the turbine and the pressure plate at a drive ratio of the turbine to the pressure plate of less than 1:1; and one-way drive means disposed between the turbine and the output shaft for preventing the turbine from overrunning the output shaft.

  19. Torque and Learning and Behavior Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendel, Ivan H.; Pihl, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    Findings indicate minimal differences, on diagnostic tests, between children who exhibited torque and those who did not. Torque is defined as the circling of any X in a clockwise direction. Torque is not associated with learning problems in school. Diagnostic utility of torque should be carefully considered. (Author)

  20. Yielding Torque-Tube System Reduces Crash Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Yielding torque-tube system minimizes injuries by limiting load transferred to occupant in crash. When properly integrated into seat structure, torque tube yields in plastic deformation stage of material and maintains a relatively constant resistance to applied torque for many degrees of rotation. Yielding torque-tube system is expected to find application in aircraft and automobile industries.

  1. Large amplitude oscillation of magnetization in spin-torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Tsunegi, Sumito

    2015-05-07

    Oscillation frequency of spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer is theoretically investigated by taking into account the field-like torque. It is shown that the field-like torque plays an important role in finding the balance between the energy supplied by the spin torque and the dissipation due to the damping, which results in a steady precession. The validity of the developed theory is confirmed by performing numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  2. Torque-mixing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losby, Joseph; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Grandmont, Dylan; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Hiebert, Wayne; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory; Thomson, Douglas; Freeman, Mark

    A universal, mechanical torque method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by induction, a signal proportional to the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured as a pure mechanical torque in broadband, frequency-swept spectroscopy. Comprehensive electron spin resonance of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature are presented to demonstrate the method. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex 3D spin textures.

  3. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p < 0.001). Peak torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p < 0.001). Eccentric knee extension torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p < 0.001), which suggested different torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length. PMID:26049788

  4. A reactive torque control law for gyroscopically controlled space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method of control is developed based on the reactive torques as seen by the individual CMG gimbals. The application of a torque to the gimbal of a CMG rotates the momentum vector and applies a torque to the spacecraft according to well-known laws. The response (rotation) of the vehicle produces a reverse or reaction torque opposing the torque producing the gimbal movement. The reactive torque and the pseudoinverse control schemes are contrasted in order to point out the simplicity of the first method. Simulation was performed only to the extent necessary to prove that reactive torque stabilization and control is feasible.

  5. Knudsen torque on heated micro beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing

    2014-12-09

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction of the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3μm at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.

  6. Extraneous torque and compensation control on the electric load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zongxia; Li, Chenggong; Ren, Zhiting

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a novel motor-drive load simulator based on compensation control strategy is proposed and designed. Through analyzing the torque control system consisting of DC torque motor, PWM module and torque sensor, it is shown that performance of the motor-drive load simulator is possible to be as good as that of the electro-hydraulic load simulator in the range of small torque. In the course of loading, the rotation of the actuator would cause a strong disturbance torque through the motor back-EMF, which produces extraneous torque similar as in electro-hydraulic load simulator. This paper analyzes the cause of extraneous torque inside the torque motor in detail and presents an appropriate compensation control with which the extraneous torque can be compensated and the good performance of the torque control system can be obtained. The results of simulation indicate that the compensation is very effective and the track performance is according with the request.

  7. Balancing of a power-transmission shaft with the application of axial torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Flemming, D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of power transmission shafting for high-speed balancing has shown that when axial torque is applied, the imbalance response is altered. An increase in synchronous excitation always occurs if the axial torque level is altered from the value used during balancing; this was the case even when the shaft was balanced with torque applied. The twisting of the long slender shaft produces a change in the imbalance distribution sufficient to disrupt the balanced state. This paper presents a review of the analytic development of a weighted least squares approach to influence coefficient balancing and a review of experimental results. The analytic approach takes advantage of the fact that the past testing has shown that the influence coefficients are not significantly affected by the application of axial torque. The 3.60-m (12-ft) long aluminum shaft, 7.62 cm (3 in.) in diameter was run through the first flexural critical speed at torque levels ranging from zero-torque to 903.8 N-M (8000 lb-in.) in 112.9 N-M (1000 lb-in.) increments. Good comparison was achieved between predicted and experimental results.

  8. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, L. S.; Gianfagna, T. J.; Specca, D. R.; Janes, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  9. Male body size and condition affects sperm number and production rates in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, R E; Jennions, M D; Head, M L

    2014-12-01

    Sperm number is an important predictor of paternity when there is sperm competition. Sperm number is often measured as maximum sperm reserves, but in species where mating is frequent, males will often be replenishing their reserves. Thus, variation in how quickly males can produce sperm is likely to be important in determining male success in sperm competition. Despite this, little is known about how male size, body condition or diet affects sperm production rates. We counted sperm number in large and small Gambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish) after 3 weeks on either a high or low food diet. Sperm number was significantly higher in both larger males and in well-fed males. We then stripped ejaculates again either 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 days later to investigate subsequent sperm production. The rate of sperm replenishment was influenced by an interaction between size and diet. Large, well-fed males had consistently high levels of sperm available over the 5 days (i.e. rapid replenishment), whereas small poorly fed males showed consistently low levels of sperm availability over the 5 days (i.e. slow replenishment). In contrast, large, poorly fed and small, well-fed males increased their sperm numbers over the first 3 days (i.e. intermediate replenishment). Our study highlights that when mating is frequent and sperm competition is high, size and condition dependence of maximal sperm number and of sperm production rate might both contribute to variation in male reproductive success. PMID:25403851

  10. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915

  11. Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssandier, Jean; Owen, James E.; Adams, Fred C.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2015-09-01

    Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high-energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models, we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow time-scale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We estimate the regime of planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux in which a wind is capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit, and we find that it could be important for some of the observed planets. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outwards if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super-Earth mass planet that loses a large fraction of its mass in a wind could drift a few per cent of its semimajor axis. While this change is small, it places constraints on the evolution of resonant pairs such as Kepler 36b and c.

  12. Potentiation Increases Peak Twitch Torque by Enhancing Rates of Torque Development and Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r2= 0.94 and r2=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation. PMID:24235987

  13. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs’ treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs’ treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  14. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch. PMID:26139909

  15. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs' treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs' treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  16. A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by torque sensors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  17. Torque rheological parameters to predict pellet quality in extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Soh, J L P; Liew, C V; Heng, P W S

    2006-06-01

    This study explored the feasibility of predicting the quality of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization using torque rheological characterization. Rheological properties of eleven MCC grades as well as their binary mixtures with lactose (3:7) at various water contents were determined using a mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Derived torque parameters were: maximum torque and cumulative energy of mixing (CEM). CEM values of MCC powders (CEM((MCC))) could be attributed to their physical properties such as crystallinity, V(low P) and V(total) (volumes of mercury intruded in their pores at low pressure and the total intrusion volume), bulk and tapped densities. For both MCC powders and their binary mixtures, strong correlation was observed between their torque parameters and the properties of their pellets formed with 30 and 35% (w/w) water. Since this relationship was valid over a broad water content range, rheological assessment for pre-formulation purposes need not be performed at optimized water contents. These results demonstrated the usefulness of torque rheometry as an effective means of comparing and evaluating MCC grades especially when substitution of equivalent grades is encountered. In so doing, the tedious and expensive pre-production (pre-formulation and optimization) work can be considerably reduced. PMID:16574352

  18. A High Performance Torque Sensor for Milling Based on a Piezoresistive MEMS Strain Gauge.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yafei; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Yingxue; Zhao, You; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In high speed and high precision machining applications, it is important to monitor the machining process in order to ensure high product quality. For this purpose, it is essential to develop a dynamometer with high sensitivity and high natural frequency which is suited to these conditions. This paper describes the design, calibration and performance of a milling torque sensor based on piezoresistive MEMS strain. A detailed design study is carried out to optimize the two mutually-contradictory indicators sensitivity and natural frequency. The developed torque sensor principally consists of a thin-walled cylinder, and a piezoresistive MEMS strain gauge bonded on the surface of the sensing element where the shear strain is maximum. The strain gauge includes eight piezoresistances and four are connected in a full Wheatstone circuit bridge, which is used to measure the applied torque force during machining procedures. Experimental static calibration results show that the sensitivity of torque sensor has been improved to 0.13 mv/Nm. A modal impact test indicates that the natural frequency of torque sensor reaches 1216 Hz, which is suitable for high speed machining processes. The dynamic test results indicate that the developed torque sensor is stable and practical for monitoring the milling process. PMID:27070620

  19. A High Performance Torque Sensor for Milling Based on a Piezoresistive MEMS Strain Gauge

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yafei; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Yingxue; Zhao, You; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In high speed and high precision machining applications, it is important to monitor the machining process in order to ensure high product quality. For this purpose, it is essential to develop a dynamometer with high sensitivity and high natural frequency which is suited to these conditions. This paper describes the design, calibration and performance of a milling torque sensor based on piezoresistive MEMS strain. A detailed design study is carried out to optimize the two mutually-contradictory indicators sensitivity and natural frequency. The developed torque sensor principally consists of a thin-walled cylinder, and a piezoresistive MEMS strain gauge bonded on the surface of the sensing element where the shear strain is maximum. The strain gauge includes eight piezoresistances and four are connected in a full Wheatstone circuit bridge, which is used to measure the applied torque force during machining procedures. Experimental static calibration results show that the sensitivity of torque sensor has been improved to 0.13 mv/Nm. A modal impact test indicates that the natural frequency of torque sensor reaches 1216 Hz, which is suitable for high speed machining processes. The dynamic test results indicate that the developed torque sensor is stable and practical for monitoring the milling process. PMID:27070620

  20. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  1. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae yfiRNB operon affects biofilm formation, polysaccharide production and drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Mónica G; Zárate, Lina; Acosta, Iván C; Posada, Leonardo; Cruz, Diana P; Lozano, Marcela; Zambrano, María M

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen important in hospital-acquired infections, which are complicated by the rise of drug-resistant strains and the capacity of cells to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms. In this work, we carried out an analysis of the genes in the K. pneumoniae yfiRNB operon, previously implicated in biofilm formation. The results indicated that in addition to the previously reported effect on type 3 fimbriae expression, this operon also affected biofilm formation due to changes in cellulose as part of the extracellular matrix. Deletion of yfiR resulted in enhanced biofilm formation and an altered colony phenotype indicative of cellulose overproduction when grown on solid indicator media. Extraction of polysaccharides and treatment with cellulase were consistent with the presence of cellulose in biofilms. The enhanced cellulose production did not, however, correlate with virulence as assessed using a Caenorhabditis elegans assay. In addition, cells bearing mutations in genes of the yfiRNB operon varied with respect to the WT control in terms of susceptibility to the antibiotics amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. These results indicated that the yfiRNB operon is implicated in the production of exopolysaccharides that alter cell surface characteristics and the capacity to form biofilms--a phenotype that does not necessarily correlate with properties related with survival, such as resistance to antibiotics. PMID:25261190

  3. [Environmental risk, health and justice: the protagonism of affected populations in the production of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Finamore, Renan

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of populations affected by environmental injustice situations in the production of knowledge about environmental health stemming from inequalities and discrimination in the distribution of risks and benefits of economic development. Special attention is given to the epistemological and political limits to producing knowledge and alternatives that enable advances in building more just and sustainable societies are highlighted. Based on a broader view of health, the limits of scientific approaches are called into question by acknowledging the importance of local knowledge are discussed, either to analyze environmental risks or their effects on health, including epidemiological studies. These limits are linked primarily to the concealment of conflicts and uncertainties, the lack of contextualization of exposure to risk and effects on health, as well as the difficulties of dialogue with the communities. The article also presents contributions and advances presented by environmental justice movements. The conclusion is that a constructivist, procedural and democratic perspective of confronting forms of knowledge and practices can guide the scientific production to benefit of environmental justice. PMID:22699640

  4. Microvesicle formulations used in topical drugs and cosmetics affect product efficiency, performance and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to improve the formulations of topical products are continuing processes (ie, to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects, and protect ingredients from degradation). The development of micro- and nanovesicular systems has led to the marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics that use these technologies. Several articles have reported improved clinical efficacy by the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals in vesicular systems, and the numbers of publications and patents are rising. Some vesicular systems may deliver the drug deeper in the skin as compared to conventional vehicles, or even make transdermal delivery more efficient for a number of drugs. Vesicular systems may also allow a more precise drug delivery to the site of action (ie, the hair follicles) and thereby minimize the applied drug concentration, reducing potential side effects. On the other hand, this may increase the risk of other side effects. Few case reports have suggested that microvesicle formulations may affect the allergenicity of topical products. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge about the topical use of microvesicular systems and the dermatoallergologic aspects. PMID:20920408

  5. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

  6. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-14

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation.

  7. Factors affecting conidial production of Beauveria bassiana from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Luz, C; Fargues, J

    1998-09-01

    The epizootic potential of Beauveria bassiana for control of the triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease was investigated by studying the effects of both biotic and abiotic factors on the recycling of a highly virulent fungal isolate from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus. The conidial production of B. bassiana from mummified cadavers of R. prolixus required high RH levels of at least 96.5% RH. At 97% RH and 25 degrees C, the amount of conidia per insect ranged from 5.3 x 10(6) (on first-instar larval cadavers) to 1.7 x 10(8) (on adult cadavers) depending on the size of the different stages of development of the host. Under optimal conditions, B. bassiana sporulation from R. prolixus cadavers took place in 4 to 5 days after death. At a high humidity level (97% RH) the intensity of the conidial production from Rhodnius cadavers was little affected by temperature over a range from 15 to 25 degrees C, but it declined at 28-30 degrees C and was null at 35 degrees C. There was only a weak influence of the blood meal of nymphs and its timing on the conidial production from B. bassiana-killed cadavers. The recycling capacity of different B. bassiana isolates, selected for their pathogenic activity to R. prolixus, did not differ. From a vector control standpoint, high humidity appears to be the most crucial climatic constraint. The recycling ability of B. bassiana on fungus-killed R. prolixus might contribute to the regulation of triatomine vectors only after applications during the rainy seasons. PMID:9709008

  8. Trinitrotoluene and mandarin peels selectively affect lignin-modifying enzyme production in white-rot basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil; Kobakhidze, Aza; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Five white-rot basidiomycetes (WRB) species have been evaluated for their potential to tolerate and to degrade 0.2 mM 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as well as to produce laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in presence of this xenobiotic. The tested fungal strains produced laccase in both glycerol and mandarin peels-containing media, whereas in the glycerol-containing medium only Cerrena unicolor strains and Trametes versicolor BCC 775 secreted MnP. Replacement of glycerol by milled mandarin peels 3- to 45-fold increased laccase activity, promoted C. unicolor strains and T. versicolor MnP secretion and induced this enzyme production by Fomes fomentarius BCC 38 and Funalia trogii BCC 146. Differential response of the WRB strains to the TNT addition was observed. In particular, laccase activity of C. unicolor increased 2- to 3-fold in both media whereas no stimulation of the laccase production was revealed in cultivation of F. fomentarius. TNT practically did not affect the MnP activity. Two strains of C. unicolor followed by T. versicolor producing laccase and MnP almost completely removed 0.2 mM TNT from the synthetic medium. Increase of TNT concentration from 0 to 0.4 mM in the mandarin peels-based medium and from 0 to 0.3 mM in the glycerol-containing medium stimulated C. unicolor BCC 300 laccase production from 92.4 to 240.7 U/ml and from 17.1 to 48.6 U/ml, respectively. This strain has been resistant to the TNT high concentration and has ability to remove 85 % of initial 0.3 mM TNT content during 6 days of the submerged cultivation. PMID:27026944

  9. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature Wear-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimandy, Adam J. C.

    This thesis provides much needed representative sample data for reuse life of fully seated and torqued locknuts. Most national requirements for prevailing torque locking fasteners only specify unseated reuse life. This could create a potentially dangerous situation if unseated is misinterpreted for seated. This thesis provides comparative data for seated verses unseated configuration. Six aerospace, 3 all-metal and 3 nylon insert, and one non-aerospace locknuts were tested at preloads levels of unseated, 66%, 75%, and 85% of yield of bolt. The locknuts tested are MS21043-4, NAS1291-4, NAS1805-4, MS17825-4, MS21044D4, NAS1021N4, and Grade 8. A fixture was created in order to allow for the simultaneous data collection of the applied preload and torque, along with the removal of preload without loosening the locknut. The results from testing indicate the number of reuse cycles is greater for nylon locknuts than the all-metal locknuts. Large losses, on the order of 20-50%, in prevailing torque occur between the first and second cycle of each locknut under all preloads. Tightening Torque required to achieve a certain preload was found to increase with reuse. Application of lubrication to nylon locknuts had a significant effect, reducing the reuse life and prevailing torque performance. The testing indicated the effect of preload reduced the number of reuse cycles to failure, failure occurs when the prevailing torque is measured outside the range of 3.5 to 30 in-lb. All locknuts survived unseated and 66% Y preload testing, except MS21043 which lasted about 14.5 reuse cycles at 66% Y and NAS1805 which survived 8 reuse cycles for unseated and 12.67 reuse cycles at 66% Y. NAS1805's loss of reuse life is due to hardness and material compatibility issues. The scatter of the torque measurements was low for the first three to five cycles, then as the coatings and lubrications are worn the scatter increases. The data collected from testing agrees with the torque friction equation.

  10. Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

  11. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert D.; De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; Szczesny, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

  12. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  13. Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects. PMID:21359137

  14. Characterisation of TNF block haplotypes affecting the production of TNF and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tan, J H; Temple, S E L; Kee, C; Waterer, G W; Tan, C R T; Gut, I; Price, P

    2011-02-01

    Polymorphisms in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (particularly TNF and adjacent genes) associate with several immunopathological diseases and with susceptibility to pneumonia. The MHC is characterised by strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), so identification of loci affecting disease must be based on haplotypes. We have defined 31 tumour necrosis factor (TNF) block haplotypes (denoted FV1-31) in Caucasians, Asians and Australian Aboriginals. This study correlates the carriage of TNF block haplotypes with TNF and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) protein production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 205 healthy Caucasian subjects, following in vitro stimulation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae; gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli; gram-negative bacteria) or TNF over 4, 8 and 24 h. Fifteen haplotypes were present at >1%, accounting for 94.5% of the cohort. The haplotypes were grouped into five families based on common alleles. Following stimulation, cells from carriers of the FV10 haplotype (family 2) produced less LTA compared with non-FV10 carriers. Carriers of the FV18 haplotype (family 4) produced more LTA than other donors. Induction of TNF by S. pneumoniae following 24 h stimulation was also greater in donors with FV18. The FV18 haplotype associated with the 44.1 MHC ancestral haplotype (HLA-A2, -C5, -B44, -DRB1*0401 and -DQB1*0301) that has few disease associations. FV16 occurred in the 8.1 MHC haplotype (HLA-A2, B8, DR3) that is associated with multiple immunopathological diseases. FV16 did not affect TNF or LTA levels. The findings suggest that many genetic variations critical in vivo are not effectively modelled by short-term cultures. PMID:21214521

  15. Thomas precession: Where is the torque

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A. )

    1992-04-01

    Special relativity appears to violate the conservation of angular momentum {bold L} since it predicts that an accelerated gyroscope will precess, i.e., {bold L} will change in the absence of any applied torque. The paradox is resolved in a simple example by demonstrating that there is a torque present. The mass distribution in the gyroscope undergoes a relativistic distortion, and the center of mass is displaced away from the position of the accelerating force. The resulting torque {tau}={ital d}{bold L}/{ital dt}. The model also shows the physical origins of spin-orbit coupling and of the oscillating term.'' A related calculation shows why a moving magnetic dipole has an {ital electric} dipole moment.

  16. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    PubMed

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with a high pregnancy rate (10/12, 83%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy rate of donor induction agent, the time the oocyte was in culture (2-20 hours) before transfer, time from recipient insemination to transfer, or total time from donor induction to transfer (32-45 hours). These findings establish that OT is robust, in that it is effective over a wide variation in timing of the different components involved, and can be successfully developed in a private embryo transfer practice. PMID:26709118

  17. Atmospheric Gravitational Torque Variations Based on Various Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rowlands, David; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Advancements in the study of the Earth's variable rate of rotation and the motion of its rotation axis have given impetus to the analysis of the torques between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth. The output from global general circulation models of the atmosphere (pressure, surface stress) is being used as input to the torque computations. Gravitational torque between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth is an important component of the torque budget. Computation of the gravitational torque involves the adoption of a gravitational model from a wide variety available. The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain to what extent this choice might influence the results of gravitational torque computations.

  18. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  19. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A·m−3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A·m−3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  20. Plant products affect growth and digestive efficiency of cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed compounded diets.

    PubMed

    Lech, Gregory P; Reigh, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  1. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  2. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon; Harbaugh, Mark M.

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  3. Recent Advances of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Kazunobu

    The history of motor technology began with the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday. Various kinds of motors were developed by the recent progress of the fundamental technology (magnetic structure, magnetic material, drive circuit, control method). Especially, motors using the reluctance torque have many advantages and some of them are used as high efficient motors. This paper overviews recent advances of reluctance torque assisted motors such as Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM).

  4. Diffusion of torqued active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J.

    An analytical approach is used to study the diffusion of active Brownian particles that move at constant speed in three-dimensional space, under the influence of passive (external) and active (internal) torques. The Smoluchowski equation for the position distribution of the particles is obtained from the Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to Langevin equations for active Brownian particles subject to torques. In addition of giving explicit formulas for the mean square-displacement, the non-Gaussian behavior is analyzed through the kurtosis of the position distribution that exhibits an oscillatory behavior in the short-time limit. FJS acknowledges support from PAPIIT-UNAM through the grant IN113114

  5. Factors affecting yield and safety of protein production from cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K.F.; Levadoux, W.L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of C. eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45-47 degrees, maximum protein yield at 45 degrees, and no growth at 25 degrees. It has an optimum pH of approximately 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH of more than or equal to 6.0 in a liquid medium, or pH of more than or equal to 7.0 on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45 degrees were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but approximately 16% of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/l) was complete in approximately 20 h, yielding 22.5 g/l (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48-50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/l). Resting and germinating spores (10 to the power of 6 - 10 to the power of 8 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and gamma-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections.

  6. Sex fantasies revisited: an expansion and further clarification of variables affecting sex fantasy production.

    PubMed

    Follingstad, D R; Kimbrell, C D

    1986-12-01

    Findings of prior research which indicated both external factors (experimental response cues) and internal factors (sex guilt) influencing subjects' writing of their sexual fantasies were expanded. University males (N = 88) and females (N = 122) were studied. They read sex fantasy examples varying in conventionality of the sexual activity and the relationship context before reporting their own fantasies. Sex guilt level of all subjects was measured as well as their subjective responses to writing the fantasies. The data were analyzed to determine whether varying response cues along certain dimensions could influence subjects to write parallel fantasies. Sex guilt levels and sex of the subject were the best predictors of the length, explicitness, and variety of content of subjects' reported fantasies. Males wrote longer, more explicit and varied fantasies but were affected similarly by sex guilt levels as females. High sex guilt subjects in general produced more restricted content and shorter fantasies. They also experienced more embarrassment and less arousal. Females were more likely to have high levels of guilt about sex than males. The varying dimensions of the fantasy examples had little effect on the types of fantasy material revealed and therefore the erotic/explicit aspect of the examples found in the prior research seems to be the factor that produces effects on fantasy production. Comparing the two studies, females may respond with longer, more explicit fantasies when given erotic but more traditional sexual examples. PMID:3800638

  7. Factors Affecting Yield and Safety of Protein Production from Cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K. F.; Levadoux, W. L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S. T.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of Cephalosporium eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45° to 47°C, maximum protein yield at 45°C, and no growth at 25°C. It has an optimum pH of about 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH 6.0 and above in a liquid medium, or pH 7.0 and above on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45°C were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but some (around 16%) of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/liter [circa 45 g/liter, glucose equivalent]) was complete in around 20 h, yielding around 22.5 g/liter (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48 to 50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/liter). Resting and germinating spores (106 to 108 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and γ-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections. PMID:16345946

  8. Predicting the Affects of Climate Change on Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Productivity of Semi-arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.

  9. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers. PMID:26048693

  10. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  11. Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  12. Beneficial mycorrhizal symbionts affecting the production of health-promoting phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Cristiana; Avio, Luciano; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2014-06-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are largely investigated for their content in vitamins, mineral nutrients, dietary fibers, and plant secondary metabolites, collectively called phytochemicals, which play a beneficial role in human health. Quantity and quality of phytochemicals may be detected by using different analytical techniques, providing accurate quantification and identification of single molecules, along with their molecular structures, and allowing metabolome analyses of plant-based foods. Phytochemicals concentration and profiles are affected by biotic and abiotic factors linked to plant genotype, crop management, harvest season, soil quality, available nutrients, light, and water. Soil health and biological fertility play a key role in the production of safe plant foods, as a result of the action of beneficial soil microorganisms, in particular of the root symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They improve plant nutrition and health and induce changes in secondary metabolism leading to enhanced biosynthesis of health-promoting phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, phytoestrogens, and to a higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. In this review we discuss reports on health-promoting phytochemicals and analytical methods used for their identification and quantification in plants, and on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi impact on fruits and vegetables nutritional and nutraceutical value. PMID:25025092

  13. γδ T cells affect IL-4 production and B-cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Heiser, Ryan A.; Detanico, Thiago O.; Getahun, Andrew; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Casper, Tamara L.; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Carding, Simon R.; Ikuta, Koichi; Huang, Hua; Cambier, John C.; Wysocki, Lawrence J.; O’Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2015-01-01

    γδ T cells can influence specific antibody responses. Here, we report that mice deficient in individual γδ T-cell subsets have altered levels of serum antibodies, including all major subclasses, sometimes regardless of the presence of αβ T cells. One strain with a partial γδ deficiency that increases IgE antibodies also displayed increases in IL-4–producing T cells (both residual γδ T cells and αβ T cells) and in systemic IL-4 levels. Its B cells expressed IL-4–regulated inhibitory receptors (CD5, CD22, and CD32) at diminished levels, whereas IL-4–inducible IL-4 receptor α and MHCII were increased. They also showed signs of activation and spontaneously formed germinal centers. These mice displayed IgE-dependent features found in hyper-IgE syndrome and developed antichromatin, antinuclear, and anticytoplasmic autoantibodies. In contrast, mice deficient in all γδ T cells had nearly unchanged Ig levels and did not develop autoantibodies. Removing IL-4 abrogated the increases in IgE, antichromatin antibodies, and autoantibodies in the partially γδ-deficient mice. Our data suggest that γδ T cells, controlled by their own cross-talk, affect IL-4 production, B-cell activation, and B-cell tolerance. PMID:25535377

  14. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  15. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  16. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  17. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-12-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future. PMID:21975831

  18. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem.

    PubMed

    Romodina, Maria N; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Fedyanin, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26876334

  19. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romodina, Maria N.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations.

  20. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Romodina, Maria N.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26876334

  1. Does Teno Torque Virus Induce Autoimmunity After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Pizzol, Antonio; Ferrara, Giovanna; Maestro, Alessandra; Tamaro, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Teno Torque virus, member of the family of Anelloviridae, has been associated with many autoimmune diseases such as idiopathic hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. Its viral load tends to be higher in the bone marrow and in tissues with high turnover rate. We report here a case of an 11-month-old infant affected by acute myeloid leukemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and after 6 months had autoimmune hepatitis and atopic dermatitis. Extremely high-cytokine IP-10 and eotaxin levels were found in her sera, and serological tests and RT-PCR for viruses showed positive results exclusively for Teno Torque virus. PMID:24942030

  2. Reducing the net torque and flow ripple effects of multiple hydraulic piston motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The torque and flow ripple effects which result when multiple hydraulic motors are used to drive a single motion of a mechanical device can significantly affect the way in which the device performs. This article presents a mathematical model describing the torque and flow ripple effects of a bent-axis hydraulic piston motor. The model is used to show how the ripple magnitude can be reduced when multiple motors are used to drive a motion. A discussion of the hydraulic servo system of the 70-m antennas located with the Deep Space Network is included to demonstrate the application of the concepts presented.

  3. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310....

  4. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310....

  5. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices. PMID:26560202

  6. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices. PMID:26560202

  7. Dynamics of spin torque switching in all-perpendicular spin valve nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Sun, J. Z.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    We present a systematic experimental study of the spin-torque-induced magnetic switching statistics at room temperature, using all-perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves as a model system. Three physical regimes are distinguished: a short-time ballistic limit below a few nanoseconds, where spin-torque dominates the reversal dynamics from a thermal distribution of initial conditions; a long time limit, where the magnetization reversal probability is determined by spin-torque-amplified thermal activation; and a cross-over regime, where the spin-torque and thermal agitation both contribute. For a basic quantitative understanding of the physical processes involved, an analytical macrospin model is presented which contains both spin-torque dynamics and finite temperature effects. The latter was treated rigorously using a Fokker-Plank formalism, and solved numerically for specific sets of parameters relevant to the experiments to determine the switching probability behavior in the short-time and cross-over regimes. This analysis shows that thermal fluctuations during magnetization reversal greatly affect the switching probability over all the time scales studied, even in the short-time limit.

  8. Manipulation of Magnetic Insulators Using Spin Torque from the Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermain, Colin; Paik, Hanjong; Heron, John; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Schlom, Darrell; Ralph, Dan

    2014-03-01

    We will report the growth and fabrication of devices incorporating thin films of the magnetic insulators yttrium iron garnet and lutetium iron garnet with thicknesses less than 20 nm. We perform the growth using oxide MBE, achieving high-quality films with magnetic damping parameters for single 5 nm films as small as 0.00036. We use electron beam lithography and ion milling to pattern the films into device structures with sizes ranging from 100 nm to above 1 micron, integrated with Ta contacts so that we can use the spin Hall effect to apply spin-transfer torque to the magnetic materials. We will use these devices to study how the spin Hall torque affects the effective magnetic damping parameter of isolated magnetic insulator devices, and whether spin Hall torque can be used to drive reliable magnetic switching in these materials at low current levels.

  9. Torque wrench allows readings from inaccessible locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Barnardo, M.

    1966-01-01

    Torque wrench with an adjustable drive shaft permits indicator to remain in view when used on sections of equipment with limited access. The shaft is capable of protruding from either side of the wrench head by means of spring loaded balls.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... torque-measurement system with a reference force and a lever arm. (b) Recommended procedure. (1... a proving ring to quantify the reference force, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty. (2) Lever-arm length quantification. Quantify the lever arm length, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty....

  11. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... torque-measurement system with a reference force and a lever arm. (b) Recommended procedure. (1... a proving ring to quantify the reference force, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty. (2) Lever-arm length quantification. Quantify the lever arm length, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty....

  12. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    PubMed Central

    STREVA, Alessandra Motta; COTRIM-FERREIRA, Flávio Augusto; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; CARVALHO, Paulo Eduardo Guedes

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. Material and Methods Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. Results The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. Conclusions There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment. PMID:21956587

  13. Nonambipolar Transport and Torque in Perturbed Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Wang, Z. R.; Berkery, J. W.; Kim, K.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-10-01

    A new Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code has been developed to calculate the neoclassical toroidal torque from radial current composed of both passing and trapped particles in perturbed equilibria. This presentation outlines the physics approach used in the development of the PENT code, with emphasis on the effects of retaining general aspect-ratio geometric effects. First, nonambipolar transport coefficients and corresponding neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque in perturbed equilibria are re-derived from the first order gyro-drift-kinetic equation in the ``combined-NTV'' PENT formalism. The equivalence of NTV torque and change in potential energy due to kinetic effects [J-K. Park, Phys. Plas., 2011] is then used to showcase computational challenges shared between PENT and stability codes MISK and MARS-K. Extensive comparisons to a reduced model, which makes numerous large aspect ratio approximations, are used throughout to emphasize geometry dependent physics such as pitch angle resonances. These applications make extensive use of the PENT code's native interfacing with the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC), and the combination of these codes is a key step towards an iterative solver for self-consistent perturbed equilibrium torque. Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Fellowship administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education under contract #DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  14. Supercurrent-induced spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the supercurrent-induced magnetization dynamics of a two-dimensional lattice of ferromagnetically ordered spins placed on a conventional superconductor with broken spatial inversion symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling. We develop a phenomenological description of the coupled dynamics of the superconducting condensate and the spin system and demonstrate that supercurrents produce a reactive spin-orbit torque on the magnetization. By performing a microscopic self-consistent calculation, we show that the spin-orbit torque originates from a spin polarization of the Cooper pairs due to current-induced spin-triplet correlations. Interestingly, we find that there exists an intrinsic limitation for the maximum achievable spin-orbit torque, which is determined by the coupling strength between the condensate and the spin system. In proximitized hole-doped semiconductors, the maximum achievable spin-orbit torque field is estimated to be on the order of 0.16 mT, which is comparable to the critical field for current-induced magnetization switching in ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  15. A New Twist on Torque Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional introductory-level meterstick-balancing lab assumes that students already know what torque is and that they readily identify it as a physical quantity of interest. We propose a modified version of this activity in which students qualitatively and quantitatively measure the amount of force required to keep the meterstick level. The

  16. Torque Limits for Fasteners in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yi

    2002-01-01

    The two major classes of laminate joints are bonded and bolted. Often the two classes are combined as bonded-bolted joints. Several characteristics of fiber reinforced composite materials render them more susceptible to joint problems than conventional metals. These characteristics include weakness in in-plane shear, transverse tension/compression, interlaminar shear, and bearing strength relative to the strength and stiffness in the fiber direction. Studies on bolted joints of composite materials have been focused on joining assembly subject to in-plane loads. Modes of failure under these loading conditions are net-tension failure, cleavage tension failure, shear-out failure, bearing failure, etc. Although the studies of torque load can be found in literature, they mainly discussed the effect of the torque load on in-plane strength. Existing methods for calculating torque limit for a mechanical fastener do not consider connecting members. The concern that a composite member could be crushed by a preload inspired the initiation of this study. The purpose is to develop a fundamental knowledge base on how to determine a torque limit when a composite member is taken into account. Two simplified analytical models were used: a stress failure analysis model based on maximum stress criterion, and a strain failure analysis model based on maximum strain criterion.

  17. Direct and inverse spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-08-01

    In collinear magnets lacking inversion symmetry, application of electric currents induces torques on the magnetization and conversely magnetization dynamics induces electric currents. The two effects, which both rely on spin-orbit interaction, are reciprocal to each other and denoted direct spin-orbit torque (SOT) and inverse spin-orbit torque (ISOT), respectively. We derive expressions for SOT and ISOT within the Kubo linear-response formalism. We show that expressions suitable for density-functional theory calculations can be derived either starting from a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian with time-dependent exchange field or by expressing general susceptibilities in terms of the Kohn-Sham susceptibilities. For the case of magnetic bilayer systems we derive the general form of the ISOT current induced under ferromagnetic resonance. Using ab initio calculations within density-functional theory, we investigate SOT and ISOT in Co/Pt(111) magnetic bilayers. We determine the spatial distribution of spin and charge currents as well as torques in order to expose the mechanisms underlying SOT and ISOT and to highlight their reciprocity on the microscopic level. We find that the spin Hall effect is position dependent close to interfaces.

  18. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  19. Anatomy of a bearing torque problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, Damon D.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1970s, an antenna despin drive was developed for MBB solar science satellite HELIOS. A problem with high bearing drag torque that was encountered on the two flight models of this drive, after successful tests were completed on twelve bearings, an engineering model, and the qualification unit is discussed.

  20. Air brake-dynamometer accurately measures torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Air brake-dynamometer assembly combines the principles of the air turbine and the air pump to apply braking torque. The assembly absorbs and measures power outputs of rotating machinery over a wide range of shaft speeds. It can also be used as an air turbine.

  1. A New Twist on Torque Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional introductory-level meterstick-balancing lab assumes that students already know what torque is and that they readily identify it as a physical quantity of interest. We propose a modified version of this activity in which students qualitatively and quantitatively measure the amount of force required to keep the meterstick level. The…

  2. Compliant Gearing For Redundant Torque Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, C.; Kish, J.

    1993-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings make torque loads more nearly equal. Bearings couple drive shaft with ring spur gear. Inner elastomeric bearing radially stiff and circumferentially compliant, while outer elastomeric bearings circumferentially stiff and radially compliant. Combination accommodates minor variations in dimensions and placements of gears, shafts, and other components.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... torque-measurement system with a reference force and a lever arm. (b) Recommended procedure to quantify lever-arm length. Quantify the lever-arm length, NIST-traceable within ±0.5% uncertainty. The lever arm... force is measured. The lever arm must be perpendicular to gravity (i.e., horizontal), and it must...

  4. An inventory of factors that affect polysaccharide production by Phaeocystis globosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijssel, M.; Janse, I.; Noordkamp, D. J. B.; Gieskes, W. W. C.

    2000-08-01

    Phaeocystis material contains polysaccharides that are built from at least eight different monosaccharides. Differences have been reported between the carbohydrate composition of different Phaeocystis species, and also between samples taken from Phaeocystis globosa blooms in different areas. In order to elucidate factors that could play a role in determining variation in carbohydrate composition and production, a number of Phaeocystis globosa strains were studied under laboratory conditions. Although there was a clear distinction of a northern and a southern cluster in the Phaeocystis globosa strains based on RAPD analysis, the differences in the composition of the mucopolysaccharides were relatively small. The contribution of glucose, however, ranged from 7-85% of total sugars. A strain that was cultured in seawaters of diverse origin produced polysaccharides of a different composition, suggesting the effect of environmental factors. The presence of bacteria affected neither the amount, nor the composition of the carbohydrates that were produced by Phaeocystis globosa. Glucose is part of both the intracellular polysaccharide pool and of the mucopolysaccharides in the colony matrix. Using specific digestion of the intracellular chrysolaminaran by laminarinase, the distribution of polysaccharides over different pools could be assessed. During growth of an axenic, mucus-producing strain, the portion of glucose present as chrysolaminaran appeared to increase. The polyglucose that was not digested by laminarinase remains unidentified. This study shows that environmental factors rather than strain differences determine differences in the sugar composition of Phaeocystis globosa, especially with respect to the glucose content of the material. A difference in the contribution of glucose could be correlated to the portion of cells in the culture that are not in the colonies. Our study emphasises that for studying polysaccharide dynamics in Phaeocystis globosa it is important to be able to discriminate between the different polysaccharide pools. Preliminary results of an enzymatic approach were promising

  5. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  6. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.

    2010-04-23

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  7. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  8. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

  9. Nonadiabatic stochastic resonance of a nanomagnet excited by spin torque.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao; Boone, Carl T; Zhu, Jian; Krivorotov, Ilya N

    2010-07-23

    We report microwave-frequency magnetization dynamics coexcited by alternating spin torque and thermal fluctuations. In these dynamics, temperature strongly enhances the amplitude of magnetization precession and enables excitation of nonlinear dynamic states of magnetization by weak alternating spin torque. We explain these thermally-activated dynamics in terms of nonadiabatic stochastic resonance of magnetization driven by spin torque. PMID:20867878

  10. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master...

  11. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master...

  12. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master...

  13. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master...

  14. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one. PMID:21193193

  15. An automated procedure for analyzing the effects of vortex-induced fin pressure on roll torque for a finned body of revolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Vijlee, Shazib Z.

    2004-09-01

    In flight tests, certain finned bodies of revolution firing lateral jets experience slower spin rates than expected. The primary cause for the reduced spin rate is the interaction between the lateral jets and the freestream air flowing past the body. This interaction produces vortices that interact with the fins (Vortex-Fin Interaction (VFI)) altering the pressure distribution over the fins and creating torque that counteracts the desired spin (counter torque). The current task is to develop an automated procedure for analyzing the pressures measured at an array of points on the fin surfaces of a body tested in a production-scale wind tunnel to determine the VFI-induced roll torque and compare it to the roll torque experimentally measured with an aerodynamic balance. Basic pressure, force, and torque relationships were applied to finite elements defined by the pressure measurement locations and integrated across the fin surface. The integrated fin pressures will help assess the distinct contributions of the individual fins to the counter torque and aid in correlating the counter torque with the positions and strengths of the vortices. The methodology produced comparisons of the effects of VFI for varying flow conditions such as freestream Mach number and dynamic pressure. The results show that for some cases the calculated counter torque agreed with the measured counter torque; however, the results were less consistent with increased freestream Mach numbers and dynamic pressures.

  16. Giant thermal spin-torque-assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching.

    PubMed

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2015-05-26

    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe. PMID:25971730

  17. Giant thermal spin torque assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    Spin-polarized charge-currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer-torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin-currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin-torques (TSTs) have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge-currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe.

  18. Light-torqued nanomotors free of a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith D.; Shelton, W. Andrew; Walker, Thad G.

    2004-10-01

    We use polarized light to generate light torques for controlling nanoparticles and for producing nanomotors. We report on experiments where we apply light torques to glass nanorods in an optical trap at a known distance from a nearby surface. We tried two different optical traps: (1) a standing wave trap using 20 mW and (2) a single beam trap using 80 mW of light at wavelength 514 nm from an Ar+ laser. The rods studied here are 250-500 nm in diameter and are 1-4 microns long. The motion of the rotating rods is studied and a theoretical model of the motion is presented. The motion can be heavily affected by the presence of a nearby surface. For example, past studies have provided evidence that rotatory motion near a surface can change to rocking motion and vice versa. In this study, we present results of motion free of such surface effects. Studies of the motion of nano-objects are useful in understanding nanorheological phenomena in both biological and inorganic systems.

  19. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( < 0.001). Higher-parity sows in FAS had the most severe lesion scores (TRT parity, < 0.0001) and scores were greatest at all gestational days (TRT day, < 0.05). Regardless of parity, sows in FLX had the least severe scores ( < 0.0001). As pregnancy progressed, lesion scores increased among sows in CTL ( < 0.05). Sow BW and backfat (BF) were greater for sows in FLX and FAS ( < 0.05), and BCS and BF were greater for parity 1 and 2 sows in FAS than the same parity sows in CTL (TRT parity, < 0.05). Duration and frequency of some postural behaviors and sham chew behavior were affected by TRT ( < 0.05) and time of day (TRT day, < 0.05). These data indicate that adequate stall space, especially late in gestation, may improve the well-being of higher-parity and heavier-bodied gestating sows as assessed by changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL, insufficient floor space in the open-pen area of the FAS system, and gate design of the FLX (e.g., direction of bars and feeder space). These results also indicate that parity and gestational day are additional factors that may exacerbate the effects of restricted stall space or insufficient pen space, further compromising sow well-being. PMID:26523593

  20. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that

  1. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that…

  2. Force-torque input enhances medical VR applications.

    PubMed

    Riener, Robert; Burgkart, Rainer; Frey, Martin; Sae-Kee, Bundit; Pröll, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Force-torque measuring input devices can significantly enhance the performance of classical simulation environments that are, for example, based on pure passive phantoms. Such devices allow not only the determination of force/torque amplitude and direction but also the contact point, where a torque-free force is applied to the phantom. The force/torque information can be displayed visually or acoustically, drive a realistic graphical animation environment or it can be saved and compared with a haptic library comprising the force/torque history of any medical specialist. PMID:15455908

  3. Highly variable contents of phenolics in St. John's Wort products affect their transport in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model: pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical rationale for product standardization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Jiang, Wen; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine content uniformity of phenolics in the St. John's wort (SJW) supplements and to demonstrate how variations in the product matrices affect their absorption and efflux. LC and LC-MS/MS methods were used to determine the phenolic contents of 12 different products purchased locally or from the Internet. Three representative extracts were further submitted to Caco-2 cell transport experiment, and transport of rutin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin was evaluated. The results indicated that the 12 different products displayed 12 different HPLC fingerprints, but all products contained the following major compounds: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and amentoflavone. The content uniformity of these major compounds was poor across products, with the smallest difference in the amounts of amentoflavone (3.6-fold) and largest difference in that of isoquercitrin (28.8-fold). The Caco-2 experiments indicated transport of rutin in products was vectorial, with the permeabilities varied about 3.6-fold in both directions of transport. The vectorial permeabilities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were similarly different. Use of efflux transporter inhibitor studies suggested that MRP2 was involved in isoquercitrin's efflux and the product matrix affected the extent of its efflux. In conclusion, different SJW supplements had highly variable contents of phenolics, and the variability in product matrix and phytochemical compositions affected the permeabilities of key phenolics across the Caco-2 monolayers, which may further affect their bioavailabilities. Therefore, standardization will be necessary to ensure safe and efficacious using of supplements such as SJW. PMID:20450158

  4. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  5. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  7. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the materials that you use, but the Administrator may require a test using EPA Method 311 (or an...? (a) Methods to determine the mass percent of each HAP in coatings. (1) To determine the HAP content in the coating used at your tire cord production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the materials that you use, but the Administrator may require a test using EPA Method 311 (or an...? (a) Methods to determine the mass percent of each HAP in coatings. (1) To determine the HAP content in the coating used at your tire cord production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  11. Adrenal hormone deprivation affects macrophage catecholamine metabolism and ?2-adrenoceptor density, but not propranolol stimulation of tumour necrosis factor-? production.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Stanislava; Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Mitic, Katarina; Vujic, Vesna; Leposavic, Gordana

    2013-03-01

    Catecholamines modulate the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages in an autocrine/paracrine manner. They also tune ?2-adrenoceptor expression. Glucocorticoids influence catecholamine metabolism and adrenoceptor expression in many cell types. We hypothesized that adrenal hormones affect the production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and NO by macrophages by altering the modulatory influence of catecholamines. To prove the hypothesis, peritoneal exudate macrophages from propranolol-treated non-operated and adrenalectomized rats and from corticosterone-supplemented adrenalectomized rats were examined for lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NO and TNF-? production in vitro and for expression of ?2-adrenoceptors and major catecholamine-metabolizing enzymes. Glucocorticoid deprivation increased NO production by macrophages, whereas 4 days of propranolol treatment was ineffective in this respect. However, propranolol treatment, via ?2-adrenoceptor blockade, increased production of TNF-? by macrophages in both non-operated and adrenalectomized rats (showing dramatically enhanced TNF-? production due to a lack of circulating glucocorticoids) for the same value. The expression of ?2-adrenoceptor was increased in peritoneal macrophages that were freshly isolated from non-operated, propranolol-treated and adrenalectomized rats (due to adrenal catecholamine deficiency). Propranolol did not affect macrophage ?2-adrenoceptor expression in adrenalectomized rats. Given that propranolol increased the density of macrophage tyrosine hydroxylase expression only in non-operated rats and affected the mRNA expression of monoamine oxidase-A in neither non-operated nor adrenalectomized animals, a significant influence of propranolol on peritoneal exudate cell noradrenaline content was found only in non-operated rats. A lack of circulating adrenal hormones also affected noradrenaline metabolism and content in peritoneal exudate cells including macrophages. Collectively, despite differences in the abundance of macrophage catecholamine-?2-adrenoceptor system components and in the TNF-? response to lipopolysaccharide between adrenalectomized and non-operated rats, propranolol increased TNF-? production by the same amount in macrophages from these two groups of animals. PMID:23180813

  12. Torque generated by the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, H C; Turner, L

    1993-01-01

    Cells of the bacterium Escherichia coli were tethered and spun in a high-frequency rotating electric field at a series of discrete field strengths. This was done first at low field strengths, then at field strengths generating speeds high enough to disrupt motor function, and finally at low field strengths. Comparison of the initial and final speed versus applied-torque plots yielded relative motor torque. For backward rotation, motor torque rose steeply at speeds close to zero, peaking, on average, at about 2.2 times the stall torque. For forward rotation, motor torque remained approximately constant up to speeds of about 60% of the zero-torque speed. Then the torque dropped linearly with speed, crossed zero, and reached a minimum, on average, at about -1.7 times the stall torque. The zero-torque speed increased with temperature (about 90 Hz at 11 degrees C, 140 Hz at 16 degrees C, and 290 Hz at 23 degrees C), while other parameters remained approximately constant. Sometimes the motor slipped at either extreme (delivered constant torque over a range of speeds), but eventually it broke. Similar results were obtained whether motors broke catastrophically (suddenly and completely) or progressively or were de-energized by brief treatment with an uncoupler. These results are consistent with a tightly coupled ratchet mechanism, provided that elastic deformation of force-generating elements is limited by a stop and that mechanical components yield at high applied torques. PMID:8298044

  13. Spin-orbit-torque engineering via oxygen manipulation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuepeng; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Wu, Yang; Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Dong-Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Suk; Park, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-04-01

    Spin transfer torques allow the electrical manipulation of magnetization at room temperature, which is desirable in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque memories. When combined with spin-orbit coupling, they give rise to spin-orbit torques, which are a more powerful tool for controlling magnetization and can enrich device functionalities. The engineering of spin-orbit torques, based mostly on the spin Hall effect, is being intensely pursued. Here, we report that the oxidation of spin-orbit-torque devices triggers a new mechanism of spin-orbit torque, which is about two times stronger than that based on the spin Hall effect. We thus introduce a way to engineer spin-orbit torques via oxygen manipulation. Combined with electrical gating of the oxygen level, our findings may also pave the way towards reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:25730601

  14. Spin-orbit-torque engineering via oxygen manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xuepeng; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Wu, Yang; Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Dong-Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Suk; Park, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-05-01

    Spin transfer torques allow the electrical manipulation of magnetization at room temperature, which is desirable in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque memories. When combined with spin-orbit coupling, they give rise to spin-orbit torques, which are a more powerful tool for controlling magnetization and can enrich device functionalities. The engineering of spin-orbit torques, based mostly on the spin Hall effect, is being intensely pursued. Here, we report that the oxidation of spin-orbit-torque devices triggers a new mechanism of spin-orbit torque, which is about two times stronger than that based on the spin Hall effect. We thus introduce a way to engineer spin-orbit torques via oxygen manipulation. Combined with electrical gating of the oxygen level, our findings may also pave the way towards reconfigurable logic devices.

  15. Displaceable spur gear torque controlled driver and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driver members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  16. Displaceable Spur Gear Torque Controlled Driver and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driven members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  17. Displaceable spur gear torque controlled driver and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driver members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  18. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation Affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-Product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of dry matter. ...

  19. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one. PMID:26648524

  20. A dynamic method for magnetic torque measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. E.; Jou, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    In a magnetic suspension system, accurate force measurement will result in better control performance in the test section, especially when a wider range of operation is required. Although many useful methods were developed to obtain the desired model, however, significant error is inevitable since the magnetic field distribution of the large-gap magnetic suspension system is extremely nonlinear. This paper proposed an easy approach to measure the magnetic torque of a magnetic suspension system using an angular photo encoder. Through the measurement of the velocity change data, the magnetic torque is converted. The proposed idea is described and implemented to obtain the desired data. It is useful to the calculation of a magnetic force in the magnetic suspension system.

  1. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one. PMID:26648524

  2. Torque Transmission Device at Zero Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    In a few critical applications, mechanical transmission of power by rotation at low speed is required without leakage at an interface. Herein we examine a device that enables torque to be transmitted across a sealed environmental barrier. The barrier represents the restraint membrane through which the torque is transmitted. The power is transferred through elastic deformation of a circular tube into an elliptical cross-section. Rotation of the principle axis of the ellipse at one end results in a commensurate rotation of an elliptical cross section at the other end of the tube. This transfer requires no rigid body rotation of the tube allowing a membrane to seal one end from the other. Both computational and experimental models of the device are presented.

  3. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one.

  4. Six component robotic force-torque sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grahn, Allen R.; Hutchings, Brad L.; Johnston, David R.; Parsons, David C.; Wyatt, Roland F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a two-phase contract studying the feasibility of a miniaturized six component force-torque sensor and development of a working laboratory system were described. The principle of operation is based upon using ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging to determine the position of ultrasonic reflectors attached to a metal or ceramic cover plate. Because of the small size of the sensor, this technology may have application in robotics, to sense forces and torques at the finger tip of a robotic end effector. Descriptions are included of laboratory experiments evaluating materials and techniques for sensor fabrication and of the development of support electronics for data acquisition, computer interface, and operator display.

  5. Swing switching of spin-torque valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tom; Kamenev, Alex

    2012-11-01

    We propose a method for inducing magnetization reversal using an AC spin current polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetization of the free magnetic layer. We show that the critical AC spin current is significantly smaller than the corresponding DC one. The effect is understood as a consequence of the underdamped nature of the spin-torque oscillators. It allows to use the kinetic inertia to overcome the residual energy barrier, rather than suppressing the latter by a large spin current. The effect is similar to a swing which may be set into high amplitude motion by a weak near-resonant push. The optimal AC frequency is identified as the upper bifurcation frequency of the corresponding driven nonlinear oscillator. Together with fast switching times it makes the perpendicular AC method to be the most efficient way to realize spin-torque memory valve.

  6. Left-handed optical radiation torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Brasselet, Etienne

    2014-08-01

    Optical forces and torques are two mechanical degrees of freedom available to manipulate matter, and form the basis of optical tweezing strategies. In contrast to the Keplerian intuition that objects should be pushed downstream an incident photon flux, the concept of `negative' optical forces has recently been described and has triggered many developments. Here, we report on the counterintuitive angular analogue of negative optical forces by demonstrating that circularly polarized Gaussian light beams give rise to torque with opposite sign to that of the incident optical angular momentum. Such a `left-handed' mechanical effect is demonstrated by the use of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic transparent macroscopic medium. Practical difficulties associated with the direct observation of optically induced spinning of a macroscopic object are circumvented via the rotational Doppler effect. These results shed light on spin-orbit optomechanics and equip the left-handed optomechanical toolbox with angular features.

  7. Effect of environmental torques on short-term attitude prediction for a rolling-wheel spacecraft in a sun-synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical evaluation and an analysis of the effects of environmental disturbance torques on the attitude of a hexagonal cylinder rolling wheel spacecraft were performed. The resulting perturbations caused by five such torques were found to be very small and exhibited linearity such that linearized equations of motion yielded accurate results over short periods and the separate perturbations contributed by each torque were additive in the sense of superposition. Linearity of the torque perturbations was not affected by moderate system design changes and persisted for torque-to-angular momentum ratios up to 100 times the nominal expected value. As these conditions include many possible applications, similar linear behavior might be anticipated for other rolling-wheel spacecraft.

  8. Effects of Velocity on Electromyographic, Mechanomyographic, and Torque Responses to Repeated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ethan C; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Smith, Cory M; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Cramer, Joel T; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2016-06-01

    Hill, EC, Housh, TJ, Camic, CL, Smith, CM, Cochrane, KC, Jenkins, NDM, Cramer, JT, Schmidt, RJ, and Johnson, GO. Effects of velocity on electromyographic, mechanomyographic, and torque responses to repeated eccentric muscle actions. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1743-1751, 2016-The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of the velocity of repeated eccentric muscle actions on the torque and neuromuscular responses during maximal isometric and eccentric muscle actions. Twelve resistance-trained men performed 30 repeated, maximal, eccentric, isokinetic muscle actions at randomly ordered velocities of 60, 120, or 180°·s on separate days. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were performed before (pretest) and after (posttest) the repeated eccentric muscle actions on each day. Eccentric isokinetic peak torque (EIPT) values were the averages of the first 3 and last 3 repetitions of the 30 repeated eccentric muscle actions. During the EIPT and MVIC muscle actions, electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (EMG AMP and MMG AMP) and mean power frequency (EMG MPF and MMG MPF) values were assessed. These results indicated that the repeated eccentric muscle actions had no effects on EIPT, or the EMG AMP, EMG MPF, or MMG MPF values assessed during the EIPT muscle actions, but decreased MMG AMP. The repeated eccentric muscle actions, however, decreased MVIC torque, and also the EMG AMP and MMG MPF values assessed during the MVIC muscle actions, but increased MMG AMP. The results indicated that the velocity of the repeated eccentric muscle actions affected the MVIC torque responses, but not EIPT or any of the neuromuscular parameters. Furthermore, there are differences in the torque and neuromuscular responses for isometric vs. eccentric muscle actions after repeated eccentric muscle actions. PMID:26566165

  9. An ironless armature brushless torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A high torque motor with improved servo mechanism is reported. Armature windings are cast into an epoxy cylinder and armature conductors are integrally cast with an aluminum mounting ring which provides thermal conductance directly into the structure. This configuration eliminates magnetic hysteresis because there is no relative motion between the rotating magnetic field and any stationary iron. The absence of destabilization forces provides a fast electrical response compared with a typical torquer of conventional construction.

  10. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  11. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  12. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of predator species averaged 12.2 (SD = 1.60) per study area; common or numerous predator species averaged 6.0 (SD = 1.54) per study area (minimal because the abundance of weasels [Mustela erminea; M. frenata] in all areas and of minks [Mustela vison] and raptors in some areas was not rated). Major changes in relative abundance of individual predator species studied >1 year were few. Predator species most restricted to the aspen parkland were the Franklin's ground squirrel, black-billed magpie (Pica pica), American crow (Corvus brachyrlus), and red-tailed hawk; species most restricted to the prairie were the badger (Taxidea taxus), Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni), and ferruginous hawk (B. regalis). The coyote, black-billed magpie, and American crow were most numerous in Canada, whereas the red fox, raccoon, mink, ferruginous hawk, and great horned owl were most numerous in the United States. The number of common or numerous egg-eating predator species (excludes large gulls and weasels, which were not rated) averaged 4.6 (SD = 0.90) per study area. The average numbers of common or numerous egg-eating species per study area did not differ among provinces and states, but birds gradually replaced mammals from southeast to northwest across the region. Investigators are urged to assess composition of predator populations and relative abundance of predator species for evaluations of waterfowl recruitment.

  13. They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

  14. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  15. INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL BY-PRODUCTS AS SOIL SUPPLEMENTS AFFECT BLUEBERRY FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of industrial and municipal by-products as constituents in soil-free media and as soil supplements on fruit quality of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were evaluated in this study. These by-products include coal ash, composted sewage and leaf compost. Combinations of ash and ...

  16. Development of an ankle torque measurement device for measuring ankle torque during walking

    PubMed Central

    Tanino, Genichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Mizuno, Shiho; Maeda, Hirofumi; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Orand, Abbas; Takeda, Kotaro; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To develop a device for measuring the torque of an ankle joint during walking in order to quantify the characteristics of spasticity of the ankle and to verify the functionality of the device by testing it on the gait of an able-bodied individual and an equinovarus patient. [Subjects and Methods] An adjustable posterior strut (APS) ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) was used in which two torque sensors were mounted on the aluminum strut for measuring the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Two switches were also mounted at the heel and toe in order to detect the gait phase. An able-bodied individual and a left hemiplegic patient with equinovarus participated. They wore the device and walked on a treadmill to investigate the device’s functionality. [Results] Linear relationships between the torques and the corresponding output of the torque sensors were observed. Upon the analyses of gait of an able-body subject and a hemiplegic patient, we observed toque matrices in both AP and ML directions during the gait of the both subjects. [Conclusion] We developed a device capable of measuring the torque in the AP and ML directions of ankle joints during gait. PMID:26157244

  17. Nature and measurements of torque ripple of permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Scoggins, B.P.; Scudiere, M.B.; Marlino, L.D.; Adams, D.J.; Pillay, P.

    1995-08-01

    Torque ripple of permanent-magnet motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. The four types are pulsating torque, fluctuating torque, reluctance cogging torque, and inertia and mechanical system torque. Pulsating torques are inherently produced by the trapezoidal back-emf`s and trapezoidal currents used in certain permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors. The torque ripples caused by pulsating torques may be reduced by purposely produced fluctuating counter torques. Air-gap torque measurements are conducted on a sample motor. Experimental results agree with theoretical expectations.

  18. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-02-17

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  19. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were positively associated with the intensification level. PMID:24792806

  20. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers. PMID:23549387

  1. How body mass and lifestyle affect juvenile biomass production in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grady, John M.; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the mass-specific rate of biomass production during gestation and lactation, here called maternal productivity, has been shown to vary with body size and lifestyle. Metabolic theory predicts that post-weaning growth of offspring, here termed juvenile productivity, should be higher than maternal productivity, and juveniles of smaller species should be more productive than those of larger species. Furthermore because juveniles generally have similar lifestyles to their mothers, across species juvenile and maternal productivities should be correlated. We evaluated these predictions with data from 270 species of placental mammals in 14 taxonomic/lifestyle groups. All three predictions were supported. Lagomorphs, perissodactyls and artiodactyls were very productive both as juveniles and as mothers as expected from the abundance and reliability of their foods. Primates and bats were unproductive as juveniles and as mothers, as expected as an indirect consequence of their low predation risk and consequent low mortality. Our results point the way to a mechanistic explanation for the suite of correlated life-history traits that has been called the slow–fast continuum. PMID:24403339

  2. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide Supplementation affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of mannose, xylose, and glucose oligosaccharides. Adult dogs assigned to a 6x6 Latin square design were fed six diets, ea...

  3. Factors affecting the work productivity of Oraon agricultural laborers of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subrata K

    2002-03-01

    In developing countries like India, where the incidence of protein-calorie malnutrition is high and mechanization is at a minimum, human labor provides much of the power for physical activity. This study presents anthropometric measurements, somatotypes, food intakes, energy expenditures, and work outputs of Oraon agricultural laborers of the Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, in an attempt to identify the factors that predict high work productivity. Specifically, this study investigates 1) the relationship between morphological variation (anthropometric measurements and somatotype) and work productivity, 2) the nature and extent of the relationship between nutritional status and work productivity, and 3) the best predictor variables of work output. Classification of groups on the basis of median values of work output show that in the aggregate, the high productive groups are significantly younger than low-productive groups in both sexes. Before age-adjustment, the high productive groups show higher mean values of a few body dimensions, though these differ by sex, and both males and females exhibit a normal range of blood pressure and pulse rate values. Mean values of grip strength and back strength are higher in high-output men and women. Mean values of both food intake and energy expenditure are also higher among men in high-output groups, with only food intake higher in high-output women. However, after eliminating the effects of age, the differences between low-productive groups and high-productive groups in most of the variables are not significant. Productivity predictors in males consist of age, food intake and chest girth (inhalation). Females, on the other hand, show age and grip strength (left) as work output predictors. PMID:11842402

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  5. DETECTION OF QTL AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION IN 6 DAIRY BULL DNA REPOSITORY GRANDSIRE FAMILIES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally two research groups conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting economically important traits. Each group selected eight families for study, six that were common across both studies. We report putat...

  6. Development of infant leg coordination: Exploiting passive torques.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Scholz, John; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Leg joint coordination systematically changes over the first months of life, yet there is minimal data on the underlying change in muscle torques that might account for this change in coordination. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of torque changes to early changes in leg joint coordination. Kicking actions were analyzed of 10 full-term infants between 6 and 15-weeks of age using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. We found 11 of 15 joint angle pairs demonstrated a change from more in-phase intralimb coordination at 6-weeks to less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks. Although the magnitude of joint torques normalized to the mass of the leg remained relatively consistent, we noted more complex patterns of torque component contribution across ages. By focusing on the change in torques associated with hip-knee joint coordination, we found that less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination at 15-weeks was associated with decreased influence of knee muscle torque and increased influence of knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques, supporting that infants coordinate hip muscle torque with passive knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques to generate kicks with reduced active knee muscle torque. We propose that between 6 and 15-weeks of age less in-phase hip-knee coordination emerges as infants exploit passive dynamics in the coordination of hip and knee motions. PMID:26117493

  7. Torque Ripple Reduction in Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor using Intelligent Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Ambarapu; Vijaya Kumar, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents intelligent control scheme together with conventional control scheme to overcome the problems with uncertainties in the structure encountered with classical model based design of induction motor drive based on direct torque control (DTC). It allows high dynamic performance to be obtained with very simple hysteresis control scheme. Direct control of the torque and flux is achieved by proper selection of inverter voltage space vector through a lookup table. This paper also presents the application of intelligent controllers like neural network and fuzzy logic controllers to control induction machines with DTC. Intelligent controllers are used to emulate the state selector of the DTC. With implementation of intelligent controllers the system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using proportional integral speed controller.

  8. Biomass and production of amphipods in low alkalinity lakes affected by acid precipitation.

    PubMed

    France, R L

    1996-01-01

    Population biomass and production of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure) were found to be related to alkalinity (ranging from 0.2 to 58.1 mg liter(-1)) in 10 Canadian Shield lakes in south-central Ontario. Biomass and production of amphipods in the two lakes characterized by spring depressions of pH below 5.0 were found to be lower than those for populations inhabiting lakes that did not experience such acid pulses. The proportional biomass of amphipods in relation to the total littoral zoobenthos community was lower in lakes of low alkalinity than in circumneutral or hardwater lakes. Because production in these amphipod populations is known to depend closely on population abundance, the labour-intensive derivation of production rates yields relatively little information for biomonitoring that cannot be obtained from abundance data alone. PMID:15093505

  9. Growth of and fumitremorgin production by Neosartorya fischeri as affected by temperature, light, and water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P V; Beuchat, L R; Frisvad, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of temperature, light, and water activity (aw) on the growth and fumitremorgin production of a heat-resistant mold, Neosartorya fischeri, cultured on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) were studied for incubation periods of up to 74 days. Colonies were examined visually, and extracts of mycelia and CYA on which the mold was cultured were analyzed for mycotoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Growth always resulted in the production of the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C. The optimum temperatures for the production of verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C on CYA at pH 7.0 were 25, 30, and 37 degrees C, respectively. The production of fumitremorgin C by N. fischeri has not been previously reported. Fumitremorgin production was retarded at 15 degrees C, but an extension of the incubation period resulted in concentrations approaching those observed at 25 degrees C. Light clearly enhanced fumitremorgin production on CYA (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C), but not as dramatically as did the addition of glucose, fructose, or sucrose to CYA growth medium (pH 3.5, 25 degrees C). Growth and fumitremorgin production was greatest at aw of 0.980 on CYA supplemented with glucose or fructose and at aw of 0.990 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Growth and fumitremorgin production were observed at aw as low as 0.925 on glucose-supplemented CYA but not at aw lower than 0.970 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Verruculogen was produced in the highest amount on all test media, followed by fumitremorgin A and fumitremorgin C. PMID:3415223

  10. Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

  11. Tibial torque generation in a flexed weight-bearing stance.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, S C; Markolf, K L; Dorey, F J; Zager, S; Namba, R

    1988-03-01

    Internal and external torque generated about the long axis of the lower extremity was measured in 18 male subjects who were instructed to twist with maximal effort against a fixed footplate containing an instrumented torque cell. Mean torque values ranged from 30 to 71 newton meters (Nm) depending upon the test conditions. Torques recorded during the flexed single-leg stance were 19% to 49% higher than those measured while seated. Values at 45 degrees of knee flexion were 11% to 16% greater than those at 20 degrees. Torques generated while wearing a ski boot were 8% to 11% greater than those recorded in an athletic shoe. When movement of the pelvis and upper torso was allowed, torque values were 17% to 49% higher than those recorded when the hips and shoulders were restrained which allowed only lower leg musculature to act in an isolated fashion. There were no differences between internal versus external generated torques when the hips and torso were restrained. When the hips and shoulders were unrestrained, internal torque was 12% greater than external torque. There were no strong correlations between generated torque and body weight or height. These generated torque values suggest that if ski bindings are set to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for twist-release torque, then upper torso and pelvic movement in conjunction with tensed knee musculature (i.e., a "locked knee") may be necessary to accomplish binding release. Use of the lower leg musculature alone (i.e., ankle twist) may not generate sufficient torque for release. PMID:3342561

  12. Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

  13. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    PubMed

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested that functional group identity (i.e. conifers vs. broadleaved species) can be more important for below-ground biomass and production than the species richness itself, as conifers seemed to be more competitive in colonising the soil volume, compared to broadleaved species. PMID:25300709

  14. Factors affecting mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production in submerged cultivation of Antrodia cinnamomea using complex media.

    PubMed

    Lin, En-Shyh; Chen, Yueh-Hsiang

    2007-09-01

    Submerged cultures were used to identify growth-limiting nutrients by Antrodia cinnamomea strains. The mycelial biomass and EPS production by A. cinnamomea BCRC 35396 were markedly higher than other A. cinnamomea strains. A relatively high C/N ratio was favorable for both the mycelial growth (5.41 g/l) and EPS production (0.55 g/l); the optimum ratio was 40. The glucose was available utilized preferentially for mycelial growth, rather than for EPS production. Flushing the culture medium with nitrogen had a stimulating effect on both mycelial growth and EPS production. In addition, peptone, yeast extract and malt extract appeared to be important and significant component for EPS production. Phosphate ion, magnesium ion and thiamine were probably not essential for mycelial growth. By optimizing the effects of additional nutrition, the results showed that 5% (w/v) glucose, 0.8% (w/v) peptone, 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.8% (w/v) malt extract, 0.03% (w/v) KH2PO4, 0.1% (w/v) MgSO4 .7H2O and 0.1% (w/v) thiamine could lead to the maximum production of EPS (1.36 g/l). PMID:17071080

  15. Modelling grain alignment by radiative torques and hydrogen formation torques in reflection nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2015-04-01

    Reflection nebulae - dense cores - illuminated by surrounding stars offer a unique opportunity to directly test our quantitative model of grain alignment based on radiative torques (RATs) and to explore new effects arising from additional torques. In this paper, we first perform detailed modelling of grain alignment by RATs for the IC 63 reflection nebula illuminated both by a nearby γ Cas star and the diffuse interstellar radiation field. We calculate linear polarization pλ of background stars by radiatively aligned grains and explore the variation of fractional polarization (pλ/AV) with visual extinction AV across the cloud. Our results show that the variation of pV/AV versus AV from the dayside of IC 63 to its centre can be represented by a power law (p_V/A_V∝ A_V^{η }) with different slopes depending on AV. We find a shallow slope η ˜ -0.1 for AV < 3 and a very steep slope η ˜ -2 for AV > 4. We then consider the effects of additional torques due to H2 formation and model grain alignment by joint action of RATs and H2 torques. We find that pV/AV tends to increase with an increasing magnitude of H2 torques. In particular, the theoretical predictions obtained for pV/AV and peak wavelength λmax in this case show an improved agreement with the observational data. Our results reinforce the predictive power of the RAT alignment mechanism in a broad range of environmental conditions and show the effect of pinwheel torques in environments with efficient H2 formation. Physical parameters involved in H2 formation may be constrained using detailed modelling of grain alignment combined with observational data. In addition, we discuss implications of our modelling for interpreting latest observational data by Planck and other ground-based instruments.

  16. An experimental study on fermentative H₂ production from food waste as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Friargiu, M; Massi, E; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Spiga, D

    2014-08-01

    Batch dark fermentation experiments were performed on food waste and mixtures of food waste and wastewater activated sludge to evaluate the influence of pH on biological H2 production and compare the process performance with and without inoculum addition. The effect of a preliminary thermal shock treatment of the inoculum was also investigated as a means to harvest the hydrogenogenic biomass. The best performance in terms of both H2 generation potential and process kinetics was observed at pH=6.5 under all experimental conditions (no inoculum, and untreated or thermally treated inoculum added). H2 production from food waste was found to be feasible even without inoculum addition, although thermal pre-treatment of the inoculum notably increased the maximum production and reduced the lag phase duration. The analysis of the fermentation products indicated that the biological hydrogen production could be mainly ascribed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type fermentation. However, the presence of additional metabolites in the digestate, including propionate and ethanol, also indicated that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, reducing substrate conversion into hydrogen. The plateau in H2 generation was found to mirror the condition at which soluble carbohydrates were depleted. Beyond this condition, homoacetogenesis probably started to play a role in the degradation process. PMID:24833177

  17. Distinct promoters affect pyrroloquinoline quinone production in recombinant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiguo; Han, Zengye; Ge, Xizhen; Tian, Pingfang

    2014-10-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a versatile quinone cofactor participating in numerous biological processes. Klebsiella pneumoniae can naturally synthesize PQQ for harboring intact PQQ synthesis genes. Previous metabolic engineering of K. pneumoniae failed to overproduce PQQ due to the employment of strong promoter in expression vector. Here we report that a moderate rather than strong promoter is efficient for PQQ production. To screen an appropriate promoter, a total of four distinct promoters-lac promoter, pk promoter of glycerol dehydratase gene (dhaB1), promoter of kanamycin resistance gene, and T7 promoter (as the control)-were individually used for overexpressing the endogenous PQQ genes in K. pneumoniae along with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. We found that all recombinant K. pneumoniae strains produced more PQQ than recombinant E. coli strains that carried corresponding vectors, indicating that K. pneumoniae is superior to E. coli for the production of PQQ. Particularly, the recombinant K. pneumoniae recruiting the promoter of kanamycin resistance gene produced the highest PQQ (1,700 nmol), revealing that a moderate rather than strong promoter is efficient for PQQ production. Furthermore, PQQ production was roughly proportional to glucose concentration increasing from 0.5 to 1.5 g/L, implying the synergism between PQQ biosynthesis and glucose utilization. This study not only provides a feasible strategy for production of PQQ in K. pneumoniae, but also reveals the exquisite synchronization among PQQ biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, and cell proliferation. PMID:24858816

  18. Quality of dissolved organic matter affects planktonic but not biofilm bacterial production in streams.

    PubMed

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Herzsprung, Peter; Neu, Thomas R

    2015-02-15

    Streams and rivers are important sites of organic carbon mineralization which is dependent on the land use within river catchments. Here we tested whether planktonic and epilithic biofilm bacteria differ in their response to the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, planktonic and biofilm bacterial production was compared with patterns of DOC along a land-use gradient in the Bode catchment area (Germany). The freshness index of DOC was positively related to the proportion of agricultural area in the catchment. The humification index correlated with the proportion of forest area. Abundance and production of planktonic bacteria were lower in headwaters than at downstream sites. Planktonic production was weakly correlated to the total concentration of DOC but more strongly to quality-measures as revealed by spectra indexes, i.e. positively to the freshness index and negatively to the humification index. In contrast to planktonic bacteria, abundance and production of biofilm bacteria were independent of DOC quality. This finding may be explained by the association of biofilm bacteria with benthic algae and an extracellular matrix which represent additional substrate sources. The data show that planktonic bacteria seem to be regulated at a landscape scale controlled by land use, whereas biofilm bacteria are regulated at a biofilm matrix scale controlled by autochthonous production. Thus, the effects of catchment-scale land use changes on ecosystem processes are likely lower in small streams dominated by biofilm bacteria than in larger streams dominated by planktonic bacteria. PMID:25460970

  19. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  20. "Hotness" stability of chicken hot-wing products as affected by preparation methods and storage.

    PubMed

    Chang, M H; Chen, T C

    1998-04-01

    Chicken hot-drumettes containing 2% cayenne pepper were prepared using three different cooking methods and stored under two different temperatures for "hotness" evaluation. Results demonstrated that the hotness of the samples were highest when products were cooked in a microwave oven, followed by convection oven, and least hot by deep-fat frying. Regardless of the cooking method, the degree of hotness of the hot-drumette decreased drastically during refrigerated storage. Results also indicated that the loss of hotness was associated with the increase of 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the product. The addition of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rosemary, and sodium nitrate during preparation or vacuum packaging retarded lipid oxidation of chicken hot-drumettes and retarded the loss of hotness of the products during refrigerated storage. PMID:9565248

  1. Thermally driven spin torques in layered magnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Scott A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-02-01

    Thermally driven spin-transfer torques have recently been reported in electrically insulating ferromagnet |normal -metal heterostructures. In this paper, we propose two physically distinct mechanisms for such torques. The first is a local effect: out-of-equilibrium, thermally activated magnons in the ferromagnet, driven by a spin Seebeck effect, exert a torque on the magnetization via magnon-magnon scattering with coherent dynamics. The second is a nonlocal effect which requires an additional magnetic layer to provide the symmetry breaking necessary to realize a thermal torque. The simplest structure in which to induce a nonlocal thermal torque is a spin valve composed of two insulating magnets separated by a normal metal spacer; there, a thermal flux generates a pure spin current through the spin valve, which results in a torque when the magnetizations of the layers are misaligned.

  2. Bevel Gear Driver and Method Having Torque Limit Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including an axially displaceable gear with a biasing assembly to bias the displaceable gear into an engagement position. A rotatable cap is provided with a micrometer dial to select a desired output torque. An intermediate bevel gear assembly is disposed between an input gear and an output gear. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at a desired torque limit. The torque limit is adjustable and may be adjusted manually or automatically depending on the type of biasing assembly provided. A clutch assembly automatically limits axial force applied to a fastener by the operator to avoid alteration of the desired torque limit.

  3. Linear corotation torques in non-barotropic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David

    2014-02-20

    A fully analytic expression for the linear corotation torque to first order in eccentricity for planets in non-barotropic protoplanetary disks is derived, taking into account the effect of disk entropy gradients. This torque formula is applicable to both the co-orbital, corotation torques and the non-co-orbital, corotation torques—for planets in orbits with non-zero eccentricity—in disks where the thermal diffusivity and viscosity are sufficient to maintain the linearity of these interactions. While the co-orbital, corotation torque is important for migration of planets in Type I migration, the non-co-orbital, corotation torque plays an important role in the eccentricity evolution of giant planets that have opened gaps in the disk. The presence of an entropy gradient in the disk can significantly modify the corotation torque in both these cases.

  4. Effect of insertion torque on bone screw pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Lawson, K J; Brems, J

    2001-05-01

    The effect of insertion torque on the holding strength of 4.5-mm ASIF/AO cortical bone screws was studied in vitro. Screw holding strength was determined using an Instron materials testing machine (Bristol, United Kingdom) on 55 lamb femora and 30 human tibiocortical bone sections. Holding strength was defined as tensile stress at pullout with rapid loading to construct failure. Different insertion torques were tested, normalizing to the thickness of cortical bone specimen engaged. These represented low, intermediate, high, and thread-damaging insertion torque. All screws inserted with thread-damaging torque and single cortex engaging screws inserted to high torque tightening moments showed diminished holding strength. This loss of strength amounted to 40%-50% less than screws inserted with less torque. PMID:11379993

  5. Mechanomyographic amplitude and mean power frequency versus torque relationships during isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Weir, Joseph P; Cramer, Joel T; Coburn, Jared W; Malek, Moh H

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) versus torque (or force) relationships during isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the biceps brachii. Ten adults (mean +/- SD age = 21.6 +/- 1.7 years) performed submaximal to maximal isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the dominant forearm flexors. Following determination of isokinetic peak torque (PT) and the isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the subjects randomly performed submaximal step muscle actions in 10% increments from 10% to 90% PT and MVC. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that MMG amplitude increased linearly with torque during both the isokinetic (r2 = 0.982) and isometric (r2 = 0.956) muscle actions. From 80% to 100% of isometric MVC, however, MMG amplitude appeared to plateau. Cubic models provided the best fit for the MMG MPF versus isokinetic (R2 = 0.786) and isometric (R2 = 0.940) torque relationships, although no significant increase in MMG MPF was found from 10% to 100% of isokinetic PT. For the isometric muscle actions, however, MMG MPF remained relatively stable from 10% to 50% MVC, increased from 50% to 80% MVC, and decreased from 80% to 100% MVC. The results demonstrated differences in the MMG amplitude and MPF versus torque relationships between the isokinetic and isometric muscle actions. These findings suggested that the time and frequency domains of the MMG signal may be useful for describing the unique motor control strategies that modulate dynamic versus isometric torque production. PMID:15301774

  6. Submerged Conidiation and Product Formation by Aspergillus niger at Low Specific Growth Rates Are Affected in Aerial Developmental Mutants ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, JooHae; van den Hondel, Cees A.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Ram, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B2, B4, and B6 were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic fungus cultured at low specific growth rates can be fundamentally affected by interfering with the genetic program for differentiation of aerial hyphae, opening new perspectives for tailoring industrial performance. PMID:21652743

  7. Cultivar, harvest date, and nitrogen fertilization affect production and quality of fall oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that oat (Avena sativa L.) has promise as a fall-forage option for dairy producers. In addition, dairy producers often have a recurring need to identify opportunity windows for manure hauling other than before or after production of corn (Zea mays L.). Our objectives were...

  8. Lesion-Site Affects Grammatical Gender Assignment in German: Perception and Production Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A.; Marschhauser, Anke; von Cramon, D. Yves; Friederici, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in

  9. Water use and water productivity of sugarbeet, malt barley and potato as affected by irrigation frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful irrigation management is one of the most important agronomic practices for achieving profitable yield and maximizing crop water productivity (CWP) while maintaining environmental quality by minimizing water losses to runoff and deep drainage. This study was conducted to compare the influe...

  10. Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing barrows as affected by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat and moisture production measurements were completed on barrows over the normal weight range of 60 to 120 kg and a temperature range of 16 to 32°C. All measurements were based on a 21-hr period and adjusted to a 24-hr base. Animals were acclimated to treatment temperatures for 2 weeks, and the...

  11. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  12. Lesion-Site Affects Grammatical Gender Assignment in German: Perception and Production Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A.; Marschhauser, Anke; von Cramon, D. Yves; Friederici, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in…

  13. Potato evapotranspiration and productivity as affected by drip irrigation frequency and soil matric potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip irrigation has been shown to be an effective method for achieving high potato yields. Soil matric potential (SMP) and irrigation frequencies are two important factors in optimizing potato production and tuber quality. This chapter reviews and discusses a case study of potato evapotranspiration ...

  14. COTTON PRODUCTION WITH COVER CROPS: ALDICARB AND NITROGEN AFFECT YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage with cover crops is gaining wide acceptance for cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) production, but little is known about the effects of habitat manipulation on thrips (Frankliniella sp.) populations and the effects of thrips damage on cotton yield and quality. The objectives of this...

  15. Moving beyond Frontiers: How Institutional Context Affects Degree Production and Student Aspirations in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Mark Kevin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the U.S. face increasing pressure from policymakers and corporate leaders to increase their production of undergraduate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These pressures stem from a need to maintain the country's global economic competitiveness in science and engineering innovation.…

  16. Restoration of eroded landscapes to reduce variability in soil properties affecting productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In hilly landscapes, tillage and water erosion combine to induce large variability in soil productivity at the field scale. Approaches to manage this variability have been proposed, including restoring the landscape by physically moving soil from areas of net deposition to areas of net soil loss. We...

  17. Variable environment and market affects optimal nitrogen management in wheat and cattle production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (N) in grain production of cereals is about 33% worldwide, and a 1% increase in fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) could annually save US producers 200-400 million US dollars. Process-based crop simulation models provide a unique opportunity to improve f...

  18. INDIRECT IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE THAT AFFECT AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: SOIL EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation poses an increasing threat to agricultural production. Under natural conditions, topsoil in the aggregate is renewed at a rate approximately equal to the rate at which degradation occurs. However, much agricultural land degrades at faster than "tolerable rates". Pimental et al. (1...

  19. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  20. Restoring a landscape to reduce erosion-induced variability in soil properties affecting productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In hilly landscapes, tillage and water erosion can combine to induce large variability in soil productivity at the field scale. Approaches to manage this variability have been proposed, including restoring the landscape by physically moving soil from areas of net deposition to areas of net soil loss...

  1. Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing gilts as affected by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat and moisture production (HMP) values are used to size ventilation fans in animal housing. The HMP values that are currently published in the ASABE (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers) standards were from data collected in the early 1950. This study is one of a series of...

  2. ETHANOL AND LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION AS AFFECTED BY SORGHUM GENOTYPE AND LOCATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environment, location, genotype, and other interactions have a significant influence on end-use quality characteristics of sorghum. The objective of this research was to study the effect of sorghum genotype and growth conditions on ethanol and lactic acid production. Eight sorghum varieties from t...

  3. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  4. Sunflower, soybean, and grain sorghum crop production as affected by dripline depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five-year field study (2004-2008) using irrigation water from an unlined surface reservoir was conducted to examine the effect of dripline depth (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, or 0.6 m) on subsurface drip-irrigated rotational crop production of sunflower, soybean, and grain sorghum on a deep silt loam soil ...

  5. Social context affects phee call production by nonreproductive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Norcross, J L; Newman, J D

    1997-01-01

    Common marmosets produce two variants of their long call (phee call) in different situations. Intergroup calls are produced in territorial situations, and intragroup separation calls are produced by marmosets isolated from group members. Marmoset groups frequently include postpubertal, nonreproductive members; their roles in the spontaneous production of territorial vocalizations is unclear. This study analyzed the production of home cage phee calls by nonreproductive, postpubertal marmosets while they were housed in their natal groups and after pairing with an opposite-sex conspecific. Additionally, the production of the separation phee call variant was assessed in both social conditions. The results indicated that the marmosets rarely produced home cage, or territorial, phee calls while they were natally housed. In contrast, both males and females produced the territorial phee call at a much higher rate as early as 4 days after pairing. Agematched females remaining in their natal groups throughout the study produced home cage phee calls infrequently. Most marmosets produced separation phee calls at a high rate after separation from either their natal group or a partner, suggesting that the makeup of a social group has little effect on an animal's motivation to reunite with conspecifics. These results suggest that the social environment has an important influence on the production of territorial phee calls. PMID:9327096

  6. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  7. Moving beyond Frontiers: How Institutional Context Affects Degree Production and Student Aspirations in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Mark Kevin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the U.S. face increasing pressure from policymakers and corporate leaders to increase their production of undergraduate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These pressures stem from a need to maintain the country's global economic competitiveness in science and engineering innovation.

  8. A differential electromagnetic induction torque sensor and its finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Torque is an important parameter for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for rotary machines. This paper describes a new structure differential torque sensor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The method involves the construction of a pulsating flux by the excitation winding of the sensor, and the torsion angle produced by the load torque is converted into the angle displacements of the excitation winding and the output winding. Last, the output winding of sensor generates an induction potential force, which is proportional to the load torque as seen through electromagnetic coupling. Sensor sensitivity would be reduced by load effect; therefore, this paper presents a suppression method that can ensure the sensitivity is not affected. The transfer function of the sensor is constructed through Laplace transformation. The sensor characteristics are simulated by finite elements, including the influence of winding coil numbers and excitation voltage frequency. The sensor was calibrated by a torsion testing machine, and the experimental results indicated that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 18.2 mV/Nm, the non-repeatability error is about 2.3%, the non-linear error is about 3.3%, and the hysteresis error is about 2.6%. PMID:26026550

  9. A differential electromagnetic induction torque sensor and its finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Torque is an important parameter for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for rotary machines. This paper describes a new structure differential torque sensor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The method involves the construction of a pulsating flux by the excitation winding of the sensor, and the torsion angle produced by the load torque is converted into the angle displacements of the excitation winding and the output winding. Last, the output winding of sensor generates an induction potential force, which is proportional to the load torque as seen through electromagnetic coupling. Sensor sensitivity would be reduced by load effect; therefore, this paper presents a suppression method that can ensure the sensitivity is not affected. The transfer function of the sensor is constructed through Laplace transformation. The sensor characteristics are simulated by finite elements, including the influence of winding coil numbers and excitation voltage frequency. The sensor was calibrated by a torsion testing machine, and the experimental results indicated that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 18.2 mV/Nm, the non-repeatability error is about 2.3%, the non-linear error is about 3.3%, and the hysteresis error is about 2.6%.

  10. Thraustochytrids can be grown in low-salt media without affecting PUFA production.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-08-01

    Marine microheterotrophs thraustochytrids are emerging as a potential source for commercial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have nutritional and pharmacological values. With prospective demand for PUFAs increasing, biotechnological companies are looking for potential increases in those valuable products. However, high levels of NaCl in the culture media required for optimal thraustochytrid growth and PUFA production poses a significant problem to the biotechnological industry due to corrosion of fermenters calling for a need to reduce the amount of NaCl in the culture media, without imposing penalties on growth and yield of cultured organisms. Earlier, as reported by Shabala et al. (Environ Microbiol 11:1835-1843, 2009), we have shown that thraustochytrids use sodium predominantly for osmotic adjustment purposes and, as such, can be grown in low-salt environment without growth penalties, providing the media osmolality is adjusted. In this study, we verify if that conclusion, made for one specific strain and osmolyte only, is applicable to the larger number of strains and organic osmotica, as well as address the issue of yield quality (e.g., PUFA production in low-saline media). Using mannitol and sucrose for osmotic adjustment of the growth media enabled us to reduce NaCl concentration down to 1 mM; this is 15-100-fold lower than any method proposed so far. At the same time, the yield of essential PUFAs was increased by 15 to 20 %. Taken together, these results suggest that the proposed method can be used in industrial fermenters for commercial PUFA production. PMID:23568670

  11. Sounds of emotion: production and perception of affect-related vocal acoustics.

    PubMed

    Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Owren, Michael J

    2003-12-01

    In his writing Darwin emphasized direct veridical links between vocal acoustics and vocalizer emotional state. Yet he also recognized that acoustics influence the emotional state of listeners. This duality-that particular vocal expressions are likely linked to particular internal states, yet may specifically function to influence others-lies at the heart of contemporary efforts aimed at understanding affect-related vocal acoustics. That work has focused most on speech acoustics and laughter, where the most common approach has been to argue that these signals reflect the occurrence of discrete emotional states in the vocalizer. An alternative view is that the underlying states can be better characterized using a small number of continuous dimensions such as arousal (or activation) and a valenced dimension such as pleasantness. A brief review of the evidence suggests, however, that neither approach is correct. Data from speech-related research provides little support for a discrete-emotions view, with emotion-related aspects of the acoustics seeming more to reflect to vocalizer arousal. However, links to a corresponding emotional valence dimension have also been difficult to demonstrate, suggesting a need for interpretations outside this traditional dichotomy. We therefore suggest a different perspective in which the primary function of signaling is not to express signaler emotion, but rather to impact listener affect and thereby influence the behavior of these individuals. In this view, it is not expected that nuances of signaler states will be highly correlated with particular features of the sounds produced, but rather that vocalizers will be using acoustics that readily affect listener arousal and emotion. Attributions concerning signaler states thus become a secondary outcome, reflecting inferences that listeners base on their own affective responses to the sounds, their past experience with such signals, and the context in which signaling is occurring. This approach has found recent support in laughter research, with the bigger picture being that the sounds of emotion-be they carried in speech, laughter, or other species-typical signals--are not informative, veridical beacons on vocalizer states so much as tools of social influence used to capitalize on listener sensitivities. PMID:14766635

  12. Preparation Torque Limit for Composites Joined with Mechanical Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Frank P.; Yi, Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Current design guidelines for determining torque ranges for composites are based on tests and analysis from isotropic materials. Properties of composites are not taken into account. No design criteria based upon a systematic analytical and test analyses is available. This paper is to study the maximum torque load a composite component could carry prior to any failure. Specifically, the torque-tension tests are conducted. NDT techniques including acoustic emission, thermography and photomicroscopy are also utilized to characterize the damage modes.

  13. Electronic measurement of variable torques in precision work technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehr, M.

    1978-01-01

    Approaches for the determination of torques on the basis of length measurements are discussed. Attention is given to torque determinations in which the deformation of a shaft is measured, an electric measurement of the torsion angle, and an approach proposed by Buschmann (1970). Methods for a torque determination conducted with the aid of force measurements make use of piezoelectric approaches. The components used by these methods include a quartz crystal and a charge amplifier.

  14. Spin torque-generated magnetic droplet solitons.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, S M; Sani, S R; Persson, J; Nguyen, T N Anh; Chung, S; Pogoryelov, Ye; Muduli, P K; Iacocca, E; Eklund, A; Dumas, R K; Bonetti, S; Deac, A; Hoefer, M A; Akerman, J

    2013-03-15

    Dissipative solitons have been reported in a wide range of nonlinear systems, but the observation of their magnetic analog has been experimentally challenging. Using spin transfer torque underneath a nanocontact on a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), we have observed the generation of dissipative magnetic droplet solitons and report on their rich dynamical properties. Micromagnetic simulations identify a wide range of automodulation frequencies, including droplet oscillatory motion, droplet "spinning," and droplet "breather" states. The droplet can be controlled by using both current and magnetic fields and is expected to have applications in spintronics, magnonics, and PMA-based domain-wall devices. PMID:23493707

  15. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella

    PubMed Central

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook. PMID:26691402

  16. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella.

    PubMed

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook. PMID:26691402

  17. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook.

  18. Small-Bolt Torque-Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    The device described here measures the torque-tension relationship for fasteners as small as #0. The small-bolt tester consists of a plate of high-strength steel into which three miniature load cells are recessed. The depth of the recess is sized so that the three load cells can be shimmed, the optimum height depending upon the test hardware. The three miniature load cells are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration with the test bolt aligned with the centroid of the three. This is a kinematic arrangement.

  19. High-torque open-end wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.; Dame, J. M.; Behimer, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A wrench is described that is usable where limited access normally requires an open-end wrench, but which has substantially the high-torque capacity and small radial clearance characteristics of a closed-end wrench. The wrench includes a sleeve forming a nut-engageable socket with a gap in its side, and an adaptor forming a socket with a gap in its side, the adaptor closely surrounding the sleeve and extending across the gap in the sleeve. The sleeve and adaptor have surfaces that become fully engaged when a wrench handle is applied to the adaptor to turn it so as to tighten a nut engaged by the sleeve.

  20. Methodology for Determining Limit Torques for Threaded Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hissam, Andy

    2011-01-01

    In aerospace design, where minimizing weight is always a priority, achieving the full capacity from fasteners is essential. To do so, the initial bolt preload must be maximized. The benefits of high preload are well documented and include improved fatigue resistance, a stiffer joint, and resistance to loosening. But many factors like elastic interactions and embedment tend to lower the initial preload placed on the bolt. These factors provide additional motivation to maximize the initial preload. But, to maximize bolt preload, you must determine what torque to apply. Determining this torque is greatly complicated by the large preload scatter generally seen with torque control. This paper presents a detailed methodology for generating limit torques for threaded fasteners. This methodology accounts for the large scatter in preload found with torque control, and therefore, addresses the statistical nature of the problem. It also addresses prevailing torque, a feature common in aerospace fasteners. Although prevailing torque provides a desired locking feature, it can also increase preload scatter. In addition, it can limit the amount of preload that can be generated due to the torsion it creates in the bolt. This paper discusses the complications of prevailing torque and how best to handle it. A wide range of torque-tension bolt testing was conducted in support of this research. The results from this research will benefit the design engineer as well as analyst involved in the design of bolted joints, leading to better, more optimized structural designs.

  1. Valve torque measuring device based on strain gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-rong; Ni, Fan; Yang, Guo-biao; Li, Bin

    2010-08-01

    Start-stop torque is one of the key parameters of valve's capacity. In China, a torque spanner is used to measure the small-bore torque, but the accuracy is not very high. In the large-bore situation, the previous method can not be used to measure the torque, so the torque is determined by the design calculation result. Sometimes this result is far from the practical one, and the difference will impact the apolegamy of the actuating device of a valve. Some other methods, such as inductance type transducer valve torque sensor, strain gauge valve torque sensor, appeared. They both have the advantage of high accuracy, but their automatic level is low and their measuring equipments are complex. In this paper, a new style torque measuring device which is based on theory of mechanics of materials and measuring principle of strain gauge is designed. The maximal torque is 2000Nm. The measuring device is easy for installation, accurate on results, and is able to meet the actually online measuring demands.

  2. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor. PMID:24935023

  3. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1° C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of ˜13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L≥1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the α = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33°C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  4. [Factors that can affect the breeding and maintenance of infected snails and the production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae].

    PubMed

    De Souza, C P; Araújo, N; Jannotti, L K; Gazzinelli, G

    1987-01-01

    Mass production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae was affected by biological and chemical agents. Rotifers and ostracods, snail predators, were identified in our colony. Rotifers were easily eradicated by washing the aquaria and lettuce with diluted solution of acetic acid. On the other hand, ostracods were difficult to eradicate and led to a high level mortality of infected snails (50-60%). Snails maintained in an incubator at constant temperature and total darkness produced maximum shedding when submitted to brightness and high temperature (about 30 degrees C). The number of cercariae shed was practically the same between pH 5-7. Contaminants such as Cu and Pb added to glass distilled water decreased the cercariae production. In conclusion, laboratory maintenance of large number of infected snails for mass production of cercariae is much simpler and more efficient than the conventional technique with running tap water although a high rate of mortality is observed in the snail colony. PMID:3507569

  5. The interactive effects of affect and shopping goal on information search and product evaluations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangyuan; Wyer, Robert S; Shen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Although shoppers often want to evaluate products to make a purchase decision, they can also shop for enjoyment. In each case, the amount of time they spend on shopping and the number of options they consider can depend on the mood they happen to be in. We predicted that mood can signal whether the goal has been attained and when people should stop processing information. When people are primarily motivated to purchase a particular type of product, positive mood signals that they have done enough. Thus, they consider less information if they are happy than if they are unhappy. When people shop for enjoyment, however, positive mood signals that they are still having fun. Thus, they consider more information when they are happy than when they are not. Four experiments among university students (N = 827) examined these possibilities. Experiment 1 provided initial evidence for the interactive effects of mood and goals on search behavior and product evaluation. Other studies examined the implications of this conceptualization for different domains: (a) the relative impact of brand and attribute information on judgments (Experiment 2), (b) gender differences in shopping behavior (Experiment 3), and (c) the number of options that people review in an actual online shopping website (Experiment 4). PMID:26460676

  6. Environmental conditions affecting exopolysaccharide production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönül

    2008-06-15

    Three different chromium-resistant microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Ochrobactrum sp.) were tested with regard to their EPS production at different pH levels, temperatures, Cr(VI) concentrations, and incubation periods. The optimum pH level was 7 for P. aeruginosa and Micrococcus sp., while it was 8 for Ochrobactrum sp. according to the highest EPS amount at 100 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. The highest production of EPSs by the three bacteria was obtained under different environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa produced the highest EPS (863.3 mg/L) after incubation for 96 h on media with 50 mg/L Cr(VI) at 20 degrees C, Micrococcus sp. gave the highest yield (444.6 mg/L) after incubation for 72 h on media with 100 mg/L Cr(VI) at the same temperature, and Ochrobactrum sp. had the highest production (430.5 mg/L) on media with 150 mg/L Cr(VI) at 30 degrees C at the end of 48 h of incubation. PMID:18155834

  7. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting.

    PubMed

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s "all-out" sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; "fast" instruction) and maximal (~5 s; "hard" instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100, and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P < 0.05) sprint decrement score and a shorter (P < 0.05) cumulated distance covered over the eight sprints occurred in HA (-8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (-7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (-5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (-9 ± 7%), a larger (P < 0.05) reduction in MVC torque occurred post-exercise in HA (-14 ± 9%) but not in LA (-12 ± 7%), with no difference between NM and LA (P > 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (-6 ± 11%; P < 0.05), and normalized peak RMS activity for VL (-8 ± 11%; P = 0.07) and RF (-14 ± 11%; P < 0.01) muscles were reduced post-exercise, whereas reductions (P < 0.05) in absolute RTD occurred within the 0-100 (-8 ± 9%) and 0-200 ms (-10 ± 8%) epochs after contraction onset. After normalization to MVC torque, there was no difference in RTD values. Additionally, the EMG rise for VL muscle was similar (P > 0.05), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  8. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P < 0.05) sprint decrement score and a shorter (P < 0.05) cumulated distance covered over the eight sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P < 0.05) reduction in MVC torque occurred post-exercise in HA (−14 ± 9%) but not in LA (-12 ± 7%), with no difference between NM and LA (P > 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P < 0.05), and normalized peak RMS activity for VL (−8 ± 11%; P = 0.07) and RF (−14 ± 11%; P < 0.01) muscles were reduced post-exercise, whereas reductions (P < 0.05) in absolute RTD occurred within the 0–100 (−8 ± 9%) and 0–200 ms (−10 ± 8%) epochs after contraction onset. After normalization to MVC torque, there was no difference in RTD values. Additionally, the EMG rise for VL muscle was similar (P > 0.05), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  9. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  10. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide supplementation affects nutrient digestibility, fermentation end-product production, and large bowel microbiota of the dog.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Hopkins, A C; Middelbos, I S; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2011-01-01

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained increased concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of DM. Adult dogs assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design were fed 6 diets, each containing a different concentration of supplemental GGMO (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8%) that replaced dietary cellulose. Total tract DM and OM apparent digestibilities increased (P < 0.001) linearly, whereas total tract CP apparent digestibility decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acids increased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly, whereas butyrate concentration decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly with increasing dietary concentrations of GGMO. Fecal pH decreased (P ≤ 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased, whereas fecal score increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.001). Fecal phenol (P ≤ 0.05) and indole (P ≤ 0.01) concentrations decreased linearly with GGMO supplementation. Fecal biogenic amine concentrations were not different among treatments except for phenylethylamine, which decreased (P < 0.001) linearly as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. Fecal microbial concentrations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium perfringens were not different among treatments. A quadratic increase (P ≤ 0.01) was noted for Bifidobacterium spp. as dietary GGMO substrate concentration increased. The data suggest positive nutritional properties of supplemental GGMO when incorporated in a good-quality dog food. PMID:20852078

  11. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    PubMed

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

  13. Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, K R; Mitchell, C A

    1999-08-01

    The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space. PMID:11542385

  14. Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, K. R.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space.

  15. Factors affecting aerobic recovery heat production and recovery ratio of frog sartorius.

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind-De Becker, A

    1989-01-01

    1. Sartorius muscles of Rana temporaria, equilibrated at 20 degrees C in Ringer solution buffered with phosphates, were stimulated isometrically for 0.2 up to 0.75 s at lengths varying from 1.03 to 1.48 times rest length, L0. The aerobic recovery heat was measured for 10.5 min after contraction. 2. The recovery heat production had a complex time course, showing a variable delay to maximum, declining thereafter. In most cases, the rate of heat production did not decrease monotonically; attention was focused on the slow exponential decay which only persisted from 1.5-5 min after contraction. This latter part of the time course was considered as strictly aerobic and characterized by the time constant tau s. 3. Increasing the tetanus duration from 0.2 to 0.75 s increased initial heat Qi and recovery heat Qr in proportion, so that the recovery ratio R (Qr/Qi) did not change; it was equal to 1.29 +/- 0.03 (S.E.M.; n = 44) for muscles at about L0. The kinetics of heat production were modified with longer tetani; in particular, tau s was increased from 2.2 to 5.2 min. 4. When muscles were stretched beyond L0, as long as there was no increase of the resting heat rate (stretch response or 'Feng effect'), recovery heat production had a similar evolution to that in muscles at about L0; R was constant and equal to 1.21 +/- 0.03 (n = 46). 5. When muscles were sufficiently stretched to develop a stretch response, R increased proportionally to the stretch response. The effect seemed independent of the contractile machinery, as it vanished concomitantly with the stretch response, while force and Qi remained unchanged for the length considered. The kinetics were also modified--the delay to maximum was no longer detected and tau s most likely increased. 6. Substitution of 60% of the NaCl of the Ringer solution by NaI (mol/mol) produced a significant increase of R, mainly due to the increase of Qr. 7. The results show that neither the time course nor the amount of aerobic recovery heat Qr are strictly determined by the amount of initial heat Qi. The hypothesis is discussed that Qr might include a variable fraction due to processes which are not directly implicated in the actin-myosin interactions, possibly those involving the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the rate of resting metabolism. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2621637

  16. Infectivity and egg production of Nematospiroides dubius as affected by space flight and ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, R. A.; Ellis, W. L.; Taylor, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Nematospiroides dubius was tested to determine the infective potential of the third stage larvae and the egg-production and egg-viability rates of the resulting adults after they are exposed to space flight and solar ultraviolet irradiation. The results are indicative that space-flown larvae exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation were rendered noninfective in C57 mice, whereas flight control larvae that received no solar ultraviolet irradiation matured at the same rate as the ground control larvae. However, depressed egg viability was evident in the flight control larvae.

  17. Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product insect pests.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Hatzikonstantinou, Ann N; Kavallieratou, Helen N

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to assess pyrole chlorfenapyr as a potential grain protectant against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Prostephanus truncatus, Tribolium confusum, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. Factors such as dose (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ppm), exposure interval (7 and 14 days), temperature (20, 25, and 30°C), relative humidity (RH; 55 and 75%), and commodity (wheat, maize, barley, and paddy rice) were evaluated. Progeny production was assessed after 74 days of exposure. For L. bostrychophila and T. confusum the increase of dose increased mortality. After 7 or 14 days of exposure, mortality was low at doses of ≤ 1 ppm and did not exceed 23 or 36%, respectively, for L. bostrychophila or 13 or 58%, respectively, for T. confusum. After 14 days of exposure, mortality of S. oryzae at 30°C and 75% RH was 82.2%. Mortality of P. truncatus was considerably higher than that of the other species. At 0.5 ppm, mortality exceeded 81% after 7 days of exposure and 91% after 14 days of exposure. Progeny production of L. bostrychophila was extremely high. Very few progeny were found for T. confusum. For S. oryzae, offspring emergence was high, except at 20°C and 55% RH. For P. truncatus, progeny production in the treated maize was not avoided, even at 10 ppm. In the case of S. oryzae, at 0.1 ppm and after 14 days of exposure, mortality in wheat was higher than in the other three commodities. For R. dominica, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm for paddy rice but reached 74.4% in barley after 14 days of exposure. For T. confusum, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm in all commodities. For progeny production counts, for S. oryzae or R. dominica, adult emergence was higher in paddy rice than in the other three commodities. Finally, overall T. confusum progeny was low. Chlorfenapyr efficacy varied remarkably among the combinations tested, and it may be a viable grain protectant in combination with other insecticides. PMID:21819655

  18. Nonambipolarity, orthogonal conductivity, poloidal flow, and torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, G.W.; Perkins, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    Nonambipolar processes, such as neutral injection onto trapped orbits or ripple-diffusion loss of ..cap alpha..-particles, act to charge a plasma. A current j/sub r/ across magnetic surfaces must arise in the bulk plasma to maintain charge neutrality. An axisymmetric, neoclassical model of the bulk plasma shows that these currents are carried by the ions and exert a j/sub r/B/sub theta/R/c torque in the toroidal direction. A driven poloidal flow V/sub theta/ = E/sub r/'c/B must also develop. The average current density is related to the radial electric field E/sub r/' = E/sub r/ + v/sub /phi//B/sub theta//c in a frame moving with the plasma via the orthogonal conductivity = sigma/sub /perpendicular//E/sub r/', which has the value sigma/sub /perpendicular// = (1.65epsilon/sup 1/2/)(ne/sup 2/..nu../sub ii//M..cap omega../sub theta//sup 2/) in the banana regime. If an ignited plasma loses an appreciable fraction ..delta.. of its thermonuclear ..cap alpha..-particles by banana ripple diffusion, then the torque will spin the plasma to sonic rotation in a time /tau//sub s/ approx. 2/tau//sub E//..delta.., /tau//sub E/ being the energy confinement time. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Electromagnetic force and torque in ponderable media.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2008-09-15

    Maxwell's macroscopic equations combined with a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force are a complete and consistent set of equations. Not only are these five equations fully compatible with special relativity, they also conform with conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum. We demonstrate consistency with the conservation laws by showing that, when a beam of light enters a magnetic dielectric, a fraction of the incident linear (or angular) momentum pours into the medium at a rate determined by the Abraham momentum density, E x H/c(2), and the group velocity V(g) of the electromagnetic field. The balance of the incident, reflected, and transmitted momenta is subsequently transferred to the medium as force (or torque) at the leading edge of the beam, which propagates through the medium with velocity V(g). Our analysis does not require "hidden" momenta to comply with the conservation laws, nor does it dissolve into ambiguities with regard to the nature of electromagnetic momentum in ponderable media. The linear and angular momenta of the electromagnetic field are clearly associated with the Abraham momentum, and the phase and group refractive indices (n(p) and n(g)) play distinct yet definitive roles in the expressions of force, torque, and momentum densities. PMID:18795019

  20. Optimal filtering of constant velocity torque data.

    PubMed

    Murray, D A

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to implement an optimal filtering strategy for processing in vivo dynamometric data. The validity of employing commonly accepted analog smoothing methods was also appraised. An inert gravitational model was used to assess the filtering requirements of two Cybex II constant velocity dynamometers at 10 pre-set speeds with three selected loads. Speed settings were recorded as percentages of the servomechanism's maximum tachometer feedback voltage (10 to 100% Vfb max). Spectral analyses of unsmoothed torque and associated angular displacement curves, followed by optimized low-pass digital filtering, revealed the presence of two superimposed contaminating influences: a damped oscillation, representing successive sudden braking and releasing of the servomechanism control system; a relatively stationary oscillatory series, which was attributed to the Cybex motor. The optimal cutoff frequency for any data set was principally a positive function of % Vfb max. This association was represented for each machine by a different, but reliable, third order least-squares polynomial, which could be used to accurately predict the correct smoothing required for any speed setting. Unacceptable errors may be induced, especially when measuring peak torques, if data are inappropriately filtered. Over-smoothing disguises inertial artefacts. The use of Cybex recorder damping settings should be discouraged. Optimal filtering is a minimal requirement of valid data processing. PMID:3784873

  1. Chiral spin torque at magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwang-Su; Thomas, Luc; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized currents provide a powerful means of manipulating the magnetization of nanodevices, and give rise to spin transfer torques that can drive magnetic domain walls along nanowires. In ultrathin magnetic wires, domain walls are found to move in the opposite direction to that expected from bulk spin transfer torques, and also at much higher speeds. Here we show that this is due to two intertwined phenomena, both derived from spin-orbit interactions. By measuring the influence of magnetic fields on current-driven domain-wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni/Co trilayers, we find an internal effective magnetic field acting on each domain wall, the direction of which alternates between successive domain walls. This chiral effective field arises from a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Co/Pt interfaces and, in concert with spin Hall currents, drives the domain walls in lock-step along the nanowire. Elucidating the mechanism for the manipulation of domain walls in ultrathin magnetic films will enable the development of new families of spintronic devices. PMID:23770808

  2. Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.

  3. Interspecific differences in egg production affect egg trace element concentrations after a coal fly ash spill.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A

    2013-12-01

    In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations. PMID:24180645

  4. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  5. Lesion-site affects grammatical gender assignment in German: perception and production data.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A; Marschhauser, Anke; Yves von Cramon, D; Friederici, Angela D

    2007-03-14

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in Experiment 1 (grammaticality judgment). In Experiment 2 the same participants had to produce the matching definite article to a noun. In the perception task patients with left frontal lesions (LF) made more errors during phonological gender assignment as compared to derivational-morphological and semantic gender assignment, while patients with lesions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) made more errors in derivational-morphological gender assignment as compared to phonological and semantic gender assignment. In the production task no differences between patient groups were found. These data support previous evidence that left frontal brain areas are critically involved in phonological processing. The pSTG on the other hand may be critically engaged in the integration of phonological and lexical information essential for phonological and derivational-morphological gender assignment. PMID:17098262

  6. Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (P<0.001). For OC the expected liking was significantly higher (P<0.001) than the perceived liking expressed in blind conditions (negative disconfirmation), whereas for CC the expected liking was significantly lower (P<0.001) than the perceived liking expressed in blind conditions (positive disconfirmation). Consumers assimilated their liking for OC in the direction of expectations, as the difference actual vs. perceived liking was significant (P<0.001). However the assimilation was not complete, as also the difference actual liking vs. expected liking was significant (P<0.001). Consumers showed a willingness to pay OC (mean+/-se=4.20+/-0.13 euro/100 g) higher than the local retail price for conventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms. PMID:20196900

  7. A review: factors affecting excess sludge anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiaoshuai; Jia, Shuting; Dai, Lingling; Zhao, Jianfu; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods that improve the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from excess sludge during the anaerobic digestion process. These methods are mainly divided into two approaches. The first approach is located in the pre-treatment methods, which change the properties of the substrates, such as thermal pre-treatment, alkaline pre-treatment, microwave pre-treatment and ultrasonic pre-treatment. The other approach is found in the fermentation process control methods, which influence the environment of anaerobic digestion for the production of VFA, such as pH, temperature, mixing, additives and solids retention time control. In the text recent research studies of each method are listed and analyzed in detail. Comparably, microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatment methods are considered emerging and promising technologies due to their efficiency and environmentally friendly characteristics. However, the microwave pre-treatment has high electricity demand, which might make the process economically unfeasible. In order to calculate optimal operation, further studies still need to be done. PMID:26287825

  8. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  9. Does positioning of the North Pacific Current affect downstream ecosystem productivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Field, John C.; Peterson, William T.; Tanasichuk, Ronald W.; Freeland, Howard J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.

    2011-06-01

    Fluctuations in the positioning of major ocean currents can influence ecosystem dynamics, but previously the technology has been lacking to make direct observational assessments. Here, we test the hypothesis that positioning of the North Pacific Current (NPC) is related to biological attributes of the central-northern California Current Ecosystem (CCE). To test this hypothesis we use newly available data from the Argo array and compare it with a suite of well-known ecosystem indicators over 6 years, 2002 through 2007. We found increased biomass and productivity when the NPC was shifted poleward, and suggest that positioning influences advective transport of nutrients and perhaps key planktonic organisms from the sub-arctic domain thereby enhancing mid to upper trophic level species. This study is significant because climate change is predicted to cause poleward shifts in the westerlies that drive ocean currents and positioning of large marine gyre systems. Rather than reducing ecosystem productivity, poleward shifts in positioning of the NPC may be beneficial for many species of the central-northern CCE.

  10. Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Cristina; Boland, Brandon B; Uchizono, Yuji; Moore, Patrick C; Peterson, Bryan; Rajan, Suryalekha; Rhodes, Olivia S; Noske, Andrew B; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Marsh, Bradly J; Austin, Jotham; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic β-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes, there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. In this study, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models, and proinsulin biosynthesis was found to be contrastingly increased, coupled with a significant expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (without endoplasmic reticulum stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature β-granules. As such, β-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which are then made available for immediate secretion to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it can be restored. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, β-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic β-cells and underscore the rationale for transient β-cell rest as a treatment strategy for obesity-linked diabetes. PMID:26307586

  11. Do interactions of land use and climate affect productivity of waterbirds and prairie-pothole wetlands?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of aquatic invertebrates on migration and breeding areas influences recruitment of ducks and shorebirds. In wetlands of Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), aquatic invertebrate production primarily is driven by interannual fluctuations of water levels in response to wet-dry cycles in climate. However, this understanding comes from studying basins that are minimally impacted by agricultural landscape modifications. In the past 100–150 years, a large proportion of wetlands within the PPR have been altered; often water was drained from smaller to larger wetlands at lower elevations creating consolidated, interconnected basins. Here I present a case study and I hypothesize that large basins receiving inflow from consolidation drainage have reduced water-level fluctuations in response to climate cycles than those in undrained landscapes, resulting in relatively stable wetlands that have lower densities of invertebrate forage for ducks and shorebirds and also less foraging habitat, especially for shorebirds. Furthermore, stable water-levels and interconnected basins may favor introduced or invasive species (e.g., cattail [Typha spp.] or fish) because native communities "evolved" in a dynamic and isolated system. Accordingly, understanding interactions between water-level fluctuations and landscape modifications is a prerequisite step to modeling effects of climate change on wetland hydrology and productivity and concomitant recruitment of waterbirds.

  12. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    PubMed

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  13. Influence of joint angle on EMG-torque model during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Martel, Francois; Rancourt, Denis; Clancy, Edward A

    2013-10-01

    Electromyogram (EMG)-torque modeling is of value to many different application areas, including ergonomics, clinical biomechanics and prosthesis control. One important aspect of EMG-torque modeling is the ability to account for the joint angle influence. This manuscript describes an experimental study which relates the biceps/triceps surface EMG of 12 subjects to elbow torque at seven joint angles (spanning 45-135°) during constant-posture, quasi-constant-torque contractions. Advanced EMG amplitude (EMGσ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) were investigated and three non-linear EMGσ-torque models were evaluated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the seven distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.23±2.2% MVCF90 resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so (i.e., parameterized the angle dependence), achieved an error of 4.17±1.7% MVCF90. Results demonstrated that advanced EMGσ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation. We also contrasted models that did vs. did not account for antagonist muscle co-contraction. Models that accounted for co-contraction estimated individual flexion muscle torques that were ∼29% higher and individual extension muscle torques that were ∼68% higher. PMID:23932797

  14. Investigation and Improvement of Torque Response of Control System Based on Direct Torque Control in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yukinori; Morimoto, Shigeo; Sanada, Masayuki

    In this study, we investigate the torque response of a control system that is based on the direct torque control (DTC) principle for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). We also propose a gain-scheduling method for improving the torque response. Reference flux vector calculation (RFVC) DTC is used in this study. In RFVC DTC, a PI controller is used for torque control; this is in contrast to the use of the hysteresis comparator and switching table in basic DTC. In this paper, we present the relationship between the torque response and the gain of the PI controller. This relationship is derived by using the transfer function of the torque control loop. In this study, we also examine the difference between the torque responses of two motors that have different machine parameters. The proposed method can be used to realize a torque response that is independent of the operating torque. The simulation results and experimental results presented in this paper show the validity of the derived relationship as well as the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.53.7years) and 9 old (76.15.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40 joint excursion (40PF-0PF) at angular velocities of 15/s and 120/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15/s and 120/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15/s and 120/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD than young for 15/s and 120/s, respectively with similar EMGRMS and VA across all conditions. A significant relationship between shortening-induced TD and instantaneous power was found only at the fast angular velocity for both the old (R(2)=0.32) and young (R(2)=0.45) men. The older men experienced greater shortening-induced TD than young while maintaining similar levels of voluntary activation. This previously unaccounted for history-dependent property of muscle may provide insight into power loss in old age. PMID:24835195

  16. Environment and management factors affecting Pekin duck production and welfare on commercial farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, T A; Dawkins, M S

    2010-02-01

    1. Forty-six flocks of commercially-reared Pekin ducks were studied in 23 houses differing in their ventilation and brooding systems, and water and feed resources, in order to identify factors affecting duck welfare in commercial practice. 2. A wide range of environmental variables were measured, together with the physical and plumage condition of the ducks at two ages, whilst companies supplied mortality and growth rate data. 3. At 23 d, more than 98% of ducks had clean eyes, nostrils and feathers and an upright posture, and 86% had no gait abnormalities. By 41 d, body condition had deteriorated slightly with 84% of ducks having clean eyes, 67% clean feathers and 79% no gait abnormalities. 4. Gait worsened with increasing temperature and litter moisture, and atmospheric ammonia concentrations. The incidence of foot pad lesions was 10% (moderate) and 3% (severe) and was positively correlated with increasing humidity and ammonia. 5. Average mortality rates were 52% for ducks reared to 335 kg at 48 d with average growth rates of 603 to 813 g/d. High temperatures correlated with high mortality and reduced growth rate; growth rate was not related to poor gait. 6. Controlling the ducks' environment, particularly temperature, humidity, litter moisture and ammonia is crucial to duck welfare. Effective ventilation systems, high quality straw and access to some form of open water were considered important for duck welfare. PMID:20390565

  17. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter.

    PubMed

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Shin, Woongghi; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2012-10-15

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295-320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species - ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6-24h under dim light (5-10 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1)). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETR(max) in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rETR(max) with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no F(v)/F(m) or rETR(max). A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15%, respectively. Following 24h in dim light, the percentage of motile cells increased to between 66% and 95% of the initial value. The velocity of non-irradiated cells was 60 ?m s(-1), which decreased to 16-35 ?m s(-1) immediately following exposure for 15-60 min. After periods of time in dim light (6, 12 and 24h) velocities had recovered to between 44 and 81% of the initial value. In untreated controls, the r-value was 0.23, indicating random movement of E. agilis, but it increased to 0.35 and 0.72 after exposure to UV-B for 30 and 60 min, respectively. There was a tendency towards vertical downward movement of cells proportional to the duration of exposure. The compactness of E. agilis decreased from 2.9 in controls to 1.8-2.3 in cells treated with UV-B although significant recovery followed. UV-B dose-dependent interaction between photosynthetic activity, ROS production and movement is discussed in terms of a UV-protective mechanism in E. agilis. PMID:22832280

  18. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate potential tuber yield at a commercial scale. The performance test shows that it can then be used to forecast harvest time, and also as an effective tool to predict the suitability of potential regions to the cultivation of potato crop, cultivar Itararé, at the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Research on parallel load sharing principle of piezoelectric six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying-jun; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min

    2011-01-01

    In working process of huge heavy-load manipulators, such as the free forging machine, hydraulic die-forging press, forging manipulator, heavy grasping manipulator, large displacement manipulator, measurement of six-dimensional heavy force/torque and real-time force feedback of the operation interface are basis to realize coordinate operation control and force compliance control. It is also an effective way to raise the control accuracy and achieve highly efficient manufacturing. Facing to solve dynamic measurement problem on six-dimensional time-varying heavy load in extremely manufacturing process, the novel principle of parallel load sharing on six-dimensional heavy force/torque is put forward. The measuring principle of six-dimensional force sensor is analyzed, and the spatial model is built and decoupled. The load sharing ratios are analyzed and calculated in vertical and horizontal directions. The mapping relationship between six-dimensional heavy force/torque value to be measured and output force value is built. The finite element model of parallel piezoelectric six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor is set up, and its static characteristics are analyzed by ANSYS software. The main parameters, which affect load sharing ratio, are analyzed. The experiments for load sharing with different diameters of parallel axis are designed. The results show that the six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor has good linearity. Non-linearity errors are less than 1%. The parallel axis makes good effect of load sharing. The larger the diameter is, the better the load sharing effect is. The results of experiments are in accordance with the FEM analysis. The sensor has advantages of large measuring range, good linearity, high inherent frequency, and high rigidity. It can be widely used in extreme environments for real-time accurate measurement of six-dimensional time-varying huge loads on manipulators.

  20. Factors Affecting the Production of Aromatic Immonium Ions in MALDI 157 nm Photodissociation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ashley, Daniel C.; Keijzer, Karlijn; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Immonium ions are commonly observed in the high energy fragmentation of peptide ions. In a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, singly charged peptides photofragmented with 157 nm VUV light yield a copious abundance of immonium ions, especially those from aromatic residues. However, their intensities may vary from one peptide to another. In this work, the effect of varying amino acid position, peptide length, and peptide composition on immonium ion yield is investigated. Internal immonium ions are found to have the strongest intensity, whereas immonium ions arising from C-terminal residues are the weakest. Peptide length and competition among residues also strongly influence the immonium ion production. Quantum calculations provide insights about immonium ion structures and the fragment ion conformations that promote or inhibit immonium ion formation.

  1. Factors Affecting the Production of Aromatic Immonium Ions in MALDI 157 nm Photodissociation Studies.

    PubMed

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ashley, Daniel C; Keijzer, Karlijn; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Reilly, James P

    2016-05-01

    Immonium ions are commonly observed in the high energy fragmentation of peptide ions. In a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, singly charged peptides photofragmented with 157 nm VUV light yield a copious abundance of immonium ions, especially those from aromatic residues. However, their intensities may vary from one peptide to another. In this work, the effect of varying amino acid position, peptide length, and peptide composition on immonium ion yield is investigated. Internal immonium ions are found to have the strongest intensity, whereas immonium ions arising from C-terminal residues are the weakest. Peptide length and competition among residues also strongly influence the immonium ion production. Quantum calculations provide insights about immonium ion structures and the fragment ion conformations that promote or inhibit immonium ion formation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26926443

  2. Factors Affecting the Production of Aromatic Immonium Ions in MALDI 157 nm Photodissociation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ashley, Daniel C.; Keijzer, Karlijn; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-02-01

    Immonium ions are commonly observed in the high energy fragmentation of peptide ions. In a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, singly charged peptides photofragmented with 157 nm VUV light yield a copious abundance of immonium ions, especially those from aromatic residues. However, their intensities may vary from one peptide to another. In this work, the effect of varying amino acid position, peptide length, and peptide composition on immonium ion yield is investigated. Internal immonium ions are found to have the strongest intensity, whereas immonium ions arising from C-terminal residues are the weakest. Peptide length and competition among residues also strongly influence the immonium ion production. Quantum calculations provide insights about immonium ion structures and the fragment ion conformations that promote or inhibit immonium ion formation.

  3. Small doses, big troubles: modeling growth dynamics of organisms affecting microalgal production cultures in closed photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Forehead, Hugh I; O'Kelly, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The destruction of mass cultures of microalgae by biological contamination of culture medium is a pervasive and expensive problem, in industry and research. A mathematical model has been formulated that attempts to explain contaminant growth dynamics in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). The model simulates an initial growth phase without PBR dilution, followed by a production phase in which culture is intermittently removed. Contaminants can be introduced at any of these stages. The model shows how exponential growth from low initial inocula can lead to "explosive" growth in the population of contaminants, appearing days to weeks after inoculation. Principal influences are contaminant growth rate, PBR dilution rate, and the size of initial contaminant inoculum. Predictions corresponded closely with observed behavior of two contaminants, Uronema sp. and Neoparamoeba sp., found in operating PBRs. A simple, cheap and effective protocol was developed for short-term prediction of contamination in PBRs, using microscopy and archived samples. PMID:23262008

  4. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing.

    PubMed

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. PMID:24851830

  5. BAFF regulates T follicular helper cells and affects accumulation and IFNγ production in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Coquery, Christine M.; Loo, William M.; Wade, Nekeithia S.; Bederman, Annelise G.; Tung, Kenneth S.; Lewis, Janet E.; Hess, Henry; Erickson, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective T follicular helper (TFH) cells are critical for the development of protective antibodies via germinal center (GC) B-cell responses; however, uncontrolled TFH cell expansion activates autoreactive B-cells to produce antibodies that cause autoimmunity. The mechanisms that control TFH cell homeostasis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of BAFF to TFH cell responses in autoimmunity. Methods We analyzed the properties of TFH cells in lupus-prone mice, sufficient or deficient in B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA). Adoptive transfer studies and mixed bone marrow chimeras were used to test BCMA signaling in T cells. We assessed BAFF stimulation of TFH cells through in vitro cell cocultures and in vivo depletion studies using flow cytometry. Results In Nba2 mice, TFH cells expressed the BAFF receptors BCMA and BR3, and accumulated in the spleen when BCMA was absent. BCMA deficiency in T cells promoted the expansion of TFH cells, GC formation, autoantibody production, and IFNγ production by TFH cells through BR3. IFNγ-producing TFH cells increased BAFF expression in dendritic cells. Blocking BAFF or IFNγ in vivo reduced TFH cell accumulation and improved autoimmunity in BCMA-deficient animals. Moreover, circulating TFH-like cells that expressed BR3 (but not BCMA) were elevated in SLE patients, which correlated with serum BAFF and IFNγ titers. Conclusion In Nba2 mice, BCMA negatively regulates TFH cell expansion whereas BAFF signaling through BR3 promotes TFH cell accumulation. Our work suggests the balance between BCMA and BR3 signaling in TFH cells serves as a checkpoint of immune tolerance. PMID:25385309

  6. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of infant gut microbial communities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nejrup, Rikke G; Bahl, Martin I; Vigsnæs, Louise K; Heerup, Christine; Licht, Tine R; Hellgren, Lars I

    2015-07-14

    Some lipid hydrolysis products such as medium-chained NEFA (MC-NEFA), sphingosine and monoacylglycerols (MAG) possess antibacterial activity, while others, including oleic acid, are essential for the optimal growth of Lactobacillus species. Thus, changes in the concentrations of NEFA and MAG in the distal ileum and colon can potentially selectively modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, especially in early life when lipid absorption efficacy is reduced. As medium-chained fatty acids are enriched in mothers' milk, such effects may be highly relevant during gut colonisation. In the present study, we examined the effect of selected NEFA, MAG and sphingosine on the composition of faecal microbial communities derived from infants aged 2-5 months during a 24 h anaerobic in vitro fermentation. We tested lipid mixtures in the concentration range of 0-200 μm, either based on MC-NEFA (10 : 0 to 14 : 0 and MAG 12 : 0) or long-chained NEFA (LC-NEFA; 16 : 0 to 18 : 1 and MAG 16 : 0) with and without sphingosine, representing lipid hydrolysis products characteristic for intestinal hydrolysis of breast milk lipids. Ion Torrent sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that the relative abundance of lactic acid-producing genera, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, was generally increased in the presence of 50 μm or higher concentrations of MC-NEFA. For Bifidobacterium, the same effect was also observed in the presence of a mixture containing LC-NEFA with sphingosine. On the contrary, the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly decreased in the presence of both lipid mixtures. Our findings suggest that the high concentration of medium-chained fatty acids in breast milk might have functional effects on the establishment of the gut microbiota in early life. PMID:25992463

  7. EDITORIAL: Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena Spin-transfer-torque-induced phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2011-09-01

    This cluster, consisting of five invited articles on spin-transfer torque, offers the very first review covering both magnetization reversal and domain-wall displacement induced by a spin-polarized current. Since the first theoretical proposal on spin-transfer torque—reported by Berger and Slonczewski independently—spin-transfer torque has been experimentally demonstrated in both vertical magnetoresistive nano-pillars and lateral ferromagnetic nano-wires. In the former structures, an electrical current flowing vertically in the nano-pillar exerts spin torque onto the thinner ferromagnetic layer and reverses its magnetization, i.e., current-induced magnetization switching. In the latter structures, an electrical current flowing laterally in the nano-wire exerts torque onto a domain wall and moves its position by rotating local magnetic moments within the wall, i.e., domain wall displacement. Even though both phenomena are induced by spin-transfer torque, each phenomenon has been investigated separately. In order to understand the physical meaning of spin torque in a broader context, this cluster overviews both cases from theoretical modellings to experimental demonstrations. The earlier articles in this cluster focus on current-induced magnetization switching. The magnetization dynamics during the reversal has been calculated by Kim et al using the conventional Landau--Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, adding a spin-torque term. This model can explain the dynamics in both spin-valves and magnetic tunnel junctions in a nano-pillar form. This phenomenon has been experimentally measured in these junctions consisting of conventional ferromagnets. In the following experimental part, the nano-pillar junctions with perpendicularly magnetized FePt and half-metallic Heusler alloys are discussed from the viewpoint of efficient magnetization reversal due to a high degree of spin polarization of the current induced by the intrinsic nature of these alloys. Such switching can be further operated at high frequency resulting in an oscillator, as shown in the article by Sulka et al. These results provide fundamental elements for magnetic random access memories. The later articles discuss domain-wall displacement. Again this phenomenon is also described by Shibata et al based on the LLG equation with spin-torque terms. This analytical model can explain the details of the depinning mechanism and a critical current for the displacement. Experimental observation is presented in the subsequent article by Malinowski et al, showing the depinning processes for the cases of intrinsic and extrinsic pinning sites. Here, the detailed magnetic moment configurations within the wall hold the dominant control over the critical current. These results can be used for future 3-dimensional magnetic memories, such as racetrack memory proposed by IBM. We sincerely hope this cluster offers an up-to-date understanding of macroscopic behaviour induced by spin-transfer torque and contributes to further advancement in this exciting research field. We are grateful to all the authors for spending their precious time and knowledge submitting to this cluster. We would also like to thank Professor Kevin O'Grady for his kind offer of the opportunity to make this review accessible to a general audience.

  8. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    PubMed

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 μM cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 μg/ml estradiol-17β. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093

  9. Letter: ?-Cyclodextrin affects the formation of isomerization products during peptide deamidation.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Dietrich A; Qi, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a group of nontoxic oligosaccharides that are widely used as drug excipients and protein stabilizers. CDs have also been found to reduce the neurotoxicity and fibrillation of amyloid beta (A?), the major component of the amyloid plaques found in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The formation of these plaques was found to be enhanced by the presence of iso-aspartic acid (isoAsp) residues in the A? peptide, which can be formed by deamidation from asparagine (Asn). To explore further the influence of CDs on A?, we investigated three Asn-containing peptides, including A?25-35, by electrospray ionization, electron capture dissociation, and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to explore details of the deamidation process in the presence and absence of peptide/CD adducts. The results showed that CDs reduced the formation of the isomerization product isoAsp during peptide deamidation. This finding might help to better understand the role of CDs during the protein-aggregation process. PMID:26353992

  10. How technology and price affect US tight gas potential. Part 1. Technology of tight gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, R.W. Jr.; Baker, O.

    1983-01-01

    The tight gas resource in the US currently is estimated at 900 tcf, of which 600 tcf is considered technically recoverable. This gas is found in basins that cover a prospective area of one million square miles (one million sections). Of these, ca 120,000 sections are potentially productive. The tight gas picture is composed of many different and often complex reservoirs, ranging from the shallow horizons of the Northern Great Plains to the deep formations of the Rocky Mountains. These reservoirs range from the blanket-like formations that cover wide geographical areas to the highly lenticular zones such as those common to the Mesa Verde. The one thing they have in common is microdarcy permeabilities. A good perspective of the challenge is obvious when such permeability values are realized to be similar to that of cement normally used for oil and gas well casing strings. The advanced technology presumes improved exploration knowledge, longer fractures, higher fracture conductivity, and a higher density of well development. Advanced technology is particularly necessary for lenticular reservoirs which contain ca 40% of the recoverable gas.

  11. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  12. The sps Gene Products Affect the Germination, Hydrophobicity, and Protein Adsorption of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Cangiano, Giuseppina; Sirec, Teja; Panarella, Cristina; Isticato, Rachele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; De Felice, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    The multilayered surface of the Bacillus subtilis spore is composed of proteins and glycans. While over 70 different proteins have been identified as surface components, carbohydrates associated with the spore surface have not been characterized in detail yet. Bioinformatic data suggest that the 11 products of the sps operon are involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides present on the spore surface, but an experimental validation is available only for the four distal genes of the operon. Here, we report a transcriptional analysis of the sps operon and a functional study performed by constructing and analyzing two null mutants lacking either all or only the promoter-proximal gene of the operon. Our results show that both sps mutant spores apparently have normal coat and crust but have a small germination defect and are more hydrophobic than wild-type spores. We also show that spores lacking all Sps proteins are highly adhesive and form extensive clumps. In addition, sps mutant spores have an increased efficiency in adsorbing a heterologous enzyme, suggesting that hydrophobic force is a major determinant of spore adsorption and indicating that a deep understanding of the surface properties of the spore is essential for its full development as a surface display platform. PMID:25239894

  13. Phenotypic Switching Affecting Chemotaxis, Xanthan Production, and Virulence in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, S; Kado, C I

    1990-12-01

    The chemotaxis towards sucrose and yeast extract of nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris representing pathovars campestris, armoraciae, translucens, vesicatoria, and pelargonii was analyzed by using swarm plates. Unexpectedly, each of these strains formed small or reduced swarms typical of nonmotile or nonchemotactic bacteria. With time, however, chemotactic cells appeared on the swarm plates as blebs of bacteria. These cells were strongly chemotactic and were concomitantly deficient in exopolysaccharide production. The switch from the wild type (exopolysaccharide producing and nonchemotactic) to the swarmer type (exopolysaccharide deficient and chemotactic) appeared irreversible ex planta in bacteriological medium. However, in radish leaves swarmer-type strains of X. campestris pv. campestris were able to revert to the wild type. Swarmer-type derivatives of two X. campestris pv. campestris wild-type isolates showed reduced virulence and growth in the host plants cauliflower and radish. However, exocellular complementation of X. campestris pv. campestris Hrp (nonpathogenic) mutant was achieved by coinoculation with a swarmer-type strain. PMID:16348384

  14. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the limit pilot forces are as follows: (1) For foot controls, 130 pounds. (2) For stick...

  15. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the limit pilot forces are as follows: (1) For foot controls, 130 pounds. (2) For stick...

  16. 14 CFR 29.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 29.397... System Loads § 29.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the limit pilot forces are as follows: (1) For foot controls, 130 pounds. (2) For stick...

  17. 14 CFR 27.397 - Limit pilot forces and torques.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limit pilot forces and torques. 27.397... System Loads § 27.397 Limit pilot forces and torques. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the limit pilot forces are as follows: (1) For foot controls, 130 pounds. (2) For stick...

  18. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Torque transducer verification. 1066.240 Section 1066.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... verification. Verify torque-measurement systems by performing the verifications described in §§ 1066.270...

  19. Van der Waals torque induced by external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Cocoletzi, G. H.; Palomino-Ovando, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for inducing and controlling van der Waals torques between two parallel slabs using a constant magnetic field. The torque is calculated using the Barash theory of dispersive torques. In III–IV semiconductors such as InSb, the effect of an external magnetic field is to induce an optical anisotropy, in an otherwise isotropic material, that will in turn induce a torque. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the slabs. As a case study we consider a slab made of calcite and a second slab made of InSb. In the absence of magnetic field there is no torque. As the magnetic field increases, the optical anisotropy of InSb increases and the torque becomes different from zero, increasing with the magnetic field. The resulting torque is of the same order of magnitude as that calculated using permanent anisotropicmaterials when the magnetic fields is close to 1 T.

  20. 40 CFR 91.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Provisions § 91.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used to convert a weight or a... with the adjusted or repaired system. (b) Option. A master load-cell or transfer standard may be...