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Sample records for affects torque production

  1. Torque Production in a Halbach Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated the investigation of torque production in a Halbach machine for the Levitated Ducted Fan (LDF) Project to obtain empirical data in determining the feasibility of using a Halbach motor for the project. LDF is a breakthrough technology for "Electric Flight" with the development of a clean, quiet, electric propulsor system. Benefits include zero emissions, decreased dependence on fossil fuels, increased efficiency, increased reliability, reduced maintenance, and decreased operating noise levels. A commercial permanent magnet brushless motor rotor was tested with a custom stator. An innovative rotor utilizing a Halbach array was designed and developed to fit directly into the same stator. The magnets are oriented at 90deg to the adjacent magnet, which cancels the magnetic field on the inside of the rotor and strengthens the field on the outside of the rotor. A direct comparison of the commercial rotor and the Halbach rotor was made. In addition, various test models were designed and developed to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that a Halbach array based motor can provide significant improvements in electric motor performance and reliability.

  2. Multi-digit maximum voluntary torque production on a circular object

    PubMed Central

    SHIM, JAE KUN; HUANG, JUNFENG; HOOKE, ALEXANDER W.; LATSH, MARK L.; ZATSIORSKY, VLADIMIR M.

    2010-01-01

    Individual digit-tip forces and moments during torque production on a mechanically fixed circular object were studied. During the experiments, subjects positioned each digit on a 6-dimensional force/moment sensor attached to a circular handle and produced a maximum voluntary torque on the handle. The torque direction and the orientation of the torque axis were varied. From this study, it is concluded that: (1) the maximum torque in the closing (clockwise) direction was larger than in the opening (counter clockwise) direction; (2) the thumb and little finger had the largest and the smallest share of both total normal force and total moment, respectively; (3) the sharing of total moment between individual digits was not affected by the orientation of the torque axis or by the torque direction, while the sharing of total normal force between the individual digit varied with torque direction; (4) the normal force safety margins were largest and smallest in the thumb and little finger, respectively. PMID:17454086

  3. Production Experiences with the Cray-Enabled TORQUE Resource Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Ezell, Matthew A; Maxwell, Don E; Beer, David

    2013-01-01

    High performance computing resources utilize batch systems to manage the user workload. Cray systems are uniquely different from typical clusters due to Cray s Application Level Placement Scheduler (ALPS). ALPS manages binary transfer, job launch and monitoring, and error handling. Batch systems require special support to integrate with ALPS using an XML protocol called BASIL. Previous versions of Adaptive Computing s TORQUE and Moab batch suite integrated with ALPS from within Moab, using PERL scripts to interface with BASIL. This would occasionally lead to problems when all the components would become unsynchronized. Version 4.1 of the TORQUE Resource Manager introduced new features that allow it to directly integrate with ALPS using BASIL. This paper describes production experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the new TORQUE software versions, as well as ongoing and future work to improve TORQUE.

  4. Skinfold thickness affects the isometric knee extension torque evoked by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Flávia V. A.; Vieira, Amilton; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.; Bottaro, Martim; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Durigan, João L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT) on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. METHOD: First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm) vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm) SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01) while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01). A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017). A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness) affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies. PMID:26647748

  5. The fatigue effect of a simulated futsal match protocol on isokinetic knee torque production.

    PubMed

    Dal Pupo, Juliano; Detanico, Daniele; Santos, Saray Giovana Dos

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a simulated futsal match protocol on isokinetic knee torque production. Twenty-one young futsal players participated in this study and performed a futsal-specific protocol comprising two blocks of 20-minute activities to simulate the match demands. At pre-protocol, half-time, and post-protocol, the concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles, the angle of peak torque, and the conventional and functional torque ratios were assessed. ANOVA was used to compare the variables (significance level p < 0.05). A decrease of knee flexor and extensor eccentric torque and knee flexor concentric torque was found, in which the pre-protocol levels were higher than those at half-time, with both being larger than those at post-protocol. The knee extensor concentric torque reduced at half-time. The angle of eccentric torque of knee flexors increased, and the conventional and functional torque ratios decreased at post-protocol. In conclusion, the protocol produced a time-dependent reduction of knee flexor and extensor torque in both concentric and eccentric actions. These findings suggested a possible impairment of performance and the emergence of risk factors for hamstring strains during a futsal match. PMID:25420210

  6. Technical Errors May Affect Accuracy of Torque Limiter in Locking Plate Osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Savin, David D; Lee, Simon; Bohnenkamp, Frank C; Pastor, Andrew; Garapati, Rajeev; Goldberg, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    In locking plate osteosynthesis, proper surgical technique is crucial in reducing potential pitfalls, and use of a torque limiter makes it possible to control insertion torque. We conducted a study of the ways in which different techniques can alter the accuracy of torque limiters. We tested 22 torque limiters (1.5 Nm) for accuracy using hand and power tools under different rotational scenarios: hand power at low and high velocity and drill power at low and high velocity. We recorded the maximum torque reached after each torque-limiting event. Use of torque limiters under hand power at low velocity and high velocity resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.49 (0.15) Nm and 3.73 (0.79) Nm. Use under drill power at controlled low velocity and at high velocity also resulted in significantly (P < .0001) different mean (SD) measurements: 1.47 (0.14) Nm and 5.37 (0.90) Nm. Maximum single measurement obtained was 9.0 Nm using drill power at high velocity. Locking screw insertion with improper technique may result in higher than expected torque and subsequent complications. For torque limiters, the most reliable technique involves hand power at slow velocity or drill power with careful control of insertion speed until 1 torque-limiting event occurs. PMID:26991576

  7. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting SwingStance Transition

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  8. Scattering and Extinction Torques: How Plasmon Resonances Affect the Orientation Behavior of a Nanorod in Linearly Polarized Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohao; Cheng, Chang; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-01-21

    Linearly polarized light can exert an orienting torque on plasmonic nanorods. The torque direction has generally been considered to change when the light wavelength passes through a plasmon longitudinal resonance. Here, we use the Maxwell stress tensor to evaluate this torque in general terms. According to distinct light-matter interaction processes, the total torque is decomposed into scattering and extinction torques. The scattering torque tends to orient plasmonic nanorods parallel to the light polarization, independent of the choice of light wavelength. The direction of the extinction torque is not only closely tied to the excitation of plasmon resonance but also depends on the specific plasmon mode around which the light wavelength is tuned. Our findings show that the conventional wisdom that simply associates the total torque with the plasmon longitudinal resonances needs to be replaced with an understanding based on the different torque components and the details of spectral distribution. PMID:26720710

  9. Current-induced spin torque resonance of magnetic insulators affected by field-like spin-orbit torques and out-of-plane magnetizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Takahiro; Schreier, Michael; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo

    2015-05-01

    The spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as Y3Fe5O12 and a normal metal with spin-orbit interaction such as Pt is addressed theoretically. We model the ST-FMR for all magnetization directions and in the presence of field-like spin-orbit torques based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary conditions. ST-FMR experiments may expose crucial information about the spin-orbit coupling between currents and magnetization in the bilayers.

  10. Current-induced spin torque resonance of magnetic insulators affected by field-like spin-orbit torques and out-of-plane magnetizations

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takahiro Takahashi, Saburo; Schreier, Michael; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2015-05-07

    The spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in a bilayer system consisting of a magnetic insulator such as Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and a normal metal with spin-orbit interaction such as Pt is addressed theoretically. We model the ST-FMR for all magnetization directions and in the presence of field-like spin-orbit torques based on the drift-diffusion spin model and quantum mechanical boundary conditions. ST-FMR experiments may expose crucial information about the spin-orbit coupling between currents and magnetization in the bilayers.

  11. A comparative analysis of torque production in Halbach and conventional surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motors

    SciTech Connect

    Ofori-Tenkorang, J.; Lang, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    The general question of when and why one should use a Halbach rotor in the design of surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motors is addressed. The torque production capabilities of Halbach and conventional magnet arrays under the constraints of fixed magnet volume, and fixed power dissipation in slotless armature windings, are compared and the results presented in a graphical manner along with intuitive models that qualitatively explain these results. They conclude that, for permanent-magnet synchronous motors where the application precludes the use of a magnetic back-iron, the Halbach array always produces higher torque than the conventional array, for the same volume of magnets. The use of a magnetic back-iron in both designs increases the achievable torque. However, for magnetically-backed rotors, the conventional array, with an optimized pole-arc to pole-pitch ratio, produces higher torque than the Halbach array up to a certain thickness of magnets. Above this thickness, the Halbach array produces a higher torque.

  12. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of

  13. Provocative mechanical tests of the peripheral nervous system affect the joint torque-angle during passive knee motion.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Pezarat-Correia, P

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of the head, upper trunk, and foot position on the passive knee extension (PKE) torque-angle response. PKE tests were performed in 10 healthy subjects using an isokinetic dynamometer at 2/s. Subjects lay in the supine position with their hips flexed to 90. The knee angle, passive torque, surface electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus and quadriceps vastus medialis, and stretch discomfort were recorded in six body positions during PKE. The different maximal active positions of the cervical spine (neutral; flexion; extension), thoracic spine (neutral; flexion), and ankle (neutral; dorsiflexion) were passively combined for the tests. Visual analog scale scores and EMG were unaffected by body segment positioning. An effect of the ankle joint was verified on the peak torque and knee maximum angle when the ankle was in the dorsiflexion position (P?torque (P?torque when the cervical and thoracic spines were flexed (P?torque-angle response since different positions of head, upper trunk, and foot induce dissimilar knee mechanical responses during passive extension. PMID:24941915

  14. Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.

    PubMed

    Aramouni, M; Segals, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T

    2011-12-15

    Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

  15. Doublet Electrical Stimulation Enhances Torque Production in People With Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Shields, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle fatigue prevents repetitive use of paralyzed muscle after spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective This study compared the effects of hybrid patterns of muscle stimulation in individuals with acute and chronic SCI. Methods Individuals with chronic (n = 11) or acute paralysis (n = 3) underwent soleus muscle activation with a constant (CT) or doublet (DT) stimulation train before and at various times after a fatigue protocol. Results The chronically paralyzed soleus was highly fatigable with a fatigue index (FI) of 19% 6%, whereas the acutely paralyzed soleus was fatigue resistant (FI = 89% 8%). For the chronically paralyzed group, the DT protocol caused less than 5% improvement in peak and mean force relative to the CT protocol before fatigue; however, after fatigue the DT protocol caused an increase in peak and mean force (>10%), compared with the CT protocol (P < .05). As the chronically paralyzed muscle developed low-frequency fatigue, the DT protocol became more effective than the CT protocol (P < .05). The DT protocol increased the rate of torque development before fatigue (42% 78%), after fatigue (62% 52%), and during recovery (87% 54% to 101% 56%; P < .05). The acutely paralyzed group showed minimal change in peak and mean torque with the DT protocol. Conclusions Chronic reduced activity is associated with muscle adaptations (slow to fast) that render the muscle more amenable to force enhancement through doublet train activation after fatigue. These findings are applicable to patients using neuromuscular stimulation. PMID:21304018

  16. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    PubMed

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  17. Low-level laser therapy affects osseointegration in titanium implants: resonance frequency, removal torque, and histomorphometric analysis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a diode gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) low-level laser device on the healing and attachment of titanium implants in bone. Materials and Methods Thirteen New Zealand white male rabbits weighing 3.0±0.5 kg were used for this study. Dental titanium implants (3.75 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length, US II RBM plus fixture; Osstem, Seoul, Korea) were implanted into both femurs of each rabbit. The rabbits were randomly divided into a LLLT group and a control group. The LLLT was initiated immediately after surgery and then repeated daily for 7 consecutive days in the LLLT group. Six weeks and 12 weeks after implantation, we evaluated and compared the osseointegration of the LLLT group and control group, using histomorphometric analysis, removal torque testing, and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). The results were statistically significant when the level of probability was 0.05 or less based on a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The implant survival rate was about 96%. Histologically and histomorphometrically, we observed that the titanium implants were more strongly attached in LLLT group than in control group. However, there was no significant difference between the LLLT group and control group in removal torque or RFA. Conclusion Histologically, LLLT might promote cell-level osseointegration of titanium implants, but there was no statistically significant effects. PMID:26904488

  18. Does Gracilis Tendon Harvest During ACL Reconstruction with a Hamstring Autograft Affect Torque of Muscles Responsible for Shin Rotation?

    PubMed Central

    Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a combined semitendinosus and gracilis (STGR) graft there are large deficits in the internal rotation strength, which has led some authors to recommend harvest of only ST tendon whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the isometric (IT) and peak torque (PT) of the muscles responsible for shin rotation in patients after ACLR with an ST or with an STGR graft. Material/Methods Twenty patients with an ST graft and 20 patients with a combined STGR graft underwent a 6-month postoperative rehabilitation program after ACLR. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the IT and PT of the muscles responsible for internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the shin were measured. The results were compared to the results of a control group. Additionally, to determine the reliability of the dynamometer for clinical research, a test-retest assessment was performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups of participants. Nevertheless, in the STGR group there was a statistically significant difference between the IT of muscles internally rotating the shin in the involved knee and uninvolved knee at 25° of the internal shin rotation. Conclusions Comparison of IT and PT measurements performed after 24 weeks of postoperative rehabilitation generally showed no differences between patients after ACLR with the use of ST graft and patients who received a combination graft consisting of STGR. Nevertheless, there was an influence of GR harvest on internal shin rotation torque at a deep internal rotation angle. PMID:26190033

  19. Torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fgeppert, E.

    1984-09-01

    Mechanical means for sensing turning torque generated by the load forces in a rotary drive system is described. The sensing means is designed to operate with minimal effect on normal operation of the drive system. The invention can be employed in various drive systems, e.g., automotive engine-transmission power plants, electric motor-operated tools, and metal cutting machines. In such drive systems, the torque-sensing feature may be useful for actuation of various control devices, such as electric switches, mechanical clutches, brake actuators, fluid control valves, or audible alarms. The torque-sensing function can be used for safety overload relief, motor de-energization, engine fuel control transmission clutch actuation, remote alarm signal, tool breakage signal, etc.

  20. Quantitative detection of porcine Torque teno virus in Porcine circovirus-2-negative and Porcine circovirus-associated disease-affected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Seok; Sunyoung, Sunwoo; Jung, Hokyung; Shin, Jungyeon; Lyoo, Young S

    2010-03-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is a recently identified virus that has a wide range of host tropisms from humans to shrews. Human TTV and Torque teno mini virus are distributed worldwide, and their high prevalence in human populations has been reported. Pigs have their own species-specific TTV, and like human TTV, a high prevalence of porcine TTV also has been reported. Despite its high prevalence, the role of TTV-related disease or syndrome in humans and pigs has not been determined. In the swine industry, TTV is thought to be one of the agents that aggravate clinical manifestation of Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), a newly emerging, economically devastating disease. The purpose of the current study was to quantify TTV viral load in serum obtained from Porcine circovirus-2-negative pigs and PCVAD-affected pigs with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and to compare TTV viral load between these groups. Results of this study indicate that there are no statically remarkable differences in TTV viral load between the 2 groups, which indicates that TTV might not be an agent of aggravation in PCVAD. PMID:20224089

  1. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (p<0.05). Reductions in KE RTD occurred within the 0–200 ms epoch after contraction onset postmatch and at 24 h, compared with prematch, independent of environmental conditions (p<0.05). A similar reduction in the KE peak RTD was also observed postmatch relative to prematch (p<0.05). No differences in KE RTD values were observed after normalisation to MVC torque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  2. Factors affecting production of catalase by Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, T D; Wagner, D L; Veltri, B J; Gregory, E M

    1978-01-01

    Several variables affected the production of catalase by members of the "Bacteroides fragilis group" of anaerobic bacteria. Both media yielded higher catalase levels than the respective agar media. Addition of hemin to media after autoclave sterilization, rather than before, significantly increased production of catalase. Both of these variables could be related to the available hemin concentration present in the medium being tested. Significantly higher amounts of hemin were required for catalase production than were required for growth. For catalase production by B. fragilis ATCC 25285, 1 microgram of hemin per ml was required. Of the various media tested, the use of chopped meat broth resulted in the highest levels of catalase production (up to 50 to 60 U of catalase per mg of protein). Of the various species and DNA homology groups tested, strains of B. fragilis and Bacteroides distasonis were catalase positive. Strains of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, and Bacteroides eggerthi possessed variable catalase activity. Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis, and DNA homology groups "3452A" and "subsp. a" were catalase negative. A catalase well test, in which equal volumes of 3% H2O2 and chopped meat culture are mixed, is described and recommended for routine catalase tests. PMID:730827

  3. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  4. Affect-induced changes in speech production.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jennifer; Paus, Tomás

    2002-10-01

    To determine how sad affect (or brief sad mood) interacts with paralinguistic aspects of speech, we investigated the effect of a happy or sad mood induction on speech production in 49 healthy volunteers. Several speech parameters measuring speech rate, loudness and pitch were examined before and after a standardized mood-induction procedure that involved viewing facial expressions. Speech samples were collected during the self-initiated reading of emotionally "neutral" sentences; there was no explicit demand to produce mood-congruent speech. Results indicated that, after the mood induction, the speech of participants in the sad group was slower, quieter and more monotonous than the speech of participants in the happy group. This speech paradigm provides a model for studying how changes in mood states interact with the motor control of speech. PMID:12355282

  5. Hex ball torque test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, B. A.; Foster, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed on four flight-type hex ball universal joints in order to characterize and determine the actual load-carrying capability of this device. The universal joint is a part of manual actuation rods for scientific instruments within the Hubble Space Telescope. It was found that the hex ball will bind slightly during the initial load application. This binding did not affect the function of the universal joint, and the units would wear-in after a few additional loading cycles. The torsional yield load was approximately 50 ft-lb, and was consistent among the four test specimens. Also, the torque required to cause complete failure exceeded 80 ft-lb. It is concluded that the hex ball universal joint is suitable for its intended applications.

  6. Establishing a relationship between maximum torque production of isolated joints to simulate EVA ratchet push-pull maneuver: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Abhilash; Maida, James; Hasson, Scott; Greenisen, Michael; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    As manned exploration of space continues, analytical evaluation of human strength characteristics is critical. These extraterrestrial environments will spawn issues of human performance which will impact the designs of tools, work spaces, and space vehicles. Computer modeling is an effective method of correlating human biomechanical and anthropometric data with models of space structures and human work spaces. The aim of this study is to provide biomechanical data from isolated joints to be utilized in a computer modeling system for calculating torque resulting from any upper extremity motions: in this study, the ratchet wrench push-pull operation (a typical extravehicular activity task). Established here are mathematical relationships used to calculate maximum torque production of isolated upper extremity joints. These relationships are a function of joint angle and joint velocity.

  7. Parameters affecting solvent production by Clostridium pasteurianum

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrock, B.; Bahl, H.; Gottschalk, G. )

    1992-04-01

    The effect of pH, growth rate, phosphate and iron limitation, carbon monoxide, and carbon source on product formation by Clostridium pasteurianum was determined. Under phosphate limitation, glucose was fermented almost exclusively to acetate and butyrate independently of the pH and growth rate. Iron limitation caused lactate production (38 mol/100 mol) from glucose in batch and continuous culture. At 15% (vol/vol) carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, glucose was fermented to ethanol (24 mol/100 mol), lactate (32 mol/100 mol), and butanol (36 mol/100 mol) in addition to the usual products, acetate (38 mol/100 mol) and butyrate (17 mol/100 mol). During glycerol fermentation, a completely different product pattern was found. In continuous culture under phosphate limitation, acetate and butyrate were produced only in trace amounts, whereas ethanol (30 mol/10 mol), butanol (18 mol/100 mol), and 1,3-propanediol (18 mol/100 mol) were the major products. Under iron limitation, the ratio of these products could be changed in favor of 1,3-propanediol (34 mol/100 mol). In addition, lactate was produced in significant amounts (25 mol/100 mol). The tolerance of C. pasteurianum to glycerol was remarkably high; growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations up to 17% (wt/vol). Increasing glycerol concentrations favored the production of 1,3-propanediol.

  8. HOW DRY PERIODS AFFECT LIFETIME PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research examined the optimal dry period length (the period between lactations when a cow is not being milked) to maximize milk yield across adjacent lactations and lifetime yield. Lifetime yield not only accounts for loss of production in the lactation preceding the dry period, but also accou...

  9. Dynamics of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) DNA loads in serum of healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs.

    PubMed

    Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Grau-Roma, L; Segals, J; Kekarainen, T

    2011-09-28

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, small viruses with circular single stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In pigs, two different TTV species have been described so far, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). TTSuVs have lately been linked to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 prevalence and DNA loads in longitudinally collected serum samples of healthy and PMWS affected pigs from Spanish conventional, multi-site farms were analyzed. Serum samples were taken at 1, 3, 7, 11 and around 15 weeks of age (age of PMWS outbreak) and viral DNA loads determined by quantitative PCR. For both TTSuV species, percentage of viremic pigs increased progressively over time, with the highest prevalence in animals of about 15 weeks of age. TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral DNA loads in healthy and TTSuV1 loads in PMWS affected animals increased until 11 weeks of age declining afterwards. On the contrary, TTSuV2 DNA loads in PMWS affected pigs increased throughout the sampling period. It seems that TTSuV species differ in the in vivo infection dynamics in PMWS affected animals. PMID:21680113

  10. Light-Torqued Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith; Kourmanov, Bakhit; Walker, Thad

    2003-03-01

    Light torques that use polarization are a novel and important way to control nanoparticles, to produce nanomotors, and to measure fundamental properties of individual nanoparticles. They are a potentially powerful tool for investigating rheological nanoenvironments and biomolecular motors. Here we study light torques applied to 250 nm diameter glass nanorods in a single-beam optical trap. Light-torque operated nanomotors move at speeds that depend on the torque magnitude, the viscosity of the surrounding medium, and the rotation rate of the electric field vector of the linearly polarized trapping light. We will also discuss the surprising observation of nanorocker behavior.

  11. Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

  12. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  13. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  14. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  15. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  16. Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments.

  17. Torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA.

    PubMed

    Banigan, Edward J; Marko, John F

    2014-06-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium "rotor-bead" experiments. PMID:25019813

  18. The torque correlation length and stochastic twist dynamics of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Banigan, Edward J.; Marko, John F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a short correlation length for torque in twisting-stiff biomolecules, which is necessary for the physical property that torque fluctuations be finite in amplitude. We develop a nonequilibrium theory of dynamics of DNA twisting which predicts two crossover time scales for temporal torque correlations in single-molecule experiments. Bending fluctuations can be included, and at linear order we find that they do not affect the twist dynamics. However, twist fluctuations affect bending, and we predict the spatial inhomogeneity of twist, torque, and buckling arising in nonequilibrium “rotor-bead” experiments. PMID:25019813

  19. Electromagnetic Torque in Tokamaks with Toroidal Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Nikolas Christopher

    Toroidal rotation and rotation shear strongly influences stability and confinement in tokamaks. Breaking of the toroidal symmetry by fields orders of magnitude smaller than the axisymmetric field can, however, produce electromagnetic torques that significantly affect the plasma rotation, stability and confinement. These electromagnetic torques are the study of this thesis. There are two typical types of electromagnetic torques in tokamaks: 1) "resonant torques" for which a plasma current defined by a single toroidal and single poloidal harmonic interact with external currents and 2) "nonresonant torques" for which the global plasma response to nonaxisymmetric fields is phase shifted by kinetic effects that drive the rotation towards a neoclassical offset. This work describes the diagnostics and analysis necessary to evaluate the torque by measuring the rate of momentum transfer per unit area in the vacuum region between the plasma and external currents using localized magnetic sensors to measure the Maxwell stress. These measurements provide model independent quantification of both the resonant and nonresonant electromagnetic torques, enabling direct verification of theoretical models. Measured values of the nonresonant torque are shown to agree well with the perturbed equilibrium nonambipolar transport (PENT) code calculation of torque from cross field transport in nonaxisymmetric equilibria. A combined neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory, valid across a wide range of kinetic regimes, is fully implemented for the first time in general aspect ratio and shaped plasmas. The code captures pitch angle resonances, reproducing previously inaccessible collisionality limits in the model. The complete treatment of the model enables benchmarking to the hybrid kinetic MHD stability codes MARS-K and MISK, confirming the energy-torque equivalency principle in perturbed equilibria. Experimental validations of PENT results confirm the torque applied by nonaxisymmetric coils is often proportional to the energy put into the dominant ideal MHD kink mode. This reduces the control of nonresonant torque to a single mode model, enabling efficient feed forward optimization of applied fields. Initial results including the anisotropic kinetic pressure tensor directly in the plasma eigenmode calculations are presented here, and may eventually provide accurate metrics for multimodal coupling similar to the established single mode metrics.

  20. Web-Based Foreign Language Reading: Affective and Productive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pedagogically guided web-based reading can improve skimming and scanning significantly (i.e., increased productive outcomes) and whether it can enhance student participation and motivation (i.e., increased affective outcomes). Forty-six students enrolled in two German 3 classes at the high school level were…

  1. Web-Based Foreign Language Reading: Affective and Productive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pedagogically guided web-based reading can improve skimming and scanning significantly (i.e., increased productive outcomes) and whether it can enhance student participation and motivation (i.e., increased affective outcomes). Forty-six students enrolled in two German 3 classes at the high school level were

  2. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  3. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  4. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  5. Effect of stripe height on the critical current density of spin-torque noise in a tunneling magnetoresistive read head with a low resistance area product below 1.0 Ω μm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yasushi Fan, Peng; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-05-07

    To understand the spin-torque effect on the noise in tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) read heads, the GHz range noise spectra of TMR read heads with a narrow track width (w = 36 nm), and various stripe heights (h) are investigated as a function of the external magnetic field (H{sub ex}) and dc bias current density (j). The strong noise peak intensity depends on both H{sub ex} and j, indicating that the spin-torque affects the thermal mag-noise under a positive (negative) j for a positive (negative) H{sub ex}, regardless of h in the TMR heads. Due to the increased shape anisotropy, the critical current density (j{sub c}), where the non-thermal fluctuation noise originates from the spin-torque, increases markedly as the head dimension is reduced, and the maximum value of j{sub c} is approximately +1.5 × 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2} for a head with w = 36 nm and h = 15 nm. These results demonstrate that the non-thermal fluctuation noise originating from the spin-torque in the TMR head can be suppressed in the current density range below 10{sup 12} A/m{sup 2}, as the head dimension is reduced and the shape anisotropy is increased.

  6. RADIATIVE TORQUES ALIGNMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF PINWHEEL TORQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

    2009-04-20

    We study the alignment of grains subject to both radiative torques and pinwheel torques while accounting for thermal flipping of grains. By pinwheel torques we refer to all systematic torques that are fixed in grain body axes, including the radiative torques arising from scattering and absorption of isotropic radiation. We discuss new types of pinwheel torques, which are systematic torques arising from infrared emission and torques arising from the interaction of grains with ions and electrons in hot plasma. We show that both types of torques are long-lived, i.e., may exist longer than gaseous damping time. We compare these torques with the torques introduced by E. Purcell, namely, torques due to H{sub 2} formation, the variation of accommodation coefficient for gaseous collisions and photoelectric emission. Furthermore, we revise the Lazarian and Draine model for grain thermal flipping. We calculate mean flipping timescale induced by Barnett and nuclear relaxation for both paramagnetic and superparamagnetic grains, in the presence of stochastic torques associated with pinwheel torques, e.g., the stochastic torques arising from H{sub 2} formation, and gas bombardment. We show that the combined effect of internal relaxation and stochastic torques can result in fast flipping for sufficiently small grains and, because of this, they get thermally trapped, i.e., rotate thermally in spite of the presence of pinwheel torques. For sufficiently large grains, we show that the pinwheel torques can increase the degree of grain alignment achievable with the radiative torques by increasing the magnitude of the angular momentum of low attractor points and/or by driving grains to new high attractor points.

  7. Food and predators affect egg production in song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Liana; Clinchy, Michael; Smith, James N M

    2006-10-01

    Although the possibility that food and predators may interact in limiting avian populations has long been recognized, there have been few attempts to test this experimentally in the field. We conducted a manipulative food addition experiment on the demography of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) across sites that varied in predator abundance, near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, over three consecutive breeding seasons. We previously showed that food and predators had interactive effects on annual reproductive success (young fledged per female). Here, we report the effects on egg production. Our results show that food limits the total number of eggs laid over the breeding season ("total egg production") and that interactive food and predator effects, including food effects on nest predation, determine how those eggs are "parceled out" into different nests. Food addition alone significantly affected total egg production, and there was no significant interannual variability in this result. At the same time, both food and predators affected the two determinants of total egg production: "clutch number" (total number of clutches laid) and average clutch size. Both clutch number and size were affected by a food x predator x year interaction. Clutch number was lower at low-predator locations because there was less nest predation and thus less renesting. Food addition also significantly reduced nest predation, but there was significant interannual variation in this effect. This interannual variation was responsible for the food x predator x year interactions because the larger the effect of food on nest predation in a given year, the smaller was the effect of food on clutch number; and the smaller the effect of food on clutch number, the larger was the effect of food on clutch size. Potential predator and year effects on total egg production were thus cancelled out by an inverse relationship between clutch number and clutch size. We suggest that combined food and predator effects on demography could be the norm in both birds and mammals. PMID:17089655

  8. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, How does burnout affect physician productivity? Methods A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. Results The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between burnout and productivity. However, there is variation depending on the type of productivity outcome examined. Conclusions There is evidence that burnout is associated with decreased productivity. However, this line of inquiry is still developing. A number of gaps are yet to be filled including understanding how to quantify the changes in productivity related to burnout. PMID:25066375

  9. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  10. Factors affecting methane production and mitigation in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaki; Terada, Fuminori

    2010-02-01

    Methane (CH(4)) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) and that emitted from enteric fermentation in livestock is the single largest source of emissions in Japan. Many factors influence ruminant CH(4) production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds and environmental temperature. The objectives of this review are to identify the factors affecting CH(4) production in ruminants, to examine technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants, and to identify areas requiring further research. The following equation for CH(4) prediction was formulated using only dry matter intake (DMI) and has been adopted in Japan to estimate emissions from ruminant livestock for the National GHG Inventory Report: Y = -17.766 + 42.793X - 0.849X(2), where Y is CH(4) production (L/day) and X is DMI (kg/day). Technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants include increasing productivity by improving nutritional management, the manipulation of ruminal fermentation by changing feed composition, the addition of CH(4) inhibitors, and defaunation. Considering the importance of ruminant livestock, it is essential to establish economically feasible ways of reducing ruminant CH(4) production while improving productivity; it is therefore critical to conduct a full system analysis to select the best combination of approaches or new technologies to be applied under long-term field conditions. PMID:20163666

  11. Torque multiplier subsea tool

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, F. M.; Baugh, B. F.; Palany, H. C.

    1985-10-22

    A torque multiplier subsea tool for setting a seal between a casing hanger and a subsea wellhead includes a mandrel having a sun gear with axial elongate teeth. An outer barrel is disposed around the mandrel forming an annulus therebetween. A planetary gear assembly is disposed in the annulus between the barrel and the sun gear to transmit to the barrel a torque which is higher in magnitude than that applied to the mandrel. A connector body disposed around the mandrel, below the planetary gear assembly, includes radially movable dogs for engaging the casing hanger. The barrel engages the sealing assembly and transmits the increased torque thereto to advance the sealing assembly downwards and to set the seal. The mandrel advances downwards with the sealing assembly and releases the dogs from the casing hanger. An emergency release mechanism is provided to advance the mandrel downwards to release the dogs in the event such downward movement is prevented during normal seal setting operation.

  12. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  13. Detailed methodology for determining torque limits to maximize preload for high-strength threaded fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissam, D. Andy

    High-strength threaded fasteners are an amazing product of engineering, and one of the most common methods of making structural attachments. They are frequently used in structural joints because of two important features: such fasteners allow disassembly and reassembly of the joint, and they can generate high clamping loads called preload. To achieve the full benefit of threaded fasteners, the initial preload must be maximized. The benefits of high preload are well documented and include improved fatigue resistance, increased joint stiffness, and better resistance to vibration loosening. For joints in shear, preload resists relative motion, or slip, of the clamped members. Many factors, like elastic interactions and embedment, tend to lower the initial preload placed on the fastener. These factors provide additional motivation to maximize the initial preload. Also, in aerospace applications, maximized preloads help to achieve the full structural capacity from the fasteners, thereby minimizing weight. Of the available methods for controlling fastener preload, "torque control" is the most common. Unfortunately, determining the torque to maximize preload is problematic and greatly complicated by the large preload scatter generally seen with torque control. This dissertation presents a detailed methodology for generating torque limits to maximize preload for high-strength threaded fasteners. The methodology accounts for the large scatter in preload found with torque control, and therefore, addresses the statistical challenges of dealing with preload uncertainty. In developing this methodology, the probabilities of yielding the bolt during installation were calculated. To calculate these probabilities, the expected scatter in effective stress had to be determined. The scatter (or uncertainty) in the bolt's effective stress was shown to be less than the scatter in bolt preload. This result was observed in the torque-tension test data and also predicted by propagation of uncertainty theory. Prevailing torque is the torque required to overcome a locking feature in a fastener. The locking feature, typically added to the nut, helps to maintain preload and provide resistance to vibration loosening. Using this methodology, the prevailing torque of each locking nut is measured at installation to ensure that it is within specification. However, the measured prevailing torque is not added to the specified torque limit because its effect is already included in the torque limit value. Prevailing torque was shown to slightly reduce the achievable preload. Finally, the methodology was developed for specific fastener combinations; defined as a specific bolt type, nut, washer, and lubricant. Since friction is known to be the main influence on preload and preload scatter, testing specific fastener combinations limits the variables that affect friction. Once a torque limit is determined for a specific fastener combination, it can be applied to any joint using that combination. Taking this approach eliminates the need and the cost of lot-specific or joint-specific testing. A wide range of torque-tension fastener testing was conducted in support of this work. The results from this research should enable design engineers and structural analysts to produce more optimized bolted joints, leading to better structural designs.

  14. Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.

    PubMed Central

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R.; Dinoi, Maria Teresa; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the timeline changes in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  15. Variable torque prescription: state of art.

    PubMed

    Lacarbonara, Mariano; Accivile, Ettore; Abed, Maria R; Teresa, Dinoi M; Monaco, Annalisa; Marzo, Giuseppe; Capogreco, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the "timeline changes" in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case. PMID:25674173

  16. Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1993-11-01

    All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  17. Torque equilibrium attitudes for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Roger C.

    1993-01-01

    All spacecraft orbiting in a low earth orbit (LEO) experience external torques due to environmental effects. Examples of these torques include those induced by aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and solar forces. It is the gravity-gradient and aerodynamic torques that produce the greatest disturbances to the attitude of a spacecraft in LEO, and large asymmetric spacecraft, such as the space station, are affected to a greater degree because the magnitude of the torques will, in general, be larger in proportion to the moments of inertia. If left unchecked, these torques would cause the attitude of the space station to oscillate in a complex manner and the resulting motion would destroy the micro-gravity environment as well as prohibit the orbiter from docking. The application of control torques will maintain the proper attitude, but the controllers have limited momentum capacity. When any controller reaches its limit, propellant must then be used while the device is reset to a zero or negatively-biased momentum state. Consequently, the rate at which momentum is accumulated is a significant factor in the amount of propellant used and the frequency of resupply necessary to operate the station. A torque profile in which the area curve for a positive torque is not equal to the area under the curve for a negative torque is 'biased,' and the consequent momentum build-up about that axis is defined as secular momentum because it continues to grow with time. Conversely, when the areas are equal, the momentum is cyclic and bounded. A Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) is thus defined as an attitude at which the external torques 'balance' each other as much as possible, and which will result in lower momentum growth in the controllers. Ideally, the positive and negative external moments experienced by a spacecraft at the TEA would exactly cancel each other out and small cyclic control torques would be required only for precise attitude control. Over time, the only momentum build-up in the controllers would be due to electro-mechanical losses within the device. However, the atmospheric torques are proportional to the density of the atmosphere and the density varies with the orbital position, time of day, time of year, and the solar cycle. In addition, there are unmodeled disturbances and uncertainties in the mass and inertias. Therefore, there is no constant attitude that will completely balance the environmental torques and the dynamic TEA cannot be solved in closed form. The objective of this research was to determine a method to calculate a dynamic TEA such that the rate of momentum build-up in the controllers would be minimized and to implement this method in the MATRIX(x) simulation software by Integrated Systems, Inc.

  18. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Ament, Kai; Krasikov, Vladimir; Allmann, Silke; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L W; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene encoding salicylic acid methyl transferase (SAMT). Silencing of SAMT led to a major reduction in SAMT expression and MeSA emission upon herbivory by spider mites, without affecting the induced emission of other volatiles (terpenoids). The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, which preys on T. urticae, could not discriminate between infested and non-infested SAMT-silenced lines, as it could for wild-type tomato plants. Moreover, when given the choice between infested SAMT-silenced and infested wild-type plants, they preferred the latter. These findings are supportive of a major role for MeSA in this indirect defence response of tomato. SAMT-silenced tomato plants were less susceptible to a virulent strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, indicating that the direct defense responses in the roots are also affected in these plants. Our studies show that the conversion of SA to MeSA can affect both direct and indirect plant defence responses. PMID:20059742

  19. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical

  20. Multiple-Cantilever Torque Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J.; Schier, J. Alan; Socha, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity to spurious loads small. High stiffness, high resolution, and ease of fabrication among features of specially designed torque sensor. Device flexible and sensitive to torque about its cylindrical axis and stiff enough to be insensitive to bending about any perpendicular axis. Measures and transmits torque between driving and driven plates.

  1. Torque, Cognitive Ability, and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    West African Hausan Children (N=110) aged 5-6 were administered a torque test and relationshps between the torque task and visual spatial tasks were analyzed. Findings supported the assumption that educational experience related to circling accounts for decrease in torque, or that the educational experiences have potential influence on cortical…

  2. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  3. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-04-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge of photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from space. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of ψ, the water column light utilization index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, "balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation" was calculated assuming the Redfield ratio. It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships, and the carbon/chlorophyll ratio. These predictions were compared with sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

  4. Mesoscale physical variability affects zooplankton production in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yebra, L.; Harris, R. P.; Head, E. J. H.; Yashayaev, I.; Harris, L. R.; Hirst, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    Surface distribution (0-100 m) of zooplankton biomass and specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) activity, as a proxy of structural growth, were assessed during winter 2002 and spring 2004 in the Labrador Sea. Two fronts formed by strong boundary currents, several anticyclonic eddies and a cyclonic eddy were studied. The spatial contrasts observed in seawater temperature, salinity and fluorescence, associated with those mesoscale structures, affected the distributions of both zooplankton biomass and specific AARS activity, particularly those of the smaller individuals. Production rates of large organisms (200-1000 ?m) were significantly related to microzooplankton biomass (63-200 ?m), suggesting a cascade effect from hydrography through microzooplankton to large zooplankton. Water masses defined the biomass distribution of the three dominant species: Calanus glacialis was restricted to cold waters on the shelves while Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus finmarchicus were widespread from Canada to Greenland. Zooplankton production was up to ten-fold higher inside anticyclonic eddies than in the surrounding waters. The recent warming tendency observed in the Labrador Sea will likely generate weaker convection and less energetic mesoscale eddies. This may lead to a decrease in zooplankton growth and production in the Labrador basin.

  5. Neither Helix in the Coiled Coil Region of the Axle of F1-ATPase Plays a Significant Role in Torque Production

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Furuike, Shou; Maki, Yasushi; Adachi, Kengo; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kohori, Ayako; Itoh, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    F1-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor in which the central ?-subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of ?3?3 subunits. The amino and carboxy termini of the ?-subunit form the axle, an ?-helical coiled coil that deeply penetrates the stator cylinder. We previously truncated the axle step by step, starting with the longer carboxy terminus and then cutting both termini at the same levels, resulting in a slower yet considerably powerful rotation. Here we examine the role of each helix by truncating only the carboxy terminus by 2540 amino-acid residues. Longer truncation impaired the stability of the motor complex severely: 40 deletions failed to yield rotating the complex. Up to 36 deletions, however, the mutants produced an apparent torque at nearly half of the wild-type torque, independent of truncation length. Time-averaged rotary speeds were low because of load-dependent stumbling at 120 intervals, even with saturating ATP. Comparison with our previous work indicates that half the normal torque is produced at the orifice of the stator. The very tip of the carboxy terminus adds the other half, whereas neither helix in the middle of the axle contributes much to torque generation and the rapid progress of catalysis. None of the residues of the entire axle played a specific decisive role in rotation. PMID:18708468

  6. Manufacturing techniques - Split torque path helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, George D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A description of the manufacturing techniques, capital equipment, tooling plan, and assembly methods necessary to manufacture the split torque path gearbox is presented. This transmission was designed and built for the advanced rotorcraft transmission program of the U.S. Army and NASA. Consideration is given to the engineering technology advancements along with a description of the integrated product development team process.

  7. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  8. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  9. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  10. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  11. A Fluctuating Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson; Gmez, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    The existence of a fluctuating torque generates a wide variety of possible orbits. This situation contrasts with those examples where the torque vanishes and the angular momentum remains constant. Here we study a two dimensional example with a logarithmic effective potential V(x,y)= 12,,^2o,[ x^2 + (y/b)^2], with a small deviation from the axis symmetry given by the constant b with b < 1. Briefly, the effective potential models the gravitational force exerted by the N point particles on a test object. This potential is used to learn about the dynamics of galaxies and among other features, generates a fluctuating torque which is our main interest here. There is not an analytical solution for these two equations of motion. A simple numerical approach (provided) is required. Also, a change on the initial conditions may generate a different shape for the orbit. This apparently simple potential, represents a challenge for the students. We propose it as a good pedagogical tool for reviewing the main concepts of newtonian dynamics.

  12. Torque Ripple Control Based on Instantaneous Torque Estimation in PMSMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Noriya; Akatsu, Kan

    This study presents a new method for torque ripple control in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method is based on instantaneous torque estimation with a mathematical model. The model provides a new expression for the torque and requires a small amount of off-line data and the values of some machine parameters. With the new mathematical model, torque ripple control is possible at low cost with existing platforms. In the proposed method, the torque ripple is suppressed by feedforward (FF) control and feedback (FB) control. The FF control can compensate for drawbacks in the FB control based on the new model. Therefore, the proposed method for torque ripple control is effective under various conditions. In this paper, the proposed method is evaluated by performing both simulations and experiments.

  13. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  14. Hydraulic torque converter

    SciTech Connect

    Becraft, G.R.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes a torque converter having an impeller, a turbine and a stator forming a torus, wherein the torus has a median section having its radial dimension exceeding its axial dimension, and the torus having an axial dimension fixed at a predetermined axial offset, wherein at least one of the impeller and the turbine is configured as a flow path portion defined by a meanline design path having an outer radius and an inner radius, and wherein the outer radius is greater than the inner radius.

  15. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5984 What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit in...

  18. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  19. Emotions, affects and the production of social life.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick J

    2015-06-01

    While many aspects of social life possess an emotional component, sociology needs to explore explicitly the part emotions play in producing the social world and human history. This paper turns away from individualistic and anthropocentric emphases upon the experience of feelings and emotions, attending instead to an exploration of flows of 'affect' (meaning simply a capacity to affect or be affected) between bodies, things, social institutions and abstractions. It establishes a materialist sociology of affects that acknowledges emotions as a part, but only a part, of a more generalized affective flow that produces bodies and the social world. From this perspective, emotions are not a peculiarly remarkable outcome of the confluence of biology and culture, but part of a continuum of affectivity that links human bodies to their physical and social environment. This enhances sociological understanding of the part emotions play in shaping actions and capacities in many settings of sociological concern. PMID:25788237

  20. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  1. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield.

    PubMed

    Koganti, Srujana; Kuo, Tsung Min; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Smith, Nathan; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2011-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotolerant, were first screened in this study. No strains were found to produce large amounts of xylitol as the dominant metabolite. Some produced polyol mixtures that might present difficulties to downstream separation and purification. Several Debaryomyces hansenii strains produced arabitol as the predominant metabolite with high yields, and D. hansenii strain SBP-1 (NRRL Y-7483) was chosen for further study on the effects of several growth conditions. The optimal temperature was found to be 30C. Very low dissolved oxygen concentrations or anaerobic conditions inhibited polyol yields. Arabitol yield improved with increasing initial glycerol concentrations, reaching approximately 50% (w/w) with 150 g/L initial glycerol. However, the osmotic stress created by high salt concentrations (?50 g/L) negatively affected arabitol production. Addition of glucose and xylose improved arabitol production while addition of sorbitol reduced production. Results from this work show that arabitol is a promising value-added product from glycerol using D. hansenii SBP-1 as the producing strain. PMID:21127857

  2. Knowledge of repetitions range affects force production in trained females.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Israel; Aboodarda, Saied J; Basset, Fabien A; Behm, David G

    2014-12-01

    Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling). It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG). Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6(th) MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5%) and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3%) conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13%) and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%). No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14%) and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14%) across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production. Key pointsPacing strategies occur during repeated (fatiguing) MVCs as a function of end point expectations.Females use similar pacing strategies as previously published results with males.Without a known end point, females will tend to pace themselves by decreasing force output even when asked to perform maximal contractions. PMID:25435764

  3. Momentum Confinement at Low Torque

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, W M; Burrell, K H; deGrassie, J S; Budny, R; Groebner, R J; Heidbrink, W W; Kinsey, J E; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; Mikkelsen, D; Nazikian, R; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Scott, S D; Van Zeeland, M A; Zarnstorff, M C

    2007-06-26

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

  4. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  5. Thermal Spin Transfer Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-03-01

    The coupling between spin and charge in electronic transport is studied in the field of spintronics. Heat currents are coupled to both charge and spin currents as well [1]. This extension of spintronics to what may be called ``spin caloritronics'' recently enjoys renewed attention [2]. The spin-transfer torque associated with electric currents can excite magnetizations in nanostructures, switching magnetic configuration in spin valves and move domain walls in magnetic wires when exceeding critical values of the order of 10^7Acm-2 [3]. Also heat currents transfer spin angular momentum [4], either intrinsically or via the thermoelectric generation of particle spin currents. We predict that temperature differences of the order of 100 K over typical metallic nanostructures cause effects equivalent to the critical charge current densities. In this talk I will give a brief review of various aspects of spin caloritronics with emphasis on thermal spin transfer torques. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Moosa Hatami, Qinfang Zhang, Paul Kelly, Hans Joakim Skadsem, Arne Brataas and Sadamichi Maekawa. [4pt] [1] M. Johnson and R.H. Silsbee, Phys. Rev. B 35, 4959 (1987).[0pt] [2] International Workshop on Spin Caloritronics, Lorentz Center of Leiden University, 9-13 February 2009, http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2009/323/info.php3?wsid=323[0pt] [3] D. C. Ralph and M. D. Stiles, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 1190 (2008).[0pt] [4] M. Hatami, G.E.W. Bauer, Q. Zhang, and P.J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 066603 (2007).

  6. Discourse Goals Affect the Process and Product of Nominal Metaphor Production.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Akira; Sakamoto, Maki

    2015-10-01

    Although a large number of studies have addressed metaphor comprehension, only a few attempts have so far been made at exploring the process of metaphor production. Therefore, in this paper, we address the problem of how people generate nominal metaphors or identify an apt vehicle for a given topic of nominal metaphors. Specifically, we examine how the process and product of metaphor production differ between two discourse goals of metaphor, namely an explanatory purpose (e.g., to clarify) and a literary purpose (e.g., to aesthetically pleasing). Experiment 1 analyzed the metaphors (or vehicles) generated in the metaphor production task, and demonstrated that people identified more prototypical exemplars of the property to be attributed to the topic as a vehicle for explanatory metaphors than for literary metaphors. In addition, it was found that metaphors generated for the explanatory purpose were more apt and conventional, and had high topic-vehicle similarity than those generated for the literary purpose, while metaphors generated for the literary purpose were more familiar and imageable than those for the explanatory purpose. Experiment 2 used a priming paradigm to assess the online availability of prototypical and less prototypical members of the topic property during metaphor production. The result was that both prototypical and less prototypical members were activated in producing literary metaphors, while neither members were activated in the production of explanatory metaphors. These findings indicate that the process of metaphor production is affected by discourse goals of metaphor; less prototypical members of the category are searched for a vehicle during the production of literary metaphors, and thus literary metaphors are generated with less prototypical vehicles than explanatory metaphors. PMID:24924472

  7. Hydromechanical transmission with split torque and regenerative torque flow paths

    SciTech Connect

    Plasencia, D.B.; Maxwell, S.P.

    1986-06-03

    A hydrokinetic torque converter mechanism is described for an automotive vehicle driveline adapted to deliver driving torque from a driving shaft to an output shaft; a compound planetary gear unit having two input elements, a reaction element, separate torque input shafts connected respectively to the input elements; the hydrokinetic unit comprising a bladed impeller and a bladed turbine, the impeller being connected to the driving shaft, the tubing being connected to one of the input shafts; a centrifugally operated clutch means for connecting a second input shaft to the driving shaft and an overrunning coupling between the output side of the centrifugally actuated clutch and the first input shaft.

  8. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children's Lexical Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent

  9. Planting Date Affects Production and Quality of Grass Pea Forage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising cost of commercial nitrogen (N) fertilizer has generated interest in including legumes in cropping systems. Research on agronomic practices required to integrate legumes into cereal-based systems of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is required. This study examined how planting date affect...

  10. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  11. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP, indicating the importance of newly synthesized non-structural carbohydrates for soil respiration. We conclude that the instant effect of soil temperature and transpiration in combination with the time-lagged effect of GPP governed the diel changes in soil CO2 production at our site. If measurements are carried out at night or during daytime only, then this can lead to considerable misinterpretations of CO2 production rates. Hence we recommend that estimates of respiration rates at a specific site should include both nocturnal and daytime processes.

  12. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  13. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  14. Does breed of ram affect ewe and lamb productivity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic use of breed diversity in terminal crossbreeding systems can improve the efficiency of commercial lamb production. Data from controlled research should be used to select the genetic line or lines of rams to use in terminal crossbreeding systems. Thus, research is underway at the USDA, ARS...

  15. How Soil Roughness Affects Runoff and Sediment Production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of soil surface roughness on runoff and sediment production have not been clearly quantified, mostly due to the lack of a logical separation between geometric (i.e., surface microtopography) and process (i.e., runoff generation, soil detachment by raindrop and runoff) scales. In this resea...

  16. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  17. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  18. Quick torque coupling

    DOEpatents

    Luft, Peter A.

    2009-05-12

    A coupling for mechanically connecting modular tubular struts of a positioning apparatus or space frame, comprising a pair of toothed rings (10, 12) attached to separate strut members (16), the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12) mechanically interlocking in both an axial and circumferential manner, and a third part comprising a sliding, toothed collar (14) the teeth (22) of which interlock the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12), preventing them from disengaging, and completely locking the assembly together. A secondary mechanism provides a nesting force for the collar, and/or retains it. The coupling is self-contained and requires no external tools for installation, and can be assembled with gloved hands in demanding environments. No gauging or measured torque is required for assembly. The assembly can easily be visually inspected to determine a "go" or "no-go" status. The coupling is compact and relatively light-weight. Because of it's triply interlocking teeth, the connection is rigid. The connection does not primarily rely on clamps, springs or friction based fasteners, and is therefore reliable in fail-safe applications.

  19. Vanishing torque from radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorn, D.; Vokrouhlick, D.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Pioneering works on the effect of solar irradiation on the rotation of small objects in interplanetary space raised the possibility that the radiation pressure from solar photon absorption could modify the objects' spin states. Later numerical studies found that the torque from radiation pressure, when averaged over spin and orbital periods, vanished for all studied asteroid shape models. Aims: We demonstrate that the average torque from radiation pressure vanishes for any surface shape deformation. Methods: We have calculated the torque analytically. The main assumption of our calculation is that the object rotates around its principal axis of inertia. Results: We show that the average torque vanishes for any surface shape deformation because the individual radiation-pressure contributions from configurations separated by ? in orbital longitude cancel each other out. Conclusions: Unlike the thermal radiation and reflection of solar photons from surface, which can produce important effects over planetary timescales, the radiation pressure cannot change asteroid rotation.

  20. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  1. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  2. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  3. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  4. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  5. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for...

  6. Magnetically controlled torque wrench prevents overtorquing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Magnetically controlled torque wrench produces the required torque values accurately, and prevents overtorquing. The force between a magnet and a soft iron bar on the arms of the wrench constitutes a predetermined maximum torque that cannot be exceeded. So long as the magnetic flux remain constant, the torque remains the same.

  7. Torque-Wrench Adapter For Confined Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Adapter for torque wrench tightens nuts in confined spaces. Allows full rotation of nuts with minimum clearance of wrench. Adapter, spanner-type attachment that fits on end of standard torque wrench. Pair of dowel pins centers and locks wrench onto nut. Used to apply torque of 40 lb-in, also withstands torques up to 100 lb-ft.

  8. Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).

  9. Variable magnetic circuit torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarquand, G.; Lemarquand, V.

    1991-11-01

    This paper presents an original torque sensor structure using the properties of magnetic circuits, including permanent magnets. The torque is measured through the torsion of the transmitting shaft. The torsion is proportional to the torque. Considering two points of the shaft on the same line in absence of torque, the information is given by the twisting angle in the presence of a torque. A rotating magnetic circuit yields an angle representative signal. This circuit is deformed by the shaft torsion. The reluctance varies and so does the magnet operating point. The induction is measured in an airgap by a statoric galvanomagnetic device. The magnetic field source is an axial permanent magnet ring. Two iron-toothed rings, fixed to the driving and driven part of the shaft, respectively, and separated by an airgap make up the variable part of the magnetic circuit. The teeth get out of line whenever a torque is applied. The galvanomagnetic device measures an uniform induction and so delivers a modulation free signal, i.e., rotation independent. Because of the periodic toothed structure, the induction varies periodically with the twisting angle. The sense of the variation is the same over half a period or half a pitch. The variation form depends on the teeth design. Operating interval is to be chosen equal to or smaller than the half pitch.

  10. Torque generated by the bacterial flagellar motor close to stall.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, R M; Berg, H C

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work in which electrorotation was used to apply external torque to tethered cells of the bacterium Escherichia coli, it was found that the torque required to force flagellar motors backward was considerably larger than the torque required to stop them. That is, there appeared to be substantial barrier to backward rotation. Here, we show that in most, possibly all, cases this barrier is an artifact due to angular variation of the torque applied by electrorotation, of the motor torque, or both; the motor torque appears to be independent to speed or to vary linearly with speed up to speeds of tens of Hertz, in either direction. However, motors often break catastrophically when driven backward, so backward rotation is not equivalent to forward rotation. Also, cells can rotate backward while stalled, either in randomly timed jumps of 180 degrees or very slowly and smoothly. When cells rotate slowly and smoothly backward, the motor takes several seconds to recover after electrorotation is stopped, suggesting that some form of reversible damage has occurred. These findings do not affect the interpretation of electrorotation experiments in which motors are driven rapidly forward. PMID:8968619

  11. Pressurized fluid torque driver control and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  12. Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources(1).

    PubMed

    Hofvendahl; Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-02-01

    Parameters affecting the fermentative lactic acid (LA) production are summarized and discussed: microorganism, carbon- and nitrogen-source, fermentation mode, pH, and temperature. LA production is compared in terms of LA concentration, LA yield and LA productivity. Also by-product formation and LA isomery are discussed. PMID:10689064

  13. Chemical destruction of brain noradrenergic neurons affects splenic cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Engler, Harald; Doenlen, Raphael; Riether, Carsten; Engler, Andrea; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Del Rey, Adriana; Pacheco-Lpez, Gustavo; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2010-02-26

    The neurotransmitter noradrenaline (NA) plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. Here we used the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) to investigate the impact of central NA depletion on cytokine production by splenic monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Intraperitoneal administration of DSP-4 in adult rats induced a substantial reduction of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and the A5 cell group. The degeneration of brainstem noradrenergic neurons was accompanied by a significant decrease in the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, upon T cell receptor stimulation with anti-CD3, isolated splenocytes of DSP-4 treated animals produced significantly less interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-2 and IL-4. The proportion of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the spleen remained unaffected by the neurotoxin treatment, however, the percentage of natural killer cells decreased significantly. The findings suggest that a certain level of central noradrenergic tone is required for normal functioning of peripheral immune cells. PMID:20031236

  14. How hollow melanosomes affect iridescent colour production in birds

    PubMed Central

    Eliason, Chad M.; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental constraints and trade-offs can limit diversity, but organisms have repeatedly evolved morphological innovations that overcome these limits by expanding the range and functionality of traits. Iridescent colours in birds are commonly produced by melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) organized into nanostructured arrays within feather barbules. Variation in array type (e.g. multilayers and photonic crystals, PCs) is known to have remarkable effects on plumage colour, but the optical consequences of variation in melanosome shape remain poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of spectrophotometric, experimental and theoretical methods to test how melanosome hollownessa morphological innovation largely restricted to birdsaffects feather colour. Optical analyses of hexagonal close-packed arrays of hollow melanosomes in two species, wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and violet-backed starlings (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), indicated that they function as two-dimensional PCs. Incorporation of a larger dataset and optical modelling showed that, compared with solid melanosomes, hollow melanosomes allow birds to produce distinct colours with the same energetically favourable, close-packed configurations. These data suggest that a morphological novelty has, at least in part, allowed birds to achieve their vast morphological and colour diversity. PMID:23902909

  15. Do You Get What You Deserve? Factors Affecting the Relationship between Productivity and Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Using a sample of 5,645 academics in 200 colleges and universities across all academic fields, this study investigates factors affecting the relationship between productivity, measured by publication, and pay. Results indicate that productivity significantly affected pay in private, high quality institutions and research-oriented departments.

  16. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  18. Do You Get What You Deserve? Factors Affecting the Relationship between Productivity and Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Using a sample of 5,645 academics in 200 colleges and universities across all academic fields, this study investigates factors affecting the relationship between productivity, measured by publication, and pay. Results indicate that productivity significantly affected pay in private, high quality institutions and research-oriented departments.…

  19. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  20. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  1. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-10-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  2. A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E

    2012-12-01

    New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956

  3. Spin-torque building blocks.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, N; Cros, V; Grollier, J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the spin-torque effect has made magnetic nanodevices realistic candidates for active elements of memory devices and applications. Magnetoresistive effects allow the read-out of increasingly small magnetic bits, and the spin torque provides an efficient tool to manipulate - precisely, rapidly and at low energy cost - the magnetic state, which is in turn the central information medium of spintronic devices. By keeping the same magnetic stack, but by tuning a device's shape and bias conditions, the spin torque can be engineered to build a variety of advanced magnetic nanodevices. Here we show that by assembling these nanodevices as building blocks with different functionalities, novel types of computing architecture can be envisaged. We focus in particular on recent concepts such as magnonics and spintronic neural networks. PMID:24343514

  4. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  5. DTC Based Induction Motor Speed Control Using 10-Sector Methodology for Torque Ripple Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithra, S.; Dinesh Krishna, A. S.; Shridharan, S.

    2014-09-01

    A direct torque control (DTC) drive allows direct and independent control of flux linkage and electromagnetic torque by the selection of optimum inverter switching modes. It is a simple method of signal processing which gives excellent dynamic performance. Also transformation of coordinates and voltage decoupling are not required. However, the possible discrete inverter switching vectors cannot always generate exact stator voltage required, to obtain the demanded electromagnetic torque and flux linkages. This results in the production of ripples in the torque as well as flux waveforms. In the present paper a torque ripple reduction methodology is proposed. In this method the circular locus of flux phasor is divided into 10 sector as compared to six sector divisions in conventional DTC method. The basic DTC scheme and the 10-sector method are simulated and compared for their performance. An analysis is done with sector increment so that finally the torque ripple varies slightly as the sector is increased.

  6. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridstrm, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  7. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  8. Preload Torque Limiting Shaft Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmening, W. A. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A torque limiting spring for a rotating shaft system which acts bidirectionally and is preloaded is examined. The spring is a split circular ring compressed into cavities on facing surfaces of matching shafts. The spring is preloaded by varying the width of a tang in the shaft cavity relative to the split in the spring.

  9. Improved Force-And-Torque Sensor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Improved sensor assembly measures forces and torques of interaction between supporting and supported object. Measures all three components of force and all three components of torque. Force measurements uncoupled from torque measurements. Price for improved measurement capability, complexity and flexibility, excessive in some applications.

  10. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  12. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  15. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  16. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  17. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1)...

  18. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  19. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously...

  20. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  1. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  2. Maxwell stress induced optical torque upon gold prolate nanospheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Ying-Syuan; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study theoretically analyzes the surface traction on an elongated Au prolate nanospheroid to examine the resultant optical torque exerted by an optical tweezers. The multiple multipole method is applied to evaluate quantitatively the electromagnetic field induced by a linearly polarized plane wave illuminating a nanospheroid, then obtaining the surface traction in terms of Maxwell stress tensor. The optical torque is calculated by the surface integral of the cross product of position vector and traction over the nanospheroid's surface. Our results show that two pairs of positive and negative traction zones at the two apexes of the nanospheroid play a critical role. Furthermore, the resultant optical torque is wavelength-dependent. If the wavelength is shorter than the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanospheroid, the optical torque rotates the long axis of nanospheroid perpendicular to the polarization direction of the incident wave. In contrast, if the wavelength is longer than the LSPR the long axis is pushed parallel to the polarization direction. The turning point with a null torque, between the perpendicular and parallel modes, is at the LSPR. The optical performance of Au nanospheroid is equivalent to that of Au NR with the same volume and aspect ratio, but the LSPR of Au NR is little red-shifted from that of an equivalent prolate spheroid.

  3. Quenched Slonczewski windmill in spin-torque vortex oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluka, V.; Kákay, A.; Deac, A. M.; Bürgler, D. E.; Hertel, R.; Schneider, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    We present a combined analytical and numerical study on double-vortex spin-torque nano-oscillators and describe a mechanism that suppresses the windmill modes. The magnetization dynamics is dominated by the gyrotropic precession of the vortex in one of the ferromagnetic layers. In the other layer, the vortex gyration is strongly damped. The dominating layer for the magnetization dynamics is determined by the sign of the product between sample current and the chiralities. Measurements on Fe/Ag/Fe nanopillars support these findings. The results open up a new perspective for building high quality-factor spin-torque oscillators operating at selectable, well-separated frequency bands.

  4. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is a major byproduct from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotole...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources? (a) Methods to determine...

  6. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5986 What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources? You must meet each emission limit...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5997 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5997 Section 63.5997 Protection of Environment... Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5997 How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire cord production affected sources?...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  18. Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.

  19. Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, T. D. Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-02-10

    Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.

  20. Purple Nutsedge Tuber Productivity as Affected by Organic Mulches in a Watermelon Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Isabela, Puerto Rico, to determine the tuber productivity of the weed purple nutsedge (PN) and the yield of ‘Crimson Sweet' watermelon when grown with or without organic soil bed mulches [hays of millet (Pennisetum glaucum), nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), sunnhemp (Crotalaria...

  1. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived

  2. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Cord...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in 63.5986, you must comply with the...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Cord...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in 63.5986, you must comply with the...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in 63.5986, you must comply with the...

  6. EARTHWORM ADDITIONS AFFECT LEACHATE PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN LOSSES IN TYPICAL MIDWESTERN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthworms affect soil structure and the movement of agrochemicals. Yet, there are few field-scale studies that quantify the effect of earthworms on dissolved nitrogen fluxes in agroecosystems. We investigated the influence of biannual deep-burrowing earthworm additions on leachate production and qu...

  7. Factors that Affect Student Motivation in a Dairy Products Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Baraem; Hayes, Kirby

    2005-01-01

    Student motivation is influenced by instructional approach. Motivation is a function of initiating and sustaining goal-directed behavior. The objective of this study was to identify factors (positive and negative) that affect motivation in a junior-level dairy products elective course. Student attitudes were surveyed each year half-way through the

  8. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  9. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  10. Nucleosome response to tension and torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzani, G.; Schiessel, H.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the combined effect of torque and force on a nucleosome, the most abundant DNA-protein complex in eukaryotic cells. Using the worm-like chain model (WLC) we show how low positive torques ease the unwrapping of the DNA from the nucleosome. Remarkably a combination of high forces and high negative torques favors DNA unwrapping as well. The theory is also applicable beyond nucleosomes, namely whenever DNA spools are involved.

  11. Balancing Control for Dispersed Generators Considering Torsional Torque Suppression and AVR Performance for Synchronous Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Omine, Eitaro; Hayashi, Daisuke; Muhando, Endusa Billy; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Electric utility deregulation made possible for PPSs (Power Producer and Supplier) to entry the electricity market. PPSs are supposed to achieve 30-minute balancing control for stable supply of electric power. Meanwhile, load rejection and instantaneous voltage drop greatly affect turbine shafting, that is torsional torque oscillation. Therefore, PPSs have to consider reduction of torsional torque to prevent generator shaft damage. This paper propose the control system which enables to achieve both 30-minute balancing control and reduction of torsional torque by using H? controller. The effectiveness of proposed controller will be verified by using MATLAB.

  12. Gate-dependent spin-torque in a nanoconductor-based spin-valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottet, Audrey

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses the spin-torque effect in a spin-valve made out of two ferromagnetic leads connected through a coherent nanoconductor (NC), in the limit where a single channel of the NC lies near the Fermi energy of the leads. Due to quantum interferences inside the NC, the spin-torque presents clear qualitative differences with respect to the case of a multichannel disordered spin-valve. In particular, it can be modulated with the NC gate voltage. In principle, this modulation can be observed experimentally, assuming that the spin-torque affects a ferromagnetic nanodomain in direct contact with the NC.

  13. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind 2014 (TORQUE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Bak, Christian; Bechmann, Andreas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Dellwik, Ebba; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Giebel, Gregor; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Jensen, Dorte Juul; Larsen, Gunner; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Natarajan, Anand; Rathmann, Ole; Sathe, Ameya; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Nørkær Sørensen, Niels

    2014-06-01

    The 186 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the fifth Science of Making Torque from Wind conference, which is organized by the European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE, www.eawe.eu). The conference, also called Torque 2014, is held at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) 17-20 June 2014. The EAWE conference series started in 2004 in Delft, the Netherlands. In 2007 it was held in Copenhagen, in 2010 in Heraklion, Greece, and then in 2012 in Oldenburg, Germany. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown approximately by 25% annually over the last couple of decades and covers now 2-3% of the global electrical power consumption. In order to make a significant impact on one of the large challenges of our time, namely global warming, the growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research and education in wind turbine aerodynamics and wind resources, the two topics which are the main subjects of this conference. Similar to the growth in electrical power production by wind is the growth in scientific papers about wind energy. Over the last decade the number of papers has also grown by about 25% annually, and many research based companies all over the world are founded. Hence, the wind energy research community is rapidly expanding and the Torque conference series offers a good opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. We hope that the Torque 2014 will heighten the quality of the wind energy research, while the participants will enjoy each others company in Copenhagen. Many people have been involved in producing the Torque 2014 proceedings. The work by more than two hundred reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of sixteen ''section editors'' all from DTU Wind Energy: Christian Bak, Andreas Bechmann, Ferhat Bingöl, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolay Dimitrov, Gregor Giebel, Martin O L Hansen, Dorte Juul Jensen, Gunner Larsen, Helge Aagaard Madsen, Jakob Mann, Anand Natarajan, Ole Rathmann, Ameya Sathe, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Niels Nørkær Sørensen, who are all co-editors of these proceedings. The resources provided by the Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research grant no. 09-067216 and the Danish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education Technology and Production, grant no. 11- 117018 are gratefully acknowledged. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive help and support from the editorial team at IoP, especially Sarah Toms and Anete Ashton, during the reviewing process of these proceedings. We are looking forward to meeting you in Copenhagen and also to Torque 2016, which will take place at the Technical University of Munich, Germany. Roskilde, Denmark, June 2014 Ebba Dellwik, Ameya Sathe and Jakob Mann Technical University of Denmark EAWE DTU

  14. Torque converter and assembly utilizing same

    SciTech Connect

    Pitassi, V.E.; Fernandez, A.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a torque converter for converting a first torque to a second torque. It comprises: a housing; an input shaft having the first torque; a driving sun gear rotatable about a first axis, the input shaft being coupled to the sun gear; a driven carrier including a shaft portion rotatable about the first axis; a first planetary shaft mounted on the driven carrier coaxillay with a second axis parallel to the first axis; a first planetary gear meshing with and driven by the sun gear and mounted on the first planetary shaft so that the first planetary gear is rotatable about the second axis; a first mass eccentric to the second axis and coupled to the first planetary gear for rotation together about the second axis; first and second unidirectional clutches connected to the shaft portion of the driven carrier and operating in opposite directions; an output torque shaft, one if the first and second unidirectional clutches being coupled to the output torque shaft to transmit the second torque thereto in a pulsating fashion and to permit continuous rotation of the output torque shaft and the other one of the first and second unidirectional clutches being connected to the housing to transmit an algebraic addition of the first and second torques together.

  15. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Philip G. (Metropolis, IL); Underwood, Daniel E. (Paducah, KY)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  16. Light torque nanocontrol, nanomotors and nanorockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith; Kourmanov, Bakhit; Walker, Thad G.

    2002-09-01

    In a novel application of light torques, we manipulate and control the rotation of nanorods. We apply light torques to 250 nm diameter glass nanorods in a single-beam optical trap. Light-torque operated nanomotors whir at moderate speeds that depend on several factors, including the magnitude of the light torque, the viscosity of the surrounding medium, and the rotation rate of the electric field vector of the linearly polarized trapping light. Two new modes of behavior - rocking motion and saltatory motion - are also described and explained.

  17. Dimensionality of joint torques and muscle patterns for reaching

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marta; D'Andola, Mattia; Portone, Alessandro; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activities underlying many motor behaviors can be generated by a small number of basic activation patterns with specific features shared across movement conditions. Such low-dimensionality suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) relies on a modular organization to simplify control. However, the relationship between the dimensionality of muscle patterns and that of joint torques is not fixed, because of redundancy and non-linearity in mapping the former into the latter, and needs to be investigated. We compared the torques acting at four arm joints during fast reaching movements in different directions in the frontal and sagittal planes and the underlying muscle patterns. The dimensionality of the non-gravitational components of torques and muscle patterns in the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal domains was estimated by multidimensional decomposition techniques. The spatial organization of torques was captured by two or three generators, indicating that not all the available coordination patterns are employed by the CNS. A single temporal generator with a biphasic profile was identified, generalizing previous observations on a single plane. The number of spatiotemporal generators was equal to the product of the spatial and temporal dimensionalities and their organization was essentially synchronous. Muscle pattern dimensionalities were higher than torques dimensionalities but also higher than the minimum imposed by the inherent non-negativity of muscle activations. The spatiotemporal dimensionality of the muscle patterns was lower than the product of their spatial and temporal dimensionality, indicating the existence of specific asynchronous coordination patterns. Thus, the larger dimensionalities of the muscle patterns may be required for CNS to overcome the non-linearities of the musculoskeletal system and to flexibly generate endpoint trajectories with simple kinematic features using a limited number of building blocks. PMID:24624078

  18. Dimensionality of joint torques and muscle patterns for reaching.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marta; D'Andola, Mattia; Portone, Alessandro; Lacquaniti, Francesco; d'Avella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activities underlying many motor behaviors can be generated by a small number of basic activation patterns with specific features shared across movement conditions. Such low-dimensionality suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) relies on a modular organization to simplify control. However, the relationship between the dimensionality of muscle patterns and that of joint torques is not fixed, because of redundancy and non-linearity in mapping the former into the latter, and needs to be investigated. We compared the torques acting at four arm joints during fast reaching movements in different directions in the frontal and sagittal planes and the underlying muscle patterns. The dimensionality of the non-gravitational components of torques and muscle patterns in the spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal domains was estimated by multidimensional decomposition techniques. The spatial organization of torques was captured by two or three generators, indicating that not all the available coordination patterns are employed by the CNS. A single temporal generator with a biphasic profile was identified, generalizing previous observations on a single plane. The number of spatiotemporal generators was equal to the product of the spatial and temporal dimensionalities and their organization was essentially synchronous. Muscle pattern dimensionalities were higher than torques dimensionalities but also higher than the minimum imposed by the inherent non-negativity of muscle activations. The spatiotemporal dimensionality of the muscle patterns was lower than the product of their spatial and temporal dimensionality, indicating the existence of specific asynchronous coordination patterns. Thus, the larger dimensionalities of the muscle patterns may be required for CNS to overcome the non-linearities of the musculoskeletal system and to flexibly generate endpoint trajectories with simple kinematic features using a limited number of building blocks. PMID:24624078

  19. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Göksun, Tilbe; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Does phonological similarity affect gesture production in the absence of speech?Participants produced gestures from pictures with no words presented or spoken.Same pictures and gestures but different training labels were used.Phonologically similar labels led to more errors in subsequent gestures.Thus, phonological similarity affects gesture production in the absence of speech. Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle's cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels “twist” and “twirl” (similar condition), while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels “unscrew” and “twirl” (dissimilar condition). During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems. PMID:26441724

  20. MUSCLE WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, AND TORQUE VARIABILITY: EFFECTS OF AGE AND MOBILITY STATUS

    PubMed Central

    KENT-BRAUN, JANE A.; CALLAHAN, DAMIEN M.; FAY, JESSICA L.; FOULIS, STEPHEN A.; BUONACCORSI, JOHN P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas deficits in muscle function, particularly power production, develop in old age and are risk factors for mobility impairment, a complete understanding of muscle fatigue during dynamic contractions is lacking. We tested hypotheses related to torque-producing capacity, fatigue resistance, and variability of torque production during repeated maximal contractions in healthy older, mobility-impaired older, and young women. Methods Knee extensor fatigue (decline in torque) was measured during 4 min of dynamic contractions. Torque variability was characterized using a novel 4-component logistic regression model. Results Young women produced more torque at baseline and during the protocol than older women (P < 0.001). Although fatigue did not differ between groups (P = 0.53), torque variability differed by group (P = 0.022) and was greater in older impaired compared with young women (P = 0.010). Conclusions These results suggest that increased torque variability may combine with baseline muscle weakness to limit function, particularly in older adults with mobility impairments. PMID:23674266

  1. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; P<0.02) and increased hydrogen (P<0.03) emissions in both experiments. Furthermore, the effect of nitrate on gaseous emissions was accompanied by an increased rumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/ g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  2. Herbivore and fungal pathogen exclusion affects the seed production of four common grassland species.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Timothy L; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  3. Displaying Force and Torque of A Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Primus, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    Display combines bar charts, vector diagrams, and numerical values to inform operator of forces and torques exerted by end effector of manipulator. On voice or keyboard command, eight-channel strip-chart recorder traces force and torque components and claw position of raw measurements from eight strain gage sensors in end effector. Especially helpful when operator's view of end effector is obscured.

  4. New structure of magnetic torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarquand, V.; Lemarquand, G.

    1992-02-01

    This paper presents an original torque sensor structure using the properties of magnetic circuits including permanent magnets. It measures the relative torsion angle of the shaft in presence of a torque through the deformation of a toothed magnetic circuit. Indeed the reluctance of the circuit varies and so does the measured induction. The obtained signal is independent of the rotation.

  5. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce

  6. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  7. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  8. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  9. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  10. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. Balance the lever arm's torque or quantify its... torque. (c) Dead-weight calibration. This technique applies a known force by hanging known weights at a...., horizontal) and perpendicular to the dynamometer's rotational axis. Apply at least six...

  12. Performance of a constant torque pedal device.

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A constant-torque oscillatory pedal-crank device using vertical movement of the feet is described and its performance compared to a conventional rotational cycle. Using a generator to measure the power output the constant-torque device produced 33% less power and thus has no practical value as an alternative to the conventional pedal-crank system. Images Figure 3 PMID:526783

  13. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  14. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  15. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  16. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  17. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (P.O. Box 385, Beach Island, SC 29841)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

  18. Environmental Qualification of an Actuator Torque Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.M.; Barreca, S.L.; Kostela, T.

    2006-07-01

    Environmental qualification testing was performed on a modified Limitorque torque switch for the torque switch safety functions in the Limitorque type SMB actuators located inside and outside containment in a nuclear power plant. The torque switch specimen was installed in a Limitorque SMB-1 electric actuator mounted on an 8'' Velan gate valve and operated with a customized programmable logic controller to allow normal torque switch behaviour to be observed. The present paper describes the qualification testing performed. The modified torque switch was aged to a 30-year service life at the normal service conditions for both inside and outside containment. Aging included radiation, thermal and cycle aging. A seismic test and then a combined Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) steam accident simulation were followed. After each stage of aging, functional tests were done to confirm normal insulation resistance, normal contact resistance and normal operation. (authors)

  19. Spatiotemporal evolution of hairpin eddies, Reynolds stress, and polymer torque in polymer drag-reduced turbulent channel flows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-06-01

    To study the influence of dynamic interactions between turbulent vortical structures and polymer stress on turbulent friction drag reduction, a series of simulations of channel flow is performed. We obtain self-consistent evolution of an initial eddy in the presence of polymer stresses by utilizing the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin (FENE-P) model. The initial eddy is extracted by the conditional averages for the second quadrant event from fully turbulent Newtonian flow, and the initial polymer conformation fields are given by the solutions of the FENE-P model equations corresponding to the mean shear flow in the Newtonian case. At a relatively low Weissenberg number We(?) (=50), defined as the ratio of the polymer relaxation time to the wall time scale, the generation of new vortices is inhibited by polymer-induced countertorques. Thus fewer vortices are generated in the buffer layer. However, the head of the primary hairpin is unaffected by the polymer stress. At larger We(?) values (?100), the hairpin head becomes weaker and vortex autogeneration and Reynolds stress growth are almost entirely suppressed. The temporal evolution of the vortex strength and polymer torque magnitude reveals that polymer extension by the vortical motion results in a polymer torque that increases in magnitude with time until a maximum value is reached over a time scale comparable to the polymer relaxation time. The polymer torque retards the vortical motion and Reynolds stress production, which in turn weakens flow-induced chain extension and torque itself. An analysis of the vortex time scales reveals that with increasing We(?), vortical motions associated with a broader range of time scales are affected by the polymer stress. This is qualitatively consistent with Lumley's time criterion for the onset of drag reduction. PMID:23848767

  20. Spatiotemporal evolution of hairpin eddies, Reynolds stress, and polymer torque in polymer drag-reduced turbulent channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-06-01

    To study the influence of dynamic interactions between turbulent vortical structures and polymer stress on turbulent friction drag reduction, a series of simulations of channel flow is performed. We obtain self-consistent evolution of an initial eddy in the presence of polymer stresses by utilizing the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin (FENE-P) model. The initial eddy is extracted by the conditional averages for the second quadrant event from fully turbulent Newtonian flow, and the initial polymer conformation fields are given by the solutions of the FENE-P model equations corresponding to the mean shear flow in the Newtonian case. At a relatively low Weissenberg number Weτ (=50), defined as the ratio of the polymer relaxation time to the wall time scale, the generation of new vortices is inhibited by polymer-induced countertorques. Thus fewer vortices are generated in the buffer layer. However, the head of the primary hairpin is unaffected by the polymer stress. At larger Weτ values (≥100), the hairpin head becomes weaker and vortex autogeneration and Reynolds stress growth are almost entirely suppressed. The temporal evolution of the vortex strength and polymer torque magnitude reveals that polymer extension by the vortical motion results in a polymer torque that increases in magnitude with time until a maximum value is reached over a time scale comparable to the polymer relaxation time. The polymer torque retards the vortical motion and Reynolds stress production, which in turn weakens flow-induced chain extension and torque itself. An analysis of the vortex time scales reveals that with increasing Weτ, vortical motions associated with a broader range of time scales are affected by the polymer stress. This is qualitatively consistent with Lumley's time criterion for the onset of drag reduction.

  1. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Melo, RC, Takahashi, ACM, Quitério, RJ, Salvini, TF, and Catai, AM. Eccentric torque-producing capacity is influenced by muscle length in older healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 259-266, 2016-Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120°·s through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p < 0.001). Peak torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120°·s than at 60°·s for both groups (angular velocity effect, p < 0.001). Eccentric knee extension torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p < 0.001), which suggested different torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length. PMID:26049788

  2. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

  3. Encoding of tangential torque in responses of tactile afferent fibres innervating the fingerpad of the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Birznieks, Ingvars; Wheat, Heather E; Redmond, Stephen J; Salo, Lauren M; Lovell, Nigel H; Goodwin, Antony W

    2010-01-01

    Torsional loads are ubiquitous during everyday dextrous manipulations. We examined how information about torque is provided to the sensorimotor control system by populations of tactile afferents. Torsional loads of different magnitudes were applied in clockwise and anticlockwise directions to a standard central site on the fingertip. Three different background levels of contact (grip) force were used. The median nerve was exposed in anaesthetized monkeys and single unit responses recorded from 66 slowly adapting type-I (SA-I) and 31 fast adapting type-I (FA-I) afferents innervating the distal segments of the fingertips. Most afferents were excited by torque but some were suppressed. Responses of the majority of both afferent types were scaled by torque magnitude applied in one or other direction, with the majority of FA-I afferent responses and about half of SA-I afferent responses scaled in both directions. Torque direction affected responses in both afferent types, but more so for the SA-I afferents. Latencies of the first spike in FA-I afferent responses depended on the parameters of the torque. We used a Parzen window classifier to assess the capacity of the SA-I and FA-I afferent populations to discriminate, concurrently and in real-time, the three stimulus parameters, namely background normal force, torque magnitude and direction. Despite the potentially confounding interactions between stimulus parameters, both the SA-I and the FA-I populations could extract torque magnitude accurately. The FA-I afferents signalled torque magnitude earlier than did the SA-I afferents, but torque direction was extracted more rapidly and more accurately by the SA-I afferent population. PMID:20142274

  4. Peak Torque and Rate of Torque Development Influence on Repeated Maximal Exercise Performance: Contractile and Neural Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Baptiste; Rouffet, David M.; Saboul, Damien; Rota, Samuel; Clmenon, Michel; Hautier, Christophe A.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid force production is critical to improve performance and prevent injuries. However, changes in rate of force/torque development caused by the repetition of maximal contractions have received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (Tpeak) on the overall performance (i.e. mean torque, Tmean) decrease during repeated maximal contractions and to investigate the contribution of contractile and neural mechanisms to the alteration of the various mechanical variables. Eleven well-trained men performed 20 sets of 6-s isokinetic maximal knee extensions at 240s-1, beginning every 30 seconds. RTD, Tpeak and Tmean as well as the Rate of EMG Rise (RER), peak EMG (EMGpeak) and mean EMG (EMGmean) of the vastus lateralis were monitored for each contraction. A wavelet transform was also performed on raw EMG signal for instant mean frequency (ifmean) calculation. A neuromuscular testing procedure was carried out before and immediately after the fatiguing protocol including evoked RTD (eRTD) and maximal evoked torque (eTpeak) induced by high frequency doublet (100 Hz). Tmean decrease was correlated to RTD and Tpeak decrease (R=0.62; p<0.001; respectively ?=0.62 and ?=0.19). RER, eRTD and initial ifmean (0-225 ms) decreased after 20 sets (respectively -21.114.1, -2513%, and ~20%). RTD decrease was correlated to RER decrease (R=0.36; p<0.05). The eTpeak decreased significantly after 20 sets (245%; p<0.05) contrary to EMGpeak (-3.219.5 %; p=0.71). Our results show that reductions of RTD explained part of the alterations of the overall performance during repeated moderate velocity maximal exercise. The reductions of RTD were associated to an impairment of the ability of the central nervous system to maximally activate the muscle in the first milliseconds of the contraction. PMID:25901576

  5. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.

  6. A review on factors affecting microcystins production by algae in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Pinfei; Jia, Peili; Zhang, Yi; Chu, Xincheng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-03-01

    Microcystins, a toxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa have become a global environmental issue in recent years. As a consequence of eutrophication, microcystins have become widely disseminated in drinking water sources, seriously impairing drinking water quality. This review focuses on the relationship between microcystins synthesis and physical, chemical, and biological environmental factors that are significant in controlling their production. Light intensity and temperature are the more important physical factors, and in many cases, an optimum level for these two factors has been observed. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the key chemical factors causing frequent occurrence of harmful algal blooms and microcystins production. The absorption of nutrients and metabolic activities of algae are affected by different concentrations and forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to variations in microcystins production Metal ions and emerging pollutants are other significant chemical factors, whose comprehensive impact is still being studied. Algae can also interact with biological agents like predators and competitors in aquatic environments, and such interactions are suggested to promote MCs production and release. This review further highlights areas that require further research in order to gain a better understanding of microcystins production. It provides a theoretical basis for the control of microcystins production and releasing into aquatic environments. PMID:26874538

  7. Proximity to forest edge does not affect crop production despite pollen limitation.

    PubMed

    Chacoff, Natacha P; Aizen, Marcelo A; Aschero, Valeria

    2008-04-22

    A decline in pollination function has been linked to agriculture expansion and intensification. In northwest Argentina, pollinator visits to grapefruit, a self-compatible but pollinator-dependent crop, decline by approximately 50% at 1km from forest edges. We evaluated whether this decrease in visitation also reduces the pollination service in this crop. We analysed the quantity and quality of pollen deposited on stigmas, and associated limitation of fruit production at increasing distances (edge: 10, 100, 500 and 1000m) from the remnants of Yungas forest. We also examined the quantitative and qualitative efficiency of honeybees as pollen vectors. Pollen receipt and pollen tubes in styles decreased with increasing distance from forest edge; however, this decline did not affect fruit production. Supplementation of natural pollen with self- and cross-pollen revealed that both pollen quantity and quality limited fruit production. Despite pollen limitation, honeybees cannot raise fruit production because they often do not deposit sufficient high-quality pollen per visit to elicit fruit development. However, declines in visitation frequency well below seven visits during a flower's lifespan could decrease production beyond current yields. In this context, the preservation of forest remnants, which act as pollinator sources, could contribute to resilience in crop production. Like wild plants, pollen limitation of the yield among animal-pollinated crops may be common and indicative not only of pollinator scarcity, but also of poor pollination quality, whereby pollinator efficiency, rather than just abundance, can play a broader role than previously appreciated. PMID:18230596

  8. International Space Station Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment: Effects of Flywheel Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    The Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment is currently under development for the International Space Station; two counter-rotating flywheels will be levitated with magnetic bearings and placed in vacuum housings. The primary objective of the experiment is to store and discharge energy, in combination with existing batteries, into the electrical power system. The secondary objective is to use the flywheels to exert torque on the Station; a simple torque profile has been designed so that the Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes will be assisted in maintaining torque equilibrium attitude. Two energy storage contingencies could result in the inadvertent application of torque by the flywheels to the Station: an emergency shutdown of one flywheel rotor while the other remains spinning, and energy storage with only one rotor instead of the counterrotating pair. Analysis of these two contingencies shows that attitude control and the microgravity environment will not be adversely affected.

  9. The effect of rotating platform TKA on strain distribution and torque transmission on the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Malinzak, Robert A; Small, Scott R; Rogge, Renee D; Archer, Derek B; Oja, Jordan W; Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A

    2014-03-01

    Limited experimental data exist comparing the mechanical response of the tibial cortex between fixed and rotating platform (RP) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), particularly in the revision setting. We asked if RP-TKA significantly affects tibiofemoral torque and cortical stain response in both the primary and revision settings. Fixed and RP tibial trays were implanted into analogue tibias and biomechanically tested under axial and torsional loading. Torque and strain response were analyzed using digital image correlation. Fixed bearing designs exhibited 13.8 times greater torque (P<0.01), and 69% (P<0.01) higher cortical strain than RP designs. Strain response was similar in the primary and revision cohorts. The decrease in torque transfer could act as a safeguard to reduce stress, micromotion and torsional fatigue in scenario of poor bone stock. PMID:24290741

  10. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for...

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  13. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  1. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated...

  3. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire... tire production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate initial compliance with each emission...

  6. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for tire production affected sources? 63.5994 Section 63.5994 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5994 How...

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  17. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5996, you...

  19. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  20. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  1. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  2. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  3. Measurement of torque during mandibular distraction.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Fernando D; Lukas, Saylan; Forsthoffer, Dina

    2008-05-01

    In a prospective study, 26 patients aged 9 days to 12 years old underwent mandibular distraction. There were 18 bilateral and 8 unilateral distractions performed. Five patients had previous distraction. Torque measurements were performed during the distraction process. A modest linear increase in torque was noted during the distraction process. Older patients required more torque to achieve the same distraction length as younger patients. The results of this study suggest that distraction forces are relatively modest, which may allow for greater freedom of distractor design. PMID:18520377

  4. Torquing preload in a lubricated bolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The tension preload obtained by torquing a 7/8 in. diam UNC high strength bolt was determined for lubricated and dry conditions. Consistent preload with a variation of + or - 3% was obtained when the bolt head area was lubricated prior to each torque application. Preload tensions nearly 70% greater than the value predicted with the commonly used formula occurred with the lubricated bolt. A reduction to 39% of the initial preload was observed during 50 torque applications without relubrication. Little evidence of wear was noted after 203 cycles of tightening.

  5. Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, J.M.; Cleland, E.E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M.D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D.B.; Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

  6. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Vctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52 latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to further explore the trait of genome size for understanding global patterns of forest productivity.

  7. Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355

  8. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  9. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Reference force quantification. Use either a set of dead-weights or a reference meter such as strain gage or... torque. (c) Dead-weight calibration. This technique applies a known force by hanging known weights at...

  10. Damping assembly for a torque converter clutch

    SciTech Connect

    Dull, D.C.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a turbine damped torque converter and clutch. It comprises: a pressure plate; a torque converter turbine; a torque converter impeller; means including a control chamber for the pressure plate means for controlling the apply and release of the clutch for engaging the clutch with the impeller; a torque converter output shaft; a planetary gear arrangement including an input gear drivingly connected with the pressure plate, a reaction gear drivingly connected with the turbine, an output member drivingly connected with the output shaft and pinion gear means meshing with the input gear and the reaction gear for drivingly interconnecting the turbine and the pressure plate at a drive ratio of the turbine to the pressure plate of less than 1:1; and one-way drive means disposed between the turbine and the output shaft for preventing the turbine from overrunning the output shaft.

  11. Transmission of torque at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian; O?uz, Erdal C.; Speck, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Lwen, Hartmut; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In macroscopic mechanical devices, torque is transmitted through gearwheels and clutches. In the construction of devices at the nanoscale, torque and its transmission through soft materials will be a key component. However, this regime is dominated by thermal fluctuations leading to dissipation. Here we demonstrate the principle of torque transmission for a disc-like colloidal assembly exhibiting clutch-like behaviour, driven by 27 particles in optical traps. These are translated on a circular path to form a rotating boundary that transmits torque to additional particles confined to the interior. We investigate this transmission and find that it is determined by solid-like or fluid-like behaviour of the device and a stick-slip mechanism reminiscent of macroscopic gearwheels slipping. The transmission behaviour is predominantly governed by the rotation rate of the boundary and the density of the confined system. We determine the efficiency of our device and thus optimize conditions to maximize power output.

  12. Current-induced spin-orbit torques.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Pietro; Miron, Ioan Mihai

    2011-08-13

    The ability to reverse the magnetization of nanomagnets by current injection has attracted increased attention ever since the spin-transfer torque mechanism was predicted in 1996. In this paper, we review the basic theoretical and experimental arguments supporting a novel current-induced spin torque mechanism taking place in ferromagnetic (FM) materials. This effect, hereafter named spin-orbit (SO) torque, is produced by the flow of an electric current in a crystalline structure lacking inversion symmetry, which transfers orbital angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system owing to the combined action of SO and exchange coupling. SO torques are found to be prominent in both FM metal and semiconducting systems, allowing for great flexibility in adjusting their orientation and magnitude by proper material engineering. Further directions of research in this field are briefly outlined. PMID:21727120

  13. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Losby, J E; Fani Sani, F; Grandmont, D T; Diao, Z; Belov, M; Burgess, J A J; Compton, S R; Hiebert, W K; Vick, D; Mohammad, K; Salimi, E; Bridges, G E; Thomson, D J; Freeman, M R

    2015-11-13

    A universal, torque-mixing method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by magnetic induction, the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured in sensitive broadband spectroscopy, here using a resonant mechanical torque sensor. Unlike induction, the torque amplitude allows equilibrium magnetic properties to be monitored simultaneously with the spin dynamics. Comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature reveal assisted switching between magnetization states and mode-dependent spin resonance interactions with nanoscale surface imperfections. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex three-dimensional spin textures. The flexibility of microelectromechanical and optomechanical devices combined with broad generality and capabilities of torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers great opportunities for development of integrated devices. PMID:26564851

  14. Torque equilibrium attitude control for Skylab reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    All the available torque equilibrium attitudes (most were useless from the standpoint of lack of electrical power) and the equilibrium seeking method are presented, as well as the actual successful application during the 3 weeks prior to Skylab reentry.

  15. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    PubMed

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation. PMID:21814829

  16. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  17. Torque and Learning and Behavior Problems in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendel, Ivan H.; Pihl, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    Findings indicate minimal differences, on diagnostic tests, between children who exhibited torque and those who did not. Torque is defined as the circling of any X in a clockwise direction. Torque is not associated with learning problems in school. Diagnostic utility of torque should be carefully considered. (Author)

  18. Large amplitude oscillation of magnetization in spin-torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Tsunegi, Sumito

    2015-05-07

    Oscillation frequency of spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer is theoretically investigated by taking into account the field-like torque. It is shown that the field-like torque plays an important role in finding the balance between the energy supplied by the spin torque and the dissipation due to the damping, which results in a steady precession. The validity of the developed theory is confirmed by performing numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  19. Quantitative trait loci affecting milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Viitala, S M; Schulman, N F; de Koning, D J; Elo, K; Kinos, R; Virta, A; Virta, J; Mki-Tanila, A; Vilkki, J H

    2003-05-01

    A whole genome scan of Finnish Ayrshire was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production. The analysis included 12 half-sib families containing a total of 494 bulls in a granddaughter design. The families were genotyped with 150 markers to construct a 2764 cM (Haldane) male linkage map. In this study interval mapping with multiple-marker regression approach was extended to analyse multiple chromosomes simultaneously. The method uses identified QTL on other chromosomes as cofactors to increase mapping power. The existence of multiple QTL on the same linkage group was also analyzed by fitting a two-QTL model to the analysis. Empirical values for chromosome-wise significance thresholds were determined using a permutation test. Two genome-wise significant QTL were identified when chromosomes were analyzed individually, one affecting fat percentage on chromosome (BTA) 14 and another affecting fat yield on BTA12. The cofactor analysis revealed in total 31 genome-wise significant QTL. The result of two-QTL analysis suggests the existence of two QTL for fat percentage on BTA3. In general, most of the identified QTL confirm results from previous studies of Holstein-Friesian cattle. A new QTL for all yield components was identified on BTA12 in Finnish Ayrshire. PMID:12778594

  20. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  1. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinsons disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30?l inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  2. Leucine metabolism regulates TRI6 expression and affects deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Narayanan, Swara; Walkowiak, Sean; Wang, Li; Joshi, Manisha; Rocheleau, Hélène; Ouellet, Thérèse; Harris, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    TRI6 is a positive regulator of the trichothecene gene cluster and the production of trichothecene mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON)] and acetylated forms such as 15-Acetyl-DON) in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. As a global transcriptional regulator, TRI6 expression is modulated by nitrogen-limiting conditions, sources of nitrogen and carbon, pH and light. However, the mechanism by which these diverse environmental factors affect TRI6 expression remains underexplored. In our effort to understand how nutrients affect TRI6 regulation, comparative digital expression profiling was performed with a wild-type F. graminearum and a Δtri6 mutant strain, grown in nutrient-rich conditions. Analysis showed that TRI6 negatively regulates genes of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Feeding studies with deletion mutants of MCC, encoding methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase, one of the key enzymes of leucine metabolism, showed that addition of leucine specifically down-regulated TRI6 expression and reduced 15-ADON accumulation. Constitutive expression of TRI6 in the Δmcc mutant strain restored 15-ADON production. A combination of cellophane breach assays and pathogenicity experiments on wheat demonstrated that disrupting the leucine metabolic pathway significantly reduced disease. These findings suggest a complex interaction between one of the primary metabolic pathways with a global regulator of mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26248604

  3. A reactive torque control law for gyroscopically controlled space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method of control is developed based on the reactive torques as seen by the individual CMG gimbals. The application of a torque to the gimbal of a CMG rotates the momentum vector and applies a torque to the spacecraft according to well-known laws. The response (rotation) of the vehicle produces a reverse or reaction torque opposing the torque producing the gimbal movement. The reactive torque and the pseudoinverse control schemes are contrasted in order to point out the simplicity of the first method. Simulation was performed only to the extent necessary to prove that reactive torque stabilization and control is feasible.

  4. Knudsen torque on heated micro beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing

    2014-12-09

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction of the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3μm at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.

  5. Extraneous torque and compensation control on the electric load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zongxia; Li, Chenggong; Ren, Zhiting

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a novel motor-drive load simulator based on compensation control strategy is proposed and designed. Through analyzing the torque control system consisting of DC torque motor, PWM module and torque sensor, it is shown that performance of the motor-drive load simulator is possible to be as good as that of the electro-hydraulic load simulator in the range of small torque. In the course of loading, the rotation of the actuator would cause a strong disturbance torque through the motor back-EMF, which produces extraneous torque similar as in electro-hydraulic load simulator. This paper analyzes the cause of extraneous torque inside the torque motor in detail and presents an appropriate compensation control with which the extraneous torque can be compensated and the good performance of the torque control system can be obtained. The results of simulation indicate that the compensation is very effective and the track performance is according with the request.

  6. Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssandier, Jean; Owen, James E.; Adams, Fred C.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2015-09-01

    Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high-energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models, we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow time-scale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We estimate the regime of planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux in which a wind is capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit, and we find that it could be important for some of the observed planets. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outwards if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super-Earth mass planet that loses a large fraction of its mass in a wind could drift a few per cent of its semimajor axis. While this change is small, it places constraints on the evolution of resonant pairs such as Kepler 36b and c.

  7. Potentiation Increases Peak Twitch Torque by Enhancing Rates of Torque Development and Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r2= 0.94 and r2=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation. PMID:24235987

  8. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, L. S.; Gianfagna, T. J.; Specca, D. R.; Janes, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  9. Male body size and condition affects sperm number and production rates in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, R E; Jennions, M D; Head, M L

    2014-12-01

    Sperm number is an important predictor of paternity when there is sperm competition. Sperm number is often measured as maximum sperm reserves, but in species where mating is frequent, males will often be replenishing their reserves. Thus, variation in how quickly males can produce sperm is likely to be important in determining male success in sperm competition. Despite this, little is known about how male size, body condition or diet affects sperm production rates. We counted sperm number in large and small Gambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish) after 3 weeks on either a high or low food diet. Sperm number was significantly higher in both larger males and in well-fed males. We then stripped ejaculates again either 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 days later to investigate subsequent sperm production. The rate of sperm replenishment was influenced by an interaction between size and diet. Large, well-fed males had consistently high levels of sperm available over the 5 days (i.e. rapid replenishment), whereas small poorly fed males showed consistently low levels of sperm availability over the 5 days (i.e. slow replenishment). In contrast, large, poorly fed and small, well-fed males increased their sperm numbers over the first 3 days (i.e. intermediate replenishment). Our study highlights that when mating is frequent and sperm competition is high, size and condition dependence of maximal sperm number and of sperm production rate might both contribute to variation in male reproductive success. PMID:25403851

  10. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield.

    PubMed

    Logendra, L S; Gianfagna, T J; Specca, D R; Janes, H W

    2001-08-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested. PMID:11858257

  11. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Roll Forces and Torques in Cold Roll Forming of a Channel Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodi, B.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Asl, Y. Dadgar; Azizi T., R.; Kasaei, M. M.; Panahizadeh, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the review of cold roll forming process of metals is estimation of force and torque. The optimum production line can be designed determining the effective parameters on force and torque. Some of these parameters are material, sheet thickness, bending angle, lubrication conditions, rolls rotational speed and distance of the stands. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of thickness, yield strength, sheet width and forming angle plate on the force and torque applied on rolls. So the forming process was 3D simulated in finite element software Marc/mentat. Simulation results showed that with increase of yield strength, thickness and forming angle, applied force and torque on rolls will increase. Also the increase in sheet width- assuming constant flange length- will increase the force on the rolls and reduce the torque needed for forming. The effect of thickness and sheet width was experimentally investigated which verified the results obtained by FEA.

  12. Thiazide diuretics affect osteocalcin production in human osteoblasts at the transcription level without affecting vitamin D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lajeunesse, D; Delalandre, A; Guggino, S E

    2000-05-01

    Besides their natriuretic and calciuretic effect, thiazide diuretics have been shown to decrease bone loss rate and improve bone mineral density. Clinical evidence suggests a specific role of thiazides on osteoblasts, because it reduces serum osteocalcin (OC), an osteoblast-specific protein, yet the mechanisms implicated are unknown. We therefore investigated the role of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on OC production by the human osteoblast-like cell line MG-63. HCTZ dose-dependently (1-100 microM) inhibited 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]-induced OC release by these cells (maximal effect, -40-50% and p < 0.005 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]) as measured by ELISA. This effect of HCTZ on OC release was caused by a direct effect on OC gene expression because Northern blot analysis revealed that OC messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were reduced in the presence of increasing doses of the diuretic (-47.2+/-4.0%; p < 0.0001 by paired ANOVA with 100 microM 13.6+/-0.49 pmol/mg protein/15 minutes; p < 0.05) in MG-63 cells. Reducing extracellular Ca2+ concentration with 0.5 mM EDTA or 0.5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino ethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) only partly prevented the inhibitory effect of the diuretic on OC secretion (maximal effect, -22.5+/-6.9%), suggesting that thiazide-dependent Ca2+ influx is not sufficient to elicit the inhibition of OC secretion. Because OC production is strictly dependent on the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 in human osteoblasts, we next evaluated the possible role of HCTZ on vitamin D3 receptors (VDR) at the mRNA and protein levels. Both Northern and Western blot analyses showed no effect of HCTZ (1-100 microM) on VDR levels. The presence of EGTA in the culture media reduced slightly the VDR mRNA levels under basal condition but this was not modified in the presence of increasing levels of HCTZ. The OC gene promoter also is under the control of transcription factors such as Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and cFOS. Western blot analysis revealed no changes in YY1 levels in response to HCTZ either in the presence or in the absence of 0.5 mM EGTA in the culture media. In contrast, HCTZ induced a dose-dependent increase in cFOS levels (p < 0.002 by ANOVA), a situation prevented by incubation with EGTA. These studies indicate that HCTZ inhibits OC mRNA expression independently of an effect on VDR, YY1, or extracellular Ca2+ levels but involves changes in cFOS levels. As OC retards bone formation/mineralization, the inhibition of OC production by HCTZ could explain its preventive role in bone loss rate. PMID:10804019

  13. A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by torque sensors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  14. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the users muscular effort is important to recognize the users motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the users limb accurately from the measured torque. The users limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the users muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  15. Torque rheological parameters to predict pellet quality in extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Soh, J L P; Liew, C V; Heng, P W S

    2006-06-01

    This study explored the feasibility of predicting the quality of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization using torque rheological characterization. Rheological properties of eleven MCC grades as well as their binary mixtures with lactose (3:7) at various water contents were determined using a mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Derived torque parameters were: maximum torque and cumulative energy of mixing (CEM). CEM values of MCC powders (CEM((MCC))) could be attributed to their physical properties such as crystallinity, V(low P) and V(total) (volumes of mercury intruded in their pores at low pressure and the total intrusion volume), bulk and tapped densities. For both MCC powders and their binary mixtures, strong correlation was observed between their torque parameters and the properties of their pellets formed with 30 and 35% (w/w) water. Since this relationship was valid over a broad water content range, rheological assessment for pre-formulation purposes need not be performed at optimized water contents. These results demonstrated the usefulness of torque rheometry as an effective means of comparing and evaluating MCC grades especially when substitution of equivalent grades is encountered. In so doing, the tedious and expensive pre-production (pre-formulation and optimization) work can be considerably reduced. PMID:16574352

  16. MicroRNAs targeting Nicastrin regulate A? production and are affected by target site polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Delay, Charlotte; Dorval, Vronique; Fok, Alice; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Hsiung, G-Y; Hbert, Sbastien S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing number of genome-wide association studies, the involvement of polymorphisms in microRNA target sites (polymiRTS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains poorly investigated. Recently, we have shown that AD-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of amyloid precursor protein (APP) could directly affect miRNA function. In theory, loss of microRNA (miRNA) function could lead to risk for AD by increasing APP expression and A? peptide production. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Nicastrin, a ?-secretase subunit involved in A? generation, could be regulated by miRNAs, and consequently affected by 3'UTR polymorphisms. Bioinformatic analysis identified 22 putative miRNA binding sites located in or near Nicastrin 3'UTR polymorphisms. From these miRNA candidates, six were previously shown to be expressed in human brain. We identified miR-24, miR-186, and miR-455 as regulators of Nicastrin expression, both in vitro and under physiological conditions in human cells, which resulted in altered A? secretion. Using luciferase-based assays, we further demonstrated that rs113810300 and rs141849450 SNPs affected miRNA-mediated repression of Nicastrin. Notably, rs141849450 completely abolished the miR-455-mediated repression of Nicastrin. Finally, the rs141849450 variant was identified in 1 out of 511 AD cases but not in 631 controls. These observations set the stage for future studies exploring the role of miRNAs and 3'UTR polymorphisms in AD. PMID:25100943

  17. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs' treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs' treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  18. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs’ treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs’ treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  19. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-14

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation.

  20. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature Wear-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimandy, Adam J. C.

    This thesis provides much needed representative sample data for reuse life of fully seated and torqued locknuts. Most national requirements for prevailing torque locking fasteners only specify unseated reuse life. This could create a potentially dangerous situation if unseated is misinterpreted for seated. This thesis provides comparative data for seated verses unseated configuration. Six aerospace, 3 all-metal and 3 nylon insert, and one non-aerospace locknuts were tested at preloads levels of unseated, 66%, 75%, and 85% of yield of bolt. The locknuts tested are MS21043-4, NAS1291-4, NAS1805-4, MS17825-4, MS21044D4, NAS1021N4, and Grade 8. A fixture was created in order to allow for the simultaneous data collection of the applied preload and torque, along with the removal of preload without loosening the locknut. The results from testing indicate the number of reuse cycles is greater for nylon locknuts than the all-metal locknuts. Large losses, on the order of 20-50%, in prevailing torque occur between the first and second cycle of each locknut under all preloads. Tightening Torque required to achieve a certain preload was found to increase with reuse. Application of lubrication to nylon locknuts had a significant effect, reducing the reuse life and prevailing torque performance. The testing indicated the effect of preload reduced the number of reuse cycles to failure, failure occurs when the prevailing torque is measured outside the range of 3.5 to 30 in-lb. All locknuts survived unseated and 66% Y preload testing, except MS21043 which lasted about 14.5 reuse cycles at 66% Y and NAS1805 which survived 8 reuse cycles for unseated and 12.67 reuse cycles at 66% Y. NAS1805's loss of reuse life is due to hardness and material compatibility issues. The scatter of the torque measurements was low for the first three to five cycles, then as the coatings and lubrications are worn the scatter increases. The data collected from testing agrees with the torque friction equation.

  1. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  2. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

  3. Tassel removal positively affects biomass production coupled with significantly increasing stem digestibility in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  4. Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects. PMID:21359137

  5. Torque equilibrium attitude control for Skylab reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, J. R.; Kennel, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The method of torque equilibrium attitude control used to control the reentry of Skylab to an altitude below 150 km without the use of thruster fuel once the attitude was established is discussed. The Skylab attitude and pointing control system, which included rate gyros, sun sensors, star tracker, the Apollo telescope mount digital computer, control moment gyros and cold-gas attitude thrusters, is presented. The 12 torque equilibrium attitudes found at which aerodynamic, gravity gradient and gyroscopic torques would balance are indicated, and the three of those at which the solar power supply would be adequate for attitude control are illustrated. The equilibrium seeking method employed is then examined, and the operation and performance of the torque equilibrium attitude control system during the three weeks prior to Skylab reentry are discussed. It is concluded that the torque equilibrium attitude control method developed for Skylab was successful in performing its assigned mission, and will be valuable for the design of future, low-altitude spacecraft or tethered vehicles.

  6. [Torque of endosseous dental screw type implants].

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias R; Schiel, Harald J; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The success of osseous and oral implants is partially dependent on the design and on the mechanical way of insertion. The torque moments during manual and machine-insertion and the correlation between torque and design of the implants were topics of this paper. The experiments were separated in two parts using pork-ribs in vitro. The first experiment was done with manual and machine insertion of implants. The second trial dealt with machine overloading of correctly inserted implants. The cylindrical implants showed an initial insertion curve followed by a linear phase which ended in a peak when insertion depth was reached. The conical formed implants did not show an initial curve while being inserted but a steeper linear phase and a defined peak when reaching the insertion depth. The torque moments at deep insertion (normal drilling depth) differed about 80% to the torque moments at normal insertion. The torques of continual machine insertion are 15 to 20% lower than those of discontinual manual insertion. According to these findings the design parameters for an optimal enossal oral dental implant should be of a cylindrical form with step like design, a cylindrical neck and a self cutting function of the symmetrical thread in combination with a blunt implant tip. PMID:12244931

  7. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  8. Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

  9. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY); De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Malvern, PA); Szczesny, Paul M. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1997-01-01

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

  10. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Jensen, S K; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs. 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs. 97 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07). The piglet mortality during the first week of lactation tended to be higher for sows fed CLA than for CON sows (6.8 vs. 2.3%, respectively; P = 0.10), and the number of piglets that died or were moved to others sows to ensure survival during the first week was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows. PMID:23365381

  11. Factors affecting conidial production of Beauveria bassiana from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Luz, C; Fargues, J

    1998-09-01

    The epizootic potential of Beauveria bassiana for control of the triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease was investigated by studying the effects of both biotic and abiotic factors on the recycling of a highly virulent fungal isolate from fungus-killed cadavers of Rhodnius prolixus. The conidial production of B. bassiana from mummified cadavers of R. prolixus required high RH levels of at least 96.5% RH. At 97% RH and 25 degrees C, the amount of conidia per insect ranged from 5.3 x 10(6) (on first-instar larval cadavers) to 1.7 x 10(8) (on adult cadavers) depending on the size of the different stages of development of the host. Under optimal conditions, B. bassiana sporulation from R. prolixus cadavers took place in 4 to 5 days after death. At a high humidity level (97% RH) the intensity of the conidial production from Rhodnius cadavers was little affected by temperature over a range from 15 to 25 degrees C, but it declined at 28-30 degrees C and was null at 35 degrees C. There was only a weak influence of the blood meal of nymphs and its timing on the conidial production from B. bassiana-killed cadavers. The recycling capacity of different B. bassiana isolates, selected for their pathogenic activity to R. prolixus, did not differ. From a vector control standpoint, high humidity appears to be the most crucial climatic constraint. The recycling ability of B. bassiana on fungus-killed R. prolixus might contribute to the regulation of triatomine vectors only after applications during the rainy seasons. PMID:9709008

  12. Helicopter Anti-Torque System Using Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. L.; Wilson, J. C.; Phelps, A. E. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A helicopter is disclosed with a system for controlling main-rotor torque which reduces the power and size requirements of conventional anti-torque means. The torque countering forces are generated by disrupting the main rotor downwash flowing around the fuselage. The downwash flow is separated from the fuselage surface by a strake positioned at a specified location on the fuselage. This location is determined by the particular helicopter wash pattern and fuselage configuration, generally being located between 20 deg before top dead center (TDC) and 80 deg from TDC on the fuselage side to which the main rotor blade approaches during rotation. The strake extends along the fuselage from the cabin section to the aft end and can be continuous or separated for aerodynamic surfaces such as a horizontal stabilizer.

  13. Thomas precession: Where is the torque

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A. )

    1992-04-01

    Special relativity appears to violate the conservation of angular momentum {bold L} since it predicts that an accelerated gyroscope will precess, i.e., {bold L} will change in the absence of any applied torque. The paradox is resolved in a simple example by demonstrating that there is a torque present. The mass distribution in the gyroscope undergoes a relativistic distortion, and the center of mass is displaced away from the position of the accelerating force. The resulting torque {tau}={ital d}{bold L}/{ital dt}. The model also shows the physical origins of spin-orbit coupling and of the oscillating term.'' A related calculation shows why a moving magnetic dipole has an {ital electric} dipole moment.

  14. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  15. Atmospheric Gravitational Torque Variations Based on Various Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rowlands, David; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Advancements in the study of the Earth's variable rate of rotation and the motion of its rotation axis have given impetus to the analysis of the torques between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth. The output from global general circulation models of the atmosphere (pressure, surface stress) is being used as input to the torque computations. Gravitational torque between the atmosphere, oceans and solid Earth is an important component of the torque budget. Computation of the gravitational torque involves the adoption of a gravitational model from a wide variety available. The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain to what extent this choice might influence the results of gravitational torque computations.

  16. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    SciTech Connect

    Royak, Semyon; Harbaugh, Mark M.

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  17. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    PubMed

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with a high pregnancy rate (10/12, 83%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy rate of donor induction agent, the time the oocyte was in culture (2-20 hours) before transfer, time from recipient insemination to transfer, or total time from donor induction to transfer (32-45 hours). These findings establish that OT is robust, in that it is effective over a wide variation in timing of the different components involved, and can be successfully developed in a private embryo transfer practice. PMID:26709118

  18. Force/Torque Display For Telerobotic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Marion A.

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial cathode-ray-tube (CRT) display of force and/or torque (F/T) data for telerobotic systems used as output monitor from multiaxis sensor or as command display. Relative positions of two circles represent forces and torques acting on object, derived from signals from F/T sensor composed of strain gauges. Graphical presentation generated on two different graphics systems, one in color and one in black and white. High-level programming facilitates use of additional convenient features in software extending usefulness of sensor data and display. Useful in laboratory experiments, monitoring performance of automated system and for present data on status of system to operator at control station.

  19. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  20. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-12-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future. PMID:21975831

  1. Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebasti; Garca-Lled, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Colprim, Jess; Baeras, Llus

    2013-01-01

    The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 Am?3 NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 Am?3 NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

  2. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  3. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from soutwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200 +/- 50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Elkman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61 deg E and 70 deg E at 8 deg N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at approximately 67 deg E, 20 deg N.

  4. New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

    This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devicesa harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

  5. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem

    PubMed Central

    Romodina, Maria N.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26876334

  6. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem.

    PubMed

    Romodina, Maria N; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Fedyanin, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations. PMID:26876334

  7. Detection of Brownian Torque in a Magnetically-Driven Rotating Microsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romodina, Maria N.; Lyubin, Evgeny V.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal fluctuations significantly affect the behavior of microscale systems rotating in shear flow, such as microvortexes, microbubbles, rotating micromotors, microactuators and other elements of lab-on-a-chip devices. The influence of Brownian torque on the motion of individual magnetic microparticles in a rotating magnetic field is experimentally determined using optical tweezers. Rotational Brownian motion induces the flattening of the breakdown transition between the synchronous and asynchronous modes of microparticle rotation. The experimental findings regarding microparticle rotation in the presence of Brownian torque are compared with the results of numerical Brownian dynamics simulations.

  8. Reducing the net torque and flow ripple effects of multiple hydraulic piston motor drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The torque and flow ripple effects which result when multiple hydraulic motors are used to drive a single motion of a mechanical device can significantly affect the way in which the device performs. This article presents a mathematical model describing the torque and flow ripple effects of a bent-axis hydraulic piston motor. The model is used to show how the ripple magnitude can be reduced when multiple motors are used to drive a motion. A discussion of the hydraulic servo system of the 70-m antennas located with the Deep Space Network is included to demonstrate the application of the concepts presented.

  9. Does Teno Torque Virus Induce Autoimmunity After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Pizzol, Antonio; Ferrara, Giovanna; Maestro, Alessandra; Tamaro, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Teno Torque virus, member of the family of Anelloviridae, has been associated with many autoimmune diseases such as idiopathic hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. Its viral load tends to be higher in the bone marrow and in tissues with high turnover rate. We report here a case of an 11-month-old infant affected by acute myeloid leukemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and after 6 months had autoimmune hepatitis and atopic dermatitis. Extremely high-cytokine IP-10 and eotaxin levels were found in her sera, and serological tests and RT-PCR for viruses showed positive results exclusively for Teno Torque virus. PMID:24942030

  10. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  11. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  12. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grmping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ? 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  13. Sex fantasies revisited: an expansion and further clarification of variables affecting sex fantasy production.

    PubMed

    Follingstad, D R; Kimbrell, C D

    1986-12-01

    Findings of prior research which indicated both external factors (experimental response cues) and internal factors (sex guilt) influencing subjects' writing of their sexual fantasies were expanded. University males (N = 88) and females (N = 122) were studied. They read sex fantasy examples varying in conventionality of the sexual activity and the relationship context before reporting their own fantasies. Sex guilt level of all subjects was measured as well as their subjective responses to writing the fantasies. The data were analyzed to determine whether varying response cues along certain dimensions could influence subjects to write parallel fantasies. Sex guilt levels and sex of the subject were the best predictors of the length, explicitness, and variety of content of subjects' reported fantasies. Males wrote longer, more explicit and varied fantasies but were affected similarly by sex guilt levels as females. High sex guilt subjects in general produced more restricted content and shorter fantasies. They also experienced more embarrassment and less arousal. Females were more likely to have high levels of guilt about sex than males. The varying dimensions of the fantasy examples had little effect on the types of fantasy material revealed and therefore the erotic/explicit aspect of the examples found in the prior research seems to be the factor that produces effects on fantasy production. Comparing the two studies, females may respond with longer, more explicit fantasies when given erotic but more traditional sexual examples. PMID:3800638

  14. ?? T cells affect IL-4 production and B-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yafei; Heiser, Ryan A; Detanico, Thiago O; Getahun, Andrew; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Casper, Tamara L; Aydintug, M Kemal; Carding, Simon R; Ikuta, Koichi; Huang, Hua; Cambier, John C; Wysocki, Lawrence J; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Born, Willi K

    2015-01-01

    ?? T cells can influence specific antibody responses. Here, we report that mice deficient in individual ?? T-cell subsets have altered levels of serum antibodies, including all major subclasses, sometimes regardless of the presence of ?? T cells. One strain with a partial ?? deficiency that increases IgE antibodies also displayed increases in IL-4-producing T cells (both residual ?? T cells and ?? T cells) and in systemic IL-4 levels. Its B cells expressed IL-4-regulated inhibitory receptors (CD5, CD22, and CD32) at diminished levels, whereas IL-4-inducible IL-4 receptor ? and MHCII were increased. They also showed signs of activation and spontaneously formed germinal centers. These mice displayed IgE-dependent features found in hyper-IgE syndrome and developed antichromatin, antinuclear, and anticytoplasmic autoantibodies. In contrast, mice deficient in all ?? T cells had nearly unchanged Ig levels and did not develop autoantibodies. Removing IL-4 abrogated the increases in IgE, antichromatin antibodies, and autoantibodies in the partially ??-deficient mice. Our data suggest that ?? T cells, controlled by their own cross-talk, affect IL-4 production, B-cell activation, and B-cell tolerance. PMID:25535377

  15. Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  16. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers. PMID:26048693

  17. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  18. Factors Affecting Yield and Safety of Protein Production from Cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K. F.; Levadoux, W. L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S. T.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of Cephalosporium eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45° to 47°C, maximum protein yield at 45°C, and no growth at 25°C. It has an optimum pH of about 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH 6.0 and above in a liquid medium, or pH 7.0 and above on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45°C were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but some (around 16%) of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/liter [circa 45 g/liter, glucose equivalent]) was complete in around 20 h, yielding around 22.5 g/liter (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48 to 50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/liter). Resting and germinating spores (106 to 108 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and γ-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections. PMID:16345946

  19. Predicting the Affects of Climate Change on Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Productivity of Semi-arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.

  20. Factors affecting yield and safety of protein production from cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K.F.; Levadoux, W.L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of C. eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45-47 degrees, maximum protein yield at 45 degrees, and no growth at 25 degrees. It has an optimum pH of approximately 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH of more than or equal to 6.0 in a liquid medium, or pH of more than or equal to 7.0 on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of pH 3.8 and 45 degrees were strongly inhibitive to potential contaminants. It rapidly hydrolyzed cassava starch. It did not utilize sucrose, but approximately 16% of the small sucrose component of cassava was chemically hydrolyzed during the process. Growth with cassava meal (50 g/l) was complete in approximately 20 h, yielding 22.5 g/l (dry biomass), containing 41% crude protein (48-50% crude protein in the mycelium) and 31% true protein (7.0 g/l). Resting and germinating spores (10 to the power of 6 - 10 to the power of 8 per animal) injected by various routes into normal and gamma-irradiated 6-week-old mice and 7-day-old chickens failed to initiate infections.

  1. Beneficial mycorrhizal symbionts affecting the production of health-promoting phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Cristiana; Avio, Luciano; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2014-06-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are largely investigated for their content in vitamins, mineral nutrients, dietary fibers, and plant secondary metabolites, collectively called phytochemicals, which play a beneficial role in human health. Quantity and quality of phytochemicals may be detected by using different analytical techniques, providing accurate quantification and identification of single molecules, along with their molecular structures, and allowing metabolome analyses of plant-based foods. Phytochemicals concentration and profiles are affected by biotic and abiotic factors linked to plant genotype, crop management, harvest season, soil quality, available nutrients, light, and water. Soil health and biological fertility play a key role in the production of safe plant foods, as a result of the action of beneficial soil microorganisms, in particular of the root symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They improve plant nutrition and health and induce changes in secondary metabolism leading to enhanced biosynthesis of health-promoting phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, phytoestrogens, and to a higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. In this review we discuss reports on health-promoting phytochemicals and analytical methods used for their identification and quantification in plants, and on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi impact on fruits and vegetables nutritional and nutraceutical value. PMID:25025092

  2. γδ T cells affect IL-4 production and B-cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Heiser, Ryan A.; Detanico, Thiago O.; Getahun, Andrew; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Casper, Tamara L.; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Carding, Simon R.; Ikuta, Koichi; Huang, Hua; Cambier, John C.; Wysocki, Lawrence J.; O’Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2015-01-01

    γδ T cells can influence specific antibody responses. Here, we report that mice deficient in individual γδ T-cell subsets have altered levels of serum antibodies, including all major subclasses, sometimes regardless of the presence of αβ T cells. One strain with a partial γδ deficiency that increases IgE antibodies also displayed increases in IL-4–producing T cells (both residual γδ T cells and αβ T cells) and in systemic IL-4 levels. Its B cells expressed IL-4–regulated inhibitory receptors (CD5, CD22, and CD32) at diminished levels, whereas IL-4–inducible IL-4 receptor α and MHCII were increased. They also showed signs of activation and spontaneously formed germinal centers. These mice displayed IgE-dependent features found in hyper-IgE syndrome and developed antichromatin, antinuclear, and anticytoplasmic autoantibodies. In contrast, mice deficient in all γδ T cells had nearly unchanged Ig levels and did not develop autoantibodies. Removing IL-4 abrogated the increases in IgE, antichromatin antibodies, and autoantibodies in the partially γδ-deficient mice. Our data suggest that γδ T cells, controlled by their own cross-talk, affect IL-4 production, B-cell activation, and B-cell tolerance. PMID:25535377

  3. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-11-01

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices.

  4. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices. PMID:26560202

  5. Coupling between Switching Regulation and Torque Generation in Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fan; Minamino, Tohru; Wu, Zhanghan; Namba, Keiichi; Xing, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor plays a crucial role in both bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis. Recent experiments reveal that the switching dynamics of the motor depend on the rotation speed of the motor, and thus the motor torque, nonmonotonically. Here we present a unified mathematical model which treats motor torque generation based on experimental torque-speed curves and the torque-dependent switching based on the conformational spread model. The model successfully reproduces the observed switching rate as a function of the rotation speed, and provides a generic physical explanation independent of most details. A stator affects the switching dynamics through two mechanisms: accelerating the conformational flipping rate of individual rotor-switching units, which contributes most when the stator works at a high torque and thus a low speed; and influencing a larger number of rotor-switching units within unit time, whose contribution is the greatest when the motor rotates at a high speed. Consequently, the switching rate shows a maximum at intermediate speed, where the above two mechanisms find an optimal output. The load-switching relation may serve as a mechanism for sensing the physical environment, similar to the chemotaxis mechanism for sensing the chemical environment. It may also coordinate the switch dynamics of motors within the same cell.

  6. Surface hydrogenation regulated wrinkling and torque capability of hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinfeng; Liu, Silin; Datta, Dibakar; Li, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkles as intrinsic topological feature have been expected to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of atomically thin graphene. Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the wrinkling characteristics in hydrogenated graphene annulus under circular shearing at the inner edge. The amplitude of wrinkles induced by in-plane rotation around the inner edge is sensitive to hydrogenation, and increases quadratically with hydrogen coverage. The effect of hydrogenation on mechanical properties is investigated by calculating the torque capability of annular graphene with varying hydrogen coverage and inner radius. Hydrogenation-enhanced wrinkles cause the aggregation of carbon atoms towards the inner edge and contribute to the critical torque strength of annulus. Based on detailed stress distribution contours, a shear-to-tension conversion mechanism is proposed for the contribution of wrinkles on torque capacity. As a result, the graphane annulus anomalously has similar torque capacity to pristine graphene annulus. The competition between hydrogenation caused bond strength deterioration and wrinkling induced local stress state conversion leads to a U-shaped evolution of torque strength relative to the increase of hydrogen coverage from 0 to 100%. Such hydrogenation tailored topological and mechanical characteristics provides an innovative mean to develop novel graphene-based devices. PMID:26560202

  7. Dynamics of spin torque switching in all-perpendicular spin valve nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Sun, J. Z.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    We present a systematic experimental study of the spin-torque-induced magnetic switching statistics at room temperature, using all-perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves as a model system. Three physical regimes are distinguished: a short-time ballistic limit below a few nanoseconds, where spin-torque dominates the reversal dynamics from a thermal distribution of initial conditions; a long time limit, where the magnetization reversal probability is determined by spin-torque-amplified thermal activation; and a cross-over regime, where the spin-torque and thermal agitation both contribute. For a basic quantitative understanding of the physical processes involved, an analytical macrospin model is presented which contains both spin-torque dynamics and finite temperature effects. The latter was treated rigorously using a Fokker-Plank formalism, and solved numerically for specific sets of parameters relevant to the experiments to determine the switching probability behavior in the short-time and cross-over regimes. This analysis shows that thermal fluctuations during magnetization reversal greatly affect the switching probability over all the time scales studied, even in the short-time limit.

  8. Manipulation of Magnetic Insulators Using Spin Torque from the Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermain, Colin; Paik, Hanjong; Heron, John; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Schlom, Darrell; Ralph, Dan

    2014-03-01

    We will report the growth and fabrication of devices incorporating thin films of the magnetic insulators yttrium iron garnet and lutetium iron garnet with thicknesses less than 20 nm. We perform the growth using oxide MBE, achieving high-quality films with magnetic damping parameters for single 5 nm films as small as 0.00036. We use electron beam lithography and ion milling to pattern the films into device structures with sizes ranging from 100 nm to above 1 micron, integrated with Ta contacts so that we can use the spin Hall effect to apply spin-transfer torque to the magnetic materials. We will use these devices to study how the spin Hall torque affects the effective magnetic damping parameter of isolated magnetic insulator devices, and whether spin Hall torque can be used to drive reliable magnetic switching in these materials at low current levels.

  9. Anatomy of a bearing torque problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, Damon D.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1970s, an antenna despin drive was developed for MBB solar science satellite HELIOS. A problem with high bearing drag torque that was encountered on the two flight models of this drive, after successful tests were completed on twelve bearings, an engineering model, and the qualification unit is discussed.

  10. A New Twist on Torque Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional introductory-level meterstick-balancing lab assumes that students already know what torque is and that they readily identify it as a physical quantity of interest. We propose a modified version of this activity in which students qualitatively and quantitatively measure the amount of force required to keep the meterstick level. The

  11. Nonambipolar Transport and Torque in Perturbed Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Wang, Z. R.; Berkery, J. W.; Kim, K.; Menard, J. E.

    2013-10-01

    A new Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code has been developed to calculate the neoclassical toroidal torque from radial current composed of both passing and trapped particles in perturbed equilibria. This presentation outlines the physics approach used in the development of the PENT code, with emphasis on the effects of retaining general aspect-ratio geometric effects. First, nonambipolar transport coefficients and corresponding neoclassical toroidal viscous (NTV) torque in perturbed equilibria are re-derived from the first order gyro-drift-kinetic equation in the ``combined-NTV'' PENT formalism. The equivalence of NTV torque and change in potential energy due to kinetic effects [J-K. Park, Phys. Plas., 2011] is then used to showcase computational challenges shared between PENT and stability codes MISK and MARS-K. Extensive comparisons to a reduced model, which makes numerous large aspect ratio approximations, are used throughout to emphasize geometry dependent physics such as pitch angle resonances. These applications make extensive use of the PENT code's native interfacing with the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC), and the combination of these codes is a key step towards an iterative solver for self-consistent perturbed equilibrium torque. Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the DOE Office of Science Graduate Fellowship administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education under contract #DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of Engine Parameters and...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section 1065.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Measurement of Engine Parameters and...

  14. Torque wrench allows readings from inaccessible locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Barnardo, M.

    1966-01-01

    Torque wrench with an adjustable drive shaft permits indicator to remain in view when used on sections of equipment with limited access. The shaft is capable of protruding from either side of the wrench head by means of spring loaded balls.

  15. A New Twist on Torque Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, W. Brian

    2014-01-01

    The traditional introductory-level meterstick-balancing lab assumes that students already know what torque is and that they readily identify it as a physical quantity of interest. We propose a modified version of this activity in which students qualitatively and quantitatively measure the amount of force required to keep the meterstick level. The…

  16. Torque Limits for Fasteners in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yi

    2002-01-01

    The two major classes of laminate joints are bonded and bolted. Often the two classes are combined as bonded-bolted joints. Several characteristics of fiber reinforced composite materials render them more susceptible to joint problems than conventional metals. These characteristics include weakness in in-plane shear, transverse tension/compression, interlaminar shear, and bearing strength relative to the strength and stiffness in the fiber direction. Studies on bolted joints of composite materials have been focused on joining assembly subject to in-plane loads. Modes of failure under these loading conditions are net-tension failure, cleavage tension failure, shear-out failure, bearing failure, etc. Although the studies of torque load can be found in literature, they mainly discussed the effect of the torque load on in-plane strength. Existing methods for calculating torque limit for a mechanical fastener do not consider connecting members. The concern that a composite member could be crushed by a preload inspired the initiation of this study. The purpose is to develop a fundamental knowledge base on how to determine a torque limit when a composite member is taken into account. Two simplified analytical models were used: a stress failure analysis model based on maximum stress criterion, and a strain failure analysis model based on maximum strain criterion.

  17. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  18. Air brake-dynamometer accurately measures torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Air brake-dynamometer assembly combines the principles of the air turbine and the air pump to apply braking torque. The assembly absorbs and measures power outputs of rotating machinery over a wide range of shaft speeds. It can also be used as an air turbine.

  19. Direct and inverse spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-08-01

    In collinear magnets lacking inversion symmetry, application of electric currents induces torques on the magnetization and conversely magnetization dynamics induces electric currents. The two effects, which both rely on spin-orbit interaction, are reciprocal to each other and denoted direct spin-orbit torque (SOT) and inverse spin-orbit torque (ISOT), respectively. We derive expressions for SOT and ISOT within the Kubo linear-response formalism. We show that expressions suitable for density-functional theory calculations can be derived either starting from a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian with time-dependent exchange field or by expressing general susceptibilities in terms of the Kohn-Sham susceptibilities. For the case of magnetic bilayer systems we derive the general form of the ISOT current induced under ferromagnetic resonance. Using ab initio calculations within density-functional theory, we investigate SOT and ISOT in Co/Pt(111) magnetic bilayers. We determine the spatial distribution of spin and charge currents as well as torques in order to expose the mechanisms underlying SOT and ISOT and to highlight their reciprocity on the microscopic level. We find that the spin Hall effect is position dependent close to interfaces.

  20. Ice Crystal Orientation in Cirrus: Secondary Torque on Plate Crystals in Diverging Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T. C.; Hallett, J.

    2002-12-01

    Electric torques align atmospheric ice crystals such that one diameter of the crystal is along the field direction. There is an aerodynamic torque due to forces exerted by the surrounding air on crystals falling through it, which tend to align crystals horizontally. In addition there is also a weaker secondary electrical torque on plate crystals in electric fields with a diverging spatial dependence. For example, a plate crystal near an electrical line charge experience a torque which tends to rotate the crystal so that its second diameter lies parallel to the line of charge. This implies that near a vertical line charge the induced electrical torques tend to align one plate crystal diameter radially with respect to the line and the second diameter vertical. If such a field is turned on and is of sufficient magnitude, plate crystals initially oriented horizontally will rotate ninety degrees so that one diameter is vertical. Thus, optical effects resulting from reflection will be much stronger. The primary torque is modeled and compared to that found in the literature. A simple model demonstrates the role of this secondary torque, which is demonstrated in the laboratory utilizing aluminum foil "crystals" near charged conducting rods. The effect is also demonstrated in a laboratory chest freezer with ice crystal plates nucleated in a supercooled cloud. These crystals are reoriented near a charged metal rod with orientation changing by application of a square wave with variable frequency. Results are applied to the production of optical phenomenon in the atmosphere and the ability of oriented ice crystals to reflect a laser beam under conditions of different orientation and varying electric fields.

  1. 40 CFR 90.306 - Dynamometer torque cell calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer torque cell calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.306 Dynamometer torque cell calibration. (a)(1) Any lever arm used...-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the torque measurement system. (1) The master...

  2. Torque and drag: Two factors in extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Aarrestad, T.V.; Blikra, H. )

    1994-09-01

    This paper addresses the various aspects of torque and drag problems encountered in drilling extended-reach wells. It discusses how to use torque and drag calculations and measurements to plan long-reach well profiles, to execute drilling operations that minimize torque and drag effects, to monitor hole cleaning, and to plan jarring operations.

  3. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Torque transducer verification...

  4. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification and calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification and calibration. Calibrate torque-measurement systems as described in 40 CFR 1065.310. ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Torque transducer verification...

  5. 40 CFR 1066.240 - Torque transducer verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Torque transducer verification. 1066... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Dynamometer Specifications § 1066.240 Torque transducer verification. Verify torque-measurement systems by performing the verifications described in §§ 1066.270...

  6. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  7. An inventory of factors that affect polysaccharide production by Phaeocystis globosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rijssel, M.; Janse, I.; Noordkamp, D. J. B.; Gieskes, W. W. C.

    2000-08-01

    Phaeocystis material contains polysaccharides that are built from at least eight different monosaccharides. Differences have been reported between the carbohydrate composition of different Phaeocystis species, and also between samples taken from Phaeocystis globosa blooms in different areas. In order to elucidate factors that could play a role in determining variation in carbohydrate composition and production, a number of Phaeocystis globosa strains were studied under laboratory conditions. Although there was a clear distinction of a northern and a southern cluster in the Phaeocystis globosa strains based on RAPD analysis, the differences in the composition of the mucopolysaccharides were relatively small. The contribution of glucose, however, ranged from 7-85% of total sugars. A strain that was cultured in seawaters of diverse origin produced polysaccharides of a different composition, suggesting the effect of environmental factors. The presence of bacteria affected neither the amount, nor the composition of the carbohydrates that were produced by Phaeocystis globosa. Glucose is part of both the intracellular polysaccharide pool and of the mucopolysaccharides in the colony matrix. Using specific digestion of the intracellular chrysolaminaran by laminarinase, the distribution of polysaccharides over different pools could be assessed. During growth of an axenic, mucus-producing strain, the portion of glucose present as chrysolaminaran appeared to increase. The polyglucose that was not digested by laminarinase remains unidentified. This study shows that environmental factors rather than strain differences determine differences in the sugar composition of Phaeocystis globosa, especially with respect to the glucose content of the material. A difference in the contribution of glucose could be correlated to the portion of cells in the culture that are not in the colonies. Our study emphasises that for studying polysaccharide dynamics in Phaeocystis globosa it is important to be able to discriminate between the different polysaccharide pools. Preliminary results of an enzymatic approach were promising

  8. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.

    2010-04-23

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  9. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Mnster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

  10. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  11. Does tenofovir gel or do other microbicide products affect detection of biomarkers of semen exposure in vitro??, ??, ?

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Margaret C.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Melendez, Johan H.; Black, Carolyn M.; Mauck, Christine K.; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Chaney, Dorothy M.; Gallo, Maria F.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no information on whether products evaluated in HIV microbicide trials affect the detection of the semen biomarkers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or Y chromosome DNA. Study Design We tested (in vitro) dilutions of tenofovir (TFV), UC781 and the hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gels using the Abacus ABAcard and the quantitative (Abbott Architect total PSA) assays for PSA and Y chromosome DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results TFV gel and the HEC placebo adversely affected PSA detection using the ABAcard but not the Abbott Architect total PSA assay. UC781 adversely affected both the ABAcard and Abbott Architect total PSA assays. While there were some quantitative changes in the magnitude of the signal, none of the products affected positivity of the Y chromosome assay. Conclusions The presence of TFV or HEC gels did not affect quantitative PSA or Y chromosome detection in vitro. Confirmation of these findings is recommended using specimens obtained following use of these gels in vivo. Implications Researchers should consider the potential for specific microbicides or any products to affect the particular assay used for semen biomarker detection. The ABAcard assay for PSA detection should not be used with TFV UC781, or HEC. PMID:24746557

  12. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one. PMID:21193193

  13. An automated procedure for analyzing the effects of vortex-induced fin pressure on roll torque for a finned body of revolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Vijlee, Shazib Z.

    2004-09-01

    In flight tests, certain finned bodies of revolution firing lateral jets experience slower spin rates than expected. The primary cause for the reduced spin rate is the interaction between the lateral jets and the freestream air flowing past the body. This interaction produces vortices that interact with the fins (Vortex-Fin Interaction (VFI)) altering the pressure distribution over the fins and creating torque that counteracts the desired spin (counter torque). The current task is to develop an automated procedure for analyzing the pressures measured at an array of points on the fin surfaces of a body tested in a production-scale wind tunnel to determine the VFI-induced roll torque and compare it to the roll torque experimentally measured with an aerodynamic balance. Basic pressure, force, and torque relationships were applied to finite elements defined by the pressure measurement locations and integrated across the fin surface. The integrated fin pressures will help assess the distinct contributions of the individual fins to the counter torque and aid in correlating the counter torque with the positions and strengths of the vortices. The methodology produced comparisons of the effects of VFI for varying flow conditions such as freestream Mach number and dynamic pressure. The results show that for some cases the calculated counter torque agreed with the measured counter torque; however, the results were less consistent with increased freestream Mach numbers and dynamic pressures.

  14. Giant thermal spin torque assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    Spin-polarized charge-currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer-torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin-currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin-torques (TSTs) have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge-currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe.

  15. Giant thermal spin-torqueassisted magnetic tunnel junction switching

    PubMed Central

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe. PMID:25971730

  16. Light-torqued nanomotors free of a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith D.; Shelton, W. Andrew; Walker, Thad G.

    2004-10-01

    We use polarized light to generate light torques for controlling nanoparticles and for producing nanomotors. We report on experiments where we apply light torques to glass nanorods in an optical trap at a known distance from a nearby surface. We tried two different optical traps: (1) a standing wave trap using 20 mW and (2) a single beam trap using 80 mW of light at wavelength 514 nm from an Ar+ laser. The rods studied here are 250-500 nm in diameter and are 1-4 microns long. The motion of the rotating rods is studied and a theoretical model of the motion is presented. The motion can be heavily affected by the presence of a nearby surface. For example, past studies have provided evidence that rotatory motion near a surface can change to rocking motion and vice versa. In this study, we present results of motion free of such surface effects. Studies of the motion of nano-objects are useful in understanding nanorheological phenomena in both biological and inorganic systems.

  17. Differential Reinforcing Power of Restatement and Interpretation on Client Production of Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerswald, Mary C.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of interpretation and restatement on client expression of self-reference affect in a low-structured interview were examined. Subjects were 40 female volunteers. Interpretation treatment achieved significant positive conditioning of self-reference affect. Restatement treatment achieved significant negative conditioning of the critical

  18. Force-torque input enhances medical VR applications.

    PubMed

    Riener, Robert; Burgkart, Rainer; Frey, Martin; Sae-Kee, Bundit; Prll, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Force-torque measuring input devices can significantly enhance the performance of classical simulation environments that are, for example, based on pure passive phantoms. Such devices allow not only the determination of force/torque amplitude and direction but also the contact point, where a torque-free force is applied to the phantom. The force/torque information can be displayed visually or acoustically, drive a realistic graphical animation environment or it can be saved and compared with a haptic library comprising the force/torque history of any medical specialist. PMID:15455908

  19. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien

    2013-05-01

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  20. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that

  1. Rib Torque Does Not Assist Resting Tidal Expiration or Most Conversational Speech Expiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixon, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research note discusses a common misconception in speech science and speech-language pathology textbooks that rib torque (i.e., "rotational stress") assists resting tidal expiration and conversational speech production. Method: The nature of this misconception is considered. Conclusion: An alternate conceptualization is offered that…

  2. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( < 0.001). Higher-parity sows in FAS had the most severe lesion scores (TRT parity, < 0.0001) and scores were greatest at all gestational days (TRT day, < 0.05). Regardless of parity, sows in FLX had the least severe scores ( < 0.0001). As pregnancy progressed, lesion scores increased among sows in CTL ( < 0.05). Sow BW and backfat (BF) were greater for sows in FLX and FAS ( < 0.05), and BCS and BF were greater for parity 1 and 2 sows in FAS than the same parity sows in CTL (TRT parity, < 0.05). Duration and frequency of some postural behaviors and sham chew behavior were affected by TRT ( < 0.05) and time of day (TRT day, < 0.05). These data indicate that adequate stall space, especially late in gestation, may improve the well-being of higher-parity and heavier-bodied gestating sows as assessed by changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL, insufficient floor space in the open-pen area of the FAS system, and gate design of the FLX (e.g., direction of bars and feeder space). These results also indicate that parity and gestational day are additional factors that may exacerbate the effects of restricted stall space or insufficient pen space, further compromising sow well-being. PMID:26523593

  3. Torque generated by the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, H C; Turner, L

    1993-01-01

    Cells of the bacterium Escherichia coli were tethered and spun in a high-frequency rotating electric field at a series of discrete field strengths. This was done first at low field strengths, then at field strengths generating speeds high enough to disrupt motor function, and finally at low field strengths. Comparison of the initial and final speed versus applied-torque plots yielded relative motor torque. For backward rotation, motor torque rose steeply at speeds close to zero, peaking, on average, at about 2.2 times the stall torque. For forward rotation, motor torque remained approximately constant up to speeds of about 60% of the zero-torque speed. Then the torque dropped linearly with speed, crossed zero, and reached a minimum, on average, at about -1.7 times the stall torque. The zero-torque speed increased with temperature (about 90 Hz at 11 degrees C, 140 Hz at 16 degrees C, and 290 Hz at 23 degrees C), while other parameters remained approximately constant. Sometimes the motor slipped at either extreme (delivered constant torque over a range of speeds), but eventually it broke. Similar results were obtained whether motors broke catastrophically (suddenly and completely) or progressively or were de-energized by brief treatment with an uncoupler. These results are consistent with a tightly coupled ratchet mechanism, provided that elastic deformation of force-generating elements is limited by a stop and that mechanical components yield at high applied torques. PMID:8298044

  4. Displaceable Spur Gear Torque Controlled Driver and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driven members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  5. Displaceable spur gear torque controlled driver and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a laterally displaceable gear support member to carry an output spur gear. A biasing assembly biases the output spur gear into engagement with a pinion to which is applied an input torque greater than a desired output torque limit for a threaded fastener such as a nut or screw. A coiled output linkage connects the output spur gear with a fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. A gauged selector mechanism is provided to laterally displace multiple driver members for fasteners arranged in differing configurations. The torque limit is selectably adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  6. Spin-orbit-torque engineering via oxygen manipulation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuepeng; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Wu, Yang; Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Dong-Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Suk; Park, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-04-01

    Spin transfer torques allow the electrical manipulation of magnetization at room temperature, which is desirable in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque memories. When combined with spin-orbit coupling, they give rise to spin-orbit torques, which are a more powerful tool for controlling magnetization and can enrich device functionalities. The engineering of spin-orbit torques, based mostly on the spin Hall effect, is being intensely pursued. Here, we report that the oxidation of spin-orbit-torque devices triggers a new mechanism of spin-orbit torque, which is about two times stronger than that based on the spin Hall effect. We thus introduce a way to engineer spin-orbit torques via oxygen manipulation. Combined with electrical gating of the oxygen level, our findings may also pave the way towards reconfigurable logic devices. PMID:25730601

  7. Spin-orbit-torque engineering via oxygen manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xuepeng; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Wu, Yang; Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Dong-Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Suk; Park, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-05-01

    Spin transfer torques allow the electrical manipulation of magnetization at room temperature, which is desirable in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque memories. When combined with spin-orbit coupling, they give rise to spin-orbit torques, which are a more powerful tool for controlling magnetization and can enrich device functionalities. The engineering of spin-orbit torques, based mostly on the spin Hall effect, is being intensely pursued. Here, we report that the oxidation of spin-orbit-torque devices triggers a new mechanism of spin-orbit torque, which is about two times stronger than that based on the spin Hall effect. We thus introduce a way to engineer spin-orbit torques via oxygen manipulation. Combined with electrical gating of the oxygen level, our findings may also pave the way towards reconfigurable logic devices.

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Slabstock Foam Production Affected Sources Complying With the Source-Wide Emission Limitation 4 Table 4 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  14. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart III of... - Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Compliance Requirements for Molded and Rebond Foam Production Affected Sources 5 Table 5 to Subpart III of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  19. Adrenal hormone deprivation affects macrophage catecholamine metabolism and ?2-adrenoceptor density, but not propranolol stimulation of tumour necrosis factor-? production.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Stanislava; Dimitrijevic, Mirjana; Kustrimovic, Natasa; Mitic, Katarina; Vujic, Vesna; Leposavic, Gordana

    2013-03-01

    Catecholamines modulate the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages in an autocrine/paracrine manner. They also tune ?2-adrenoceptor expression. Glucocorticoids influence catecholamine metabolism and adrenoceptor expression in many cell types. We hypothesized that adrenal hormones affect the production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and NO by macrophages by altering the modulatory influence of catecholamines. To prove the hypothesis, peritoneal exudate macrophages from propranolol-treated non-operated and adrenalectomized rats and from corticosterone-supplemented adrenalectomized rats were examined for lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NO and TNF-? production in vitro and for expression of ?2-adrenoceptors and major catecholamine-metabolizing enzymes. Glucocorticoid deprivation increased NO production by macrophages, whereas 4 days of propranolol treatment was ineffective in this respect. However, propranolol treatment, via ?2-adrenoceptor blockade, increased production of TNF-? by macrophages in both non-operated and adrenalectomized rats (showing dramatically enhanced TNF-? production due to a lack of circulating glucocorticoids) for the same value. The expression of ?2-adrenoceptor was increased in peritoneal macrophages that were freshly isolated from non-operated, propranolol-treated and adrenalectomized rats (due to adrenal catecholamine deficiency). Propranolol did not affect macrophage ?2-adrenoceptor expression in adrenalectomized rats. Given that propranolol increased the density of macrophage tyrosine hydroxylase expression only in non-operated rats and affected the mRNA expression of monoamine oxidase-A in neither non-operated nor adrenalectomized animals, a significant influence of propranolol on peritoneal exudate cell noradrenaline content was found only in non-operated rats. A lack of circulating adrenal hormones also affected noradrenaline metabolism and content in peritoneal exudate cells including macrophages. Collectively, despite differences in the abundance of macrophage catecholamine-?2-adrenoceptor system components and in the TNF-? response to lipopolysaccharide between adrenalectomized and non-operated rats, propranolol increased TNF-? production by the same amount in macrophages from these two groups of animals. PMID:23180813

  20. Six component robotic force-torque sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grahn, Allen R.; Hutchings, Brad L.; Johnston, David R.; Parsons, David C.; Wyatt, Roland F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a two-phase contract studying the feasibility of a miniaturized six component force-torque sensor and development of a working laboratory system were described. The principle of operation is based upon using ultrasonic pulse-echo ranging to determine the position of ultrasonic reflectors attached to a metal or ceramic cover plate. Because of the small size of the sensor, this technology may have application in robotics, to sense forces and torques at the finger tip of a robotic end effector. Descriptions are included of laboratory experiments evaluating materials and techniques for sensor fabrication and of the development of support electronics for data acquisition, computer interface, and operator display.

  1. A dynamic method for magnetic torque measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. E.; Jou, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    In a magnetic suspension system, accurate force measurement will result in better control performance in the test section, especially when a wider range of operation is required. Although many useful methods were developed to obtain the desired model, however, significant error is inevitable since the magnetic field distribution of the large-gap magnetic suspension system is extremely nonlinear. This paper proposed an easy approach to measure the magnetic torque of a magnetic suspension system using an angular photo encoder. Through the measurement of the velocity change data, the magnetic torque is converted. The proposed idea is described and implemented to obtain the desired data. It is useful to the calculation of a magnetic force in the magnetic suspension system.

  2. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one. PMID:26648524

  3. Swing switching of spin-torque valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tom; Kamenev, Alex

    2012-11-01

    We propose a method for inducing magnetization reversal using an AC spin current polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetization of the free magnetic layer. We show that the critical AC spin current is significantly smaller than the corresponding DC one. The effect is understood as a consequence of the underdamped nature of the spin-torque oscillators. It allows to use the kinetic inertia to overcome the residual energy barrier, rather than suppressing the latter by a large spin current. The effect is similar to a swing which may be set into high amplitude motion by a weak near-resonant push. The optimal AC frequency is identified as the upper bifurcation frequency of the corresponding driven nonlinear oscillator. Together with fast switching times it makes the perpendicular AC method to be the most efficient way to realize spin-torque memory valve.

  4. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one.

  5. Torque Transmission Device at Zero Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    In a few critical applications, mechanical transmission of power by rotation at low speed is required without leakage at an interface. Herein we examine a device that enables torque to be transmitted across a sealed environmental barrier. The barrier represents the restraint membrane through which the torque is transmitted. The power is transferred through elastic deformation of a circular tube into an elliptical cross-section. Rotation of the principle axis of the ellipse at one end results in a commensurate rotation of an elliptical cross section at the other end of the tube. This transfer requires no rigid body rotation of the tube allowing a membrane to seal one end from the other. Both computational and experimental models of the device are presented.

  6. Manipulating quantum information with spin torque

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    The use of spin torque as a substitute for magnetic fields is now well established for classical operations like the switching of a nanomagnet. What we are describing here could be viewed as an application of spin torque like effects to quantum processes involving single qubit rotations as well as two qubit entanglement. A key ingredient of this scheme is the use of a large number of itinerant electrons whose cumulative effect is to produce the desired qubit operations on static spins. Each interaction involves entanglement and collapse of wavefunctions so that the operation is only approximately unitary. However, we show that the non-unitary component of the operations can be kept below tolerable limits with proper design. As a capstone example, we present the implementation of a complete CNOT gate using the proposed spin potential based architecture, and show that the fidelity under ideal conditions can be made acceptably close to one. PMID:26648524

  7. Effect of environmental torques on short-term attitude prediction for a rolling-wheel spacecraft in a sun-synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical evaluation and an analysis of the effects of environmental disturbance torques on the attitude of a hexagonal cylinder rolling wheel spacecraft were performed. The resulting perturbations caused by five such torques were found to be very small and exhibited linearity such that linearized equations of motion yielded accurate results over short periods and the separate perturbations contributed by each torque were additive in the sense of superposition. Linearity of the torque perturbations was not affected by moderate system design changes and persisted for torque-to-angular momentum ratios up to 100 times the nominal expected value. As these conditions include many possible applications, similar linear behavior might be anticipated for other rolling-wheel spacecraft.

  8. Adjustable-Torque Truss-Joint Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Harold G.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    Threaded pin tightened or loosened; tedious trial-and-error procedure shortened. Mechanism joining strut and node in truss structure preloaded to desired stress to ensure tight, compressive fit preventing motion of strut during loading or vibration. Preload stress on stack of Belleville spring washers adjusted by tightening or loosening threaded Belleville-washer-alignment pin. Pin turned, by use of allen wrench, to adjust compression preload on Belleville washers and adjusts joint-operating torque.

  9. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation Affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-Product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of oligosaccharides containing mannose, xylose, and glucose, with the mannose component accounting for 35% of dry matter. ...

  10. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  11. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  12. Nature and measurements of torque ripple of permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Scoggins, B.P.; Scudiere, M.B.; Marlino, L.D.; Adams, D.J.; Pillay, P.

    1995-08-01

    Torque ripple of permanent-magnet motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. The four types are pulsating torque, fluctuating torque, reluctance cogging torque, and inertia and mechanical system torque. Pulsating torques are inherently produced by the trapezoidal back-emf`s and trapezoidal currents used in certain permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors. The torque ripples caused by pulsating torques may be reduced by purposely produced fluctuating counter torques. Air-gap torque measurements are conducted on a sample motor. Experimental results agree with theoretical expectations.

  13. Development of an ankle torque measurement device for measuring ankle torque during walking.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Genichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Mizuno, Shiho; Maeda, Hirofumi; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Orand, Abbas; Takeda, Kotaro; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To develop a device for measuring the torque of an ankle joint during walking in order to quantify the characteristics of spasticity of the ankle and to verify the functionality of the device by testing it on the gait of an able-bodied individual and an equinovarus patient. [Subjects and Methods] An adjustable posterior strut (APS) ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) was used in which two torque sensors were mounted on the aluminum strut for measuring the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Two switches were also mounted at the heel and toe in order to detect the gait phase. An able-bodied individual and a left hemiplegic patient with equinovarus participated. They wore the device and walked on a treadmill to investigate the device's functionality. [Results] Linear relationships between the torques and the corresponding output of the torque sensors were observed. Upon the analyses of gait of an able-body subject and a hemiplegic patient, we observed toque matrices in both AP and ML directions during the gait of the both subjects. [Conclusion] We developed a device capable of measuring the torque in the AP and ML directions of ankle joints during gait. PMID:26157244

  14. Development of an ankle torque measurement device for measuring ankle torque during walking

    PubMed Central

    Tanino, Genichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Mizuno, Shiho; Maeda, Hirofumi; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Orand, Abbas; Takeda, Kotaro; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To develop a device for measuring the torque of an ankle joint during walking in order to quantify the characteristics of spasticity of the ankle and to verify the functionality of the device by testing it on the gait of an able-bodied individual and an equinovarus patient. [Subjects and Methods] An adjustable posterior strut (APS) ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) was used in which two torque sensors were mounted on the aluminum strut for measuring the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Two switches were also mounted at the heel and toe in order to detect the gait phase. An able-bodied individual and a left hemiplegic patient with equinovarus participated. They wore the device and walked on a treadmill to investigate the devices functionality. [Results] Linear relationships between the torques and the corresponding output of the torque sensors were observed. Upon the analyses of gait of an able-body subject and a hemiplegic patient, we observed toque matrices in both AP and ML directions during the gait of the both subjects. [Conclusion] We developed a device capable of measuring the torque in the AP and ML directions of ankle joints during gait. PMID:26157244

  15. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in section 13(b)(4) on frozen, smoked, salted, or cured fish. The Department will continue to follow... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... or manufacturing operations on products previously rendered nonperishable, such as refining fish...

  16. How can varieties and rain-fed production environments affect malting quality in spring barley?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rain-fed barley production environments can be highly variable across a region and across years. Almost all malting barley production in Washington State is under rain-fed conditions. The industry has noticed that in some cases malt beta-glucan levels and other malting quality parameters have been u...

  17. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... or manufacturing operations on products previously rendered nonperishable, such as refining fish oil or handling fish meal in connection with the manufacture of feeds. Further specific examples...

  18. They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

  19. INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL BY-PRODUCTS AS SOIL SUPPLEMENTS AFFECT BLUEBERRY FRUIT QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of industrial and municipal by-products as constituents in soil-free media and as soil supplements on fruit quality of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were evaluated in this study. These by-products include coal ash, composted sewage and leaf compost. Combinations of ash and ...

  20. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... or manufacturing operations on products previously rendered nonperishable, such as refining fish oil or handling fish meal in connection with the manufacture of feeds. Further specific examples...

  1. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... or manufacturing operations on products previously rendered nonperishable, such as refining fish oil or handling fish meal in connection with the manufacture of feeds. Further specific examples...

  2. 29 CFR 784.138 - Perishable state of the aquatic product as affecting exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such nonperishable products as fish oil and fish meal, or canned seafood, are not within the exemption... or manufacturing operations on products previously rendered nonperishable, such as refining fish oil or handling fish meal in connection with the manufacture of feeds. Further specific examples...

  3. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  4. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-02-17

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  5. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were positively associated with the intensification level. PMID:24792806

  6. Dynamical corotation torques on low-mass planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2014-11-01

    We study torques on migrating low-mass planets in locally isothermal discs. Previous work on low-mass planets generally kept the planet on a fixed orbit, after which the torque on the planet was measured. In addition to these static torques, when the planet is allowed to migrate it experiences dynamical torques, which are proportional to the migration rate and whose sign depends on the background vortensity gradient. We show that in discs a few times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula, these dynamical torques can have a profound impact on planet migration. Inward migration can be slowed down significantly, and if static torques lead to outward migration, dynamical torques can take over, taking the planet beyond zero-torque lines set by saturation of the corotation torque in a runaway fashion. This means that the region in non-isothermal discs, where outward migration is possible, can be larger than what would be concluded from static torques alone.

  7. Development of infant leg coordination: Exploiting passive torques.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Scholz, John; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Leg joint coordination systematically changes over the first months of life, yet there is minimal data on the underlying change in muscle torques that might account for this change in coordination. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of torque changes to early changes in leg joint coordination. Kicking actions were analyzed of 10 full-term infants between 6 and 15-weeks of age using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. We found 11 of 15 joint angle pairs demonstrated a change from more in-phase intralimb coordination at 6-weeks to less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks. Although the magnitude of joint torques normalized to the mass of the leg remained relatively consistent, we noted more complex patterns of torque component contribution across ages. By focusing on the change in torques associated with hip-knee joint coordination, we found that less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination at 15-weeks was associated with decreased influence of knee muscle torque and increased influence of knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques, supporting that infants coordinate hip muscle torque with passive knee gravitational and motion-dependent torques to generate kicks with reduced active knee muscle torque. We propose that between 6 and 15-weeks of age less in-phase hip-knee coordination emerges as infants exploit passive dynamics in the coordination of hip and knee motions. PMID:26117493

  8. Torque Ripple Reduction in Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor using Intelligent Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Ambarapu; Vijaya Kumar, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents intelligent control scheme together with conventional control scheme to overcome the problems with uncertainties in the structure encountered with classical model based design of induction motor drive based on direct torque control (DTC). It allows high dynamic performance to be obtained with very simple hysteresis control scheme. Direct control of the torque and flux is achieved by proper selection of inverter voltage space vector through a lookup table. This paper also presents the application of intelligent controllers like neural network and fuzzy logic controllers to control induction machines with DTC. Intelligent controllers are used to emulate the state selector of the DTC. With implementation of intelligent controllers the system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using proportional integral speed controller.

  9. Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

  10. Bevel gear driver and method having torque limit selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This invention comprises a torque drive mechanism utilizing axially translatable, mutually engageable transmission members having mating crown gears, driven and driving members with a three-element drive train being biased together by resilient means or by a fluid actuator system, the apparatus being operable to transmit a precisely controlled degree of torque to a driven member. The apparatus is applicable for use in hand tools and as a replacement for impact torque drivers, torque wrenches, motorized screw drivers, or the like, wherein the applied torque must be precisely controlled or limited. The bevel torque drive includes a drive gear which is axially displaceable and rotatable within cylindrical driver housing, a rotatable intermediate gear, and an output gear. Key rotationally secures displaceable gear with respect to input shaft but permits axial movement therebetween. A thrust bearing is preferably connected to the lower end of shaft for support to reduce play and friction between shaft and a transmission joint disc during rotation of the gear train. Coaxially mounted coiled spring is footed against displaceable gear for biasing the displaceable gear toward and into engagement with the intermediate gear for driving intermediate gear and output gear. Torque control is achieved by the use of straight or spiral beveled gears which are of configurations adapted to withdraw from mutual engagement upon the torque exceeding a predetermined limit. The novel, advantageous features of the invention include the configuration of the mating, crown gear sets and the axially translatable, slidable drive gear. The mechanism is capable of transmitting a high degree of torque within a narrow, compact transmission housing. The compact size and narrow, elongated configuration of the housing is particularly applicable for use in hand tools and in multiple torque driver mechanisms in which it is necessary to drive multiple fasteners which are located in close proximity. Prior torque drivers such as 'click-type' torque wrenches do not actually limit torque application but only provide an audible warning that the limit has been reached.

  11. How body mass and lifestyle affect juvenile biomass production in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grady, John M.; Venditti, Chris; Brown, James H.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the mass-specific rate of biomass production during gestation and lactation, here called maternal productivity, has been shown to vary with body size and lifestyle. Metabolic theory predicts that post-weaning growth of offspring, here termed juvenile productivity, should be higher than maternal productivity, and juveniles of smaller species should be more productive than those of larger species. Furthermore because juveniles generally have similar lifestyles to their mothers, across species juvenile and maternal productivities should be correlated. We evaluated these predictions with data from 270 species of placental mammals in 14 taxonomic/lifestyle groups. All three predictions were supported. Lagomorphs, perissodactyls and artiodactyls were very productive both as juveniles and as mothers as expected from the abundance and reliability of their foods. Primates and bats were unproductive as juveniles and as mothers, as expected as an indirect consequence of their low predation risk and consequent low mortality. Our results point the way to a mechanistic explanation for the suite of correlated life-history traits that has been called the slow–fast continuum. PMID:24403339

  12. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Moldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low. PMID:15751398

  13. Factors affecting the production of eremofortin C and PR toxin in Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Wei, Y H; Wei, D L; Chen, Y Y; Jong, S C

    1991-01-01

    Eremofortin C (EC) and PR toxin are secondary metabolites of Penicillium roqueforti. Of 17 strains from the American Type Culture Collection that were studied for their ability to produce EC and PR toxin, 13 produced these metabolites. Toxin production by strains grown in solid media (10 cereals and 8 other agricultural products) was also investigated. Production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on cereals was greater than production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on legumes; fungi grown on corn produced the greatest amount of PR toxin. Addition of corn extracts to the culture medium greatly increased the production of EC and PR toxin in a coordinated manner, with no significant change in mycelial dry weight. The fungi produced the highest levels of EC and PR toxin at 20 to 24 degrees C depending on the strain. Toxin production was higher in stationary cultures than in cultures that were gently shaken at 120 rpm. The optimum pH for production of both EC and PR toxin was around pH 4.0. With regard to spore age, toxin levels did not change significantly when we used spores obtained from fungi that were grown at 24 degrees C for 3 up to 48 days. PMID:1768131

  14. Physicochemical factors differentially affect the biomass and bacteriocin production by bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656.

    PubMed

    Espeche, M Carolina; Jurez Toms, M Silvina; Wiese, Birgitt; Bru, Elena; Nader-Macas, M E Ftima

    2014-02-01

    Bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656 (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) produces an anti-Listeria and anti-Streptococcus dysgalactiae bacteriocin identified as mundticin CRL1656. The strain and its bacteriocin are candidates to be included in a beneficial product to prevent bovine mastitis as an alternative to antimicrobial agents. To optimize the production of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 by E. mundtii CRL1656, a complete 3 2(4) factorial design was applied. The effect of culture medium, initial pH, inoculum size, incubation temperature, and agitation conditions on biomass and bacteriocin production was evaluated simultaneously. Growth parameters were determined using the modified Gompertz model. A nonlinear model was used to estimate the effects of the variables on growth parameters. Bacteriocin production was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Optimal biomass and mundticin CRL1656 production by E. mundtii CRL1656 were obtained in different conditions. Maximal growth was recorded in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or M17 broths, pH 6.5, 5.0% inoculum, 30 C, with agitation. However, bacteriocin titers were higher in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broths, pH 6.5, 30C, both with or without agitation. Knowledge of the optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of E. mundtii CRL1656 will allow the obtainment of high levels of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 as bioingredients of potential products to prevent bovine mastitis. PMID:24359825

  15. DETECTION OF QTL AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION IN 6 DAIRY BULL DNA REPOSITORY GRANDSIRE FAMILIES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally two research groups conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting economically important traits. Each group selected eight families for study, six that were common across both studies. We report putat...

  16. Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide Supplementation affects Nutrient Digestibility, Fermentation End-product Production, and Large Bowel Microbiota of the Dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide (GGMO) obtained from fiberboard production was evaluated as a dietary supplement for dogs. The GGMO substrate contained high concentrations of mannose, xylose, and glucose oligosaccharides. Adult dogs assigned to a 6x6 Latin square design were fed six diets, ea...

  17. Modelling grain alignment by radiative torques and hydrogen formation torques in reflection nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2015-04-01

    Reflection nebulae - dense cores - illuminated by surrounding stars offer a unique opportunity to directly test our quantitative model of grain alignment based on radiative torques (RATs) and to explore new effects arising from additional torques. In this paper, we first perform detailed modelling of grain alignment by RATs for the IC 63 reflection nebula illuminated both by a nearby γ Cas star and the diffuse interstellar radiation field. We calculate linear polarization pλ of background stars by radiatively aligned grains and explore the variation of fractional polarization (pλ/AV) with visual extinction AV across the cloud. Our results show that the variation of pV/AV versus AV from the dayside of IC 63 to its centre can be represented by a power law (p_V/A_V∝ A_V^{η }) with different slopes depending on AV. We find a shallow slope η ˜ -0.1 for AV < 3 and a very steep slope η ˜ -2 for AV > 4. We then consider the effects of additional torques due to H2 formation and model grain alignment by joint action of RATs and H2 torques. We find that pV/AV tends to increase with an increasing magnitude of H2 torques. In particular, the theoretical predictions obtained for pV/AV and peak wavelength λmax in this case show an improved agreement with the observational data. Our results reinforce the predictive power of the RAT alignment mechanism in a broad range of environmental conditions and show the effect of pinwheel torques in environments with efficient H2 formation. Physical parameters involved in H2 formation may be constrained using detailed modelling of grain alignment combined with observational data. In addition, we discuss implications of our modelling for interpreting latest observational data by Planck and other ground-based instruments.

  18. Biomass and production of amphipods in low alkalinity lakes affected by acid precipitation.

    PubMed

    France, R L

    1996-01-01

    Population biomass and production of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure) were found to be related to alkalinity (ranging from 0.2 to 58.1 mg liter(-1)) in 10 Canadian Shield lakes in south-central Ontario. Biomass and production of amphipods in the two lakes characterized by spring depressions of pH below 5.0 were found to be lower than those for populations inhabiting lakes that did not experience such acid pulses. The proportional biomass of amphipods in relation to the total littoral zoobenthos community was lower in lakes of low alkalinity than in circumneutral or hardwater lakes. Because production in these amphipod populations is known to depend closely on population abundance, the labour-intensive derivation of production rates yields relatively little information for biomonitoring that cannot be obtained from abundance data alone. PMID:15093505

  19. Growth of and fumitremorgin production by Neosartorya fischeri as affected by temperature, light, and water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P V; Beuchat, L R; Frisvad, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of temperature, light, and water activity (aw) on the growth and fumitremorgin production of a heat-resistant mold, Neosartorya fischeri, cultured on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) were studied for incubation periods of up to 74 days. Colonies were examined visually, and extracts of mycelia and CYA on which the mold was cultured were analyzed for mycotoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Growth always resulted in the production of the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C. The optimum temperatures for the production of verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C on CYA at pH 7.0 were 25, 30, and 37 degrees C, respectively. The production of fumitremorgin C by N. fischeri has not been previously reported. Fumitremorgin production was retarded at 15 degrees C, but an extension of the incubation period resulted in concentrations approaching those observed at 25 degrees C. Light clearly enhanced fumitremorgin production on CYA (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C), but not as dramatically as did the addition of glucose, fructose, or sucrose to CYA growth medium (pH 3.5, 25 degrees C). Growth and fumitremorgin production was greatest at aw of 0.980 on CYA supplemented with glucose or fructose and at aw of 0.990 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Growth and fumitremorgin production were observed at aw as low as 0.925 on glucose-supplemented CYA but not at aw lower than 0.970 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Verruculogen was produced in the highest amount on all test media, followed by fumitremorgin A and fumitremorgin C. PMID:3415223

  20. Petunia hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mhlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. PMID:25402319

  1. Factors affecting mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production in submerged cultivation of Antrodia cinnamomea using complex media.

    PubMed

    Lin, En-Shyh; Chen, Yueh-Hsiang

    2007-09-01

    Submerged cultures were used to identify growth-limiting nutrients by Antrodia cinnamomea strains. The mycelial biomass and EPS production by A. cinnamomea BCRC 35396 were markedly higher than other A. cinnamomea strains. A relatively high C/N ratio was favorable for both the mycelial growth (5.41 g/l) and EPS production (0.55 g/l); the optimum ratio was 40. The glucose was available utilized preferentially for mycelial growth, rather than for EPS production. Flushing the culture medium with nitrogen had a stimulating effect on both mycelial growth and EPS production. In addition, peptone, yeast extract and malt extract appeared to be important and significant component for EPS production. Phosphate ion, magnesium ion and thiamine were probably not essential for mycelial growth. By optimizing the effects of additional nutrition, the results showed that 5% (w/v) glucose, 0.8% (w/v) peptone, 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.8% (w/v) malt extract, 0.03% (w/v) KH2PO4, 0.1% (w/v) MgSO4 .7H2O and 0.1% (w/v) thiamine could lead to the maximum production of EPS (1.36 g/l). PMID:17071080

  2. Presence of Torque teno sus virus in porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novosel, D; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Lipej, Z

    2012-11-24

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is ubiquitous and species-specific, and two different TTV species, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), have been described in domestic pigs and wild boars. Whether these two species are involved in clinical cases of porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease (PCVDs) remains unknown. This study investigates the presence of TTSuV in 85 fetuses, pigs and wild boars infected by PCV2 and affected by PCVDs other than postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. It also explores the genetic diversity of identified strains using phylogenetic analysis. The presence or absence of TTSuV was determined in 85 samples of PCV2-containing organs from 85 infected animals using a specific, one-step PCR method. A nucleotide distance matrix between sequences was computed to infer phylogeny based on a median-joining (MJ) network. TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and proliferative and necrotising pneumonia (PNP), and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in wild boars affected by PMWS. TTSuV1 showed low prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and PNP, and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed low prevalence in animals with reproductive disorders. MJ network analysis revealed significant genetic diversity among Croatian isolates. PMID:23104589

  3. Trophoblast production of a weakly bioactive human chorionic gonadotropin in trisomy 21-affected pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Frendo, J-L; Guibourdenche, J; Pidoux, G; Vidaud, M; Luton, D; Giovangrandi, Y; Porquet, D; Muller, F; Evain-Brion, D

    2004-02-01

    Total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is high in maternal serum at 14-18 wk of trisomy 21 (T21)-affected pregnancy, despite low placental hCG synthesis. We sought an explanation for this paradox. We first observed that, in T21-affected pregnancies, maternal serum hCG levels peaked at around 10 wk and then followed the same pattern throughout pregnancy as in controls, albeit at a higher (2.2-fold) level. After delivery, hCG clearance was not significantly different from that in controls. We isolated cytotrophoblasts from 29 T21-affected placentas (12-25 wk) and 13 gestational age-matched control placentas and cultured them for 3 d. In this large series, we confirmed that, in the culture medium of trophoblasts isolated from T21 placentas, hCG secretion was significantly lower (P < 0.003) than in controls, in contrast to the high hCG in maternal serum of the same patients. In T21 cultured trophoblasts, transcripts of sialyltransferase-1 and fucosyltransferase-1 were abnormally high. In corresponding culture medium, hCG was abnormally glycosylated; highly acidic [isoelectric points (pHi) = 4.5] as shown by isoelectric focusing, immunoblotting, and lectin binding; and weakly bioactive (46% of control) as determined using the Leydig cell model. In conclusion, T21 trophoblast cells produced hCG that was weakly bioactive and abnormally glycosylated but whose maternal clearance was unaltered. PMID:14764788

  4. How polyamine synthesis inhibitors and cinnamic acid affect tropane alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, Mara A; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I

    2007-01-01

    Hairy roots of Brugmansia candida produce the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In an attempt to divert the carbon flux from competing pathways and thus enhance productivity, the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors cyclohexylamine (CHA) and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and the phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase inhibitor cinnamic acid were used. CHA decreased the specific productivity of both alkaloids but increased significantly the release of scopolamine (approx 500%) when it was added in the mid-exponential phase. However, when CHA was added for only 48 h during the exponential phase, the specific productivity of both alkaloids increased (approx 200%), favoring scopolamine. Treatment with MGBG was detrimental to growth but promoted release into the medium of both alkaloids. However, when it was added for 48 h during the exponential phase, MGBG increased the specific productivity (approx 200%) and release (250- 1800%) of both alkaloids. Cinnamic acid alone also favored release but not specific productivity. When a combination of CHA or MGBG with cinnamic acid was used, the results obtained were approximately the same as with each polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alone, although to a lesser extent. Regarding root morphology, CHA inhibited growth of primary roots and ramification. However, it had a positive effect on elongation of lateral roots. PMID:17416978

  5. Quality of dissolved organic matter affects planktonic but not biofilm bacterial production in streams.

    PubMed

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Herzsprung, Peter; Neu, Thomas R

    2015-02-15

    Streams and rivers are important sites of organic carbon mineralization which is dependent on the land use within river catchments. Here we tested whether planktonic and epilithic biofilm bacteria differ in their response to the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, planktonic and biofilm bacterial production was compared with patterns of DOC along a land-use gradient in the Bode catchment area (Germany). The freshness index of DOC was positively related to the proportion of agricultural area in the catchment. The humification index correlated with the proportion of forest area. Abundance and production of planktonic bacteria were lower in headwaters than at downstream sites. Planktonic production was weakly correlated to the total concentration of DOC but more strongly to quality-measures as revealed by spectra indexes, i.e. positively to the freshness index and negatively to the humification index. In contrast to planktonic bacteria, abundance and production of biofilm bacteria were independent of DOC quality. This finding may be explained by the association of biofilm bacteria with benthic algae and an extracellular matrix which represent additional substrate sources. The data show that planktonic bacteria seem to be regulated at a landscape scale controlled by land use, whereas biofilm bacteria are regulated at a biofilm matrix scale controlled by autochthonous production. Thus, the effects of catchment-scale land use changes on ecosystem processes are likely lower in small streams dominated by biofilm bacteria than in larger streams dominated by planktonic bacteria. PMID:25460970

  6. An experimental study on fermentative H₂ production from food waste as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Friargiu, M; Massi, E; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Spiga, D

    2014-08-01

    Batch dark fermentation experiments were performed on food waste and mixtures of food waste and wastewater activated sludge to evaluate the influence of pH on biological H2 production and compare the process performance with and without inoculum addition. The effect of a preliminary thermal shock treatment of the inoculum was also investigated as a means to harvest the hydrogenogenic biomass. The best performance in terms of both H2 generation potential and process kinetics was observed at pH=6.5 under all experimental conditions (no inoculum, and untreated or thermally treated inoculum added). H2 production from food waste was found to be feasible even without inoculum addition, although thermal pre-treatment of the inoculum notably increased the maximum production and reduced the lag phase duration. The analysis of the fermentation products indicated that the biological hydrogen production could be mainly ascribed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type fermentation. However, the presence of additional metabolites in the digestate, including propionate and ethanol, also indicated that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, reducing substrate conversion into hydrogen. The plateau in H2 generation was found to mirror the condition at which soluble carbohydrates were depleted. Beyond this condition, homoacetogenesis probably started to play a role in the degradation process. PMID:24833177

  7. Torque resolver design for tendon-driven manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Tsai, Lung-Wen.

    1992-01-01

    Given a set of desired joint torques in an n-DOF tendon-driven manipulator with n + 1 control tendons, the determination of tendon forces is an indeterminate problem. Usually, the pseudo-inverse technique is used to solve for such a problem. In this paper, rather than using the pseudo-inverse technique is used to solve for such a problem. In this paper, rather than using the pseudo-inverse technique, an efficient methodology for transforming joint torques (n elements) to motor torques (n + 1 elements) has been developed. This technique called torque resolver'', utilizes two circuit-like operators to transform torques between the two different vector spaces. It can be easily programmed on a digital computer or implemented into an analog-circuit system. It is hoped that this technique will make real-time computed-torque control feasible. The technique has been demonstrated through the dynamic simulation of a three-DOF manipulator.

  8. Torque resolver design for tendon-driven manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Tsai, Lung-Wen

    1992-08-01

    Given a set of desired joint torques in an n-DOF tendon-driven manipulator with n + 1 control tendons, the determination of tendon forces is an indeterminate problem. Usually, the pseudo-inverse technique is used to solve for such a problem. In this paper, rather than using the pseudo-inverse technique is used to solve for such a problem. In this paper, rather than using the pseudo-inverse technique, an efficient methodology for transforming joint torques (n elements) to motor torques (n + 1 elements) has been developed. This technique called ``torque resolver``, utilizes two circuit-like operators to transform torques between the two different vector spaces. It can be easily programmed on a digital computer or implemented into an analog-circuit system. It is hoped that this technique will make real-time computed-torque control feasible. The technique has been demonstrated through the dynamic simulation of a three-DOF manipulator.

  9. Thermally driven spin torques in layered magnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Scott A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-02-01

    Thermally driven spin-transfer torques have recently been reported in electrically insulating ferromagnet |normal -metal heterostructures. In this paper, we propose two physically distinct mechanisms for such torques. The first is a local effect: out-of-equilibrium, thermally activated magnons in the ferromagnet, driven by a spin Seebeck effect, exert a torque on the magnetization via magnon-magnon scattering with coherent dynamics. The second is a nonlocal effect which requires an additional magnetic layer to provide the symmetry breaking necessary to realize a thermal torque. The simplest structure in which to induce a nonlocal thermal torque is a spin valve composed of two insulating magnets separated by a normal metal spacer; there, a thermal flux generates a pure spin current through the spin valve, which results in a torque when the magnetizations of the layers are misaligned.

  10. Bevel Gear Driver and Method Having Torque Limit Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including an axially displaceable gear with a biasing assembly to bias the displaceable gear into an engagement position. A rotatable cap is provided with a micrometer dial to select a desired output torque. An intermediate bevel gear assembly is disposed between an input gear and an output gear. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at a desired torque limit. The torque limit is adjustable and may be adjusted manually or automatically depending on the type of biasing assembly provided. A clutch assembly automatically limits axial force applied to a fastener by the operator to avoid alteration of the desired torque limit.

  11. Linear corotation torques in non-barotropic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, David

    2014-02-20

    A fully analytic expression for the linear corotation torque to first order in eccentricity for planets in non-barotropic protoplanetary disks is derived, taking into account the effect of disk entropy gradients. This torque formula is applicable to both the co-orbital, corotation torques and the non-co-orbital, corotation torques—for planets in orbits with non-zero eccentricity—in disks where the thermal diffusivity and viscosity are sufficient to maintain the linearity of these interactions. While the co-orbital, corotation torque is important for migration of planets in Type I migration, the non-co-orbital, corotation torque plays an important role in the eccentricity evolution of giant planets that have opened gaps in the disk. The presence of an entropy gradient in the disk can significantly modify the corotation torque in both these cases.

  12. Effect of insertion torque on bone screw pullout strength.

    PubMed

    Lawson, K J; Brems, J

    2001-05-01

    The effect of insertion torque on the holding strength of 4.5-mm ASIF/AO cortical bone screws was studied in vitro. Screw holding strength was determined using an Instron materials testing machine (Bristol, United Kingdom) on 55 lamb femora and 30 human tibiocortical bone sections. Holding strength was defined as tensile stress at pullout with rapid loading to construct failure. Different insertion torques were tested, normalizing to the thickness of cortical bone specimen engaged. These represented low, intermediate, high, and thread-damaging insertion torque. All screws inserted with thread-damaging torque and single cortex engaging screws inserted to high torque tightening moments showed diminished holding strength. This loss of strength amounted to 40%-50% less than screws inserted with less torque. PMID:11379993

  13. A differential electromagnetic induction torque sensor and its finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Torque is an important parameter for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for rotary machines. This paper describes a new structure differential torque sensor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The method involves the construction of a pulsating flux by the excitation winding of the sensor, and the torsion angle produced by the load torque is converted into the angle displacements of the excitation winding and the output winding. Last, the output winding of sensor generates an induction potential force, which is proportional to the load torque as seen through electromagnetic coupling. Sensor sensitivity would be reduced by load effect; therefore, this paper presents a suppression method that can ensure the sensitivity is not affected. The transfer function of the sensor is constructed through Laplace transformation. The sensor characteristics are simulated by finite elements, including the influence of winding coil numbers and excitation voltage frequency. The sensor was calibrated by a torsion testing machine, and the experimental results indicated that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 18.2 mV/Nm, the non-repeatability error is about 2.3%, the non-linear error is about 3.3%, and the hysteresis error is about 2.6%.

  14. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  15. A differential electromagnetic induction torque sensor and its finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Torque is an important parameter for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for rotary machines. This paper describes a new structure differential torque sensor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The method involves the construction of a pulsating flux by the excitation winding of the sensor, and the torsion angle produced by the load torque is converted into the angle displacements of the excitation winding and the output winding. Last, the output winding of sensor generates an induction potential force, which is proportional to the load torque as seen through electromagnetic coupling. Sensor sensitivity would be reduced by load effect; therefore, this paper presents a suppression method that can ensure the sensitivity is not affected. The transfer function of the sensor is constructed through Laplace transformation. The sensor characteristics are simulated by finite elements, including the influence of winding coil numbers and excitation voltage frequency. The sensor was calibrated by a torsion testing machine, and the experimental results indicated that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 18.2 mV/Nm, the non-repeatability error is about 2.3%, the non-linear error is about 3.3%, and the hysteresis error is about 2.6%. PMID:26026550

  16. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Khn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 CharolaisנGerman Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  17. Petrology of Devonian shales: Affects on natural gas production. Topical report, August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Vessell, R.K.; Davies, D.K.

    1989-08-01

    Five distinct types of rock occur in the Upper Devonian sequence of the southern Appalachian Basin. Two compositional factors are sufficient to identify all five rock types: the ratio of non-clay minerals to clay minerals and the ratio of kerogen to heavy minerals. Limiting values unique to each rock have been used to develop a model for the wireline log identification of rock types. The rock based log model correctly predicts all five rock types with 82% accuracy. The log model has been used to identify the rock types responsible for gas production in 8 wells with cores and complete log suites. Analysis of this limited data set demonstrates that, the amount of gas produced per perforation is a function of rock type. Natural fracturing is not essential for gas production. However, in documented fractured intervals, there is a substantial increase in the rate of gas production. Approximately one half of the total gas produced is associated with fractured rock.

  18. Preparation Torque Limit for Composites Joined with Mechanical Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Frank P.; Yi, Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Current design guidelines for determining torque ranges for composites are based on tests and analysis from isotropic materials. Properties of composites are not taken into account. No design criteria based upon a systematic analytical and test analyses is available. This paper is to study the maximum torque load a composite component could carry prior to any failure. Specifically, the torque-tension tests are conducted. NDT techniques including acoustic emission, thermography and photomicroscopy are also utilized to characterize the damage modes.

  19. Electronic measurement of variable torques in precision work technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehr, M.

    1978-01-01

    Approaches for the determination of torques on the basis of length measurements are discussed. Attention is given to torque determinations in which the deformation of a shaft is measured, an electric measurement of the torsion angle, and an approach proposed by Buschmann (1970). Methods for a torque determination conducted with the aid of force measurements make use of piezoelectric approaches. The components used by these methods include a quartz crystal and a charge amplifier.

  20. Submerged Conidiation and Product Formation by Aspergillus niger at Low Specific Growth Rates Are Affected in Aerial Developmental Mutants ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, JooHae; van den Hondel, Cees A.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Ram, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B2, B4, and B6 were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic fungus cultured at low specific growth rates can be fundamentally affected by interfering with the genetic program for differentiation of aerial hyphae, opening new perspectives for tailoring industrial performance. PMID:21652743

  1. Lesion-Site Affects Grammatical Gender Assignment in German: Perception and Production Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A.; Marschhauser, Anke; von Cramon, D. Yves; Friederici, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in

  2. Moving beyond Frontiers: How Institutional Context Affects Degree Production and Student Aspirations in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Mark Kevin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the U.S. face increasing pressure from policymakers and corporate leaders to increase their production of undergraduate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These pressures stem from a need to maintain the country's global economic competitiveness in science and engineering innovation.

  3. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  4. INDIRECT IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE THAT AFFECT AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: SOIL EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation poses an increasing threat to agricultural production. Under natural conditions, topsoil in the aggregate is renewed at a rate approximately equal to the rate at which degradation occurs. However, much agricultural land degrades at faster than "tolerable rates". Pimental et al. (1...

  5. Sunflower, soybean, and grain sorghum crop production as affected by dripline depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five-year field study (2004-2008) using irrigation water from an unlined surface reservoir was conducted to examine the effect of dripline depth (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, or 0.6 m) on subsurface drip-irrigated rotational crop production of sunflower, soybean, and grain sorghum on a deep silt loam soil ...

  6. Variable environment and market affects optimal nitrogen management in wheat and cattle production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (N) in grain production of cereals is about 33% worldwide, and a 1% increase in fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) could annually save US producers 200-400 million US dollars. Process-based crop simulation models provide a unique opportunity to improve f...

  7. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63Emission Limits for...

  11. Cultivar, harvest date, and nitrogen fertilization affect production and quality of fall oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that oat (Avena sativa L.) has promise as a fall-forage option for dairy producers. In addition, dairy producers often have a recurring need to identify opportunity windows for manure hauling other than before or after production of corn (Zea mays L.). Our objectives were...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  14. Increased plant volatile production affects oviposition, but not larval development, in the moth Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Emily J; Cunningham, John Paul; Lcker, Joost; Zalucki, Myron P; De Voss, James J; Botella, Jos R

    2011-11-01

    It is well established that herbivorous insects respond to changes in plant odour production, but little attention has been given to whether these responses relate to direct fitness costs of plant volatile production on insect growth and survival. Here, we use transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plants that produce relatively large amounts of the volatile (S)-linalool to study whether the responses of egg-laying herbivorous insects to linalool production relate directly to the growth and survival of offspring. In choice tests, fewer eggs were laid on transgenic plants compared with non-transformed controls, indicating that increased linalool emissions have a deterrent effect on Helicoverpa armigera oviposition. Larval survival and larval mass after feeding on transgenic leaves, however, was comparable to non-transformed controls. (S)-linalool, whether in volatile or sequestered form, does not appear to have a direct effect on offspring fitness in this moth. We discuss how the ecology of this polyphagous moth species may necessitate a high tolerance for certain volatiles and their related non-volatile compounds, and suggest that responses by adult female H. armigera moths towards increased linalool production may be context specific and relate to other indirect effects on fitness. PMID:21993797

  15. Restoring a landscape to reduce erosion-induced variability in soil properties affecting productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In hilly landscapes, tillage and water erosion can combine to induce large variability in soil productivity at the field scale. Approaches to manage this variability have been proposed, including restoring the landscape by physically moving soil from areas of net deposition to areas of net soil loss...

  16. Water use and water productivity of sugarbeet, malt barley and potato as affected by irrigation frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful irrigation management is one of the most important agronomic practices for achieving profitable yield and maximizing crop water productivity (CWP) while maintaining environmental quality by minimizing water losses to runoff and deep drainage. This study was conducted to compare the influe...

  17. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  18. Heat and moisture production of growing-finishing barrows as affected by environmental temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat and moisture production measurements were completed on barrows over the normal weight range of 60 to 120 kg and a temperature range of 16 to 32°C. All measurements were based on a 21-hr period and adjusted to a 24-hr base. Animals were acclimated to treatment temperatures for 2 weeks, and the...

  19. Restoration of eroded landscapes to reduce variability in soil properties affecting productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In hilly landscapes, tillage and water erosion combine to induce large variability in soil productivity at the field scale. Approaches to manage this variability have been proposed, including restoring the landscape by physically moving soil from areas of net deposition to areas of net soil loss. We...

  20. Moving beyond Frontiers: How Institutional Context Affects Degree Production and Student Aspirations in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Mark Kevin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the U.S. face increasing pressure from policymakers and corporate leaders to increase their production of undergraduate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These pressures stem from a need to maintain the country's global economic competitiveness in science and engineering innovation.…

  1. HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE TROPOSPHERIC FLUX OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ITS DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory chamber was used to determine hydrologic conditions that lead to the tropospheric flux of a suspected anti-androgenic dicarboximide fungicide, vinclozolin (3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-oxzoli-dine-2,4-dione) and three degradation products from sterilized...

  2. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella.

    PubMed

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook. PMID:26691402

  3. Torque generation by the flagellar rotary motor.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, H C

    1995-01-01

    A review is given of the structure and dynamics of the flagellar rotary motor. Force-generating elements in a motor driving a tethered bacterium (a cell fixed to the substratum by a single flagellum) exert forces of order 20 pN while moving at speeds of order 1 micron/s. Force-generating elements in a motor driving a flagellar filament in a bundle exert forces some 10-fold lower but move at speeds more than 10-fold higher. The motor torque-speed relationship has been measured over a wide dynamic range. Motors strongly resist being driven backwards and are easily broken. PMID:7787060

  4. High-torque open-end wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giandomenico, A.; Dame, J. M.; Behimer, H. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    A wrench is described that is usable where limited access normally requires an open-end wrench, but which has substantially the high-torque capacity and small radial clearance characteristics of a closed-end wrench. The wrench includes a sleeve forming a nut-engageable socket with a gap in its side, and an adaptor forming a socket with a gap in its side, the adaptor closely surrounding the sleeve and extending across the gap in the sleeve. The sleeve and adaptor have surfaces that become fully engaged when a wrench handle is applied to the adaptor to turn it so as to tighten a nut engaged by the sleeve.

  5. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook.

  6. Torque-induced precession of bacterial flagella

    PubMed Central

    Shimogonya, Yuji; Sawano, Yoichiro; Wakebe, Hiromichi; Inoue, Yuichi; Ishijima, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is an ion-driven rotary machine in the cell envelope of bacteria. Using a gold nanoparticle as a probe, we observed the precession of flagella during rotation. Since the mechanism of flagella precession was unknown, we investigated it using a combination of full simulations, theory, and experiments. The results show that the mechanism can be well explained by fluid mechanics. The validity of our theory was confirmed by our full simulation, which was utilized to predict both the filament tilt angle and motor torque from experimental flagellar precession data. The knowledge obtained is important in understanding mechanical properties of the bacterial motor and hook. PMID:26691402

  7. Small-Bolt Torque-Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    The device described here measures the torque-tension relationship for fasteners as small as #0. The small-bolt tester consists of a plate of high-strength steel into which three miniature load cells are recessed. The depth of the recess is sized so that the three load cells can be shimmed, the optimum height depending upon the test hardware. The three miniature load cells are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration with the test bolt aligned with the centroid of the three. This is a kinematic arrangement.

  8. Thraustochytrids can be grown in low-salt media without affecting PUFA production.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-08-01

    Marine microheterotrophs thraustochytrids are emerging as a potential source for commercial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have nutritional and pharmacological values. With prospective demand for PUFAs increasing, biotechnological companies are looking for potential increases in those valuable products. However, high levels of NaCl in the culture media required for optimal thraustochytrid growth and PUFA production poses a significant problem to the biotechnological industry due to corrosion of fermenters calling for a need to reduce the amount of NaCl in the culture media, without imposing penalties on growth and yield of cultured organisms. Earlier, as reported by Shabala et al. (Environ Microbiol 11:1835-1843, 2009), we have shown that thraustochytrids use sodium predominantly for osmotic adjustment purposes and, as such, can be grown in low-salt environment without growth penalties, providing the media osmolality is adjusted. In this study, we verify if that conclusion, made for one specific strain and osmolyte only, is applicable to the larger number of strains and organic osmotica, as well as address the issue of yield quality (e.g., PUFA production in low-saline media). Using mannitol and sucrose for osmotic adjustment of the growth media enabled us to reduce NaCl concentration down to 1mM; this is 15-100-fold lower than any method proposed so far. At the same time, the yield of essential PUFAs was increased by 15 to 20%. Taken together, these results suggest that the proposed method can be used in industrial fermenters for commercial PUFA production. PMID:23568670

  9. Nutritional evaluation of sunflower products for poultry as affected by the oil extraction process.

    PubMed

    San Juan, L D; Villamide, M J

    2001-04-01

    The nutritional value of sunflower seed (SFS) products was determined in two experiments using 180 adult Leghorn-type roosters (Hy-Line). In Experiment 1, press and solvent SFS oils were included in a basal diet at four graded levels (from 1.3 to 20%). Each diet was force-fed (30 g) to 10 roosters to determine their TMEn and true fat digestibility. Dietary TMEn and true digestible fat increased linearly (P < 0.0001) with oil inclusion. There were no differences in nutritional value between oils; their digestibility was 90%, which led to 8,385 +/- 39 kcal TME/kg DM. In Experiment 2, the effect of oil extraction on TMEn, true fat, and amino acid digestibility (TAAD) of SFS products was studied. Several products were derived from the oil extraction process: SFS, press extracted SFS (PESFS), and SFS meal (SFSM), as well as recombined products (mix of meal and oil) of SFS and PESFS, and were force-fed directly to 10 roosters each. Oil extraction produced a decrease (P < 0.0001) in true fat digestibility, TAAD, and TMEn (4,555, 2,591, and 1,754 +/- 59 kcal/kg DM for SFS, PESFS, and SFSM, respectively). Digestible fat content explained the difference between TME, of SFS and PESFS, whereas the difference between the TMEn of PESFS and SFSM was lower than expected. Recombined and original products had similar (P > 0.05) TMEn, despite solvent oil showing higher digestibility when released. Recombined SFS showed lower (P < 0.005) TAAD than original SFS (84.2 and 90.4%, respectively), indicating protein damage caused by heat and mechanical pressure. However, there were no differences, except for lysine, in TAAD between original and recombined PESFS (86.3 and 86.6%, respectively); both feeds showed higher (P < 0.05) TAAD than SFSM (83.9%), which indicates a positive effect of fat addition at this step. PMID:11297281

  10. Current-induced spin torque resonance of a magnetic insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Michael; Chiba, Takahiro; Niedermayr, Arthur; Lotze, Johannes; Huebl, Hans; Geprgs, Stephan; Takahashi, Saburo; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2015-10-01

    We report the observation of current-induced spin torque resonance in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers. An alternating charge current at GHz frequencies in the platinum gives rise to dc spin pumping and spin Hall magnetoresistance rectification voltages, induced by the Oersted fields of the ac current and the spin Hall effect-mediated spin transfer torque. In ultrathin yttrium iron garnet films, we observe spin transfer torque actuated magnetization dynamics which are significantly larger than those generated by the ac Oersted field. Spin transfer torques thus efficiently couple charge currents and magnetization dynamics also in magnetic insulators, enabling charge current-based interfacing of magnetic insulators with microwave devices.

  11. Valve torque measuring device based on strain gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-rong; Ni, Fan; Yang, Guo-biao; Li, Bin

    2010-08-01

    Start-stop torque is one of the key parameters of valve's capacity. In China, a torque spanner is used to measure the small-bore torque, but the accuracy is not very high. In the large-bore situation, the previous method can not be used to measure the torque, so the torque is determined by the design calculation result. Sometimes this result is far from the practical one, and the difference will impact the apolegamy of the actuating device of a valve. Some other methods, such as inductance type transducer valve torque sensor, strain gauge valve torque sensor, appeared. They both have the advantage of high accuracy, but their automatic level is low and their measuring equipments are complex. In this paper, a new style torque measuring device which is based on theory of mechanics of materials and measuring principle of strain gauge is designed. The maximal torque is 2000Nm. The measuring device is easy for installation, accurate on results, and is able to meet the actually online measuring demands.

  12. Methodology for Determining Limit Torques for Threaded Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hissam, Andy

    2011-01-01

    In aerospace design, where minimizing weight is always a priority, achieving the full capacity from fasteners is essential. To do so, the initial bolt preload must be maximized. The benefits of high preload are well documented and include improved fatigue resistance, a stiffer joint, and resistance to loosening. But many factors like elastic interactions and embedment tend to lower the initial preload placed on the bolt. These factors provide additional motivation to maximize the initial preload. But, to maximize bolt preload, you must determine what torque to apply. Determining this torque is greatly complicated by the large preload scatter generally seen with torque control. This paper presents a detailed methodology for generating limit torques for threaded fasteners. This methodology accounts for the large scatter in preload found with torque control, and therefore, addresses the statistical nature of the problem. It also addresses prevailing torque, a feature common in aerospace fasteners. Although prevailing torque provides a desired locking feature, it can also increase preload scatter. In addition, it can limit the amount of preload that can be generated due to the torsion it creates in the bolt. This paper discusses the complications of prevailing torque and how best to handle it. A wide range of torque-tension bolt testing was conducted in support of this research. The results from this research will benefit the design engineer as well as analyst involved in the design of bolted joints, leading to better, more optimized structural designs.

  13. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P < 0.05) sprint decrement score and a shorter (P < 0.05) cumulated distance covered over the eight sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P < 0.05) reduction in MVC torque occurred post-exercise in HA (−14 ± 9%) but not in LA (-12 ± 7%), with no difference between NM and LA (P > 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P < 0.05), and normalized peak RMS activity for VL (−8 ± 11%; P = 0.07) and RF (−14 ± 11%; P < 0.01) muscles were reduced post-exercise, whereas reductions (P < 0.05) in absolute RTD occurred within the 0–100 (−8 ± 9%) and 0–200 ms (−10 ± 8%) epochs after contraction onset. After normalization to MVC torque, there was no difference in RTD values. Additionally, the EMG rise for VL muscle was similar (P > 0.05), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  14. Pathogenic Cysteine Mutations Affect Progranulin Function and Production of Mature Granulins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Van Damme, Philip; Cruchaga, Carlos; Gitcho, Michael A.; Vidal, Jose Manuel; Seijo-Martnez, Manuel; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jane Y.; Robberecht, Wim; Goate, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) can be caused by mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN). Progranulin (PGRN) is a cysteine-rich growth factor, which is proteolytically cleaved by elastase to produce several granulins (GRNs). All FTLD-U mutations in GRN characterized to date result in reduced secreted PGRN protein. We recently reported a Spanish family with progressive nonfluent aphasia and dementia in which a novel C521Y mutation segregates with disease. A second cysteine mutation (C139R) has also been reported to be disease specific. Allele-specific mRNA expression assays in brain reveal that the C521Y mutant allele is expressed at similar levels to the wild-type allele. Furthermore, plasma PGRN levels in C521Y carriers are comparable to non-carrier family relatives, suggesting that the mutation does not affect PGRN protein expression and secretion in vivo. Despite normal PGRN levels C521Y and C139R mutant GRNs show reduced neurite growth stimulating activity in vitro. Further study revealed that these mutations also cause impaired cleavage of PGRN by elastase. Our data suggest that these mutations affect the function of full-length PGRN as well as elastase cleavage of PGRN into GRNs, leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:20028451

  15. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor. PMID:24935023

  16. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1 C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of 13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L?1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the ? = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  17. The interactive effects of affect and shopping goal on information search and product evaluations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangyuan; Wyer, Robert S; Shen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Although shoppers often want to evaluate products to make a purchase decision, they can also shop for enjoyment. In each case, the amount of time they spend on shopping and the number of options they consider can depend on the mood they happen to be in. We predicted that mood can signal whether the goal has been attained and when people should stop processing information. When people are primarily motivated to purchase a particular type of product, positive mood signals that they have done enough. Thus, they consider less information if they are happy than if they are unhappy. When people shop for enjoyment, however, positive mood signals that they are still having fun. Thus, they consider more information when they are happy than when they are not. Four experiments among university students (N = 827) examined these possibilities. Experiment 1 provided initial evidence for the interactive effects of mood and goals on search behavior and product evaluation. Other studies examined the implications of this conceptualization for different domains: (a) the relative impact of brand and attribute information on judgments (Experiment 2), (b) gender differences in shopping behavior (Experiment 3), and (c) the number of options that people review in an actual online shopping website (Experiment 4). PMID:26460676

  18. Uncoupling of Bacterioplankton and Phytoplankton Production in Fresh Waters Is Affected by Inorganic Nutrient Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jianhua; Wehr, John D.; Campbell, Lori

    1994-01-01

    Pelagic bacterial production is often positively correlated, or coupled, with primary production through utilization of autotrophically produced dissolved organic carbon. Recent studies indicate that inorganic N or P can directly limit both bacterial and phytoplanktonic growth. Our mesocosm experiments, with whole communities from mesotrophic Calder Lake, test whether this apparent bacterial-algal coupling may be the result of independent responses to limiting inorganic nutrients. In systems without N additions, numbers of bacteria but not phytoplankton increased 2- to 2.5-fold in response to P fertilization (0 to 2.0 ?mol of P per liter); this resulted in uncoupled production patterns. In systems supplemented with 10 ?mol of NH4NO3 per liter, P addition resulted in up to threefold increases in bacteria and two- to fivefold increases in total phytoplankton biomass (close coupling). P limitation of pelagic bacteria occurred independently of phytoplankton dynamics, and regressions between bacterial abundance and phytoplankton chlorophyll a were nonsignificant in all systems without added N. We describe a useful and simple coupling index which predicts that shifts in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton growth will be unrelated (? bacteria/? phytoplankton ? either + ? or - ?) in systems with inorganic N/P (molar) ratios of 40), the coupling index will approach 1.0 and close coupling between bacteria and phytoplankton is predicted to occur. PMID:16349294

  19. [Factors that can affect the breeding and maintenance of infected snails and the production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae].

    PubMed

    De Souza, C P; Arajo, N; Jannotti, L K; Gazzinelli, G

    1987-01-01

    Mass production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae was affected by biological and chemical agents. Rotifers and ostracods, snail predators, were identified in our colony. Rotifers were easily eradicated by washing the aquaria and lettuce with diluted solution of acetic acid. On the other hand, ostracods were difficult to eradicate and led to a high level mortality of infected snails (50-60%). Snails maintained in an incubator at constant temperature and total darkness produced maximum shedding when submitted to brightness and high temperature (about 30 degrees C). The number of cercariae shed was practically the same between pH 5-7. Contaminants such as Cu and Pb added to glass distilled water decreased the cercariae production. In conclusion, laboratory maintenance of large number of infected snails for mass production of cercariae is much simpler and more efficient than the conventional technique with running tap water although a high rate of mortality is observed in the snail colony. PMID:3507569

  20. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

  1. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  2. Nugget formation reservoir characteristics affecting production in the Overthrust Belt of Southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Jurassic-Triassic age Nugget sandstone of the southwestern Wyoming Overthrust Belt is a texturally heterogeneous reservoir with anisotropic directional properties which have been inherited from the depositional environment, modified by diagenesis, and finally overprinted by tectonism. Predominantly eolian processes deposited crossbedded and horizontally-bedded, very fine-grained to coarse-grained sand in dunes, interdunes and associated environments. Original reservoir quality has been somewhat modified by compaction, cementation, dissolution, clay mineralization, and precipitation of hydrocarbon resins. Low-permeability, gougefilled and carbonate-filled fractures potentially restrict hydrocarbon distribution and affect producibility; whereas discontinuous, open fractures enhance permeability in some intervals. Contrast in permeability between dune and interdune intervals ranges over four to five orders of magnitude. Dune and interdune deposits are locally correlatable with the aid of core, conventional log, and stratigraphic dipmeter data. Stratigraphic correlations can then be utilized to model the lateral and vertical extent of directional properties in the reservoir.

  3. Nonambipolarity, orthogonal conductivity, poloidal flow, and torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, G.W.; Perkins, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    Nonambipolar processes, such as neutral injection onto trapped orbits or ripple-diffusion loss of ..cap alpha..-particles, act to charge a plasma. A current j/sub r/ across magnetic surfaces must arise in the bulk plasma to maintain charge neutrality. An axisymmetric, neoclassical model of the bulk plasma shows that these currents are carried by the ions and exert a j/sub r/B/sub theta/R/c torque in the toroidal direction. A driven poloidal flow V/sub theta/ = E/sub r/'c/B must also develop. The average current density is related to the radial electric field E/sub r/' = E/sub r/ + v/sub /phi//B/sub theta//c in a frame moving with the plasma via the orthogonal conductivity = sigma/sub /perpendicular//E/sub r/', which has the value sigma/sub /perpendicular// = (1.65epsilon/sup 1/2/)(ne/sup 2/..nu../sub ii//M..cap omega../sub theta//sup 2/) in the banana regime. If an ignited plasma loses an appreciable fraction ..delta.. of its thermonuclear ..cap alpha..-particles by banana ripple diffusion, then the torque will spin the plasma to sonic rotation in a time /tau//sub s/ approx. 2/tau//sub E//..delta.., /tau//sub E/ being the energy confinement time. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Electromagnetic force and torque in ponderable media.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2008-09-15

    Maxwell's macroscopic equations combined with a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force are a complete and consistent set of equations. Not only are these five equations fully compatible with special relativity, they also conform with conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum. We demonstrate consistency with the conservation laws by showing that, when a beam of light enters a magnetic dielectric, a fraction of the incident linear (or angular) momentum pours into the medium at a rate determined by the Abraham momentum density, E x H/c(2), and the group velocity V(g) of the electromagnetic field. The balance of the incident, reflected, and transmitted momenta is subsequently transferred to the medium as force (or torque) at the leading edge of the beam, which propagates through the medium with velocity V(g). Our analysis does not require "hidden" momenta to comply with the conservation laws, nor does it dissolve into ambiguities with regard to the nature of electromagnetic momentum in ponderable media. The linear and angular momenta of the electromagnetic field are clearly associated with the Abraham momentum, and the phase and group refractive indices (n(p) and n(g)) play distinct yet definitive roles in the expressions of force, torque, and momentum densities. PMID:18795019

  5. Optimal filtering of constant velocity torque data.

    PubMed

    Murray, D A

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to implement an optimal filtering strategy for processing in vivo dynamometric data. The validity of employing commonly accepted analog smoothing methods was also appraised. An inert gravitational model was used to assess the filtering requirements of two Cybex II constant velocity dynamometers at 10 pre-set speeds with three selected loads. Speed settings were recorded as percentages of the servomechanism's maximum tachometer feedback voltage (10 to 100% Vfb max). Spectral analyses of unsmoothed torque and associated angular displacement curves, followed by optimized low-pass digital filtering, revealed the presence of two superimposed contaminating influences: a damped oscillation, representing successive sudden braking and releasing of the servomechanism control system; a relatively stationary oscillatory series, which was attributed to the Cybex motor. The optimal cutoff frequency for any data set was principally a positive function of % Vfb max. This association was represented for each machine by a different, but reliable, third order least-squares polynomial, which could be used to accurately predict the correct smoothing required for any speed setting. Unacceptable errors may be induced, especially when measuring peak torques, if data are inappropriately filtered. Over-smoothing disguises inertial artefacts. The use of Cybex recorder damping settings should be discouraged. Optimal filtering is a minimal requirement of valid data processing. PMID:3784873

  6. Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.

  7. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.53.7years) and 9 old (76.15.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40 joint excursion (40PF-0PF) at angular velocities of 15/s and 120/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15/s and 120/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15/s and 120/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD than young for 15/s and 120/s, respectively with similar EMGRMS and VA across all conditions. A significant relationship between shortening-induced TD and instantaneous power was found only at the fast angular velocity for both the old (R(2)=0.32) and young (R(2)=0.45) men. The older men experienced greater shortening-induced TD than young while maintaining similar levels of voluntary activation. This previously unaccounted for history-dependent property of muscle may provide insight into power loss in old age. PMID:24835195

  8. Chromosomal mapping of a gene affecting enterotoxin A production in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D H; Glatz, B A; Pattee, P A

    1982-01-01

    In a previous study, transformation demonstrated that a gene governing enterotoxin A production (entA+) in Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 was located on the chromosome between the purB110 and ilv-129 markers; in contrast, the entA+ gene of strain FRI-196E was shown not to be located in the same position. In the current study, 54 enterotoxin A-producing strains of S. aureus were examined to locate the entA+ gene. Conventional transformation procedures and a series of multiply marked derivatives of NCTC 8325 were used as recipients for chromosomal mapping. Of the 54 strains tested, 23 were found to contain the entA+ gene at the original locus between the purB110 and ilv-129 markers. Twenty-seven strains could not be analyzed either because their DNA was genetically ineffective in transforming strain 8325 (23 strains), or Pur+ Ilv+ transformants could not be recovered (four strains). Four other strains contained an entA+ gene that could not be located in any of the chromosomal linkage groups. A new insertion site for Tn551 was located within the hla+ gene involved in alpha-toxin production. It eliminated alpha-toxin production and was used to separate the entA+ gene from the hla+ marker in the purB110-ilv-129 region. This segment of the chromosome is shown to consist of the purB110, entA+, hla+, and ilv-129 markers in that order. PMID:6277247

  9. Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, K. R.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space.

  10. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    PubMed

    Cannella, David; Jrgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy. PMID:24022674

  12. Infectivity and egg production of Nematospiroides dubius as affected by space flight and ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, R. A.; Ellis, W. L.; Taylor, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Nematospiroides dubius was tested to determine the infective potential of the third stage larvae and the egg-production and egg-viability rates of the resulting adults after they are exposed to space flight and solar ultraviolet irradiation. The results are indicative that space-flown larvae exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation were rendered noninfective in C57 mice, whereas flight control larvae that received no solar ultraviolet irradiation matured at the same rate as the ground control larvae. However, depressed egg viability was evident in the flight control larvae.

  13. TNT transformation products are affected by the growth conditions of Raoultella terrigena.

    PubMed

    Claus, Harald; Perret, Nina; Bausinger, Tobias; Fels, Gregor; Preuss, Johannes; Knig, Helmut

    2007-03-01

    High concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and related nitroaromatic compounds are commonly found in soil and groundwater at former explosive plants. The bacterium, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, isolated from a contaminated site, converts TNT into the corresponding amino products. Radio-HPLC analysis with [(14)C]TNT identified aminodinitrotoluene, diaminonitrotoluene and azoxy-dimers as the main metabolites. Transformation rate and the type of metabolites that predominated in the culture medium and within the cells were significantly influenced by the culture conditions. The NAD(P)H-dependent enzymatic reduction of nitro-substituted compounds by cell-free extracts of R. terrigena was evaluated in vitro. PMID:17136570

  14. Factors affecting aerobic recovery heat production and recovery ratio of frog sartorius.

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind-De Becker, A

    1989-01-01

    1. Sartorius muscles of Rana temporaria, equilibrated at 20 degrees C in Ringer solution buffered with phosphates, were stimulated isometrically for 0.2 up to 0.75 s at lengths varying from 1.03 to 1.48 times rest length, L0. The aerobic recovery heat was measured for 10.5 min after contraction. 2. The recovery heat production had a complex time course, showing a variable delay to maximum, declining thereafter. In most cases, the rate of heat production did not decrease monotonically; attention was focused on the slow exponential decay which only persisted from 1.5-5 min after contraction. This latter part of the time course was considered as strictly aerobic and characterized by the time constant tau s. 3. Increasing the tetanus duration from 0.2 to 0.75 s increased initial heat Qi and recovery heat Qr in proportion, so that the recovery ratio R (Qr/Qi) did not change; it was equal to 1.29 +/- 0.03 (S.E.M.; n = 44) for muscles at about L0. The kinetics of heat production were modified with longer tetani; in particular, tau s was increased from 2.2 to 5.2 min. 4. When muscles were stretched beyond L0, as long as there was no increase of the resting heat rate (stretch response or 'Feng effect'), recovery heat production had a similar evolution to that in muscles at about L0; R was constant and equal to 1.21 +/- 0.03 (n = 46). 5. When muscles were sufficiently stretched to develop a stretch response, R increased proportionally to the stretch response. The effect seemed independent of the contractile machinery, as it vanished concomitantly with the stretch response, while force and Qi remained unchanged for the length considered. The kinetics were also modified--the delay to maximum was no longer detected and tau s most likely increased. 6. Substitution of 60% of the NaCl of the Ringer solution by NaI (mol/mol) produced a significant increase of R, mainly due to the increase of Qr. 7. The results show that neither the time course nor the amount of aerobic recovery heat Qr are strictly determined by the amount of initial heat Qi. The hypothesis is discussed that Qr might include a variable fraction due to processes which are not directly implicated in the actin-myosin interactions, possibly those involving the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the rate of resting metabolism. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2621637

  15. Research on parallel load sharing principle of piezoelectric six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying-jun; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min

    2011-01-01

    In working process of huge heavy-load manipulators, such as the free forging machine, hydraulic die-forging press, forging manipulator, heavy grasping manipulator, large displacement manipulator, measurement of six-dimensional heavy force/torque and real-time force feedback of the operation interface are basis to realize coordinate operation control and force compliance control. It is also an effective way to raise the control accuracy and achieve highly efficient manufacturing. Facing to solve dynamic measurement problem on six-dimensional time-varying heavy load in extremely manufacturing process, the novel principle of parallel load sharing on six-dimensional heavy force/torque is put forward. The measuring principle of six-dimensional force sensor is analyzed, and the spatial model is built and decoupled. The load sharing ratios are analyzed and calculated in vertical and horizontal directions. The mapping relationship between six-dimensional heavy force/torque value to be measured and output force value is built. The finite element model of parallel piezoelectric six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor is set up, and its static characteristics are analyzed by ANSYS software. The main parameters, which affect load sharing ratio, are analyzed. The experiments for load sharing with different diameters of parallel axis are designed. The results show that the six-dimensional heavy force/torque sensor has good linearity. Non-linearity errors are less than 1%. The parallel axis makes good effect of load sharing. The larger the diameter is, the better the load sharing effect is. The results of experiments are in accordance with the FEM analysis. The sensor has advantages of large measuring range, good linearity, high inherent frequency, and high rigidity. It can be widely used in extreme environments for real-time accurate measurement of six-dimensional time-varying huge loads on manipulators.

  16. Egg-Laying Intermorphs in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jrgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen butdue to relatedness asymmetriesallies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ?1.7 more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  17. Pancreatic β-Cell Adaptive Plasticity in Obesity Increases Insulin Production but Adversely Affects Secretory Function.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Cristina; Boland, Brandon B; Uchizono, Yuji; Moore, Patrick C; Peterson, Bryan; Rajan, Suryalekha; Rhodes, Olivia S; Noske, Andrew B; Haataja, Leena; Arvan, Peter; Marsh, Bradly J; Austin, Jotham; Rhodes, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic β-cells normally produce adequate insulin to control glucose homeostasis, but in obesity-related diabetes, there is a presumed deficit in insulin production and secretory capacity. In this study, insulin production was assessed directly in obese diabetic mouse models, and proinsulin biosynthesis was found to be contrastingly increased, coupled with a significant expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (without endoplasmic reticulum stress) and Golgi apparatus, increased vesicular trafficking, and a depletion of mature β-granules. As such, β-cells have a remarkable capacity to produce substantial quantities of insulin in obesity, which are then made available for immediate secretion to meet increased metabolic demand, but this comes at the price of insulin secretory dysfunction. Notwithstanding, it can be restored. Upon exposing isolated pancreatic islets of obese mice to normal glucose concentrations, β-cells revert back to their typical morphology with restoration of regulated insulin secretion. These data demonstrate an unrealized dynamic adaptive plasticity of pancreatic β-cells and underscore the rationale for transient β-cell rest as a treatment strategy for obesity-linked diabetes. PMID:26307586

  18. Lesion-site affects grammatical gender assignment in German: perception and production data.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A; Marschhauser, Anke; Yves von Cramon, D; Friederici, Angela D

    2007-03-14

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in Experiment 1 (grammaticality judgment). In Experiment 2 the same participants had to produce the matching definite article to a noun. In the perception task patients with left frontal lesions (LF) made more errors during phonological gender assignment as compared to derivational-morphological and semantic gender assignment, while patients with lesions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) made more errors in derivational-morphological gender assignment as compared to phonological and semantic gender assignment. In the production task no differences between patient groups were found. These data support previous evidence that left frontal brain areas are critically involved in phonological processing. The pSTG on the other hand may be critically engaged in the integration of phonological and lexical information essential for phonological and derivational-morphological gender assignment. PMID:17098262

  19. PilA localization affects extracellular polysaccharide production and fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Lux, Renate; Hu, Wei; Hu, Chuhong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium capable of complex developmental processes involving vegetative swarming and fruiting body formation. Social (S-) gliding motility, one of the two motility systems employed by M. xanthus, requires at least two cell surface structures: type IV pili (TFP) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). Extended TFP which are composed of thousands of copies of PilA retract upon binding to EPS and thereby pull the cell forward. TFP also act as external sensor to regulate EPS production. In this study, we generated a random PilA mutant library and identified one derivative, SW1066, which completely failed to undergo developmental processes. Detailed characterization revealed that SW1066 produced very little EPS but wild-type amounts of PilA. These mutated PilA subunits, however, are unable to assemble into functional TFP despite their ability to localize to the membrane. By preventing the mutated PilA of SW1066 to translocate from the cytoplasm to the membrane, fruiting body formation and EPS production was restored to the levels observed in mutant strains lacking PilA. This apparent connection between PilA membrane accumulation and reduction in surface EPS implies that specific cellular PilA localization are required to maintain the EPS level necessary to sustain normal S-motilityin M. xanthus. PMID:20444090

  20. Does positioning of the North Pacific Current affect downstream ecosystem productivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Field, John C.; Peterson, William T.; Tanasichuk, Ronald W.; Freeland, Howard J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.

    2011-06-01

    Fluctuations in the positioning of major ocean currents can influence ecosystem dynamics, but previously the technology has been lacking to make direct observational assessments. Here, we test the hypothesis that positioning of the North Pacific Current (NPC) is related to biological attributes of the central-northern California Current Ecosystem (CCE). To test this hypothesis we use newly available data from the Argo array and compare it with a suite of well-known ecosystem indicators over 6 years, 2002 through 2007. We found increased biomass and productivity when the NPC was shifted poleward, and suggest that positioning influences advective transport of nutrients and perhaps key planktonic organisms from the sub-arctic domain thereby enhancing mid to upper trophic level species. This study is significant because climate change is predicted to cause poleward shifts in the westerlies that drive ocean currents and positioning of large marine gyre systems. Rather than reducing ecosystem productivity, poleward shifts in positioning of the NPC may be beneficial for many species of the central-northern CCE.