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Sample records for afferent synaptic transmission

  1. Stochastic resonance in the synaptic transmission between hair cells and vestibular primary afferents in development.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Manilla, S; Huidobro, N; De la Torre-Valdovinos, B; Kristeva, R; Mendez-Balbuena, I; Galindo, F; Treviño, M; Manjarrez, E

    2016-05-13

    The stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon of nonlinear systems in which the addition of an intermediate level of noise improves the response of such system. Although SR has been studied in isolated hair cells and in the bullfrog sacculus, the occurrence of this phenomenon in the vestibular system in development is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore for the existence of SR via natural mechanical-stimulation in the hair cell-vestibular primary afferent transmission. In vitro experiments were performed on the posterior semicircular canal of the chicken inner ear during development. Our experiments showed that the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent multiunit activity from E15 to P5 stages of development exhibited the SR phenomenon, which was characterized by an inverted U-like response as a function of the input noise level. The inverted U-like graphs of SR acquired their higher amplitude after the post-hatching stage of development. Blockage of the synaptic transmission with selective antagonists of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors abolished the SR of the afferent multiunit activity. Furthermore, computer simulations on a model of the hair cell - primary afferent synapse qualitatively reproduced this SR behavior and provided a possible explanation of how and where the SR could occur. These results demonstrate that a particular level of mechanical noise on the semicircular canals can improve the performance of the vestibular system in their peripheral sensory processing even during embryonic stages of development. PMID:26926966

  2. Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. The major differences between these two synapses are the neurotransmitters and the higher resting release rate and higher sensitivity of release to increased K+ concentrations of the hair cells over that of motor nerve terminals. These differences reflect the functional roles of the two synapses: the motor nerve terminal response in an all-or-nothing signal consequent from action potential invasion, while the hair cell releases transmitter in a graded fashion, proportionate to the extent of stereocilial deflection. Despite these differences between the two junctions, the similar actions of these elemental cations upon synaptic function at each implies that these ions may participate similarly in the operations of other synapses, independent of the neurotransmitter type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  3. Peptide and lipid modulation of glutamatergic afferent synaptic transmission in the solitary tract nucleus.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Michael C; Fawley, Jessica A; Hofmann, Mackenzie E

    2012-01-01

    The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST) with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g., hypothalamus) neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1), vasopressin (V1a), oxytocin, opioid (MOR), ghrelin (GHSR1), and cholecystokinin differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus. PMID:23335875

  4. Peptide and Lipid Modulation of Glutamatergic Afferent Synaptic Transmission in the Solitary Tract Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Michael C.; Fawley, Jessica A.; Hofmann, Mackenzie E.

    2013-01-01

    The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST) with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g., hypothalamus) neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1), vasopressin (V1a), oxytocin, opioid (MOR), ghrelin (GHSR1), and cholecystokinin differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus. PMID:23335875

  5. Modulation of synaptic transmission from segmental afferents by spontaneous activity of dorsal horn spinal neurones in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez, E; Rojas-Piloni, J G; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2000-01-01

    We examined, in the anaesthetised cat, the influence of the neuronal ensembles producing spontaneous negative cord dorsum potentials (nCDPs) on segmental pathways mediating primary afferent depolarisation (PAD) of cutaneous and group I muscle afferents and on Ia monosynaptic activation of spinal motoneurones. The intraspinal distribution of the field potentials associated with the spontaneous nCDPs indicated that the neuronal ensembles involved in the generation of these potentials were located in the dorsal horn of lumbar segments, in the same region of termination of low-threshold cutaneous afferents. During the occurrence of spontaneous nCDPs, transmission from low-threshold cutaneous afferents to second order neurones in laminae III-VI, as well as transmission along pathways mediating PAD of cutaneous and Ib afferents, was facilitated. PAD of Ia afferents was instead inhibited. Monosynaptic reflexes of flexors and extensors were facilitated during the spontaneous nCDPs. The magnitude of the facilitation was proportional to the amplitude of the ‘conditioning’ spontaneous nCDPs. This led to a high positive correlation between amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous nCDPs and fluctuations of monosynaptic reflexes. Stimulation of low-threshold cutaneous afferents transiently reduced the probability of occurrence of spontaneous nCDPs as well as the fluctuations of monosynaptic reflexes. It is concluded that the spontaneous nCDPs were produced by the activation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that shared the same functional pathways and involved the same set of neurones as those responding monosynaptically to stimulation of large cutaneous afferents. The spontaneous activity of these neurones was probably the main cause of the fluctuations of the monosynaptic reflexes observed under anaesthesia and could provide a dynamic linkage between segmental sensory and motor pathways. PMID:11101653

  6. Inflammation reduces the contribution of N-type calcium channels to primary afferent synaptic transmission onto NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, Beth K; Vikman, Kristina S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2007-05-01

    N-type calcium channels contribute to the release of glutamate from primary afferent terminals synapsing onto nocisponsive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but little is known of functional adaptations to these channels in persistent pain states. Subtype-selective conotoxins and other drugs were used to determine the role of different calcium channel types in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Electrically evoked primary afferent synapses onto lumber dorsal horn neurons were examined three days after induction of inflammation with intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant. The maximal inhibitory effect of the N-type calcium channel blockers, omega-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA, were attenuated in NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons after inflammation, but the potency of CVID was unchanged. This was associated with reduced inhibition of the frequency of asynchronous-evoked synaptic events by CVID studied in the presence of extracellular strontium, suggesting reduced N-type channel contribution to primary afferent synapses after inflammation. After application of CVID, the relative contributions of P/Q and L channels to primary afferent transmission and the residual current were unchanged by inflammation, suggesting the adaptation was specific to N-type channels. Blocking T-type channels did not affect synaptic amplitude under control or inflamed conditions. Reduction of N-type channel contribution to primary afferent transmission was selective for NK1 receptor-positive neurons identified by post hoc immunohistochemistry and did not occur at synapses in laminae II(o) or II(i), or inhibitory synapses. These results suggest that inflammation selectively downregulates N-type channels in the terminals of primary afferents synapsing onto (presumed) nociceptive lamina I NK1 receptor-positive neurons. PMID:17303639

  7. Cutaneous facilitation of transmission in reflex pathways from Ib afferents to motoneurones.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, A; Malmgren, K; Schomburg, E D

    1977-01-01

    1. The effect of volleys in low threshold cutaneous afferents upon transmission of synaptic action from Ib afferents to motoneurones has been investigated with intracellular recording from alpha motoneurones to hind limb muscles. 2. There was facilitation from cutaneous afferents of transmission in excitatory and inhibitory reflex pathways from Ib afferents without any evidence for difference in effect on di- and trisynaptic pathways. It is postulated that volleys in cutaneous afferents evoke excitatory action in interneurones of these reflex pathways. 3. The time course of the facilitation suggest that cutaneous afferents have disynaptic excitatory connexions with the interneurones intercalated in the disynaptic Ib inhibitory pathways to motoneurones. 4. Some observations are reported suggesting that interneuronal transmission in Ib inhibitory pathways to motoneurones might be facilitated from Ia afferents. 5. The findings are discussed in relation to the presumed role of Ib reflex action in regulating muscle tension. PMID:192879

  8. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  9. Injury-specific functional alteration of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in synaptic transmission of primary afferent C-fibers in the rat spinal superficial dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Minami, Kazuhisa; Shinohara, Shunji; Kato, Akira

    2016-02-01

    We investigated functional alterations of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferent A- and C-fibers after peripheral nerve injury. Patch-clamp recordings were performed on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal cord slices with an attached dorsal root, prepared from L5 spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. The effects of neuronal VGCC blockers, ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) for N-type channels and ω-agatoxin IVA (ω-AgaIVA) for P/Q-type channels, on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) by stimulation of A- or C-fibers were studied. Besides, electrophysiological assay using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and immunohistochemistry were done. In naïve rats, ω-CgTX (0.1-1μM) reduced more effectively A-fiber eEPSCs than C-fiber ones. After nerve injury, ω-CgTX produced great inhibition of C-fiber eEPSCs in slices with the injured L5 dorsal root of SNL model rats, as compared to sham-operated rats. By contrast, in slices with the non-injured L4 one, inhibitory effects of ω-CgTX were not changed. This occurred concurrently with increased expression of N-type VGCCs in L5 spinal dorsal horn and with enhanced Ca(2+) currents through N-type VGCCs in small-sized (C-type) L5 DRG. In terms of A-fiber eEPSCs, ω-CgTX elicited similar inhibition in nerve-injured and sham-operated rats. ω-AgaIVA (0.1μM) had less effect on A- or C-fiber eEPSCs. These results indicate that N-type, but not P/Q-type, VGCCs mainly contribute to excitatory synaptic transmission from A- and C-fibers in the spinal dorsal horn. More importantly, following nerve injury, the functional contribution of N-type VGCCs to nociceptive transmission is increased in the pre-synaptic terminals of injured C-fibers. PMID:26708163

  10. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of

  11. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  12. The correlated blanching of synaptic bodies and reduction in afferent firing rates caused by transmitter-depleting agents in the frog semicircular canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guth, P.; Norris, C.; Fermin, C. D.; Pantoja, M.

    1993-01-01

    Synaptic bodies (SBs) associated with rings of synaptic vesicles and well-defined, pre- and post-synaptic membrane structures are indicators of maturity in most hair cell-afferent nerve junctions. The role of the SBs remains elusive despite several experiments showing that they may be involved in storage of neurotransmitter. Our results demonstrate that SBs of the adult posterior semicircular canal (SCC) cristae hair cells become less electron dense following incubation of the SCC with the transmitter-depleting drug tetrabenazine (TBZ). Objective quantification and comparison of the densities of the SBs in untreated and TBZ-treated frog SCC demonstrated that TBZ significantly decreased the electron density of SBs. This reduction in electron density was accompanied by a reduction in firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. A second transmitter-depleting drug, guanethidine, previously shown to reduce the electron density of hair cell SBs, also reduced the firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. In contrast, the electron density of dense granules (DG), similar in size and shape to synaptic bodies (SB) in hair cells, did not change after incubation in TBZ, thus indicating that granules and SBs are not similar in regard to their electron density. The role of SBs in synaptic transmission and the transmitter, if any, stored in the SBs remain unknown. Nonetheless, the association of the lessening of electron density with a reduction in afferent firing rate provides impetus for the further investigation of the SB's role in neurotransmission.

  13. Recovery of afferent function and synaptic strength in hippocampal CA1 following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Norris, Christopher M; Scheff, Stephen W

    2009-12-01

    Cortical contusion injury can result in the partial loss of ipsilateral CA3 neurons within 48 h, leading to a proportional reduction in the number of afferent fibers to CA1 stratum radiatum. While the loss of afferent input to CA1 exhibits a remarkable, albeit incomplete, recovery over the next few weeks, little is known about the functional status of presynaptic afferents during the depletion and recovery phases following injury. Here, we prepared hippocampal slices from adult Sprague Dawley rats at 2, 7, and 14 days after lateral cortical contusion injury and measured fiber volley (FV) amplitudes extracellularly in CA1 stratum radiatum. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were also measured and plotted as a function of FV amplitude to assess relative synaptic strength of residual and/or regenerated synaptic contacts. At 2 days post-injury, FV amplitude and synaptic strength were markedly reduced in the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hippocampus. FV amplitude in ipsilateral CA1 showed a complete recovery by 7 days, indicative of a post-injury sprouting response. Synaptic strength in ipsilateral CA1 also showed a dramatic recovery over this time; however, EPSP-to-FV curves remained slightly suppressed at both the 7 and 14 day time points. Despite these deficits, ipsilateral slices retained the capacity to express long-term potentiation, indicating that at least some mechanisms for synaptic plasticity remain intact, or are compensated for. These results are in agreement with anatomical evidence showing a profound deafferentation, followed by a remarkable re-enervation, of ipsilateral CA1 in the first few weeks after traumatic brain injury. Although plasticity mechanisms appear to remain intact, synaptic strength deficits in CA1 could limit information throughput in the hippocampus, leading to persistent memory dysfunction. PMID:19604098

  14. Regulation of synaptic transmission by CRF receptors.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis; Pollandt, Sebastian; Liu, Jie; Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia; Gallagher, Joel P

    2006-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF or CRH) and its family of related peptides have long been recognized as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis peptides that function to regulate the release of other hormones, e.g., ACTH. In addition, CRF acts outside the HPA axis not as a hormone, but as a regulator of synaptic transmission, pre- and post-synaptically, within specific CNS neuronal circuits. Synaptic transmission within the nervous system is today understood to be a more complex process compared to the concepts associated with the term 'synapse' introduced by Sherrington in 1897. Based on more than a century of progress with modern cellular and molecular experimental techniques, prior definitions and functions of synaptic molecules and their receptors need to be reconsidered (see Glossary and Fig. 1), especially in light of the important roles for CRF, its family of peptides and other potential endogenous regulators of neurotransmission, e.g., vasopressin, NPY, etc. (see Glossary). In addition, the property of 'constitutive activity' which is associated with G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides a persistent tonic mechanism to fine-tune synaptic transmission during both acute and chronic information transfer. We have applied the term 'regulator', adapted from the hormone literature, to CRF, as an example of a specific endogenous substance that functions to facilitate or depress the actions of neuromodulators on fast and slow synaptic responses. As such, synaptic neuroregulators provide a basic substrate to prime or initiate silently plastic processes underlying neurotransmitter-mediated information transfer at CNS synapses. Here we review the role of CRF to regulate CNS synaptic transmission and also suggest how under a variety of allostatic changes, e.g., associated with normal plasticity, or adaptations resulting from mental disorders, the synaptic regulatory role for CRF may be 'switched' in its polarity and/or magnitude in order to provide a coping mechanism to deal with daily and life-long stressors. Thus, a prominent role we assign to non-HPA axis CRF, its family of peptides, and their receptors, is to maintain both acute and chronic synaptic stability. PMID:16878401

  15. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  16. Decreased afferent excitability contributes to synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation in hippocampal area CA1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunyoung; Owen, Benjamin; Holmes, William R; Grover, Lawrence M

    2012-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is often induced experimentally by continuous high-frequency afferent stimulation (HFS), typically at 100 Hz for 1 s. Induction of LTP requires postsynaptic depolarization and voltage-dependent calcium influx. Induction is more effective if the same number of stimuli are given as a series of short bursts rather than as continuous HFS, in part because excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) become strongly depressed during HFS, reducing postsynaptic depolarization. In this study, we examined mechanisms of EPSP depression during HFS in area CA1 of rat hippocampal brain slices. We tested for presynaptic terminal vesicle depletion by examining minimal stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) during 100-Hz HFS. While transmission failures increased, consistent with vesicle depletion, EPSC latencies also increased during HFS, suggesting a decrease in afferent excitability. Extracellular recordings of Schaffer collateral fiber volleys confirmed a decrease in afferent excitability, with decreased fiber volley amplitudes and increased latencies during HFS. To determine the mechanism responsible for fiber volley changes, we recorded antidromic action potentials in single CA3 pyramidal neurons evoked by stimulating Schaffer collateral axons. During HFS, individual action potentials decreased in amplitude and increased in latency, and these changes were accompanied by a large increase in the probability of action potential failure. Time derivative and phase-plane analyses indicated decreases in both axon initial segment and somato-dendritic components of CA3 neuron action potentials. Our results indicate that decreased presynaptic axon excitability contributes to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission during HFS at synapses between Schaffer collaterals and CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22773781

  17. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. PMID:25732135

  18. Modeling synaptic transmission of the tripartite synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The tripartite synapse denotes the junction of a pre- and postsynaptic neuron modulated by a synaptic astrocyte. Enhanced transmission probability and frequency of the postsynaptic current-events are among the significant effects of the astrocyte on the synapse as experimentally characterized by several groups. In this paper we provide a mathematical framework for the relevant synaptic interactions between neurons and astrocytes that can account quantitatively for both the astrocytic effects on the synaptic transmission and the spontaneous postsynaptic events. Inferred from experiments, the model assumes that glutamate released by the astrocytes in response to synaptic activity regulates store-operated calcium in the presynaptic terminal. This source of calcium is distinct from voltage-gated calcium influx and accounts for the long timescale of facilitation at the synapse seen in correlation with calcium activity in the astrocytes. Our model predicts the inter-event interval distribution of spontaneous current activity mediated by a synaptic astrocyte and provides an additional insight into a novel mechanism for plasticity in which a low fidelity synapse gets transformed into a high fidelity synapse via astrocytic coupling.

  19. SKF83959 suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampus via a dopamine receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Qianqian; Zhou, Shanglin; Cao, Xiaohua; Zhang, Ao; Jin, Guo-Zhang; Hu, Guo-Yuan; Zhen, Xuechu

    2011-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) profoundly modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the brain. In the present study the effects of SKF83959, the selective agonist of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D(1) -like receptor, on the excitatory synaptic transmission were investigated in rat hippocampus. SKF83959 (10-100 ?M) reversibly suppressed the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) elicited by stimulating the Schaffer's collateral-commissural fibers in CA1 area of hippocampal slices. However, the inhibition was not blocked by the D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390, the D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride, the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist mesulergine, or the ?(1) -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. In addition, SKF83959 inhibited the afferent volley and significantly reduced the paired-pulse facilitation ratios. In dissociated hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, SKF83959 had no detectable effect on glutamate-induced currents but potently inhibited voltage-activated Na(+) current (IC50 value = 26.9 1.0 ?M), which was not blocked by SCH23390 or by intracellular dialysis of GDP-?-S. These results demonstrate that SKF83959 suppressed the excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 area, which was independent of D(1) -like receptor. The mechanism underlying the effect could be mainly inhibition of Na(+) channel in the afferent fibers. The suppression of excitatory synaptic transmission and the Na(+) channel by SKF83959 may contribute to its therapeutic benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21538463

  20. Electric Dipole Theory of Chemical Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ling Y.

    1968-01-01

    In this paper we propose that chemicals such as acetylcholine are electric dipoles which when oriented and arranged in a large array could produce an electric field strong enough to drive positive ions over the junction barrier of the post-synaptic membrane and thus initiate excitation or produce depolarization. This theory is able to explain a great number of facts such as cleft size, synaptic delay, nonregeneration, subthreshold integration, facilitation with repetition, and the calcium and magnesium effects. It also shows why and how acetylcholine could act as excitatory or inhibitory transmitters under different circumstances. Our conclusion is that the nature of synaptic transmission is essentially electrical, be it mediated by electrical or chemical transmitters. PMID:4296121

  1. Synaptic actions of peripheral nerve impulses upon Deiters neurones via the mossy fibre afferents

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G. I.; Sabah, N. H.; Toyama, K.

    1972-01-01

    1. The cerebellar integration of sensory inputs to Deiters neurones was investigated in decerebrate cats. In some preparations decerebration was combined with transection of the olivocerebellar fibres. 2. In the latter preparations peripheral nerve impulses generally produced a response consisting of a sequence of the following post-synaptic potentials: (i) an initial e.p.s.p. (d1), (ii) early i.p.s.p. (h1), (iii) later i.p.s.p. (h2). 3. The mean latencies of d1, h1 and h2 were 5·7, 7·3 and 9·8 msec from the forelimb nerves, and 7·5, 9·0 and 13·4 msec from the hind limb nerves, respectively. 4. The stimulus intensity—response relation indicates that the Group I muscle afferents as well as the low threshold cutaneous afferents contribute to the response. 5. In the preparations with the intact inferior olive there were additional components of the post-synaptic potentials: a later e.p.s.p. (d2) and another later i.p.s.p. (h3), their mean latencies being 15·3 and 19·7 msec from the forelimb nerves, and 18·0 and 21·3 msec from the hind limb nerves, respectively. 6. The d1 and h2 components were attributed to the mossy fibre afferents and d2 and h3 to the climbing fibres; d1 and d2 were due to excitation through the collaterals of the mossy and climbing fibres, and h2 and h3 to inhibition from Purkyně cells activated by the mossy and climbing fibres, respectively. h1 was too early to be produced through the cerebellum, and was probably mediated by inhibitory neurones in the reticular formation. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4563728

  2. Synaptic depression in the CA1 region of freely behaving mice is highly dependent on afferent stimulation parameters

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jinzhong J.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Persistent synaptic plasticity has been subjected to intense study in the decades since it was first described. Occurring in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), it shares many cellular and molecular properties with hippocampus-dependent forms of persistent memory. Recent reports of both LTP and LTD occurring endogenously under specific learning conditions provide further support that these forms of synaptic plasticity may comprise the cellular correlates of memory. Most studies of synaptic plasticity are performed using in vitro or in vivo preparations where patterned electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is implemented to induce changes in synaptic strength. This strategy has proven very effective in inducing LTP, even under in vivo conditions. LTD in vivo has proven more elusive: although LTD occurs endogenously under specific learning conditions in both rats and mice, its induction has not been successfully demonstrated with afferent electrical stimulation alone. In this study we screened a large spectrum of protocols that are known to induce LTD either in hippocampal slices or in the intact rat hippocampus, to clarify if LTD can be induced by sole afferent stimulation in the mouse CA1 region in vivo. Low frequency stimulation at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 10 Hz given in the range of 100 through 1800 pulses produced, at best, short-term depression (STD) that lasted for up to 60 min. Varying the administration pattern of the stimuli (e.g., 900 pulses given twice at 5 min intervals), or changing the stimulation intensity did not improve the persistency of synaptic depression. LTD that lasts for at least 24 h occurs under learning conditions in mice. We conclude that a coincidence of factors, such as afferent activity together with neuromodulatory inputs, play a decisive role in the enablement of LTD under more naturalistic (e.g., learning) conditions. PMID:23355815

  3. Regulation of NMDA-receptor synaptic transmission by Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Waldo; Gambrill, Abigail; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins controlling gene expression and cytoskeleton reorganization involved in embryonic development of the nervous system. However, their role in later stages of brain development, particularly in the regulation of established synaptic connections is not known. We found that Wnt-5a acutely and specifically up-regulates synaptic NMDAR currents in rat hippocampal slices facilitating induction of LTP, a cellular model of learning and memory. This effect requires an increase in postsynaptic Ca2+ and activation of non-canonical downstream effectors of the Wnt signaling pathway. In contrast, Wnt-7a, an activator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has no effect on NMDAR mediated synaptic transmission. Moreover, endogenous Wnt ligands are necessary to maintain basal NMDAR synaptic transmission adjusting the threshold for synaptic potentiation. This novel role for Wnt ligands provides a mechanism for Wnt signaling to acutely modulate synaptic plasticity and brain function in later stages of development and in the mature organism. PMID:21715611

  4. Data-Driven Modeling of Synaptic Transmission and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Jason S.; Silver, R. Angus

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe how to create mathematical models of synaptic transmission and integration. We start with a brief synopsis of the experimental evidence underlying our current understanding of synaptic transmission. We then describe synaptic transmission at a particular glutamatergic synapse in the mammalian cerebellum, the mossy fiber to granule cell synapse, since data from this well-characterized synapse can provide a benchmark comparison for how well synaptic properties are captured by different mathematical models. This chapter is structured by first presenting the simplest mathematical description of an average synaptic conductance waveform and then introducing methods for incorporating more complex synaptic properties such as nonlinear voltage dependence of ionotropic receptors, short-term plasticity, and stochastic fluctuations. We restrict our focus to excitatory synaptic transmission, but most of the modeling approaches discussed here can be equally applied to inhibitory synapses. Our data-driven approach will be of interest to those wishing to model synaptic transmission and network behavior in health and disease. PMID:24560150

  5. Synaptic actions of peripheral nerve impulses upon Deiters neurones via the climbing fibre afferents

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G. I.; Sabah, N. H.; Toyama, K.

    1972-01-01

    1. The cerebellar integration of sensory inputs to Deiters neurones was studied in cats under Nembutal anaesthesia. 2. Stimulation of peripheral nerves produced in the Deiters neurones a sequence of an initial excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) and a later inhibitory post-synaptic potential (i.p.s.p.), or a relatively small e.p.s.p. 3. The Deiters neurones were classified as forelimb (FL)- or hind limb (HL)-type cells according to the location of the most effective peripheral nerve. In the FL cells stimulation of the forelimb nerves produced the e.p.s.p.—i.p.s.p. sequence (dominant response), while stimulation of the hind limb nerves was ineffective or produced the small e.p.s.p. (non-dominant response). In contrast, in the HL cells the non-dominant response was evoked from the forelimb nerves, and the dominant response from the hind limb nerves. 4. The stimulus intensity—response relation indicates that Group I and II muscle afferents and low and high threshold cutaneous afferents contribute to the dominant and non-dominant responses. 5. Antidromic identification of these Deiters neurones revealed that 90% of the HL cells and 85% of the FL cells project to the lumbo-sacral and cervico-thoracic segments of the spinal cord, respectively, while 10% of the HL cells and 15% of the FL cells innervate the cervico-thoracic and lumbo-sacral segments, respectively. 6. The mean latency of the e.p.s.p. evoked from the forelimb nerves was 14 msec in the FL cells and 13 msec in the HL cells, and the latency of the e.p.s.p. evoked from the hind limb nerves was 17 msec in the FL cells and 18 msec in the HL cells. The later i.p.s.p. regularly followed the onset of the e.p.s.p. with a delay of 3-5 msec. 7. The dominant and non-dominant responses in both types of cells exhibited the following three characteristic features: (i) a strong depression after conditioning stimulation of the inferior olive, (ii) an increase of the inferior olivary excitability during the responses, and (iii) a striking frequency depression with stimulation at relatively low frequency (5-10/sec). 8. Consequently it was concluded that all of the responses were produced through the climbing fibres originating from the inferior olive, the i.p.s.p.s due to inhibition from Purkyně cells activated by the climbing fibres and the e.p.s.p.s due to excitation from the collaterals of the climbing fibres. PMID:4563727

  6. The optimal neural strategy for a stable motor task requires a compromise between level of muscle cocontraction and synaptic gain of afferent feedback.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2015-09-01

    Increasing joint stiffness by cocontraction of antagonist muscles and compensatory reflexes are neural strategies to minimize the impact of unexpected perturbations on movement. Combining these strategies, however, may compromise steadiness, as elements of the afferent input to motor pools innervating antagonist muscles are inherently negatively correlated. Consequently, a high afferent gain and active contractions of both muscles may imply negatively correlated neural drives to the muscles and thus an unstable limb position. This hypothesis was systematically explored with a novel computational model of the peripheral nervous system and the mechanics of one limb. Two populations of motor neurons received synaptic input from descending drive, spinal interneurons, and afferent feedback. Muscle force, simulated based on motor unit activity, determined limb movement that gave rise to afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The results indicated that optimal steadiness was achieved with low synaptic gain of the afferent feedback. High afferent gains during cocontraction implied increased levels of common drive in the motor neuron outputs, which were negatively correlated across the two populations, constraining instability of the limb. Increasing the force acting on the joint and the afferent gain both effectively minimized the impact of an external perturbation, and suboptimal adjustment of the afferent gain could be compensated by muscle cocontraction. These observations show that selection of the strategy for a given contraction implies a compromise between steadiness and effectiveness of compensations to perturbations. This indicates that a task-dependent selection of neural strategy for steadiness is necessary when acting in different environments. PMID:26203102

  7. Effects of prostaglandin E2 on synaptic transmission in the rat spinal trigeminal subnucleus caudalis.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Yuka; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Satoko; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Haji, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The spinal trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives preferentially nociceptive afferent signals from the orofacial area. Nociceptive stimuli to the orofacial area induce cyclooxygenase both peripherally and centrally, which can synthesize a major prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that implicates in diverse physiological functions. To clarify the roles of centrally-synthesized PGE2 in nociception, effects of exogenous PGE2 on synaptic transmission in the Vc neurons were investigated in the rat brainstem slice. Spontaneously occurring excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) were recorded, respectively, under pharmacological blockade of inhibitory and excitatory transmission by whole-cell patch-clamp mode. Perfusion of PGE2 (1-5 μM) increased the frequency of sIPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effect on the amplitude. Similarly to the effects on sIPSCs, PGE2 increased the sEPSC frequency without any effect on the amplitude. These facilitatory effects of PGE2 on spontaneous synaptic transmissions were blocked by an EP1 antagonist SC19220 but not by an EP4 antagonist AH23848. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal tract evoked short latency EPSCs (eEPSCs) in the Vc neurons. PGE2 (5 μM) was ineffective on the eEPSCs. The present study demonstrated that PGE2 facilitated spontaneous synaptic transmissions in the Vc neurons through activating the presynaptic EP1 receptors but had no effect on the trigeminal tract-mediated excitatory transmission. These results suggest that centrally-synthesized PGE2 modifies the synaptic transmission in the Vc region, thereby contributing to the processing of nociceptive signals originated from the orofacial area. PMID:26320551

  8. Synaptic unreliability facilitates information transmission in balanced cortical populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatys, Leon A.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Synaptic unreliability is one of the major sources of biophysical noise in the brain. In the context of neural information processing, it is a central question how neural systems can afford this unreliability. Here we examine how synaptic noise affects signal transmission in cortical circuits, where excitation and inhibition are thought to be tightly balanced. Surprisingly, we find that in this balanced state synaptic response variability actually facilitates information transmission, rather than impairing it. In particular, the transmission of fast-varying signals benefits from synaptic noise, as it instantaneously increases the amount of information shared between presynaptic signal and postsynaptic current. Furthermore we show that the beneficial effect of noise is based on a very general mechanism which contrary to stochastic resonance does not reach an optimum at a finite noise level.

  9. Kinetic model of excitatory synaptic transmission to cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Marienhagen, J; Keller, B U; Zippelius, A

    1997-09-21

    We present a minimal kinetic model for excitatory synaptic transmission to cerebellar Purkinje cells. The main components are a kinetic model for a single glutamate receptor, which is calibrated with the help of patch clamp data, and a mean field approximation for the dynamics of a population of channels, which generate an EPSC. The resulting minimal model of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse is used to estimate the dynamics of glutamate in the synaptic cleft and to clarify the role of receptor desensitization in synaptic transmission. We also apply the model to different aspects of synaptic modulation, like long-term depression and potentiation by pharmacological application of ampakines. In the framework of the minimal model these effects can be understood as the result of modified receptor kinetics. PMID:9379674

  10. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  11. John Eccles' pioneering role in understanding central synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Burke, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    This chapter deals with the central role that Sir John Eccles played in the elucidation of the mechanisms of synaptic transmission within the central nervous system during the three decades between the late 1930s and 1966. His seminal discoveries involved studies of synaptic input to spinal motoneurons using intracellular recording via glass micropipettes after their introduction in the late 1940s. After defending the hypothesis that electrical currents alone explained central synaptic events, his observations of reversal potentials and sensitivity to ion injections instantly converted Eccles to the idea that central synapses generate postsynaptic potentials, designated IPSPs and EPSPs, by liberating chemical transmitters. He and his collaborators used pharmacological manipulations of recurrent inhibition to support the idea that a given neuron liberates the same chemical transmitter substance at all of its synapses, which he called "Dale's Principle". His team worked out the mechanisms and spinal circuits underlying disynaptic and recurrent inhibition, as well as those of presynaptic inhibition. Not content with the view that central synapses were static entities, Eccles also made seminal observations on synaptic plasticity induced by alterations in use and disuse. Although his firmly held belief that the extensive dendritic trees of motoneurons were essentially irrelevant to synaptic events at the soma was later refuted by others in the mid-1960s, Eccles stands as a towering figure in the history of neuroscience. His prodigious energy and commanding intellect gave the field of central synaptic transmission the conceptual bases that have guided it for over 40 years. PMID:16647800

  12. Presynaptic muscarinic control of glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Buo, W; Cabezas, C; Fernndez de Sevilla, D

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the medial septal nucleus and Broca's diagonal band that terminate in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions (Frotscher and Leranth, 1985). Glutamatergic synapses between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons are presynaptically inhibited by acetylcholine (ACh), via activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) at the terminals of Schaffer collaterals (SCs) (Hounsgaard, 1978; Fernndez de Sevilla et al., 2002, 2003). There are two types of SC-CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses. One type, called functional synapse, shows postsynaptic alpha- amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)-receptor mediated currents at resting potential (Vm) and both AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents when depolarized. The other type, termed silent synapse, only displays postsynaptic NMDAR-mediated currents at depolarized Vms, but does not respond at the resting Vm (Isaac et al., 1995). Using hippocampal slices obtained from young Wistar rats, we examined the effects of activation of cholinergic afferents at the stratum oriens/alveus on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in CA1 pyramidal neurons by stimulation of SCs. We also tested the action of the nonhydrolyzable cholinergic agonist carbamylcholine chloride (CCh) on EPSCs evoked by minimal stimulation of SCs (which activates a single or very few synapses) in functional and silent synapses. PMID:17192666

  13. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  14. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the

  15. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  16. Central Cholinesterase Inhibition Enhances Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Rajasekaran, Karthik

    2010-01-01

    Central cholinergic overstimulation results in prolonged seizures of status epilepticus in humans and experimental animals. Cellular mechanisms of underlying seizures caused by cholinergic stimulation remain uncertain, but enhanced glutamatergic transmission is a potential mechanism. Paraoxon, an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, enhanced glutamatergic transmission on hippocampal granule cells synapses by increasing the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in a concentration-dependent fashion. The amplitude of mEPSCs was not increased, which suggested the possibility of enhanced action potential-dependent release. Analysis of EPSCs evoked by minimal stimulation revealed reduced failures and increased amplitude of evoked responses. The ratio of amplitudes of EPSCs evoked by paired stimuli was also altered. The effect of paraoxon on glutamatergic transmission was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine and partially mimicked by carbachol. The nicotinic receptor antagonist α -bungarotoxin did not block the effects of paraoxon; however, nicotine enhanced glutamatergic transmission. These studies suggested that cholinergic overstimulation enhances glutamatergic transmission by enhancing neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. PMID:20107127

  17. Afferent modulation of neonatal rat respiratory rhythm in vitro: cellular and synaptic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mellen, Nicholas M; Roham, Maryam; Feldman, Jack L

    2004-05-01

    In mammals, expiration is lengthened by mid-expiratory lung inflation (Breuer-Hering Expiratory reflex; BHE). The central pathway mediating the BHE is paucisynaptic, converging on neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. An in vitro neonatal rat brainstem-lung preparation in which mid-expiratory inflation lengthens expiration was used to study afferent modulation of respiratory neurone activity. Recordings were made from respiratory neurones in or near the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC). Respiratory neurone membrane properties and BHE-induced changes in activity were characterized. Our findings suggest the following mechanisms for the BHE: (i) lung afferent signals strongly excite biphasic neurones that convey these signals to respiratory neurones in ventrolateral medulla; (ii) expiratory lengthening is mediated by inhibition of rhythmogenic and (pre)motoneuronal networks; and (iii) pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurones, some of which project to abdominal expiratory motoneurones, are excited during the BHE. These findings are qualitatively similar to studies of the BHE in vivo. Where there are differences, they can largely be accounted for by developmental changes and experimental conditions. PMID:14766932

  18. Cholinergic modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic transmission in rat medullary dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Gwon; Choi, In-Sun; Cho, Jin-Hwa; Jang, Il-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Although muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are expressed in trigeminal ganglia, it is still unknown whether mACh receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission from primary afferents onto medullary dorsal horn neurons. In this study, we have addressed the cholinergic modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic transmission using a conventional whole cell patch clamp technique. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were evoked from primary afferents by electrical stimulation of trigeminal tract and monosynaptic EPSCs were recorded from medullary dorsal horn neurons of rat horizontal brain stem slices. Muscarine and ACh reversibly and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio. In addition, muscarine reduced the frequency of miniature EPSCs without affecting the current amplitude, suggesting that muscarine acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of glutamate release onto medullary dorsal horn neurons. The muscarine-induced decrease of glutamatergic EPSCs was significantly occluded by methoctramine or AF-DX116, M2 receptor antagonists, but not pirenzepine, J104129 and MT-3, selective M1, M3 and M4 receptor antagonists. The muscarine-induced decrease of glutamatergic EPSCs was highly dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Physostigmine and clinically available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine and donepezil, significantly shifted the concentration-inhibition relationship of ACh for glutamatergic EPSCs. These results suggest that muscarine acts on presynaptic M2 receptors to inhibit glutamatergic transmission by reducing the Ca2+ influx into primary afferent terminals, and that M2 receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors could be, at least, potential targets to reduce nociceptive transmission from orofacial tissues. PMID:23954675

  19. proBDNF negatively regulates neuronal remodeling, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C; Siao, Chia-Jen; Marinic, Tina; Clarke, Roshelle; Ma, Qian; Jing, Deqiang; Lafrancois, John J; Bath, Kevin G; Mark, Willie; Ballon, Douglas; Lee, Francis S; Scharfman, Helen E; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2014-05-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75(NTR). In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75(NTR). Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF. PMID:24746813

  20. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Holly A.; Tran, Vy M.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  1. Synaptic transmission deficits in Caenorhabditis elegans synaptobrevin mutants.

    PubMed

    Nonet, M L; Saifee, O; Zhao, H; Rand, J B; Wei, L

    1998-01-01

    Synaptobrevins are vesicle-associated proteins implicated in neurotransmitter release by both biochemical studies and perturbation experiments that use botulinum toxins. To test these models in vivo, we have isolated and characterized the first synaptobrevin mutants in metazoans and show that neurotransmission is severely disrupted in mutant animals. Mutants lacking snb-1 die just after completing embryogenesis. The dying animals retain some capability for movement, although they are extremely uncoordinated and incapable of feeding. We also have isolated and characterized several hypomorphic snb-1 mutants. Although fully viable, these mutants exhibit a variety of behavioral abnormalities that are consistent with a general defect in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. The viable mutants are resistant to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, indicating that cholinergic transmission is impaired. Extracellular recordings from pharyngeal muscle also demonstrate severe defects in synaptic transmission in the mutants. The molecular lesions in the hypomorphic alleles reside on the hydrophobic face of a proposed amphipathic-helical region implicated biochemically in interacting with the t-SNAREs syntaxin and SNAP-25. Finally, we demonstrate that double mutants lacking both the v-SNAREs synaptotagmin and snb-1 are phenotypically similar to snb-1 mutants and less severe than syntaxin mutants. Our work demonstrates that synaptobrevin is essential for viability and is required for functional synaptic transmission. However, our analysis also suggests that transmitter release is not completely eliminated by removal of either one or both v-SNAREs. PMID:9412487

  2. Impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the PKU brain.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk, A E; Glushakov, A V; Sumners, C; Laipis, P J; Dennis, D M; Seubert, C N

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews recent results of our investigation of the mechanisms whereby hyperphenylalaninemia may cause brain dysfunction in classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Acute applications of L-Phe in rat and mouse hippocampal and cerebrocortical cultured neurons, at a range of concentrations found in PKU brain, significantly and reversibly depressed glutamatergic synaptic transmission by a combination of pre- and postsynaptic actions: (1) competition for the glycine-binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors; (2) attenuation of neurotransmitter release; (3) competition for the glutamate-binding site of (RS)-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioinic acid and kainate (AMPA/kainate) receptors. Unlike L-Phe, its non-tyrosine metabolites, phenylacetic acid, phenylpyruvic acid, and phenyllactic acid, did not produce antiglutamatergic effects. L-Phe did not affect inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-ergic transmission. Consistent with this specific pattern of effects caused by L-Phe in neuronal cultures, the expression of NMDA receptor NR2A and AMPA receptor Glu1 and Glu2/3 subunits in brain of hyperphenylalaninemic PKU mice (Pah(enu2) strain) was significantly increased, whereas expression of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit was decreased. There was no change in GABA alpha1 subunit expression. Considering the important role of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in normal brain development and function, these L-Phe-induced changes in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in PKU brain may be a critical element of the neurological symptoms of PKU. PMID:16153867

  3. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Deletion in Efferent Olivocochlear Neurons Perturbs Afferent Synaptic Maturation and Reduces the Dynamic Range of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Tyler T.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Normal hearing requires proper differentiation of afferent ribbon synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that carry acoustic information to the brain. Within individual IHCs, presynaptic ribbons show a size gradient with larger ribbons on the modiolar face and smaller ribbons on the pillar face. This structural gradient is associated with a gradient of spontaneous rates and threshold sensitivity, which is essential for a wide dynamic range of hearing. Despite their importance for hearing, mechanisms that direct ribbon differentiation are poorly defined. We recently identified adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) as a key regulator of interneuronal synapse maturation. Here, we show that APC is required for ribbon size heterogeneity and normal cochlear function. Compared with wild-type littermates, APC conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit decreased auditory brainstem responses. The IHC ribbon size gradient is also perturbed. Whereas the normal-developing IHCs display ribbon size gradients before hearing onset, ribbon sizes are aberrant in APC cKOs from neonatal ages on. Reporter expression studies show that the CaMKII-Cre used to delete the floxed APC gene is present in efferent olivocochlear (OC) neurons, not IHCs or SGNs. APC loss led to increased volumes and numbers of OC inhibitory dopaminergic boutons on neonatal SGN fibers. Our findings identify APC in efferent OC neurons as essential for regulating ribbon heterogeneity, dopaminergic terminal differentiation, and cochlear sensitivity. This APC effect on auditory epithelial cell synapses resembles interneuronal and nerve–muscle synapses, thereby defining a global role for APC in synaptic maturation in diverse cell types. Significance Statement This study identifies novel molecules and cellular interactions that are essential for the proper maturation of afferent ribbon synapses in sensory cells of the inner ear, and for normal hearing. PMID:26085645

  4. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated fEPSPs after i.p. MPTP-injection.

  5. Cyclic AMP and Afferent Activity Govern Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity in Striatopallidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Shana M.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the low dopamine conditions in Parkinson's disease (PD) cause motor impairment through aberrant motor learning. Those data, along with computational models, suggest that this aberrant learning results from maladaptive corticostriatal plasticity and learned motor inhibition. Dopaminergic modulation of both corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) is proposed to be critical for these processes; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying bidirectional corticostriatal plasticity are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated a key role for cAMP signaling in corticostriatal LTD. In this study, mouse brain slices were used to perform a parametric experiment that tested the impact of varying both intracellular cAMP levels and the strength of excitatory inputs on corticostriatal plasticity. Using slice electrophysiology in the dorsolateral striatum, we demonstrate that both LTP and LTD can be sequentially induced in the same D2-expressing neuron and that LTP was strongest with high intracellular cAMP and LFS, whereas LTD required low intracellular cAMP and high-frequency stimulation. Our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for regulating bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity and may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for blocking or reversing the aberrant synaptic plasticity that likely contributes to motor deficits in PD. PMID:24806695

  6. How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dallérac, Glenn; Chever, Oana; Rouach, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy. PMID:24101894

  7. Presynaptic clathrin levels are a limiting factor for synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    López-Murcia, Francisco J; Royle, Stephen J; Llobet, Artur

    2014-06-18

    To maintain communication, neurons must recycle their synaptic vesicles with high efficiency. This process places a huge burden on the clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery, but the consequences of this are poorly understood. We found that the amount of clathrin in a presynaptic terminal is not fixed. During stimulation, clathrin moves out of synapses as a function of stimulus strength and neurotransmitter release probability, which, together with membrane coat formation, transiently reduces the available pool of free clathrin triskelia. Correlative functional and morphological experiments in cholinergic autapses established by superior cervical ganglion neurons in culture show that presynaptic terminal function is compromised if clathrin levels fall by 20% after clathrin heavy chain knock down using RNAi. Synaptic transmission is depressed due to a reduction of cytoplasmic and readily releasable pools of vesicles. However, synaptic depression reverts after dialysis of exogenous clathrin, thus compensating RNAi-induced depletion. Lowering clathrin levels also reduces quantal size, which occurs concomitantly with a decrease in the size of synaptic vesicles. Large dense-core vesicles are unaffected by clathrin knock down. Together, our results show that clathrin levels are a dynamic property of presynaptic terminals that can influence short-term plasticity in a stimulus-dependent manner. PMID:24948816

  8. CNQX facilitates inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hypoglossal nucleus.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Mu, Shuhua; He, Zhendan; Wang, Zhiwei; Qu, Junle; Ye, Wencai; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-15

    6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX) is a most commonly used antagonist of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor in the central nervous system. During the past two decades, studies had demonstrated that CNQX could partially activate AMPA receptors that are located on the hippocampal and cerebellar interneurons, thus subsequently leading to the facilitation of inhibitory transmission. However, whether CNQX could enhance inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hypoglossal nucleus remains elusive. Here, using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in the brainstem slice, we showed that CNQX greatly increased both frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the hypoglossal motoneurons, whereas D-(-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, had no effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission. Application of bicuculline and strychnine further identified that CNQX not only increased GABAergic sIPSCs but also glycinergic one in these motoneurons. Similar enhancement of inhibitory transmission was observed with application of 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (DNQX), a quinoxaline derivative of CNQX, but not with application of GYKI 53655, a non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptor. In the presence of tetradotoxin, the effect of CNQX on sIPSCs was abolished, suggesting that an increase in presynaptic interneuron spike firing rate induced by CNQX was responsible for the facilitation of sIPSCs. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the excitatory effect of CNQX on presynaptic interneurons triggered enhancement of both GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic transmission within the rat hypoglossal nucleus. PMID:26902496

  9. From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

  10. An Engineered Metal Sensor Tunes the Kinetics of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Chantell S.; Ruhl, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) regulates neurotransmitter release by interacting with anionic phospholipids. Here we test the idea that the intrinsic kinetics of syt–membrane interactions determine, in part, the time course of synaptic transmission. To tune the kinetics of this interaction, we grafted structural elements from the slowest isoform, syt-7, onto the fastest isoform, syt-1, resulting in a chimera with intermediate kinetic properties. Moreover, the chimera coupled a physiologically irrelevant metal, Sr2+, to membrane fusion in vitro. When substituted for syt-1 in mouse hippocampal neurons, the chimera slowed the kinetics of synaptic transmission. Neurons expressing the chimera also evinced rapid and efficient Sr2+ triggered release, in contrast to the weak response of neurons expressing syt-1. These findings reveal presynaptic sensor–membrane interactions as a major factor regulating the speed of the release machinery. Finally, the chimera failed to clamp the elevated spontaneous fusion rate exhibited by syt-1 KO neurons, indicating that the metal binding loops of syt-1 regulate the two modes of release by distinct mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In calcium, synaptotagmin-1 triggers neurotransmitter release by interacting with membranes. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic properties of this interaction control the time course of synaptic transmission. We engineered a “chimera” using synaptotagmin-1 and elements of a slower isoform, synaptotagmin-7. When expressed in neurons, the chimera slowed the rate of neurotransmitter release. Furthermore, unlike native synaptotagmin-1, the chimera was able to function robustly in the presence of strontium–a metal not present in cells. We exploited this ability to show that a key function of synaptotagmin-1 is to penetrate cell membranes. This work sheds light on fundamental mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. PMID:26311762

  11. Pre-Synaptic Inhibition of Afferent Feedback in the Macaque Spinal Cord Does Not Modulate with Cycles of Peripheral Oscillations Around 10 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Ferran; Baker, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal interneurons are partially phase-locked to physiological tremor around 10 Hz. The phase of spinal interneuron activity is approximately opposite to descending drive to motoneurons, leading to partial phase cancellation and tremor reduction. Pre-synaptic inhibition of afferent feedback modulates during voluntary movements, but it is not known whether it tracks more rapid fluctuations in motor output such as during tremor. In this study, dorsal root potentials (DRPs) were recorded from the C8 and T1 roots in two macaque monkeys following intra-spinal micro-stimulation (random inter-stimulus interval 1.5–2.5 s, 30–100 μA), whilst the animals performed an index finger flexion task which elicited peripheral oscillations around 10 Hz. Forty one responses were identified with latency < 5 ms; these were narrow (mean width 0.59 ms), and likely resulted from antidromic activation of afferents following stimulation near terminals. Significant modulation during task performance occurred in 16/41 responses, reflecting terminal excitability changes generated by pre-synaptic inhibition (Wall's excitability test). Stimuli falling during large-amplitude 8–12 Hz oscillations in finger acceleration were extracted, and sub-averages of DRPs constructed for stimuli delivered at different oscillation phases. Although some apparent phase-dependent modulation was seen, this was not above the level expected by chance. We conclude that, although terminal excitability reflecting pre-synaptic inhibition of afferents modulates over the timescale of a voluntary movement, it does not follow more rapid changes in motor output. This suggests that pre-synaptic inhibition is not part of the spinal systems for tremor reduction described previously, and that it plays a role in overall—but not moment-by-moment—regulation of feedback gain. PMID:26635536

  12. Strong synaptic transmission impact by copy number variations in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Takahashi, Nagahide; Albano, Anthony; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Zhang, Haitao; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Flory, James H.; Imielinski, Marcin; Frackelton, Edward C.; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Thomas, Kelly A.; Garris, Maria; Otieno, Frederick G.; Davidson, Michael; Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Davis, Kenneth L.; Friedman, Joseph I.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Rader, Daniel J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Gur, Raquel E.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with onset in late adolescence and unclear etiology characterized by both positive and negative symptoms, as well as cognitive deficits. To identify copy number variations (CNVs) that increase the risk of schizophrenia, we performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on a cohort of 977 schizophrenia cases and 2,000 healthy adults of European ancestry who were genotyped with 1.7 million probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 758 schizophrenia cases and 1,485 controls. The Gene Ontology synaptic transmission family of genes was notably enriched for CNVs in the cases (P = 1.5 × 10−7). Among these, CACNA1B and DOC2A, both calcium-signaling genes responsible for neuronal excitation, were deleted in 16 cases and duplicated in 10 cases, respectively. In addition, RET and RIT2, both ras-related genes important for neural crest development, were significantly affected by CNVs. RET deletion was exclusive to seven cases, and RIT2 deletions were overrepresented common variant CNVs in the schizophrenia cases. Our results suggest that novel variations involving the processes of synaptic transmission contribute to the genetic susceptibility of schizophrenia. PMID:20489179

  13. pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Huda, Rafiq; McCrimmon, Donald R; Martina, Marco

    2013-07-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K(+)-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

  14. pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Donald R.; Martina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K+-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

  15. Optogenetic inhibition of cortical afferents in the nucleus accumbens simultaneously prevents cue-induced transient synaptic potentiation and cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanik, Michael T; Kupchik, Yonatan M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of relapse reveal that the motivation to seek drug is regulated by enduring morphological and physiological changes in the nucleus accumbens, as well as transient synaptic potentiation in the accumbens core (NAcore) that parallels drug-seeking behavior. The current study sought to examine the link between the behavioral and synaptic consequences of cue-induced cocaine seeking by optically silencing glutamatergic afferents to the NAcore from the prelimbic cortex (PL). Adeno-associated virus coding for the inhibitory opsin archaerhodopsin was microinjected into PL, and optical fibers were targeted to NAcore. Animals were trained to self-administer cocaine followed by extinction training, and then underwent cue-induced reinstatement in the presence or absence of 15 min of optically induced inhibition of PL fibers in NAcore. Inhibiting the PL-to-NAcore projection blocked reinstated behavior and was paralleled by decreased dendritic spine head diameter and AMPA/NMDA ratio relative to sham-laser control rats. Interestingly, while spine density was elevated after extinction training, no further effects were observed by cued reinstatement or optical inhibition. These findings validate the critical role for PL afferents to the NAcore in simultaneously regulating both reinstated behavior and the associated transient synaptic potentiation. PMID:25663648

  16. Modulation of transmission in the corticospinal and group Ia afferent pathways to soleus motoneurons during bicycling.

    PubMed

    Pyndt, H S; Nielsen, J B

    2003-01-01

    Transmission in the corticospinal and Ia pathways to soleus motoneurons was investigated in healthy human subjects during bicycling. Soleus H reflexes and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were modulated similarly during the crank cycle being large during downstroke [concomitant with soleus background electromyographic (EMG) activity] and small during upstroke. Tibialis anterior MEPs were in contrast large during upstroke and small during downstroke. The soleus H reflexes and MEPs were also recorded during tonic plantarflexion at a similar ankle joint position, corresponding ankle angle, and matched background EMG activity as during the different phases of bicycling. Relative to their size during tonic plantarflexion, the MEPs were found to be facilitated in the early part of downstroke during bicycling, whereas the H reflexes were depressed in the late part of downstroke. The intensity of TMS was decreased below MEP threshold and used to condition the soleus H reflex. At short intervals (conditioning-test intervals of -3 to -1 ms), TMS produced a facilitation of the H reflex that is in all likelihood caused by activation of the fast monosynaptic corticospinal pathway. This facilitation was significantly larger in the early part of downstroke during bicycling than during tonic plantarflexion. This suggests that the increased MEP during downstroke was caused by changes in transmission in the fast monosynaptic corticospinal pathway. To investigate whether the depression of H reflexes in the late part of downstroke was caused by increased presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents, the soleus H reflex was conditioned by stimulation of the femoral nerve. At a short interval (conditioning-test interval: -7 to -5 ms), the femoral nerve stimulation produced a facilitation of the H reflex that is mediated by the heteronymous monosynaptic Ia pathway from the femoral nerve to soleus motoneurons. Within the initial 0.5 ms after its onset, the size of this facilitation depends on the level of presynaptic inhibition of the Ia afferents, which mediate the facilitation. The size of the facilitation was strongly depressed in the late part of downstroke, compared with the early part of downstroke, suggesting that increased presynaptic inhibition was indeed responsible for the depression of the H reflex. These findings suggest that there is a selectively increased transmission in the fast monosynaptic corticospinal pathway to soleus motoneurons in early downstroke during bicycling. It would seem likely that one cause of this is increased excitability of the involved cortical neurons. The increased presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents in late downstroke may be of importance for depression of stretch reflex activity before and during upstroke. PMID:12522181

  17. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Damien; Diabira, Diabe; Porcher, Christophe; Bader, Francesca; Ferrand, Nadine; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M.; Wayman, Gary A.; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA) of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC) frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK). Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin's neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission. PMID:25177272

  18. Ketamine-mediated afferent-specific presynaptic transmission blocks in low-threshold and sex-specific subpopulation of myelinated Ah-type baroreceptor neurons of rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Yin, Lei; Fan, Yao; Wang, Ye; Chen, Wei-Ran; Chen, Pei; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xiao-Long; Sun, Hong-Li; Shou, Weinian; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine enhances autonomic activity, and unmyelinated C-type baroreceptor afferents are more susceptible to be blocked by ketamine than myelinated A-types. However, the presynaptic transmission block in low-threshold and sex-specific myelinated Ah-type baroreceptor neurons (BRNs) is not elucidated. Methods Action potentials (APs) and excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were investigated in BRNs/barosensitive neurons identified by conduction velocity (CV), capsaicin-conjugated with Iberiotoxin-sensitivity and fluorescent dye using intact nodose slice and brainstem slice in adult female rats. The expression of mRNA and targeted protein for NMDAR1 was also evaluated. Results Ketamine time-dependently blocked afferent CV in Ah-types in nodose slice with significant changes in AP discharge. The concentration-dependent inhibition of ketamine on AP discharge profiles were also assessed and observed using isolated Ah-type BRNs with dramatic reduction in neuroexcitability. In brainstem slice, the 2nd-order capsaicin-resistant EPSCs were identified and ∼50% of them were blocked by ketamine concentration-dependently with IC50 estimated at 84.4 μM compared with the rest (708.2 μM). Interestingly, the peak, decay time constant, and area under curve of EPSCs were significantly enhanced by 100 nM iberiotoxin in ketamine-more sensitive myelinated NTS neurons (most likely Ah-types), rather than ketamine-less sensitive ones (A-types). Conclusions These data have demonstrated, for the first time, that low-threshold and sex-specific myelinated Ah-type BRNs in nodose and Ah-type barosensitive neurons in NTS are more susceptible to ketamine and may play crucial roles in not only mean blood pressure regulation but also buffering dynamic changes in pressure, as well as the ketamine-mediated cardiovascular dysfunction through sexual-dimorphic baroreflex afferent pathway. PMID:26675761

  19. The unsilent majority–TRPV1 drives “spontaneous” transmission of unmyelinated primary afferents within cardiorespiratory NTS

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Fawley, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Cranial primary afferent sensory neurons figure importantly in homeostatic control of visceral organ systems. Of the two broad classes of visceral afferents, the role of unmyelinated or C-type class remains poorly understood. This review contrasts key aspects of peripheral discharge properties of C-fiber afferents and their glutamate transmission mechanisms within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). During normal prevailing conditions, most information arrives at the NTS through myelinated A-type nerves. However, most of visceral afferent axons (75–90%) in NTS are unmyelinated, C-type axons. Centrally, C-type solitary tract (ST) afferent terminals have presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. Capsaicin activation of TRPV1 blocks phasic or synchronous release of glutamate but facilitates release of glutamate from a separate pool of vesicles. This TRPV1-operated pool of vesicles is active at normal temperatures and is responsible for actively driving a 10-fold higher release of glutamate at TRPV1 compared with TRPV1− terminals even in the absence of afferent action potentials. This novel TRPV1 mechanism is responsible for an additional asynchronous release of glutamate that is not present in myelinated terminals. The NTS is rich with presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors, and the implications of TRPV1-operated glutamate offer unique targets for signaling in C-type sensory afferent terminals from neuropeptides, inflammatory mediators, lipid metabolites, cytokines, and cannabinoids. From a homeostatic view, this combination could have broad implications for integration in chronic pathological disturbances in which the numeric dominance of C-type endings and TRPV1 would broadly disturb multisystem control mechanisms. PMID:23076872

  20. Electric fields due to synaptic currents sharpen excitatory transmission.

    PubMed

    Sylantyev, Sergiy; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Niu, Yin-Ping; Ivanov, Anton I; Jensen, Thomas P; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Xiao, Min-Yi; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2008-03-28

    The synaptic response waveform, which determines signal integration properties in the brain, depends on the spatiotemporal profile of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Here, we show that electrophoretic interactions between AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory currents and negatively charged glutamate molecules accelerate the clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft, speeding up synaptic responses. This phenomenon is reversed upon depolarization and diminished when intracleft electric fields are weakened through a decrease in the AMPA receptor density. In contrast, the kinetics of receptor-mediated currents evoked by direct application of glutamate are voltage-independent, as are synaptic currents mediated by the electrically neutral neurotransmitter GABA. Voltage-dependent temporal tuning of excitatory synaptic responses may thus contribute to signal integration in neural circuits. PMID:18369150

  1. Afferent-specific AMPA receptor subunit composition and regulation of synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons by abused drugs.

    PubMed

    Good, Cameron H; Lupica, Carl R

    2010-06-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a pivotal role in processing reward-related information and are involved in drug addiction and mental illness in humans. Information is conveyed to the VTA in large part by glutamatergic afferents that arise in various brain nuclei, including the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). Using a unique rat brain slice preparation, we found that PPN stimulation activates afferents targeting GluR2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR) on VTA DA neurons, and these afferents did not exhibit long-term depression (LTD). In contrast, activation of glutamate afferents onto the same DA neurons via stimulation within the VTA evoked EPSCs mediated by GluR2-lacking AMPARs that demonstrated LTD or EPSCs mediated by GluR2-containing AMPA receptors that did not express LTD. Twenty-four hours after single cocaine injections to rats, GluR2-lacking AMPARs were increased at both PPN and local VTA projections, and this permitted LTD expression in both pathways. Single injections with the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), increased GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors and permitted LTD in only the PPN pathway, and these effects were prevented by in vivo pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. These results demonstrate that cocaine more globally increases GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors at all glutamate synapses on VTA dopamine neurons, whereas Delta(9)-THC selectively increased GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors at subcortical PPN synapses. This suggests that different abused drugs may exert influence over distinct sets of glutamatergic afferents to VTA DA neurons which may be associated with different reinforcing or addictive properties of these drugs. PMID:20534838

  2. Extracellular ATP Hydrolysis Inhibits Synaptic Transmission by Increasing pH Buffering in the Synaptic Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Vroman, Rozan; Klaassen, Lauw J.; Howlett, Marcus H.C.; Cenedese, Valentina; Klooster, Jan; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Kamermans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism. Here we show that horizontal cells feed back to photoreceptors via an unexpected synthesis of the two. The first one is a very fast ephaptic mechanism that has no synaptic delay, making it one of the fastest inhibitory synapses known. The second one is a relatively slow (τ≈200 ms), highly intriguing mechanism. It depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons form a pH buffer with a pKa of 7.2, which keeps the pH in the synaptic cleft relatively acidic. This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize, the pannexin 1 channels decrease their conductance, the ATP release decreases, and the formation of the pH buffer reduces. The resulting alkalization in the synaptic cleft consequently increases cone glutamate release. Surprisingly, the hydrolysis of ATP instead of ATP itself mediates the synaptic modulation. Our results not only solve longstanding issues regarding horizontal cell to photoreceptor feedback, they also demonstrate a new form of synaptic modulation. Because pannexin 1 channels and ecto-ATPases are strongly expressed in the nervous system and pannexin 1 function is implicated in synaptic plasticity, we anticipate that this novel form of synaptic modulation may be a widespread phenomenon. PMID:24844296

  3. Pre-synaptic histamine H₃ receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission in rat globus pallidus.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Espinoza, A; Alatorre, A; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garduño-Torres, B; García-Ramírez, M; Querejeta, E; Arias-Montaño, J-A

    2011-03-10

    The globus pallidus, a neuronal nucleus involved in the control of motor behavior, expresses high levels of histamine H(3) receptors (H(3)Rs) most likely located on the synaptic afferents to the nucleus. In this work we studied the effect of the activation of rat pallidal H(3)Rs on depolarization-evoked neurotransmitter release from slices, neuronal firing rate in vivo and turning behavior. Perfusion of globus pallidus slices with the selective H(3)R agonist immepip had no effect on the release of [(3)H]-GABA ([(3)H]-γ-aminobutyric acid) or [(3)H]-dopamine evoked by depolarization with high (20 mM) K(+), but significantly reduced [(3)H]-d-aspartate release (-44.8 ± 2.6% and -63.7 ± 6.2% at 30 and 100 nM, respectively). The effect of 30 nM immepip was blocked by 10 μM of the selective H(3)R antagonist A-331440 (4'-[3-[(3(R)-dimethylamino-1-pyrrolidinyl]propoxy]-[1,1-biphenyl]-4'-carbonitrile). Intra-pallidal injection of immepip (0.1 μl, 100 μM) decreased spontaneous neuronal firing rate in anaesthetized rats (peak inhibition 68.8±10.3%), and this effect was reversed in a partial and transitory manner by A-331440 (0.1 μl, 1 mM). In free-moving rats the infusion of immepip (0.5 μl; 10, 50 and 100 μM) into the globus pallidus induced dose-related ipsilateral turning following systemic apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Turning behavior induced by immepip (0.5 μl, 50 μM) and apomorphine was partially prevented by the local injection of A-331440 (0.5 μl, 1 mM) and was not additive to the turning evoked by the intra-pallidal injection of antagonists at ionotropic glutamate receptors (0.5 μl, 1 mM each of AP-5, dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, and CNQX, 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione). These results indicate that pre-synaptic H(3)Rs modulate glutamatergic transmission in rat globus pallidus and thus participate in the control of movement by basal ganglia. PMID:21195747

  4. Spinal use-dependent plasticity of synaptic transmission in humans after a single cycling session

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Sabine; Kwon, Jeongyi; Russmann, Heike; Ravindran, Shashi; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Cohen, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The spinal cord is able to express use-dependent plasticity, as demonstrated in spinalized cats following treadmill training. In humans, spinal use-dependent plasticity is inferred from modifications in the size of H reflex, which are often more prominent after skilled motor training. Plasticity can develop at synaptic connections between afferent fibres and/or descending tracts and motoneurones or interneurones interposed in the spinal pathways. Here we explore whether skilled training induces a change in synaptic efficacy at the synapse between Ia afferents and soleus (Sol) motoneurones. Synaptic efficacy can be modulated presynaptically through changes of the probability of transmitter release (homosynaptic depression, HD). The frequency-related depression of the Sol H reflex, thought to reflect HD, was tested at rest, before and after one single skilled (14 subjects) or non-skilled (9 subjects) cycling training session. Performance improved in both groups but to a larger extent with skilled training, while HD increased immediately after and the day following skilled training in the absence of changes with non-skilled training. These results support the view that spinal cord function is able to encode a local motor memory. PMID:17170047

  5. Prion protein as a mediator of synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Joern R

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by synaptic and neuronal dysfunction which precedes general neuronal loss and subsequent cognitive or behavioral anomalies. Although the exact early cellular signaling mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative diseases are largely unknown, a view is emerging that compromised synaptic function may underlie the initial steps in disease progression. Much recent research has been aimed at understanding these early underlying processes leading to dysfunctional synaptic signaling, as this knowledge could identify putative sites of interventions, which could potentially slow progression and delay onset of disease. We have recently reported that synaptic function in a Drosophila melanogaster model can be modulated by the presence of native mouse prion protein and this modulation is negatively affected by a mutation within the protein which is associated with the Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, a human form of prion disease. Indeed, wild-type prion protein facilitates synaptic release, whereas the mutated form induced diminished phenotypes. It is believed that together with the gain-of-function of neurotoxic misfolded prion signaling, the lack of prion protein contributes to the pathology in prion diseases. Therefore, our study investigated a potential endogenous role of prion protein in synaptic signaling, the lack of which could resemble a lack-of-function phenotype in prion disease. PMID:26478992

  6. Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, Natalia L.; Levy, David N.; Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-07-01

    Cell-to-cell viral transmission via virological synapses has been argued to reduce susceptibility of the virus population to anti-viral drugs through multiple infection of cells, contributing to low-level viral persistence during therapy. Using a mathematical framework, we examine the role of synaptic transmission in treatment susceptibility. A key factor is the relative probability of individual virions to infect a cell during free-virus and synaptic transmission, a currently unknown quantity. If this infection probability is higher for free-virus transmission, then treatment susceptibility is lowest if one virus is transferred per synapse, and multiple infection of cells increases susceptibility. In the opposite case, treatment susceptibility is minimized for an intermediate number of virions transferred per synapse. Hence, multiple infection via synapses does not simply lower treatment susceptibility. Without further experimental investigations, one cannot conclude that synaptic transmission provides an additional mechanism for the virus to persist at low levels during anti-viral therapy.

  7. A novel synaptic plasticity rule explains homeostasis of neuromuscular transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ouanounou, Gilles; Baux, Gérard; Bal, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Excitability differs among muscle fibers and undergoes continuous changes during development and growth, yet the neuromuscular synapse maintains a remarkable fidelity of execution. Here we show in two evolutionarily distant vertebrates (Xenopus laevis cell culture and mouse nerve-muscle ex-vivo) that the skeletal muscle cell constantly senses, through two identified calcium signals, synaptic events and their efficacy in eliciting spikes. These sensors trigger retrograde signal(s) that control presynaptic neurotransmitter release, resulting in synaptic potentiation or depression. In the absence of spikes, synaptic events trigger potentiation. Once the synapse is sufficiently strong to initiate spiking, the occurrence of these spikes activates a negative retrograde feedback. These opposing signals dynamically balance the synapse in order to continuously adjust neurotransmitter release to a level matching current muscle cell excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12190.001 PMID:27138195

  8. A novel synaptic plasticity rule explains homeostasis of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Ouanounou, Gilles; Baux, Gérard; Bal, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Excitability differs among muscle fibers and undergoes continuous changes during development and growth, yet the neuromuscular synapse maintains a remarkable fidelity of execution. Here we show in two evolutionarily distant vertebrates (Xenopus laevis cell culture and mouse nerve-muscle ex-vivo) that the skeletal muscle cell constantly senses, through two identified calcium signals, synaptic events and their efficacy in eliciting spikes. These sensors trigger retrograde signal(s) that control presynaptic neurotransmitter release, resulting in synaptic potentiation or depression. In the absence of spikes, synaptic events trigger potentiation. Once the synapse is sufficiently strong to initiate spiking, the occurrence of these spikes activates a negative retrograde feedback. These opposing signals dynamically balance the synapse in order to continuously adjust neurotransmitter release to a level matching current muscle cell excitability. PMID:27138195

  9. High-Throughput All-Optical Analysis of Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Vesicle Recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wabnig, Sebastian; Liewald, Jana Fiona; Yu, Szi-chieh; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) undergo a cycle of biogenesis and membrane fusion to release transmitter, followed by recycling. How exocytosis and endocytosis are coupled is intensively investigated. We describe an all-optical method for identification of neurotransmission genes that can directly distinguish SV recycling factors in C. elegans, by motoneuron photostimulation and muscular RCaMP Ca2+ imaging. We verified our approach on mutants affecting synaptic transmission. Mutation of genes affecting SV recycling (unc-26 synaptojanin, unc-41 stonin, unc-57 endophilin, itsn-1 intersectin, snt-1 synaptotagmin) showed a distinct ‘signature’ of muscle Ca2+ dynamics, induced by cholinergic motoneuron photostimulation, i.e. faster rise, and earlier decrease of the signal, reflecting increased synaptic fatigue during ongoing photostimulation. To facilitate high throughput, we measured (3–5 times) ~1000 nematodes for each gene. We explored if this method enables RNAi screening for SV recycling genes. Previous screens for synaptic function genes, based on behavioral or pharmacological assays, allowed no distinction of the stage of the SV cycle in which a protein might act. We generated a strain enabling RNAi specifically only in cholinergic neurons, thus resulting in healthier animals and avoiding lethal phenotypes resulting from knockdown elsewhere. RNAi of control genes resulted in Ca2+ measurements that were consistent with results obtained in the respective genomic mutants, albeit to a weaker extent in most cases, and could further be confirmed by opto-electrophysiological measurements for mutants of some of the genes, including synaptojanin. We screened 95 genes that were previously implicated in cholinergic transmission, and several controls. We identified genes that clustered together with known SV recycling genes, exhibiting a similar signature of their Ca2+ dynamics. Five of these genes (C27B7.7, erp-1, inx-8, inx-10, spp-10) were further assessed in respective genomic mutants; however, while all showed electrophysiological phenotypes indicative of reduced cholinergic transmission, no obvious SV recycling phenotypes could be uncovered for these genes. PMID:26312752

  10. Decreased pain threshold and enhanced synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of experimental hypothyroidism mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones are essential for the maturation and functions of the central nervous system. Pain sensitivity is related to the thyroid status. However, information on how thyroid hormones affect pain processing and synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is limited. Nociceptive threshold and synaptic transmission in the ACC were detected in the experimental hypothyroidism (HT) mice. Results HT was induced by methimazole and potassium perchlorate in distilled drinking water for 4 weeks. The threshold of pain perception to hot insults, but not mechanical ones, decreased in hypothyroid mice. After treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) for 2 weeks, thermal pain threshold recovered. Electrophysiological recordings revealed enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced GABAergic synaptic transmission in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 significantly rescued this synaptic transmission imbalance. In the same model, HT caused the up-regulation of the GluR1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but it down-regulated γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 notably recovered the levels of above proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that HT promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal, and that supplementation with T3 or T4 rescues the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the ACC. PMID:24943008

  11. Exposure to cocaine regulates inhibitory synaptic transmission from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Neumann, Peter A; Wang, Zhijian; Cook, James M; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) make up the backbone of the brain reward pathway, a neural circuit that mediates behavioural responses elicited by natural rewards as well as by cocaine and other drugs of abuse. In addition to the well-known modulatory dopaminergic projection, the VTA also provides fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the NAc, directly regulating NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). However, the cellular nature of VTA-to-NAc fast synaptic transmission and its roles in drug-induced adaptations are not well understood. Using viral-mediated in vivo expression of channelrhodopsin 2, the present study dissected fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission from the VTA to NAc MSNs in rats. Our results suggest that, following repeated exposure to cocaine (15 mg kg−1 day−1× 5 days, i.p., 1 or 21 day withdrawal), a presynaptic enhancement of excitatory transmission and suppression of inhibitory transmission occurred at different withdrawal time points at VTA-to-NAc core synapses. In contrast, no postsynaptic alterations were detected at either type of synapse. These results suggest that changes in VTA-to-NAc fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmissions may contribute to cocaine-induced alteration of the brain reward circuitry. PMID:23918773

  12. Differential regulation of synaptic transmission by pre- and postsynaptic SK channels in the spinal locomotor network.

    PubMed

    Nanou, Evanthia; Alpert, Michael H; Alford, Simon; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2013-06-01

    The generation of activity in the central nervous system requires precise tuning of cellular properties and synaptic transmission. Neural networks in the spinal cord produce coordinated locomotor movements. Synapses in these networks need to be equipped with multiple mechanisms that regulate their operation over varying regimes to produce locomotor activity at different frequencies. Using the in vitro lamprey spinal cord, we explored whether Ca(2+) influx via different routes in postsynaptic soma and dendrites and in presynaptic terminals can activate apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and thereby shape synaptic transmission. We show that postsynaptic SK channels are tightly coupled to Ca(2+) influx via NMDA receptors. Activation of these channels by synaptically induced NMDA-dependent Ca(2+) transients restrains the time course of the synaptic current and the amplitude of the synaptic potential. In addition, presynaptic SK channels are activated by Ca(2+) influx via voltage-gated channels and control the waveform of the action potential and the resulting Ca(2+) dynamics in the axon terminals. The coupling of SK channels to different Ca(2+) sources, pre- and postsynaptically, acts as a negative feedback mechanism to shape synaptic transmission. Thus SK channels can play a pivotal role in setting the dynamic range of synapses and enabling short-term plasticity in the spinal locomotor network. PMID:23554432

  13. Long-term plasticity determines the postsynaptic response to correlated afferents with multivesicular short-term synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alex D.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony in a presynaptic population leads to correlations in vesicle occupancy at the active sites for neurotransmitter release. The number of independent release sites per presynaptic neuron, a synaptic parameter recently shown to be modified during long-term plasticity, will modulate these correlations and therefore have a significant effect on the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. To understand how correlations from synaptic dynamics and from presynaptic synchrony shape the postsynaptic response, we study a model of multiple release site short-term plasticity and derive exact results for the crosscorrelation function of vesicle occupancy and neurotransmitter release, as well as the postsynaptic voltage variance. Using approximate forms for the postsynaptic firing rate in the limits of low and high correlations, we demonstrate that short-term depression leads to a maximum response for an intermediate number of presynaptic release sites, and that this leads to a tuning-curve response peaked at an optimal presynaptic synchrony set by the number of neurotransmitter release sites per presynaptic neuron. These effects arise because, above a certain level of correlation, activity in the presynaptic population is overly strong resulting in wastage of the pool of releasable neurotransmitter. As the nervous system operates under constraints of efficient metabolism it is likely that this phenomenon provides an activity-dependent constraint on network architecture. PMID:24523691

  14. Thalamic synaptic transmission of sensory information modulated by synergistic interaction of adenosine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Chou, Pei-Yu

    2014-03-01

    The thalamic synapses relay peripheral sensory information to the cortex, and constitute an important part of the thalamocortical network that generates oscillatory activities responsible for different vigilance (sleep and wakefulness) states. However, the modulation of thalamic synaptic transmission by potential sleep regulators, especially by combination of regulators in physiological scenarios, is not fully characterized. We found that somnogen adenosine itself acts similar to wake-promoting serotonin, both decreasing synaptic strength as well as short-term depression, at the retinothalamic synapse. We then combined the two modulators considering the coexistence of them in the hypnagogic (sleep-onset) state. Adenosine plus serotonin results in robust synergistic inhibition of synaptic strength and dramatic transformation of short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These synaptic effects are not achievable with a single modulator, and are consistent with a high signal-to-noise ratio but a low level of signal transmission through the thalamus appropriate for slow-wave sleep. This study for the first time demonstrates that the sleep-regulatory modulators may work differently when present in combination than present singly in terms of shaping information flow in the thalamocortical network. The major synaptic characters such as the strength and short-term plasticity can be profoundly altered by combination of modulators based on physiological considerations. PMID:24147740

  15. Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    De Pittà, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the signaling network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic signaling is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium signaling and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic transmission. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the signaling pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326

  16. Relationship of Hippocampal Theta and Gamma Oscillations to Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bikbaev, Arthur; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In the hippocampus in vivo, both synaptic plasticity and network activity are closely interdependent. We have found that immediately after an attempt to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), changes in theta (5–10 Hz) and gamma (30–100 Hz) activity correlate tightly with the occurrence of LTP, suggesting that tetanisation-driven activation of sensory inputs synchronises the activity of granule cells and interneurons, and thus, facilitates the encoding of acquired stimuli. This results in increase of theta and gamma power, and elevates the probability that afferent stimuli both coincide with the peak of theta cycle and reach their post-synaptic target within the gamma time-window (of 10–30 ms). Both these mechanisms can effectively shift the direction, of tetanisation-induced changes in synaptic weight, towards potentiation and induction of LTP. Here, we discuss our findings in the context of possible mechanisms that link theta and gamma oscillations with LTP induction, as well as their role in information processing and formation of memories. PMID:18982107

  17. Enantioselective modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by steroids and benz[e]indenes in hippocampal microcultures.

    PubMed

    Zorumski, C F; Mennerick, S J; Covey, D F

    1998-06-01

    The effects of enantiomers of the neurosteroid analogues, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (DHP) and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstane-17beta-carbonitrile (ACN), and the benz[e]indene, BI-1, on synaptic currents were examined in microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Over the range of 0.1-10 microM, the (+)-enantiomers were more potent and effective than their (-)-enantiomeric counterparts in enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated evoked synaptic currents. The (+)-enantiomers had small effects on peak currents, but slowed the decay of inhibitory synaptic currents, resulting in 2-3-fold increases in charge transfer during inhibitory synaptic events at 10 microM. Similar prolongations of spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and responses to brief GABA pulses to outside-out patches suggest that the prolongations of evoked synaptic currents result primarily from postsynaptic effects. In contrast, the (-)-enantiomers had little effect on evoked IPSCs at concentrations < or = 1 microM, but enhanced inhibitory transmission at 10 microM. At concentrations < or = 1 microM, neither the (+)- nor (-)-enantiomers altered glutamate-mediated excitatory synaptic currents. At 10 microM, (+)-DHP and (+)-ACN depressed excitatory responses in a bicuculline-sensitive fashion, suggesting that direct chloride channel gating by the steroids contributed to the depression. These data indicate that certain steroids and benz[e]indenes augment inhibitory synaptic transmission enantioselectively and provide strong support for the hypothesis that steroids act at specific sites on synaptic GABA(A) receptors rather than via alteration of membrane lipids. PMID:9593106

  18. Chondroitin Sulfate Induces Depression of Synaptic Transmission and Modulation of Neuronal Plasticity in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Albiana, Elisa; Gutierrez-Luengo, Javier; Hernndez-Juarez, Natalia; Baraibar, Andrs M.; Montell, Eulalia; Vergs, Josep; Garca, Antonio G.; Hernndez-Guijo, Jesus M.

    2015-01-01

    It is currently known that in CNS the extracellular matrix is involved in synaptic stabilization and limitation of synaptic plasticity. However, it has been reported that the treatment with chondroitinase following injury allows the formation of new synapses and increased plasticity and functional recovery. So, we hypothesize that some components of extracellular matrix may modulate synaptic transmission. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effects of chondroitin sulphate (CS) on excitatory synaptic transmission, cellular excitability, and neuronal plasticity using extracellular recordings in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. CS caused a reversible depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. CS also reduced the population spike amplitude evoked after orthodromic stimulation but not when the population spikes were antidromically evoked; in this last case a potentiation was observed. CS also enhanced paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation. Our study provides evidence that CS, a major component of the brain perineuronal net and extracellular matrix, has a function beyond the structural one, namely, the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:26075099

  19. MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711.
    While severe hypothyroidis...

  20. TRPC3 Channels Are Required for Synaptic Transmission and Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jana; Dragicevic, Elena; Adelsberger, Helmuth; Henning, Horst A.; Sumser, Martin; Abramowitz, Joel; Blum, Robert; Dietrich, Alexander; Freichel, Marc; Flockerzi, Veit; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Konnerth, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In the mammalian central nervous system, slow synaptic excitation involves the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). It has been proposed that C1-type transient receptor potential (TRPC1) channels underlie this synaptic excitation, but our analysis of TRPC1-deficient mice does not support this hypothesis. Here, we show unambiguously that it is TRPC3 that is needed for mGluR-dependent synaptic signaling in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. TRPC3 is the most abundantly expressed TRPC subunit in Purkinje cells. In mutant mice lacking TRPC3, both slow synaptic potentials and mGluR-mediated inward currents are completely absent, while the synaptically mediated Ca2+ release signals from intracellular stores are unchanged. Importantly, TRPC3 knockout mice exhibit an impaired walking behavior. Taken together, our results establish TRPC3 as a new type of postsynaptic channel that mediates mGluR-dependent synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is crucial for motor coordination. PMID:18701065

  1. Hair cell afferent synapses.

    PubMed

    Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Grant, Lisa; Fuchs, Paul

    2008-08-01

    This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time, capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the afferent synapse at high resolution. Further, genes have been identified with forms of deafness known as auditory neuropathy, and their role in afferent signaling explored in mouse models. With these advances, our view of the hair cell afferent synapse has continued to be refined, and surprising properties have been revealed that emphasize the unique role of this structure in neural function. PMID:18824101

  2. The Chemokine MIP-1α/CCL3 impairs mouse hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Elodie; Faivre, Emilie; Dutar, Patrick; Alves Pires, Claire; Demeyer, Dominique; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Laloux, Charlotte; Buée, Luc; Blum, David; Humez, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are signaling molecules playing an important role in immune regulations. They are also thought to regulate brain development, neurogenesis and neuroendocrine functions. While chemokine upsurge has been associated with conditions characterized with cognitive impairments, their ability to modulate synaptic plasticity remains ill-defined. In the present study, we specifically evaluated the effects of MIP1-α/CCL3 towards hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and spatial memory. We found that CCL3 (50 ng/ml) significantly reduced basal synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse without affecting NMDAR-mediated field potentials. This effect was ascribed to post-synaptic regulations, as CCL3 did not impact paired-pulse facilitation. While CCL3 did not modulate long-term depression (LTD), it significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), an effect abolished by Maraviroc, a CCR5 specific antagonist. In addition, sub-chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of CCL3 also impair LTP. In accordance with these electrophysiological findings, we demonstrated that the icv injection of CCL3 in mouse significantly impaired spatial memory abilities and long-term memory measured using the two-step Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These effects of CCL3 on memory were inhibited by Maraviroc. Altogether, these data suggest that the chemokine CCL3 is an hippocampal neuromodulator able to regulate synaptic plasticity mechanisms involved in learning and memory functions. PMID:26511387

  3. Nicotine Uses Neuron-Glia Communication to Enhance Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Memory

    PubMed Central

    López-Hidalgo, Mónica; Salgado-Puga, Karla; Alvarado-Martínez, Reynaldo; Medina, Andrea Cristina; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.; García-Colunga, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions. PMID:23185511

  4. Genetic deletion of TNF receptor suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via reducing AMPA receptor synaptic localization in cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Shen, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of postsynaptic glutamate receptors has been shown to be regulated by proimmunocytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) signaling. The role of TNF-α receptor subtypes in mediating glutamate receptor expression, trafficking, and function still remains unclear. Here, we report that TNF receptor subtypes (TNFR1 and TNFR2) differentially modulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) clustering and function in cultured cortical neurons. We find that genetic deletion of TNFR1 decreases surface expression and synaptic localization of the AMPAR GluA1 subunit, reduces the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), and reduces AMPA-induced maximal whole-cell current. In addition, these results are not observed in TNFR2-deleted neurons. The decreased AMPAR expression and function in TNFR1-deleted cells are not significantly restored by short (2 h) or long (24 h) term exposure to TNF-α. In TNFR2-deleted cells, TNF-α promotes AMPAR trafficking to the synapse and increases mEPSC frequency. In the present study, we find no significant change in the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR clusters, location, and mEPSC. This includes applying or withholding the TNF-α treatment in both TNFR1- and TNFR2-deleted neurons. Our results indicate that TNF receptor subtype 1 but not 2 plays a critical role in modulating AMPAR clustering, suggesting that targeting TNFR1 gene might be a novel approach to preventing neuronal AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity.—He, P., Liu, Q., Wu, J., Shen, Y. Genetic deletion of TNF receptor suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via reducing AMPA receptor synaptic localization in cortical neurons. PMID:21982949

  5. Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D.; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa++ amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5–10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

  6. Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2014-01-01

    Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa(++) amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5-10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

  7. From synaptically localized to volume transmission by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, John

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions widely as a transmitter/diffusible second messenger in the central nervous system, exerting physiological effects in target cells by binding to specialized guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors, resulting in cGMP generation. Despite having many context-dependent physiological roles and being implicated in numerous disease states, there has been a lack of clarity about the ways that NO operates at the cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, several approaches have been used to try to gain a more concrete, quantitative understanding of this unique signalling pathway. These approaches have included analysing the kinetics of NO receptor function, real-time imaging of cellular NO signal transduction in target cells, and the use of ultrasensitive detector cells to record NO as it is being generated from native sources in brain tissue. The current picture is that, when formed in a synapse, NO is likely to act only very locally, probably mostly within the confines of that synapse, and to exist only in picomolar concentrations. Nevertheless, closely neighbouring synapses may also be within reach, raising the possibility of synaptic crosstalk. By engaging its enzyme-coupled receptors, the low NO concentrations are able to stimulate physiological (submicromolar) increases in cGMP concentration in an activity-dependent manner. When many NO-emitting neurones or synapses are active simultaneously in a tissue region, NO can act more like a volume transmitter to influence, and perhaps coordinate, the behaviour of cells within that region, irrespective of their identity and anatomical connectivity. PMID:26486504

  8. Growth hormone modulates hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in old rats

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Doris P.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.; Linville, Constance; Sonntag, William E.; Weiner, Jeff L.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.; Adams, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA-R) receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have been documented in aged animals and may contribute to changes in hippocampal-dependent memory. Growth Hormone (GH) regulates AMPA-R and NMDA-R-dependent excitatory transmission and decreases with age. Chronic GH treatment mitigates age-related cognitive decline. An in vitro CA1 hippocampal slice preparation was used to compare hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity in old animals treated for 6–8 months with either saline or GH. Our findings indicate that GH treatment restores NMDA-R dependent basal synaptic transmission in old rats to young adult levels and enhances both AMPA-R-dependent basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation. These alterations in synaptic function occurred in the absence of changes in presynaptic function, as measured by paired-pulse ratios, the total protein levels of AMPA-R and NMDA-R subunits or in plasma or hippocampal levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. These data suggest a direct role for GH in altering age-related changes in excitatory transmission and provide a possible cellular mechanism through which GH changes the course of cognitive decline. PMID:22015312

  9. Effect of VGLUT inhibitors on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Neale, S A; Copeland, C S; Salt, T E

    2014-07-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are known to be important in the uptake of glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal; thereby playing a role in synaptic function. VGLUT dysfunction has also been suggested in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. A number of compounds have been identified as VGLUT inhibitors; however, little is known as to how these compounds affect synaptic transmission. We therefore investigated the effects of structurally unrelated VGLUT inhibitors on synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the in vitro slice preparation of mouse hippocampus, AMPA receptor-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were evoked in response to Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway stimulation. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors Rose Bengal (RB), Congo Red (CR) or Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CB) resulted in a concentration-related reduction of fEPSP amplitudes. RB (30μM) or CB (300μM) also depressed NMDA receptor-mediated responses in the CA1 region. The naturally occurring kynurenine Xanthurenic Acid (XA) is reported to be a VGLUT inhibitor. We found XA attenuated both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. The potency order of the VGLUT inhibitors was consistent with literature Ki values for VGLUT inhibition. Impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission is believed to contribute to schizophrenia, and VGLUTs have also been implicated in this disease. We therefore investigated the effect of VGLUT inhibition in the prefrontal cortex. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors RB or CB resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in the amplitude of glutamate receptor-mediated fEPSPs recorded in layer V/VI in response to stimulation in the forceps minor. We conclude that VGLUT inhibitors can modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the PFC and hippocampus. This could be important in the pathophysiology of nervous system disorders and might represent a target for developing novel pharmacological therapies. PMID:24121008

  10. Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission – Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Haselmann, Holger; Röpke, Luise; Werner, Christian; Kunze, Albrecht; Geis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies (aAB) to the presynaptic located enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) are a characteristic attribute for a variety of autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system including subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff person-syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, and Batten’s disease. Clinical signs of hyperexcitability and improvement of disease symptoms upon immunotherapy in some of these disorders suggest a possible pathogenic role of associated aAB. Recent experimental studies report inconsistent results regarding a direct pathogenic influence of anti-GAD65 aAB affecting inhibitory synaptic transmission in central GABAergic pathways. We here provide a method for direct evaluation of aAB-induced pathomechanisms in the intact hippocampal network. Purified patient IgG fractions containing aAB to GAD65 together with fixable lipophilic styryl dyes (FMdyes) are stereotactically injected into the hilus and the dentate gyrus in anesthetized mice. Twenty-four hours after intrahippocampal injection, acute hippocampal slices are prepared and transferred to a patch-clamp recording setup equipped with a fluorescence light source. Intraneural incorporated FMdyes show correct injection site for patch-clamp recording. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings are performed from granule cells in the dentate gyrus and extracellular stimulation is applied in the border area of the dentate gyrus-hilus region to stimulate GABAergic afferents arising from parvalbumin positive basket cells. GABA-A receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC) and miniature IPSC are recorded after blocking glutamatergic transmission. This approach allows investigation of potential aAB-induced effects on GABA-A receptor signaling ex vivo in an intact neuronal network. This offers several advantages compared to experimental procedures used in previous studies by in vitro AB preincubation of primary neurons or slice preparations. Furthermore, this method requires only small amounts of patient material that are often limited in rare diseases. PMID:26124746

  11. [Neuromuscular synaptic transmission at different stages of postnatal development in rats].

    PubMed

    Khuzakhmetova, B F; Samigullin, D V; Nurullin, L F; Nikol'skiĭ, E E; Bukhareva, É A

    2012-12-01

    On the nerve-muscle preparation of rats diaphragm muscle on different stages of postnatal development, the comparison of morphological features and functions of synaptic apparatus, including induced secretion time parameters was carried out. It was found that, along with the reduced, compared to the adult animals, area of nerve endings in the newborn the speed of the motor nerve excitation was slower, intensity of spontaneous and induced secretion of quantum fluctuations was reduced and real synaptic delays in the end plate were intense. Severe degree of acetylcholine quanta asynchronous secretion with longer open state of the ion channel in newborns synapses can compensate reduction in reliability of synaptic transmission due to a decrease of the quantal content of the postsynaptic response. PMID:23461198

  12. Presynaptic mechanisms underlying cannabinoid inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Lo, Shiow-Win; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2001-01-01

    The striatum is a crucial site of action for the motor effects of cannabinoids (CBs). However, the electrophysiological consequences of activation of CB receptors on the striatal neurons have not been established. Here we report for the first time that the cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 and the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide substantially depress corticostriatal glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto striatal neurons in the brain slice preparation. The selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716 effectively reversed this inhibition. WIN 55,212-2 significantly increased the paired-pulse facilitation of synaptically evoked EPSCs, while having no effect on the sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid. WIN 55,212-2 also reduced the frequency of spontaneous, action potential-dependent EPSCs (sEPSCs) without altering their amplitude distribution. Superfusion of WIN 55,212-2 elicited a membrane hyperpolarization accompanied by a decrease in input resistance. Both effects were blocked by intracellular caesium. In contrast, intracellular caesium failed to affect WIN 55,212-2-mediated synaptic inhibition. The WIN 55,212-2-mediated synaptic inhibition was blocked by the Gi/o protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX), but not by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or GABAB receptor antagonist SCH 50911. Pretreatment with the N-type Ca2+ channel antagonist ω-conotoxin GVIA selectively abolished the WIN-55,212-2-mediated synaptic inhibition. These results suggest that cannabinoids depress the corticostriatal glutamatergic synaptic transmission through the activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors to inhibit N-type Ca2+ channel activity, which in turn reduces glutamate release. The presynaptic action of cannabinoids is mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi/o protein-coupled signalling pathway. PMID:11313442

  13. Tet3 regulates synaptic transmission and homeostatic plasticity via DNA oxidation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huimei; Su, Yijing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhong, Chun; Guo, Junjie U.; Weng, Yi-Lan; Gao, Fuying; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Coppola, Giovanni; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the long-held belief that DNA methylation of terminally differentiated cells is permanent and essentially immutable, post-mitotic neurons exhibit extensive DNA demethylation. The cellular function of active DNA demethylation in neurons, however, remains largely unknown. Tet family proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to initiate active DNA demethylation through the base-excision repair pathway. Here, we show that synaptic activity bi-directionally regulates neuronal Tet3 expression. Functionally, knockdown of Tet or inhibition of base-excision repair in hippocampal neurons elevates excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, whereas overexpressing Tet3 or Tet1 catalytic domain decreases it. Furthermore, dysregulation of Tet3 signalling prevents homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mechanistically, Tet3 dictates neuronal surface GluR1 levels. RNA-seq analyses further revealed a pivotal role of Tet3 in regulating gene expression in response to global synaptic activity changes. Thus, Tet3 serves as a synaptic activity sensor to epigenetically regulate fundamental properties and meta-plasticity of neurons via active DNA demethylation. PMID:25915473

  14. Calcium-induced calcium release in rod photoreceptor terminals boosts synaptic transmission during maintained depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bryson, Eric J.; Ciccone, Cory A.; Rabl, Katalin; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) to synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptor terminals. Whole-cell recording and confocal calcium imaging experiments were conducted on rods with intact synaptic terminals in a retinal slice preparation from salamander. Low concentrations of ryanodine stimulated calcium increases in rod terminals, consistent with the presence of ryanodine receptors. Application of strong depolarizing steps (−70 to −10 mV) exceeding 200 ms or longer in duration evoked a wave of calcium that spread across the synaptic terminals of voltage-clamped rods. This secondary calcium increase was blocked by high concentrations of ryanodine, indicating it was due to CICR. Ryanodine (50 μM) had no significant effect on rod calcium current (Ica) although it slightly diminished rod light-evoked voltage responses. Bath application of 50 μM ryanodine strongly inhibited light-evoked currents in horizontal cells. Whether applied extracellularly or delivered into the rod cell through the patch pipette, ryanodine (50 μM) also inhibited excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in horizontal cells by depolarizing steps applied to rods. Ryanodine caused a preferential reduction in the later portions of EPSCs evoked by depolarizing steps of 200 ms or longer. These results indicate that CICR enhances calcium increases in rod terminals evoked by sustained depolarization, which in turn acts to boost synaptic exocytosis from rods. PMID:16819987

  15. Superfluous Role of Mammalian Septins 3 and 5 in Neuronal Development and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Christopher W.; Fedchyshyn, Michael; Harrison, John; Xie, Hong; Xue, Jing; Robinson, Phillip J.; Wang, Lu-Yang; Trimble, William S.

    2008-01-01

    The septin family of GTPases, first identified for their roles in cell division, are also expressed in postmitotic tissues. SEPT3 (G-septin) and SEPT5 (CDCrel-1) are highly expressed in neurons, enriched in presynaptic terminals, and associated with synaptic vesicles. These characteristics suggest that SEPT3 or SEPT5 might be important for synapse formation, maturation, or synaptic vesicle traffic. Since Sept5−/− mice do not show any overt neurological phenotypes, we generated Sept3−/− and Sept3−/− Sept5−/− mice and found that SEPT3 and SEPT5 are not essential for development, fertility, or viability. Changes in the expression of septins were noted in the absence of SEPT3, SEPT5, and both septins. SEPT5 association with other septins in brain tissue was unaffected by the removal of SEPT3. No abnormalities were observed in the gross morphology and synapses of the hippocampus. Similarly, axon development and synapse formation were unaffected in vitro. In cultured hippocampal neurons, the size of the recycling synaptic vesicle pool was unaltered in the absence of SEPT3. Furthermore, synaptic transmission at two different central synapses was not significantly affected in Sept3−/− Sept5−/− mice. These results indicate that SEPT3 and SEPT5 are dispensable for neuronal development as well as for synaptic vesicle fusion and recycling. PMID:18809578

  16. Nitric oxide regulates synaptic transmission between spiny projection neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Yotam; Heiman, Myriam; Peterson, Jayms D.; Musatov, Sergei; Scarduzio, Mariangela; Logan, Stephen M.; Kaplitt, Michael G.; Surmeier, Dalton J.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Greengard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent axon collaterals are a major means of communication between spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum and profoundly affect the function of the basal ganglia. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie this communication. We show that intrastriatal nitric oxide (NO) signaling elevates the expression of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) within recurrent collaterals of SPNs. Down-regulation of striatal NO signaling resulted in an attenuation of GABAergic signaling in SPN local collaterals, down-regulation of VGAT expression in local processes of SPNs, and impaired motor behavior. PKG1 and cAMP response element-binding protein are involved in the signal transduction that transcriptionally regulates VGAT by NO. These data suggest that transcriptional control of the vesicular GABA transporter by NO regulates GABA transmission and action selection. PMID:25413364

  17. Dynamic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by astrocyte-derived ATP in hippocampal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Schuichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Tsuda, Makoto; Shigemoto-Mogami, Yukari; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2003-09-01

    Originally ascribed passive roles in the CNS, astrocytes are now known to have an active role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal activity can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and Ca2+ transients in astrocytes can evoke changes in neuronal activity. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been shown to mediate such bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. We demonstrate here that ATP, a primary mediator of intercellular Ca2+ signaling among astrocytes, also mediates intercellular signaling between astrocytes and neurons in hippocampal cultures. Mechanical stimulation of astrocytes evoked Ca2+ waves mediated by the release of ATP and the activation of P2 receptors. Mechanically evoked Ca2+ waves led to decreased excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission in an ATP-dependent manner. Exogenous application of ATP does not affect postsynaptic glutamatergic responses but decreased presynaptic exocytotic events. Finally, we show that astrocytes exhibit spontaneous Ca2+ waves mediated by extracellular ATP and that inhibition of these Ca2+ responses enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We therefore conclude that ATP released from astrocytes exerts tonic and activity-dependent down-regulation of synaptic transmission via presynaptic mechanisms.

  18. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-04-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  19. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-01-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  20. Statistical models of synaptic transmission evaluated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, C; Redman, S

    1994-01-01

    Amplitude fluctuations of evoked synaptic responses can be used to extract information on the probabilities of release at the active sites, and on the amplitudes of the synaptic responses generated by transmission at each active site. The parameters that describe this process must be obtained from an incomplete data set represented by the probability density of the evoked synaptic response. In this paper, the equations required to calculate these parameters using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the maximum likelihood criterion have been derived for a variety of statistical models of synaptic transmission. These models are ones where the probabilities associated with the different discrete amplitudes in the evoked responses are a) unconstrained, b) binomial, and c) compound binomial. The discrete amplitudes may be separated by equal (quantal) or unequal amounts, with or without quantal variance. Alternative models have been considered where the variance associated with the discrete amplitudes is sufficiently large such that no quantal amplitudes can be detected. These models involve the sum of a normal distribution (to represent failures) and a unimodal distribution (to represent the evoked responses). The implementation of the algorithm is described in each case, and its accuracy and convergence have been demonstrated. PMID:7948679

  1. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Katherine I; Hong, Elizabeth J; Wilson, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies that they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, but can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient, but grows slowly, and simulations reveal that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

  2. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Katherine I.; Hong, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, and yet can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient but grows slowly, and simulations show that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

  3. Repeated morphine treatment alters cannabinoid modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission within the rat periaqueductal grey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Poe, A R; Lau, B K; Vaughan, C W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoids and opioids produce antinociception by modulating GABAergic synaptic transmission in a descending analgesic pathway from the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG). While chronic opioid treatment produces opioid tolerance, it has recently been shown to enhance cannabinoid-induced antinociception within the PAG. This study examined the effect of repeated opioid treatment on opioid and cannabinoid presynaptic modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in PAG. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Midbrain PAG slices were prepared from untreated rats, and rats that had undergone repeated morphine or saline pretreatment. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from neurons within the ventrolateral PAG. KEY RESULTS In slices from untreated animals, the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212 and the μ receptor agonist DAMGO inhibited electrically evoked GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) IPSCs in PAG neurons, with IC50s of 30 and 100 nM respectively. The inhibition of evoked IPSCs produced by WIN55212 (30 nM) and DAMGO (100 nM) was similar in PAG neurons from morphine- and saline-treated animals. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 increased the frequency of spontaneous miniature IPSCs in PAG neurons from repeated morphine-, but not saline-treated animals. DAMGO inhibition of evoked IPSCs was enhanced in the presence of AM251 in morphine-, but not saline-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results indicate that the efficiency of agonist-induced inhibition of GABAergic synaptic transmission is enhanced by morphine treatment, although this is dampened by endocannabinoid-mediated tonic inhibition. Thus, endocannabinoid modulation of synaptic transmission could provide an alternative analgesic approach in a morphine-tolerant state. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24916363

  4. Effects of Modafinil on Behavioral Learning and Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Wang, Hai-Xia; Li, Chu-Hua; Huang, Jun-Ni; Xiao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent that has been proposed to improve cognitive performance at the preclinical and clinical levels. Since there is insufficient evidence for modafinil to be regarded as a cognitive enhancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil administration on behavioral learning in healthy adult rats. Methods: Y-maze training was used to assess learning performance, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of modafinil at 200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg significantly improved learning performance. Furthermore, perfusion with 1mM modafinil enhanced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. However, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons were inhibited by treatment with 1mM modafinil. Conclusions: These results indicate that modafinil improves learning and memory in rats possibly by enhancing glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibiting GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic) inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:26739176

  5. Adult Onset-hypothyroidism has Minimal Effects on Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus of Rats Independent of Hypothermia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during development and in adulthood. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory is sensitive to TH insufficiency. Synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is impaired following...

  6. RoR2 functions as a noncanonical Wnt receptor that regulates NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Waldo; Latorre-Esteves, Elena; Barria, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling has a well-established role as a regulator of nervous system development, but its role in the maintenance and regulation of established synapses in the mature brain remains poorly understood. At excitatory glutamatergic synapses, NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a fundamental role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory; however, it is not known what controls their number and subunit composition. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (RoR2) functions as a Wnt receptor required to maintain basal NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. In addition, RoR2 activation by a noncanonical Wnt ligand activates PKC and JNK and acutely enhances NMDAR synaptic responses. Regulation of a key component of glutamatergic synapses through RoR2 provides a mechanism for Wnt signaling to modulate synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain function acutely beyond embryonic development. PMID:25825749

  7. LGI1 acts presynaptically to regulate excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Lee, Chun-Yao; Allene, Camille; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The secreted leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein is an important actor for human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune etiology: mutations in LGI1 cause inherited temporal lobe epilepsy, while LGI1 is involved in antibody-mediated encephalitis. Remarkably, Lgi1-deficient (Lgi1−/−) mice recapitulate the epileptic disorder and display early-onset spontaneous seizures. To understand how Lgi1-deficiency leads to seizures during postnatal development, we here investigated the early functional and structural defects occurring before seizure onset in Lgi1−/− mice. We found an increased excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from Lgi1−/− mice. No structural alteration in the morphology of pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses was observed at this stage, indicating that Lgi1-deficiency is unlikely to trigger early developmental abnormalities. Consistent with the presynaptic subcellular localization of the protein, Lgi1-deficiency caused presynaptic defects, with no alteration in postsynaptic AMPA receptor activity in Lgi1−/− pyramidal cells before seizure onset. Presynaptic dysfunction led to increased synaptic glutamate levels, which were associated with hyperexcitable neuronal networks. Altogether, these data show that Lgi1 acts presynaptically as a negative modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development. We therefore here reveal that increased presynaptic glutamate release is a key early event resulting from Lgi1-deficiency, which likely contributes to epileptogenesis. PMID:26878798

  8. LGI1 acts presynaptically to regulate excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Morgane; Lee, Chun-Yao; Allene, Camille; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The secreted leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein is an important actor for human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune etiology: mutations in LGI1 cause inherited temporal lobe epilepsy, while LGI1 is involved in antibody-mediated encephalitis. Remarkably, Lgi1-deficient (Lgi1(-/-)) mice recapitulate the epileptic disorder and display early-onset spontaneous seizures. To understand how Lgi1-deficiency leads to seizures during postnatal development, we here investigated the early functional and structural defects occurring before seizure onset in Lgi1(-/-) mice. We found an increased excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from Lgi1(-/-) mice. No structural alteration in the morphology of pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses was observed at this stage, indicating that Lgi1-deficiency is unlikely to trigger early developmental abnormalities. Consistent with the presynaptic subcellular localization of the protein, Lgi1-deficiency caused presynaptic defects, with no alteration in postsynaptic AMPA receptor activity in Lgi1-/- pyramidal cells before seizure onset. Presynaptic dysfunction led to increased synaptic glutamate levels, which were associated with hyperexcitable neuronal networks. Altogether, these data show that Lgi1 acts presynaptically as a negative modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development. We therefore here reveal that increased presynaptic glutamate release is a key early event resulting from Lgi1-deficiency, which likely contributes to epileptogenesis. PMID:26878798

  9. Taurine-Induced Long-Lasting Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in Mice: Role of Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, O A; Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Eriksson, K S; Poelchen, W; Mönnighoff, I; Heller-Stilb, B; Warskulat, U; Häussinger, D; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    Taurine, a major osmolyte in the brain evokes a long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of synaptic transmission in hippocampal and cortico-striatal slices. Hippocampal LLETAU was abolished by the GABA uptake blocker nipecotic acid (NPA) but not by the taurine-uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES). Striatal LLETAU was sensitive to GES but not to NPA. Semiquantitative PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that taurine transporter expression is significantly higher in the striatum than in the hippocampus. Taurine transporter-deficient mice displayed very low taurine levels in both structures and a low ability to develop LLETAU in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus. The different mechanisms of taurine-induced synaptic plasticity may reflect the different vulnerabilities of these brain regions under pathological conditions that are accompanied by osmotic changes such as hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:12824447

  10. [Analysis of central synaptic transmission with the slice-patch-clamp technique].

    PubMed

    Momiyama, Toshihiko

    2003-03-01

    More than ten years have passed since the slice-patch-clamp technique was established as a powerful method for the analysis of central synaptic transmission. Although this technique was restricted only to young animal preparations, we can now apply it to several synapses in slices obtained from adult animals, owing to recent advances in optics or slicers. In addition, advanced techniques have been recently available such as paired whole-cell recording from two or more synaptically connected neurons, recording from dendrites or some presynaptic terminals. Further developments are expected in both of the two directions: more microscopic analysis such as investigating glutamatergic sensitivities of single dendritic spines in combination with two-photon photolysis of a caged-glutamate compound and analysis in a more physiological function-oriented manner such as investigation of pain perception mechanisms using in vivo patch-clamp technique. PMID:12673951

  11. Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca2+ action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the immature auditory system in the absence of sensory stimuli. During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. Both the MOC-OHC and the MOC-IHC synapses are cholinergic, fast and inhibitory and mediated by the α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) coupled to the activation of calcium-activated potassium channels that hyperpolarize the hair cells. In this review we discuss the biophysical, functional and molecular data which demonstrate that at the synapses between MOC efferent fibers and cochlear hair cells, modulation of transmitter release as well as short term synaptic plasticity mechanisms, operating both at the presynaptic terminal and at the postsynaptic hair-cell, determine the efficacy of these synapses and shape the hair cell response pattern. PMID:25520631

  12. Effect of nitrous oxide on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Mennerick, S; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V; Todorovic, S M; Shen, W; Olney, J W; Zorumski, C F

    1998-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas) has been a widely used anesthetic/analgesic since the 19th century, although its cellular mechanism of action is not understood. Here we characterize the effects of N2O on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons, a preparation in which anesthetic effects on monosynaptic communication can be examined in a setting free of polysynaptic network variables. Eighty percent N2O occludes peak NMDA receptor-mediated (NMDAR) excitatory autaptic currents (EACs) with no effect on the NMDAR EAC decay time course. N2O also mildly depresses AMPA receptor-mediated (AMPAR) EACs. We find that N2O inhibits both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-mediated responses to exogenous agonist. The postsynaptic blockade of NMDA receptors exhibits slight apparent voltage dependence, whereas the blockade of AMPA receptors is not voltage dependent. Although the degree of ketamine and Mg2+ blockade of NMDA-induced responses is dependent on permeant ion concentration, the degree of N2O blockade is not. We also observe a slight and variable prolongation of GABAA receptor-mediated (GABAR) postsynaptic currents likely caused by previously reported effects of N2O on GABAA receptors. Despite the effects of N2O on both NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic receptors, glial glutamate transporter currents and metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic depression are not affected. Paired-pulse depression, the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory synaptic currents, and high-voltage-activated calcium currents are not affected by N2O. Our results suggest that the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission are confined to postsynaptic targets. PMID:9822732

  13. Developmental Exposure to Perchlorate Alters Synaptic Transmission in Hippocampus of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mary E.; Sui, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine uptake into the thyroid gland and reduces thyroid hormones. This action of perchlorate raises significant concern over its effects on brain development. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic function in rats after developmental exposure to perchlorate. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 30, 300, or 1,000 ppm perchlorate in drinking water from gestational day 6 until weaning. Adult male offspring were evaluated on a series of behavioral tasks and neurophysiologic measures of synaptic function in the hippocampus. Results At the highest perchlorate dose, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were reduced in pups on postnatal day 21. T4 in dams was reduced relative to controls by 16%, 28%, and 60% in the 30-, 300-, and 1,000-ppm dose groups, respectively. Reductions in T4 were associated with increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone in the high-dose group. No changes were seen in serum T3. Perchlorate did not impair motor activity, spatial learning, or fear conditioning. However, significant reductions in baseline synaptic transmission were observed in hippocampal field potentials at all dose levels. Reductions in inhibitory function were evident at 300 and 1,000 ppm, and augmentations in long-term potentiation were observed in the population spike measure at the highest dose. Conclusions Dose-dependent deficits in hippocampal synaptic function were detectable with relatively minor perturbations of the thyroid axis, indicative of an irreversible impairment in synaptic transmission in response to developmental exposure to perchlorate. PMID:18560531

  14. Fast synaptic transmission mediated by P2X receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masahiro; Heuss, Christian; Ghwiler, Beat H; Gerber, Urs

    2001-01-01

    A fast ATP-mediated synaptic current was identified in CA3 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. In the presence of inhibitors for ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors, extracellular stimulation in the pyramidal cell layer evoked fast synaptic currents that reversed near 0 mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic conductance. This response was mimicked by focal application of ATP. Antagonists of ionotropic P2X receptors reduced both synaptic and ATP-induced currents. Using a pharmacological approach, the source of synaptically released ATP was determined. Synaptic ATP responses were insensitive to presynaptic blockade of GABAergic transmission between interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells with the ?-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2,MePhe4,Met(O)5-ol-enkephalin (FK33-824), but were blocked by adenosine, which inhibits glutamate release from synaptic terminals in the hippocampus. However, selective inhibition of mossy fibre glutamatergic transmission with the metabotropic glutamate receptor group II agonist (2S,2?R,3?R)-2-(2?,3?-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG IV) did not affect the response. This result points to the associational fibres as the source of the ATP-mediated synaptic response. These results suggest that ATP, coreleased with glutamate, induces a synaptic response in CA3 pyramidal cells that is observed mainly under conditions of synchronous discharge from multiple presynaptic inputs. PMID:11507162

  15. First effects of rising amyloid-β in transgenic mouse brain: synaptic transmission and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Damian M.; Liu, Wenfei; Portelius, Erik; Bayram, Sevinç; Yasvoina, Marina; Ho, Sui-Hin; Smits, Hélène; Ali, Shabinah S.; Steinberg, Rivka; Pegasiou, Chrysia-Maria; James, Owain T.; Matarin, Mar; Richardson, Jill C.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John A.; Salih, Dervis A.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting and treating Alzheimer’s disease, before cognitive deficits occur, has become the health challenge of our time. The earliest known event in Alzheimer’s disease is rising amyloid-β. Previous studies have suggested that effects on synaptic transmission may precede plaque deposition. Here we report how relative levels of different soluble amyloid-β peptides in hippocampus, preceding plaque deposition, relate to synaptic and genomic changes. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry was used to measure the early rise of different amyloid-β peptides in a mouse model of increasing amyloid-β (‘TASTPM’, transgenic for familial Alzheimer’s disease genes APP/PSEN1). In the third postnatal week, several amyloid-β peptides were above the limit of detection, including amyloid-β40, amyloid-β38 and amyloid-β42 with an intensity ratio of 6:3:2, respectively. By 2 months amyloid-β levels had only increased by 50% and although the ratio of the different peptides remained constant, the first changes in synaptic currents, compared to wild-type mice could be detected with patch-clamp recordings. Between 2 and 4 months old, levels of amyloid-β40 rose by ∼7-fold, but amyloid-β42 rose by 25-fold, increasing the amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio to 1:1. Only at 4 months did plaque deposition become detectable and only in some mice; however, synaptic changes were evident in all hippocampal fields. These changes included increased glutamate release probability (P < 0.001, n = 7–9; consistent with the proposed physiological effect of amyloid-β) and loss of spontaneous action potential-mediated activity in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus (P < 0.001, n = 7). Hence synaptic changes occur when the amyloid-β levels and amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio are still low compared to those necessary for plaque deposition. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed changes in gene expression at 2–4 months including synaptic genes being strongly affected but often showing significant changes only by 4 months. We thus demonstrate that, in a mouse model of rising amyloid-β, the initial deposition of plaques does not occur until several months after the first amyloid-β becomes detectable but coincides with a rapid acceleration in the rise of amyloid-β levels and the amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio. Prior to acceleration, however, there is already a pronounced synaptic dysfunction, reflected as changes in synaptic transmission and altered gene expression, indicating that restoring synaptic function early in the disease progression may represent the earliest possible target for intervention in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25981962

  16. First effects of rising amyloid-β in transgenic mouse brain: synaptic transmission and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Damian M; Liu, Wenfei; Portelius, Erik; Bayram, Sevinç; Yasvoina, Marina; Ho, Sui-Hin; Smits, Hélène; Ali, Shabinah S; Steinberg, Rivka; Pegasiou, Chrysia-Maria; James, Owain T; Matarin, Mar; Richardson, Jill C; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John A; Salih, Dervis A; Edwards, Frances A

    2015-07-01

    Detecting and treating Alzheimer's disease, before cognitive deficits occur, has become the health challenge of our time. The earliest known event in Alzheimer's disease is rising amyloid-β. Previous studies have suggested that effects on synaptic transmission may precede plaque deposition. Here we report how relative levels of different soluble amyloid-β peptides in hippocampus, preceding plaque deposition, relate to synaptic and genomic changes. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry was used to measure the early rise of different amyloid-β peptides in a mouse model of increasing amyloid-β ('TASTPM', transgenic for familial Alzheimer's disease genes APP/PSEN1). In the third postnatal week, several amyloid-β peptides were above the limit of detection, including amyloid-β40, amyloid-β38 and amyloid-β42 with an intensity ratio of 6:3:2, respectively. By 2 months amyloid-β levels had only increased by 50% and although the ratio of the different peptides remained constant, the first changes in synaptic currents, compared to wild-type mice could be detected with patch-clamp recordings. Between 2 and 4 months old, levels of amyloid-β40 rose by ∼7-fold, but amyloid-β42 rose by 25-fold, increasing the amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio to 1:1. Only at 4 months did plaque deposition become detectable and only in some mice; however, synaptic changes were evident in all hippocampal fields. These changes included increased glutamate release probability (P < 0.001, n = 7-9; consistent with the proposed physiological effect of amyloid-β) and loss of spontaneous action potential-mediated activity in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus (P < 0.001, n = 7). Hence synaptic changes occur when the amyloid-β levels and amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio are still low compared to those necessary for plaque deposition. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed changes in gene expression at 2-4 months including synaptic genes being strongly affected but often showing significant changes only by 4 months. We thus demonstrate that, in a mouse model of rising amyloid-β, the initial deposition of plaques does not occur until several months after the first amyloid-β becomes detectable but coincides with a rapid acceleration in the rise of amyloid-β levels and the amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio. Prior to acceleration, however, there is already a pronounced synaptic dysfunction, reflected as changes in synaptic transmission and altered gene expression, indicating that restoring synaptic function early in the disease progression may represent the earliest possible target for intervention in the onset of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25981962

  17. Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E.

    2014-01-01

    Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties. PMID:25360082

  18. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic transmission by BRAG1/IQSEC2 and its requirement in long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua C.; Petersen, Amber; Zhong, Ling; Himelright, Miranda L.; Murphy, Jessica A.; Walikonis, Randall S.; Gerges, Nashaat Z.

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the proteins regulating synaptic function can cause synaptic plasticity imbalance that underlies neurological disorders such as intellectual disability. A study found that four distinct mutations within BRAG1, an Arf-GEF synaptic protein, each led to X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Although the physiological functions of BRAG1 are poorly understood, each of these mutations reduces BRAG1's Arf-GEF activity. Here we show that BRAG1 is required for the activity-dependent removal of AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Moreover, we show that BRAG1 bidirectionally regulates synaptic transmission. On one hand, BRAG1 is required for the maintenance of synaptic transmission. On the other hand, BRAG1 expression enhances synaptic transmission, independently of BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity or neuronal activity, but dependently on its C-terminus interactions. This study demonstrates a dual role of BRAG1 in synaptic function and highlights the functional relevance of reduced BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity as seen in the XLID-associated human mutations. PMID:27009485

  19. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic transmission by BRAG1/IQSEC2 and its requirement in long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua C; Petersen, Amber; Zhong, Ling; Himelright, Miranda L; Murphy, Jessica A; Walikonis, Randall S; Gerges, Nashaat Z

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the proteins regulating synaptic function can cause synaptic plasticity imbalance that underlies neurological disorders such as intellectual disability. A study found that four distinct mutations within BRAG1, an Arf-GEF synaptic protein, each led to X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Although the physiological functions of BRAG1 are poorly understood, each of these mutations reduces BRAG1's Arf-GEF activity. Here we show that BRAG1 is required for the activity-dependent removal of AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Moreover, we show that BRAG1 bidirectionally regulates synaptic transmission. On one hand, BRAG1 is required for the maintenance of synaptic transmission. On the other hand, BRAG1 expression enhances synaptic transmission, independently of BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity or neuronal activity, but dependently on its C-terminus interactions. This study demonstrates a dual role of BRAG1 in synaptic function and highlights the functional relevance of reduced BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity as seen in the XLID-associated human mutations. PMID:27009485

  20. Circadian Rhythm in Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Itri, Jason; Michel, Stephan; Waschek, James A.; Colwell, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that most suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons express the neurotransmitter GABA and are likely to use this neurotransmitter to regulate excitability within the SCN. To evaluate the possibility that inhibitory synaptic transmission varies with a circadian rhythm within the mouse SCN, we used whole cell patch-clamp recording in an acute brain slice preparation to record GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). We found that the sIPSC frequency in the dorsal SCN (dSCN) exhibited a TTX-sensitive daily rhythm that peaked during the late day and early night in mice held in a light:dark cycle. We next evaluated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was responsible for the observed rhythm in IPSC frequency. Pretreatment of SCN slices with VPAC1/VPAC2- or VPAC2-specific receptor antagonists prevented the increase in sIPSC frequency in the dSCN. The rhythm in sIPSC frequency was absent in VIP/peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-deficient mice. Finally, we were able to detect a rhythm in the frequency of inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice held in constant darkness that was also dependent on VIP and the VPAC2 receptor. Overall, these data demonstrate that there is a circadian rhythm in GABAergic transmission in the dorsal region of the mouse SCN and that the VIP is required for expression of this rhythm. PMID:14973316

  1. On-site energy supply at synapses through monocarboxylate transporters maintains excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Masashi; Takahashi, Yukari; Watabe, Ayako M; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Kato, Fusao

    2014-02-12

    ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is the most efficient way to provide energy to various energy-consuming activities of the neurons. These processes require a large amount of ATP molecules to be maintained. Of these, synaptic transmission is most energy consuming. Here we report that lactate transported through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) at excitatory synapses constitutively supports synaptic transmission, even under conditions in which a sufficient supply of glucose and intracellular ATP are present. We analyzed the effects of MCT inhibition on neuronal activities using whole-cell recordings in brain slices of rats in the nucleus of the solitary tract. MCT inhibitors (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-CIN), phloretin, and d-lactate) significantly decreased the amplitude of EPSCs without reducing release probability. Although 4-CIN significantly reduced currents mediated by heterologously expressed AMPA-Rs in oocytes (a novel finding in this study), the IC50 of the inhibitory effect on EPSC in brain slices was ∼3.8 times smaller than that on AMPA-R currents in oocytes. Removal of intracellular ATP significantly potentiated the inhibition of EPSC with 4-CIN in a manner that was counteracted by intracellular lactate addition. In addition, extracellular lactate rescued aglycemic suppression of EPSC, in a manner that was prevented by 4-CIN. Inhibition of MCTs also reduced NMDA-R-mediated EPSCs and, to a lesser extent, the IPSC. The reduction in EPSC amplitude by γ-d-glutamylglycine was enhanced by 4-CIN, suggesting also a decreased quantal content. We conclude that "on-site" astrocyte-neuron lactate transport to presynaptic and postsynaptic elements is necessary for the integrity of excitatory synaptic transmission. PMID:24523550

  2. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2010-05-31

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. PMID:20382202

  3. Impaired Photoreceptor Protein Transport and Synaptic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M.; Sykoudis, Kristen; Andrabi, Sara; Eichers, Erica R.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Wilson, John H.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lupski, James R.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is an oligogenic syndrome whose manifestations include retinal degeneration, renal abnormalities, obesity and polydactylia. Evidence suggests that the main etiopathophysiology of this syndrome is impaired Intraflagellar Transport (IFT). In this study, we study the Bbs4-null mouse and investigate photoreceptor structure and function after loss of this gene. We find that Bbs4-null mice have defects in the transport of phototransduction proteins from the inner segments to the outer segments, before signs of cell death. Additionally, we show defects in synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors to secondary neurons of the visual system, demonstrating multiple functions for BBS4 in photoreceptors. PMID:18022666

  4. Impaired photoreceptor protein transport and synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Sykoudis, Kristen; Andrabi, Sara; Eichers, Erica R; Pennesi, Mark E; Tan, Perciliz L; Wilson, John H; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lupski, James R; Wu, Samuel M

    2007-12-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an oligogenic syndrome whose manifestations include retinal degeneration, renal abnormalities, obesity and polydactylia. Evidence suggests that the main etiopathophysiology of this syndrome is impaired intraflagellar transport (IFT). In this study, we study the Bbs4-null mouse and investigate photoreceptor structure and function after loss of this gene. We find that Bbs4-null mice have defects in the transport of phototransduction proteins from the inner segments to the outer segments, before signs of cell death. Additionally, we show defects in synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors to secondary neurons of the visual system, demonstrating multiple functions for BBS4 in photoreceptors. PMID:18022666

  5. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  6. Tuning synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by stress: the CRH system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuncai; Andres, Adrienne L.; Frotscher, Michael; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance survival, an organism needs to remember—and learn from—threatening or stressful events. This fact necessitates the presence of mechanisms by which stress can influence synaptic transmission in brain regions, such as hippocampus, that subserve learning and memory. A major focus of this series of monographs is on the role and actions of adrenal-derived hormones, corticosteroids, and of brain-derived neurotransmitters, on synaptic function in the stressed hippocampus. Here we focus on the contribution of hippocampus-intrinsic, stress-activated CRH-CRH receptor signaling to the function and structure of hippocampal synapses. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is expressed in interneurons of adult hippocampus, and is released from axon terminals during stress. The peptide exerts time- and dose-dependent effects on learning and memory via modulation of synaptic function and plasticity. Whereas physiological levels of CRH, acting over seconds to minutes, augment memory processes, exposure to presumed severe-stress levels of the peptide results in spine retraction and loss of synapses over more protracted time-frames. Loss of dendritic spines (and hence of synapses) takes place through actin cytoskeleton collapse downstream of CRHR1 receptors that reside within excitatory synapses on spine heads. Chronic exposure to stress levels of CRH may promote dying-back (atrophy) of spine-carrying dendrites. Thus, the acute effects of CRH may contribute to stress-induced adaptive mechanisms, whereas chronic or excessive exposure to the peptide may promote learning problems and premature cognitive decline. PMID:22514519

  7. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Lledo, P M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B; Nicoll, R A

    1996-01-01

    We recorded in the CA1 region from hippocampal slices of prion protein (PrP) gene knockout mice to investigate whether the loss of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) affects neuronal excitability as well as synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. No deficit in synaptic inhibition was found using field potential recordings because (i) responses induced by stimulation in stratum radiatum consisted of a single population spike in PrP gene knockout mice similar to that recorded from control mice and (ii) the plot of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope versus the population spike amplitude showed no difference between the two groups of mice. Intracellular recordings also failed to detect any difference in cell excitability and the reversal potential for inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Analysis of the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic current revealed no modification. Finally, we examined whether synaptic plasticity was altered and found no difference in long-term potentiation between control and PrP gene knockout mice. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the loss of the normal form of prion protein does not alter the physiology of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. PMID:8637886

  8. A TRPV Channel in Drosophila Motor Neurons Regulates Presynaptic Resting Ca2+ Levels, Synapse Growth, and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ching-On; Chen, Kuchuan; Lin, Yong Qi; Chao, Yufang; Duraine, Lita; Lu, Zhongmin; Yoon, Wan Hee; Sullivan, Jeremy M.; Broadhead, Geoffrey T.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Macleod, Gregory T.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Venkatachalam, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Presynaptic resting Ca2+ influences synaptic vesicle (SV) release probability. Here, we report that a TRPV channel, Inactive (Iav), maintains presynaptic resting [Ca2+] by promoting Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila motor neurons, and is required for both synapse development and neurotransmission. We find that Iav activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, which is essential for presynaptic microtubule stabilization at the neuromuscular junction. Thus, loss of Iav induces destabilization of presynaptic microtubules resulting in diminished synaptic growth. Interestingly, expression of human TRPV1 in Iav-deficient motor neurons rescues these defects. We also show that the absence of Iav causes lower SV release probability and diminished synaptic transmission, whereas Iav overexpression elevates these synaptic parameters. Together, our findings indicate that Iav acts as a key regulator of synaptic development and function by influencing presynaptic resting [Ca2+]. PMID:25451193

  9. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by low concentrations of glutamate in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zorumski, C F; Mennerick, S; Que, J

    1996-07-15

    1. The effects of low micromolar concentrations of glutamate on fast excitatory synaptic responses were studied in microcultures of postnatal rat hippocampal neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. 2. Glutamate depressed the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor component of excitatory autaptic currents (EACs) with an EC50 of 3.8 microM. 3. Both pre- and postsynaptic effects contributed to the depression of AMPA receptor-mediated EACs. Cyclothiazide and wheatgerm agglutinin, agents which inhibit AMPA receptor desensitization, partially reversed the depression produced by glutamate, as did pertussis toxin, an agent that blocks presynaptic inhibition mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors. 4. In neurons in which both the AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor components of EACs were examined, low concentrations of glutamate depressed the NMDA component of EACs to a greater extent. The EC50 for inhibiting the NMDA component was 1.3 microM. 5. Calcium-dependent desensitization of postsynaptic NMDA receptors contributed to the depression of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. Both depolarization of postsynaptic neurons to +70 mV to decrease Ca2+ influx via NMDA channels and inclusion of high concentrations of a calcium chelator in recording pipettes decreased the depression of NMDA receptor-mediated EACs. 6. Threo-3-hydroxy-aspartate (THA), an inhibitor of glutamate transport, depressed EACs by about 10% and increased the degree of depression produced by 2.5 microM glutamate, suggesting that glutamate transport in microcultures helps to control ambient glutamate levels. 7. Because the normal extracellular concentration of glutamate is about 1 microM, these results suggest that the ambient glutamate level is an important determinant of synaptic efficacy. Relatively small changes in extracellular glutamate can alter fast excitatory synaptic transmission by both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:8842005

  10. Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-11-01

    At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, τ = 1/(Dρδs), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, δ is the vesicle diameter, ρ is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons. PMID:25311636

  11. Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Parmelee, Caitlyn M.; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M.; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2014-01-01

    At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca2+) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, τ = 1/(Dρδs), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, δ is the vesicle diameter, ρ is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons. PMID:25311636

  12. Roles of N-Type and Q-Type Ca2+ Channels in Supporting Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David B.; Randall, Andrew; Tsien, Richard W.

    1994-04-01

    Several types of calcium channels found in the central nervous system are possible participants in triggering neurotransmitter release. Synaptic transmission between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neurons was mediated by N-type calcium channels, together with calcium channels whose pharmacology differs from that of L- and P-type channels but resembles that of the Q-type channel encoded by the α1A subunit gene. Blockade of either population of channels strongly increased enhancement of synaptic transmission with repetitive stimuli. Even after complete blockade of N-type channels, transmission was strongly modulated by stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors or protein kinase C. These findings suggest a role for α1A subunits in synaptic transmission and support the idea that neurotransmitter release may depend on multiple types of calcium channels under physiological conditions.

  13. NR2B-dependent cyclophilin D translocation suppresses the recovery of synaptic transmission after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Wang, Yongfu; Yan, Shijun; Du, Fang; Yan, Shirley Shidu

    2015-10-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) subunit 2B (NR2B)-containing NMDA receptors and mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D (CypD) are well characterized in mediating neuronal death after ischemia, respectively. However, whether and how NR2B and CypD work together in mediating synaptic injury after ischemia remains elusive. Using an ex vivo ischemia model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in hippocampal slices, we identified a NR2B-dependent mechanism for CypD translocation onto the mitochondrial inner membrane. CypD depletion (CypD null mice) prevented OGD-induced impairment in synaptic transmission recovery. Overexpression of neuronal CypD mice (CypD+) exacerbated OGD-induced loss of synaptic transmission. Inhibition of CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening by cyclosporine A (CSA) attenuated ischemia-induced synaptic perturbation in CypD+ and non-transgenic (non-Tg) mice. The treatment of antioxidant EUK134 to suppress mitochondrial oxidative stress rescued CypD-mediated synaptic dysfunction following OGD in CypD+ slices. Furthermore, OGD provoked the interaction of CypD with P53, which was enhanced in slices overexpressing CypD but was diminished in CypD-null slices. Inhibition of p53 using a specific inhibitor of p53 (pifithrin-μ) attenuated the CypD/p53 interaction following OGD, along with a restored synaptic transmission in both non-Tg and CypD+ hippocampal slices. Our results indicate that OGD-induced CypD translocation potentiates CypD/P53 interaction in a NR2B dependent manner, promoting oxidative stress and loss of synaptic transmission. We also evaluate a new ex vivo chronic OGD-induced ischemia model for studying the effect of oxidative stress on synaptic damage. PMID:26232180

  14. Effect of cortical spreading depression on synaptic transmission of rat hippocampal tissues.

    PubMed

    Wernsmann, Brigitta; Pape, Hans-Christian; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2006-03-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to be a putative neuronal mechanism underlying migraine aura and subsequent pain. In vitro and ex vivo/in vitro brain slice techniques were used to investigate CSD effects on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in combined rat hippocampus-cortex slices. Induction of CSD in combined hippocampus-cortex slices in which DC negative deflections did not propagate from neocortex to hippocampus significantly augmented fEPSP amplitude and LTP in the hippocampus. Propagation of CSD to the hippocampus resulted in a transient suppression followed by reinstatement of fEPSP with amplitude of pre-CSD levels. LTP was inhibited when DC potential shifts were recorded in the hippocampus. Furthermore, CSD was induced in anaesthetized rats and, thereafter, hippocampal tissues were examined in vitro. LTP was significantly enhanced in hippocampal slices obtained from ipsilateral site to the hemisphere in which CSD was evoked. The results indicate the disturbances of hippocampal synaptic transmission triggered by propagation of CSD. This perturbation of hippocampal synaptic transmission induced by CSD may relate to some symptoms occurring during migraine attacks, such as amnesia and hyperactivity. PMID:16553774

  15. Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001. PMID:24368731

  16. The action of zinc on synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in cultures of mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, M L; Vyklicky, L

    1989-01-01

    1. The whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp method was used to record from hippocampal neurones in cell culture. Synaptic responses were evoked by loose patch stimulation of adjacent presynaptic neurones in low-density cultures. Agonists and antagonists were applied rapidly, using an array of flow pipes each of diameter 250 microns, positioned within 100 microns of the postsynaptic neurone. 2. Bath application of 50 microM-zinc produced prolonged periods of synaptic barrage and action potential discharge. Flow pipe application of 50 microM-zinc, in glycine-free solution with 1 mM-Mg2+, produced on average a 75% reduction of IPSP amplitude, but increased the average EPSP amplitude to 171% of control. However, after block of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors with bicuculline, zinc had no effect on EPSP amplitude, suggesting that potentiation recorded in control solutions reflects block of polysynaptic IPSPs. 3. Consistent with the block of IPSPs postsynaptic responses to flow pipe applications of GABA were blocked by zinc, with fast-on, fast-off kinetics. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for zinc block of GABA responses, estimated from fit of a single binding site adsorption isotherm, was 11 microM and sufficient to explain the degree of reduction of IPSPs by 50 microM-zinc. Zinc antagonism of responses to GABA was essentially independent of membrane potential over the range -60 to +60 mV. 4. With bicuculline methiodide and glycine added to a magnesium-free extracellular solution, to allow the study of synaptic responses mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, zinc reduced the amplitude of EPSPs to 50% of control, and decreased the decay time constant of the EPSP, suggesting that zinc blocks synaptic activation of NMDA receptors. 5. Under conditions where synaptic transmission was completely blocked with postsynaptic receptor antagonists (1-3 mM-kynurenic acid and 10-20 microM-bicuculline methiodide) 50 microM-zinc decreased the amplitude of the spike after-hyperpolarization (AHP), but did not produce large changes in action potential amplitude or half-width. Under these conditions 50 microM-zinc also decreased the current threshold required to trigger action potential discharge, and blocked accommodation so that repetitive firing replaced single action potential responses to prolonged current pulses. PMID:2561789

  17. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F. Kent; Roche, Katherine W.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  18. Phospholipase A2 activation enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2008-03-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activation enhances glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. By using melittin as a tool to activate PLA(2), we examined the effect of PLA(2) activation on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded at 0 mV in SG neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by use of the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Melittin enhanced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic and glycinergic sIPSCs. The enhancement of GABAergic but not glycinergic transmission was largely depressed by Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin or glutamate-receptor antagonists (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione and/or dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid) and also in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. The effects of melittin on glycinergic sIPSC frequency and amplitude were dose-dependent with an effective concentration of approximately 0.7 microM for half-maximal effect and were depressed by PLA(2) inhibitor 4-bromophenacyl bromide or aristolochic acid. The melittin-induced enhancement of glycinergic transmission was depressed by lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid but not cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. These results indicate that the activation of PLA(2) in the SG enhances GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory transmission in SG neurons. The former action is mediated by glutamate-receptor activation and neuronal activity increase, possibly the facilitatory effect of PLA(2) activation on excitatory transmission, whereas the latter action is due to PLA(2) and subsequent lipoxygenase activation and is independent of extracellular Ca(2+). It is suggested that PLA(2) activation in the SG could enhance not only excitatory but also inhibitory transmission, resulting in the modulation of nociception. PMID:18216222

  19. Altered inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn neurones in spastic and oscillator mice

    PubMed Central

    Graham, B A; Schofield, P R; Sah, P; Callister, R J

    2003-01-01

    The spastic (spa) and oscillator (ot) mouse have naturally occurring mutations in the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) and exhibit severe motor disturbances when exposed to unexpected sensory stimuli. We examined the effects of the spa and ot mutations on GlyR- and GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn (SFDH), a spinal cord region where inhibition is important for nociceptive processing. Spontaneous mIPSCs were recorded from visually identified neurones in parasagittal spinal cord slices. Neurones received exclusively GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs, exclusively GlyR-mediated mIPSCs or both types of mIPSCs. In control mice (wild-type and spa/+) over 40 % of neurones received both types of mIPSCs, over 30 % received solely GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs and the remainder received solely GlyR-mediated mIPSCs. In spa/spa animals, 97 % of the neurones received exclusively GABAAergic or both types of mIPSCs. In ot/ot animals, over 80 % of the neurones received exclusively GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude and charge were reduced in spa/spa and ot/ot animals. GABAAR-mediated mIPSC amplitude and charge were elevated in spa/spa but unaltered in ot/ot animals. GlyR- and GABAAR-mediated mIPSC decay times were similar for all genotypes, consistent with the mutations altering receptor numbers but not kinetics. These findings suggest the spastic and oscillator mutations, traditionally considered motor disturbances, also disrupt inhibition in a sensory region associated with nociceptive transmission. Furthermore, the spastic mutation results in a compensatory increase in GABAAergic transmission in SFDH neurones, a form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity absent in the oscillator mouse. PMID:12837931

  20. Emerging Pharmacological Properties of Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission: Comparison between Mammalian and Insect Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thany, Steeve H; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is probably the oldest signalling neurotransmitter which appeared in evolution before the nervous system. It is present in bacteria, algae, protozoa and plants. In insects and mammals it is involved in cell-to-cell communications in various neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The discovery of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as the main receptors involved in rapid cholinergic neurotransmission has helped to understand the role of ACh at synaptic level. Recently, several lines of evidence have indicated that extrasynaptically expressed nAChRs display distinct pharmacological properties from the ones expressed at synaptic level. The role of both nAChRs at insect extrasynaptic and/or synaptic levels has been underestimated due to the lack of pharmacological tools to identify different nicotinic receptor subtypes. In the present review, we summarize recent electrophysiological and pharmacological studies on the extrasynaptic and synaptic differences between insect and mammalian nAChR subtypes and we discuss on the pharmacological impact of several drugs such as neonicotinoid insecticides targeting these receptors. In fact, nAChRs are involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes such as epilepsy, pain and a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In addition, they are the target sites of neonicotinoid insecticides which are known to act as nicotinic agonists causing severe poisoning in insects and mammals. PMID:22654728

  1. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Affleck, V.S.; Coote, J.H.; Pyner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine – BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold – FG or cholera toxin B subunit – CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS–PVN pathways. PMID:22698695

  2. A Computational Model to Investigate Astrocytic Glutamate Uptake Influence on Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Sushmita L.; Ghaderi, Viviane S.; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C.; Legendre, Arnaud; Ambert, Nicolas; Greget, Renaud; Bischoff, Serge; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, our view of astrocytes has switched from passive support cells to active processing elements in the brain. The current view is that astrocytes shape neuronal communication and also play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of astrocytes, the exact mechanisms underlying neuron-astrocyte communication and the physiological consequences of astrocytic-neuronal interactions remain largely unclear. In this work, we define a modeling framework that will permit to address unanswered questions regarding the role of astrocytes. Our computational model of a detailed glutamatergic synapse facilitates the analysis of neural system responses to various stimuli and conditions that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, in particular the readouts at the sub-cellular level. In this paper, we extend a detailed glutamatergic synaptic model, to include astrocytic glutamate transporters. We demonstrate how these glial transporters, responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake, modulate synaptic transmission mediated by ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors at glutamatergic synapses. Furthermore, we investigate how these local signaling effects at the synaptic level are translated into varying spatio-temporal patterns of neuron firing. Paired pulse stimulation results reveal that the effect of astrocytic glutamate uptake is more apparent when the input inter-spike interval is sufficiently long to allow the receptors to recover from desensitization. These results suggest an important functional role of astrocytes in spike timing dependent processes and demand further investigation of the molecular basis of certain neurological diseases specifically related to alterations in astrocytic glutamate uptake, such as epilepsy. PMID:23060782

  3. A computational model to investigate astrocytic glutamate uptake influence on synaptic transmission and neuronal spiking.

    PubMed

    Allam, Sushmita L; Ghaderi, Viviane S; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Legendre, Arnaud; Ambert, Nicolas; Greget, Renaud; Bischoff, Serge; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, our view of astrocytes has switched from passive support cells to active processing elements in the brain. The current view is that astrocytes shape neuronal communication and also play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of astrocytes, the exact mechanisms underlying neuron-astrocyte communication and the physiological consequences of astrocytic-neuronal interactions remain largely unclear. In this work, we define a modeling framework that will permit to address unanswered questions regarding the role of astrocytes. Our computational model of a detailed glutamatergic synapse facilitates the analysis of neural system responses to various stimuli and conditions that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, in particular the readouts at the sub-cellular level. In this paper, we extend a detailed glutamatergic synaptic model, to include astrocytic glutamate transporters. We demonstrate how these glial transporters, responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake, modulate synaptic transmission mediated by ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors at glutamatergic synapses. Furthermore, we investigate how these local signaling effects at the synaptic level are translated into varying spatio-temporal patterns of neuron firing. Paired pulse stimulation results reveal that the effect of astrocytic glutamate uptake is more apparent when the input inter-spike interval is sufficiently long to allow the receptors to recover from desensitization. These results suggest an important functional role of astrocytes in spike timing dependent processes and demand further investigation of the molecular basis of certain neurological diseases specifically related to alterations in astrocytic glutamate uptake, such as epilepsy. PMID:23060782

  4. Extracellular Ca2+ depletion contributes to fast activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rusakov, D A; Fine, A

    2003-01-23

    Synaptic activation is associated with rapid changes in intracellular Ca(2+), while the extracellular Ca(2+) level is generally assumed to be constant. Here, using a novel optical method to measure changes in extracellular Ca(2+) at high spatial and temporal resolution, we find that brief trains of synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1 induce transient depletion of extracellular Ca(2+). We show that this depletion, which depends on postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation, decreases the Ca(2+) available to enter individual presynaptic boutons of CA3 pyramidal cells. This in turn reduces the probability of consecutive synaptic releases at CA3-CA1 synapses and therefore contributes to short-term paired-pulse depression of minimal responses. This activity-dependent depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) represents a novel form of fast retrograde synaptic signaling that can modulate glutamatergic information transfer in the brain. PMID:12546823

  5. Extracellular Ca2+ Depletion Contributes to Fast Activity-Dependent Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Rusakov, D.A.; Fine, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Synaptic activation is associated with rapid changes in intracellular Ca2+, while the extracellular Ca2+ level is generally assumed to be constant. Here, using a novel optical method to measure changes in extracellular Ca2+ at high spatial and temporal resolution, we find that brief trains of synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1 induce transient depletion of extracellular Ca2+. We show that this depletion, which depends on postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation, decreases the Ca2+ available to enter individual presynaptic boutons of CA3 pyramidal cells. This in turn reduces the probability of consecutive synaptic releases at CA3–CA1 synapses and therefore contributes to short-term paired-pulse depression of minimal responses. This activity-dependent depletion of extracellular Ca2+ represents a novel form of fast retrograde synaptic signaling that can modulate glutamatergic information transfer in the brain. PMID:12546823

  6. Melatonin receptor activation increases glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat medial lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Evely, Katherine M; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is secreted from the pineal gland and mediates its physiological effects through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 . These receptors are expressed in several brain areas, including the habenular complex, a pair of nuclei that relay information from forebrain to midbrain and modulate a plethora of behaviors, including sleep, mood, and pain. However, so far, the precise mechanisms by which MLT control the function of habenula neurons remain unknown. Using whole cell recordings from male rat brain slices, we examined the effects of MLT on the excitability of medial lateral habenula (MLHb) neurons. We found that MLT had no significant effects on the intrinsic excitability of MLHb neurons, but profoundly increased the amplitude of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC). The increase in strength of glutamate synapses onto MLHb neurons was mediated by an increase in glutamate release. The MLT-induced increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission was blocked by the competitive MT1 /MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ). These results unravel a potential cellular mechanism by which MLT receptor activation enhances the excitability of MLHb neurons. The MLT-mediated control of glutamatergic inputs to the MLHb may play a key role in the modulation of various behaviors controlled by the habenular complex. Synapse, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Synapse 70:181-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799638

  7. Chronic activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus increases excitatory synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimok; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in regulating neuronal activity have been extensively characterized. Although early studies show that CB1 receptors are present in the nervous system and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are in the immune system, recent evidence indicates that CB2 receptors are also expressed in the brain. Activation or blockade of CB2 receptors in vivo induces neuropsychiatric effects, but the cellular mechanisms of CB2 receptor function are unclear. The aim of this study is to determine how activation of CB2 receptors present in the hippocampus regulates synaptic function. Here, we show that when organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampal slices were treated with a CB2 receptor agonist (JWH133 or GP1a) for 7–10 days, quantal glutamate release became more frequent and spine density was increased via extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Chronic intraperitoneal injection of JWH133 into mice also increased excitatory synaptic transmission. These effects were blocked by a CB2 receptor antagonist (SR144528) or absent from hippocampal slices of CB2 receptor knock-out mice. This study reveals a novel cellular function of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus and provides insights into how cannabinoid receptor subtypes diversify the roles of cannabinoids in the brain. PMID:25504573

  8. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons by triphenyltin, an environmental pollutant.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Oyama, Yasuo; Takase, Yuko; Akaike, Norio

    2015-02-01

    Triphenyltin (TPT) is an organometallic compound that poses a known environmental hazard to some fish and mollusks, as well as mammals. However, its neurotoxic mechanisms in the mammalian brain are still unclear. Thus, we have investigated mechanisms through which TPT modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission, including spontaneous, miniature, and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, and eEPSCs respectively), in a rat hippocampal CA3 'synaptic-bouton' preparation. TPT, at environmentally relevant concentrations (30 nM to 1 μM), significantly increased the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting the currents' amplitudes. The facilitatory effects of TPT on mEPSC frequency were seen even in a Ca(2+)-free external solution containing tetrodotoxin. These effects were further prolonged by adding caffeine, which releases Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) storage sites. In glutamatergic eEPSCs evoked by paired-pulse stimuli, TPT at concentrations greater than or equal to 100 nM markedly increased the current amplitude by the first pulse and decreased failure rate and pair-pulse ratio. On the other hand, both voltage-dependent Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels were unaffected by submicromolar concentrations of TPT. Overall, these results suggest that TPT, at environmentally relevant concentrations, affects presynaptic transmitter release machinery by directly modulating Ca(2+) storage. Further, findings of this study imply that excitotoxic mechanisms may underlie TPT-induced neuronal damage. PMID:25462303

  9. Regulation and restoration of motoneuronal synaptic transmission during neuromuscular regeneration in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis.

    PubMed

    Turner, M B; Szabo-Maas, T M; Poyer, J C; Zoran, M J

    2011-08-01

    Regeneration of motor systems involves reestablishment of central control networks, reinnervation of muscle targets by motoneurons, and reconnection of neuromodulatory circuits. Still, how these processes are integrated as motor function is restored during regeneration remains ill defined. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying motoneuronal regeneration of neuromuscular synapses related to feeding movements in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis. Neurons B19 and B110, although activated during different phases of the feeding pattern, innervate similar sets of muscles. However, the percentage of muscle fibers innervated, the efficacy of excitatory junction potentials, and the strength of muscle contractions were different for each cell's specific connections. After peripheral nerve crush, a sequence of transient electrical and chemical connections formed centrally within the buccal ganglia. Neuromuscular synapse regeneration involved a three-phase process: the emergence of spontaneous synaptic transmission (P1), the acquisition of evoked potentials of weak efficacy (P2), and the establishment of functional reinnervation (P3). Differential synaptic efficacy at muscle contacts was recapitulated in cell culture. Differences in motoneuronal presynaptic properties (i.e., quantal content) were the basis of disparate neuromuscular synapse function, suggesting a role for retrograde target influences. We propose a homeostatic model of molluscan motor system regeneration. This model has three restoration events: (1) transient central synaptogenesis during axonal outgrowth, (2) intermotoneuronal inhibitory synaptogenesis during initial neuromuscular synapse formation, and (3) target-dependent regulation of neuromuscular junction formation. PMID:21876114

  10. Regulation and Restoration of Motoneuronal Synaptic Transmission During Neuromuscular Regeneration in the Pulmonate Snail Helisoma trivolvis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M. B.; Szabo-Maas, T. M.; Poyer, J. C.; Zoran, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of motor systems involves reestablishment of central control networks, reinnervation of muscle targets by motoneurons, and reconnection of neuromodulatory circuits. Still, how these processes are integrated as motor function is restored during regeneration remains ill defined. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying motoneuronal regeneration of neuromuscular synapses related to feeding movements in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis. Neurons B19 and B110, although activated during different phases of the feeding pattern, innervate similar sets of muscles. However, the percentage of muscle fibers innervated, the efficacy of excitatory junction potentials, and the strength of muscle contractions were different for each cell’s specific connections. After peripheral nerve crush, a sequence of transient electrical and chemical connections formed centrally within the buccal ganglia. Neuromuscular synapse regeneration involved a three-phase process: the emergence of spontaneous synaptic transmission (P1), the acquisition of evoked potentials of weak efficacy (P2), and the establishment of functional reinnervation (P3). Differential synaptic efficacy at muscle contacts was recapitulated in cell culture. Differences in motoneuronal presynaptic properties (i.e., quantal content) were the basis of disparate neuromuscular synapse function, suggesting a role for retrograde target influences. We propose a homeostatic model of molluscan motor system regeneration. This model has three restoration events: (1) transient central synaptogenesis during axonal outgrowth, (2) intermotoneuronal inhibitory synaptogenesis during initial neuromuscular synapse formation, and (3) target-dependent regulation of neuromuscular junction formation. PMID:21876114

  11. Purinergic P2X Receptors Presynaptically Increase Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in Dorsolateral Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Purinergic P2X receptors have been reported to present in regions of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of presynaptic P2X receptors in modulating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the dorsolateral PAG (dl-PAG), which has abundant neuronal connections. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) of the dl-PAG neurons. Our data show that ?, ?-methylene ATP (a P2X receptors agonist), in the concentration of 50 M, significantly increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs without altering the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in eight tested neurons. The effects were attenuated by PPADS, an antagonist to P2X receptors. Furthermore, ?, ?-methylene ATP increased the amplitude of evoked EPSCs, and decreased the paired-pulse ratio of eEPSCs in ten neurons. In contrast, activation of P2X had no distinct effect on IPSCs. In addition, immunofluoresent methods demonstrate that P2X labeling was co-localized with a presynaptic marker, synaptophysin, in the dl-PAG. The results of the current study provide the first evidence indicating that P2X receptors facilitate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the dl-PAG via presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:18395189

  12. Modulation by adenosine of Adelta and C primary-afferent glutamatergic transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Lao, L-J; Kawasaki, Y; Yang, K; Fujita, T; Kumamoto, E

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the actions of adenosine on monosynaptic Adelta and C primary-afferent excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of an adult rat spinal cord slice. In 67% of the neurons examined, adenosine reversibly decreased the amplitude of the Adelta-fiber EPSC, while in 13% of the neurons the amplitude was reduced or unaffected, which was followed by its increase persisting for several minutes after adenosine washout. The remaining neurons did not exhibit a change in the amplitude. The reduction in Adelta-fiber EPSC amplitude by adenosine was dose-dependent with an effective concentration for half-inhibition (EC50) value of 217 microM. When examined by using a paired-pulse stimulus, a ratio of the second to first Adelta-fiber EPSC amplitude under the reduction was larger than that of EPSC amplitude in the control, suggesting a presynaptic action of adenosine. In 69% of the neurons tested, the C-fiber EPSC was reversibly decreased in amplitude by adenosine (100 microM) by an extent comparable to that of Adelta-fiber EPSC; the remaining neurons were without adenosine actions. Similar inhibitory actions of adenosine were also seen in neurons where both Adelta-fiber and C-fiber EPSCs were elicited. Similar reduction in the Adelta-fiber or C-fiber EPSC amplitude was induced by an A1 adenosine-receptor agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (1 microM), and the adenosine-induced reduction was not observed in the presence of an A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (1 microM). An A2a agonist, CGS 21680 (1 microM), did not significantly affect the Adelta-fiber EPSC amplitude. It is concluded that adenosine presynaptically inhibits monosynaptic Adelta-fiber and C-fiber transmission by a similar extent through the activation of the A1 receptor in many but not all SG neurons; this could contribute to at least a part of antinociception by intrathecally administered adenosine analogues and probably by endogenous adenosine. PMID:15051161

  13. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, YuYing; Chen, JunFang; Chen, Ying; Zhuang, YingHan; Sun, Mu; Behnisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys, and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, SN and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP+. Here, we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP+ elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP+ were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP+ reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP+ on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP+ affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of the hippocampal GABAergic system. PMID:26300734

  14. Serotonin is a facilitatory neuromodulator of synaptic transmission and "reinforces" long-term potentiation induction in the vertical lobe of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, T; Feinstein, N; Klein, M; Hochner, B

    2010-08-11

    The modern cephalopod mollusks (coleoids) are considered the most behaviorally advanced invertebrate, yet little is known about the neurophysiological basis of their behaviors. Previous work suggested that the vertical lobe (VL) of cephalopods is a crucial site for the learning and memory components of these behaviors. We are therefore studying the neurophysiology of the VL in Octopus vulgaris and have discovered a robust activity-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of the synaptic input to the VL. Moreover, we have shown that the VL and its LTP are involved in behavioral long-term memory acquisition. To advance our understanding of the VL as a learning neural network we explore the possible involvement of neuromodulation in VL function. Here we examine whether the well studied serotonergic modulation in simple models of learning in gastropods mollusks is conserved in the octopus VL. We demonstrate histochemically that the VL is innervated by afferent terminals containing 5-HT immunoreactivity (5-HT-IR). Physiologically, 5-HT has a robust facilitatory effect on synaptic transmission and activity-dependent LTP induction. These results suggest that serotonergic neuromodulation is a part of a reinforcing/reward signaling system conserved in both simple and complex learning systems of mollusks. However, there are notable functional differences. First, the effective concentration of 5-HT in the VL is rather high (100 microM); secondly, only neuropilar regions but not cell bodies in the VL are innervated by terminals containing 5-HT-IR. Thirdly, repetitive or long exposures to 5-HT do not lead to a clear long-term facilitation. We propose that in the octopus VL, while the basic facilitatory properties of molluscan 5-HT system are conserved, the system has adapted to convey signals from other brain areas to reinforce the activity-dependent associations at specific sites in the large connections matrix in the VL. PMID:20433903

  15. Dipole Moment of Acetylcholine and Its Relevance to the Chemical Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maurel, Patrick; Galzigna, Lauro

    1971-01-01

    The dipole moment of acetylcholine (AcCh) has been measured in chloroform and a value of 8.49 D was obtained. Such a value actually represents the total dipole moment of the ion pair (AcCh)+(Cl)-. The dipole moment of the (AcCh)+ cation alone turned out to be 2.65 D whereas its theoretical value obtained after a vectorial calculation was 1.65 D. The discrepancy was related to an interaction between AcCh and the solvent. The meaning of the measured value is discussed on the basis of a recent theory of chemical synaptic transmission based on the assumption of a much higher dipole moment value for the AcCh molecule. PMID:4326884

  16. A transducible nuclear/nucleolar protein, mLLP, regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nam-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung F; Shim, Jaehoon; Kim, Somi; Kim, Dae Won; Kwak, Chuljung; Sim, Su-Eon; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Ahn, Seohee; Yoo, Juyoun; Choi, Sun-Lim; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kang, Chulhun; Choi, Soo Young; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Cell-permeable proteins are emerging as unconventional regulators of signal transduction and providing a potential for therapeutic applications. However, only a few of them are identified and studied in detail. We identify a novel cell-permeable protein, mouse LLP homolog (mLLP), and uncover its roles in regulating neural development. We found that mLLP is strongly expressed in developing nervous system and that mLLP knockdown or overexpression during maturation of cultured neurons affected the neuronal growth and synaptic transmission. Interestingly, extracellular addition of mLLP protein enhanced dendritic arborization, demonstrating the non-cell-autonomous effect of mLLP. Moreover, mLLP interacts with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as well as transcriptional machineries and modulates gene expression involved in neuronal growth. Together, these results illustrate the characteristics and roles of previously unknown cell-permeable protein mLLP in modulating neural development. PMID:26961175

  17. Synaptic transmission from rods to rod-dominated bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Yang, X L; Wu, S M

    1993-06-11

    Synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and bipolar cells was studied in dark-adapted tiger salamander retinas. Based on the relative light sensitivity, bipolar cells, either depolarizing (DBC) or hyperpolarizing (HBC), fell into two groups: one receives inputs primarily from rods (rod-dominated bipolar cells, DBCR and HBCR) and the other receives inputs primarily from cones (cone-dominated bipolar cells, DBCC and HBCC). The input-output relations of the rod-DBCR and rod-HBCR synapses were determined by plotting the voltage responses of the rod and DBCR (or HBCR) to dim 500-nm light steps, which polarizes only the rods but not the cones. The slope gains of both synapses were the highest near the dark rod voltage (-2.5 for the rod-DBCR synapse and 4.0 for the rod-HBCR synapse), and they (the absolute values) became progressively smaller at more hyperpolarized rod voltages. PMID:8186975

  18. A transducible nuclear/nucleolar protein, mLLP, regulates neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nam-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung F.; Shim, Jaehoon; Kim, Somi; Kim, Dae Won; Kwak, Chuljung; Sim, Su-Eon; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Ahn, Seohee; Yoo, Juyoun; Choi, Sun-Lim; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kang, Chulhun; Choi, Soo Young; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Cell-permeable proteins are emerging as unconventional regulators of signal transduction and providing a potential for therapeutic applications. However, only a few of them are identified and studied in detail. We identify a novel cell-permeable protein, mouse LLP homolog (mLLP), and uncover its roles in regulating neural development. We found that mLLP is strongly expressed in developing nervous system and that mLLP knockdown or overexpression during maturation of cultured neurons affected the neuronal growth and synaptic transmission. Interestingly, extracellular addition of mLLP protein enhanced dendritic arborization, demonstrating the non-cell-autonomous effect of mLLP. Moreover, mLLP interacts with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as well as transcriptional machineries and modulates gene expression involved in neuronal growth. Together, these results illustrate the characteristics and roles of previously unknown cell-permeable protein mLLP in modulating neural development. PMID:26961175

  19. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  20. Presynaptic inhibitory action of opioids on synaptic transmission in the rat periaqueductal grey in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, C W; Christie, M J

    1997-01-01

    1. The actions of opioids on synaptic transmission in rat periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurones were examined using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. 2. Methionine enkephalin (ME; 10 microM) inhibited evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) by 57%, non-NMDA excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by 60%, and NMDA EPSCs by 43% in PAG neurones. This inhibition was associated with an increase in paired-pulse facilitation, was mimicked by the mu-agonist DAMGO (1-3 microM) and abolished by naloxone (1 microM). Neither the kappa-agonist U69593 (1-3 microM), nor the delta-agonist DPDPE (3-10 microM) had any specific actions on evoked PSCs. 3. ME decreased the frequency of spontaneous miniature, action potential-independent postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs by 65%, mEPSCs by 54%) in all PAG neurones, but had no effect on their amplitude distributions. The reduction in mIPSC frequency persisted in nominally Ca(2+)-free, high-Mg2+ (10 mM) solutions, which also contained Cd2+ (100 microM), or Ba2+ (10 mM). Opioid inhibition of mIPSC frequency is unlikely to be mediated by presynaptic Ca2+ or K+ conductances which are sensitive to extracellular Cd2+ or Ba2+. 4. In a subpopulation of PAG neurones, ME increased a Ba(2+)-sensitive K+ conductance at potentials below -97 mV. Opioids inhibited both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in all PAG neurones, independent of any postsynaptic opioid sensitivity. 5. These observations are consistent with, but only partially support, the opioid disinhibition model of PAG-induced analgesia. mu-Opioids also have the potential to modulate the behavioural and autonomic functions of the PAG via modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory presynaptic mechanisms, as well as postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:9032693

  1. Propagation of Epileptiform Activity Can Be Independent of Synaptic Transmission, Gap Junctions, or Diffusion and Is Consistent with Electrical Field Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P.; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ∼0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission. PMID:24453330

  2. TRPV1 receptors augment basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, F; Eslamizade, M J; Mousavi, S M M; Abraki, S B; Hadjighassem, M R; Gorji, A

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in human and animals is attributed to alterations in brain function especially hippocampus formation. Changes in synaptic activity might be causally related to the alterations during epileptogenesis. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) as one of the non-selective ion channels has been shown to be involved in synaptic transmission. However, the potential role of TRPV1 receptors in synaptic function in the epileptic brain needs to be elucidated. In the present study, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to assess hippocampal TRPV1 mRNA expression, protein content, and distribution. Moreover, the effects of pharmacologic activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors on the slope of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were analyzed in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, after 3months of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). SE induced an upregulation of TRPV1 mRNA and protein content in the whole hippocampal extract, as well as its distribution in both CA1 and CA3 regions. Activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors (via capsaicin 1μM and capsazepine 10μM, respectively) did not influence basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 regions of control slices, however, capsaicin increased and capsazepine decreased synaptic transmission in both regions in tissues from epileptic animals. Taken together, these findings suggest that a higher expression of TRPV1 in the epileptic condition is accompanied by alterations in basal synaptic transmission. PMID:26621124

  3. DAMGO depresses inhibitory synaptic transmission via different downstream pathways of μ opioid receptors in ventral tegmental area and periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Yang, H L; Song, J J; Chen, M; Dong, Y; Lai, B; Yu, Y G; Ma, L; Zheng, P

    2015-08-20

    Opioid-induced rewarding and motorstimulant effects are mediated by an increased activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. The excitatory mechanism of opioids on VTA-DA neurons has been proposed to be due to the depression of GABAergic synaptic transmission in VTA-DA neurons. However, how opioids depress GABAergic synaptic transmission in VTA-DA neurons remain to be studied. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) on GABAergic synaptic transmission in VTA-DA neurons using multiple approaches and techniques. Our results showed that (1) DAMGO inhibits GABAergic inputs in VTA-DA neurons at presynaptic sites; (2) effect of DAMGO on GABAergic inputs in VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and Gi protein inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide (NEM); (3) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) does not mediate the effect of DAMGO on GABAergic inputs in VTA-DA neurons, but mediates it in the periaqueductal gray (PAG); (4) multiple downstream signaling molecules of μ receptors do not mediate the effect of DAMGO on GABAergic inputs in VTA-DA neurons. These results suggest that DAMGO depresses inhibitory synaptic transmission via μ receptor-Gi protein-Kv channel pathway in VTA-DA neurons, but via μ receptor-PLA2 pathway in PAG neurons. PMID:26047721

  4. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

  5. Differential muscarinic modulation of synaptic transmission in dorsal and ventral regions of the rat nucleus accumbens core.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Zhang, J J; Wang, M Y; Sui, N

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) core is critical in the control of motivated behaviors. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) modulating the excitatory inputs into the NAc core have been reported to impact such behaviors. Recent studies suggest that ventral and dorsal regions of the NAc core seem to be innervated by distinct populations of glutamatergic projection neurons. To further examine mAChRs modulation of these glutamatergic inputs to the NAc core, we employed intracellular recordings in rat NAc coronal slice preparation to characterize: 1) the effects of muscarine, an mAChRs agonist, on membrane properties of the NAc core neurons; 2) depolarizing synaptic potentials (DPSP) elicited by ventral and dorsal focal electrical stimuli; and 3) paired-pulse response with paired-pulse stimulation. Here we report that the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) elicited by dorsal stimuli was greater than that elicited by ventral stimuli. Bath application of muscarine (1-30 microM) decreased both ventral and dorsal DPSP in a concentration-dependent manner, with no effect on electrophysiological properties of NAc core neurons. Muscarine at 30 microM also elicited larger depression of dorsal DPSP than ventral DPSP. Moreover, muscarine increased the PPR of both dorsal and ventral DPSP. These data indicate that the glutamatergic afferent fibers traversing the dorsal and ventral NAc are separate, and that differential decrease of distinct afferent excitatory neurotransmission onto NAc core neurons may be mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:24182333

  6. Plasticity of synaptic connections in sensory-motor pathways of the adult locust flight system.

    PubMed

    Wolf, H; Büschges, A

    1997-09-01

    We investigated possible roles of retrograde signals and competitive interactions in the lesion-induced reorganization of synaptic contacts in the locust CNS. Neuronal plasticity is elicited in the adult flight system by removal of afferents from the tegula, a mechanoreceptor organ at the base of the wing. We severed one hindwing organ and studied the resulting rearrangement of synaptic contacts between flight interneurons and afferent neurons from the remaining three tegulae (2 forewing, 1 hindwing). This was done by electric stimulation of afferents and intracellular recording from interneurons (and occasionally motoneurons). Two to three weeks after unilateral tegula lesion, connections between tegula afferents and flight interneurons were altered in the following way. 1) Axons from the forewing tegula on the operated side had established new synaptic contacts with metathoracic elevator interneurons. In addition, the amplitude of compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials elicited by electric stimulation was increased, indicating that a larger number of afferents connected to any given interneuron. 2) On the side contralateral to the lesion, connectivity between axons from the forewing tegula and elevator interneurons was decreased. 3) The efficacy of the (remaining) hindwing afferents appeared to be increased with regard to both synaptic transmission to interneurons and impact on flight motor pattern. 4) Flight motoneurons, which are normally restricted to the ipsilateral hemiganglion, sprouted across the ganglion midline after unilateral tegula removal and apparently established new synaptic contacts with tegula afferents on that side. The changes on the operated side are interpreted as occupation of synaptic space vacated on the interneurons by the severed hindwing afferents. On the contralateral side, the changes in synaptic contact must be elicited by retrograde signals from bilaterally arborizing flight interneurons, because tegula projections remain strictly ipsilateral. The pattern of changes suggests competitive interactions between forewing and hindwing afferents. The present investigation thus presents evidence that the CNS of the mature locust is capable of extensive synaptic rearrangement in response to injury and indicates for the first time the action of retrograde signals from interneurons. PMID:9310419

  7. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

  8. De Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Craiu, Dana; De Jonghe, Peter; Depienne, Christel; Dimova, Petia; Djémié, Tania; Gormley, Padhraig; Guerrini, Renzo; Helbig, Ingo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jähn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby; Komarek, Vladimir; Krause, Roland; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lerche, Holger; Linnankivi, Tarja; Marini, Carla; May, Patrick; Møller, Rikke S.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pal, Deb; Palotie, Aarno; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Robbiano, Angela; Roelens, Filip; Rosenow, Felix; Selmer, Kaja; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Stephani, Ulrich; Sterbova, Katalin; Striano, Pasquale; Suls, Arvid; Talvik, Tiina; von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Zara, Federico; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick; Amron, Dina; Bautista, Jocelyn F.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Bluvstein, Judith; Boro, Alex; Cascino, Gregory; Consalvo, Damian; Crumrine, Patricia; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Epstein, Michael P.; Fiol, Miguel; Fountain, Nathan B.; French, Jacqueline; Friedman, Daniel; Geller, Eric B.; Glauser, Tracy; Glynn, Simon; Haas, Kevin; Haut, Sheryl R.; Hayward, Jean; Helmers, Sandra L.; Joshi, Sucheta; Kanner, Andres; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kuperman, Rachel; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; McGuire, Shannon M.; Motika, Paul V.; Novotny, Edward J.; Ottman, Ruth; Paolicchi, Juliann M.; Parent, Jack; Park, Kristen; Poduri, Annapurna; Sadleir, Lynette; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Sherr, Elliott; Shih, Jerry J.; Singh, Rani; Sirven, Joseph; Smith, Michael C.; Sullivan, Joe; Thio, Liu Lin; Venkat, Anu; Vining, Eileen P.G.; Von Allmen, Gretchen K.; Weisenberg, Judith L.; Widdess-Walsh, Peter; Winawer, Melodie R.; Allen, Andrew S.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Cossette, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Dlugos, Dennis; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Michael P.; Glauser, Tracy; Goldstein, David B.; Han, Yujun; Heinzen, Erin L.; Johnson, Michael R.; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Marson, Anthony G.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nieh, Sahar Esmaeeli; O’Brien, Terence J.; Ottman, Ruth; Petrou, Stephen; Petrovski, Slavé; Poduri, Annapurna; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sherr, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10−4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

  9. Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Lauw J.; Sun, Ziyi; Steijaert, Marvin N.; Bolte, Petra; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Klooster, Jan; Claassen, Yvonne; Shields, Colleen R.; Ten Eikelder, Huub M. M.; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Zoidl, Georg; McMahon, Douglas G.; Kamermans, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish were generated that lack connexin 55.5 hemichannels in horizontal cells. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were made from isolated horizontal cells and cones in flat mount retinas. Light-induced feedback from horizontal cells to cones was reduced in mutants. A reduction of feedback was also found when horizontal cells were pharmacologically hyperpolarized but was absent when they were pharmacologically depolarized. Hemichannel currents in isolated horizontal cells showed a similar behavior. The hyperpolarization-induced hemichannel current was strongly reduced in the mutants while the depolarization-induced hemichannel current was not. Intracellular recordings were made from horizontal cells. Consistent with impaired feedback in the mutant, spectral opponent responses in horizontal cells were diminished in these animals. A behavioral assay revealed a lower contrast-sensitivity, illustrating the role of the horizontal cell to cone feedback pathway in contrast enhancement. Model simulations showed that the observed modifications of feedback can be accounted for by an ephaptic mechanism. A model for feedback, in which the number of connexin hemichannels is reduced to about 40%, fully predicts the specific asymmetric modification of feedback. To our knowledge, this is the first successful genetic interference in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. It provides direct evidence for an unconventional role of connexin hemichannels in the inhibitory synapse between horizontal cells and cones. This is an important step in resolving a long-standing debate about the unusual form of (ephaptic) synaptic transmission between horizontal cells and cones in the vertebrate retina. PMID:21811399

  10. Active role of glutamate uptake in the synaptic transmission from retinal nonspiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Matsui, K; Hosoi, N; Tachibana, M

    1999-08-15

    We examined the role of glutamate uptake in the synaptic transmission of graded responses from newt retinal bipolar cells (BCs) to ganglion layer cells (GLCs). In dissociated Müller cells (retinal glia), glutamate evoked an uptake current that was effectively inhibited by L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC). PDC had no effect on the non-NMDA receptors of dissociated spiking neurons. In the retinal slice preparation, dual whole-cell recordings were performed from a pair of BC and GLC. A depolarizing pulse applied to a BC activated the Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) in the BC and evoked an EPSC in the GLC. Application of PDC prolonged both non-NMDA and NMDA receptor-mediated components of the evoked EPSC but changed neither the amplitude nor time course of I(Ca). When the slice preparation was superfused with a solution containing glutamate but not PDC, the evoked EPSC decreased in amplitude without changing the time course, suggesting that the prolongation of the evoked EPSC is not attributable to a simple increase in ambient glutamate concentration after inhibition of glutamate uptake. Because PDC did not affect the amplitude, time course, or frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, it is unlikely that PDC modified presynaptic and/or postsynaptic mechanisms. These results indicate that inhibition of glutamate uptake slows the clearance of glutamate accumulated in the synaptic cleft by multiple quantal release and prolongs the evoked EPSC. The role of glutamate uptake at synapses in the inner retina is not only to maintain the extracellular glutamate concentration at a low level but also to terminate the light-evoked EPSCs rapidly. PMID:10436033

  11. Reciprocal regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission by nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in rat nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kiyofumi; Ebihara, Katsuko; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Medium spiny neurones (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are the principal neurones whose activities are regulated by GABAergic inputs from MSNs and fast-spiking interneurones (FSNs). Cholinergic interneurones play important roles in the regulation of activity in MSNs; however, how acetylcholine modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission from MSNs/FSNs to MSNs remains unknown. We performed paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from MSNs and FSNs in rat NAc shell slice preparations and examined cholinergic effects on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs). Carbachol (1 μm) suppressed uIPSC amplitude by 58.3 ± 8.0% in MSN→MSN connections, accompanied by increases in paired-pulse ratio and failure rate, suggesting that acetylcholine reduces the probability of GABA release from the synaptic terminals of MSNs. Carbachol-induced uIPSC suppression was antagonised by 100 μm atropine, and was mimicked by pilocarpine (1 μm) and acetylcholine (1 μm) but not nicotine (1 μm). Application of AM251 slightly reduced carbachol-induced uIPSC suppression (30.8 ± 8.9%), suggesting an involvement of endocannabinoid signalling in muscarinic suppression of uIPSCs. In contrast, FSN→MSN connections showed that pilocarpine had little effect on the uIPSC amplitude, whereas both nicotine and acetylcholine facilitated uIPSC amplitude, with decreases in failure rate and paired-pulse ratio, suggesting that nicotine-induced uIPSC facilitation is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. Miniature IPSC recordings support these hypotheses of presynaptic cholinergic mechanisms. These results suggest a differential role for muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in GABA release, which depends on presynaptic neuronal subtypes in the NAc shell. PMID:24018951

  12. Determinants of Spatial and Temporal Coding by Semicircular Canal Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Highstein, Stephen M.; Rabbitt, Richard D.; Holstein, Gay R.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical components—one component exciting each of the 3 ampullary organs and associated afferent nerve bundles separately. For low-frequency angular motion stimuli, fluid displacement within each canal is proportional to angular acceleration. At higher frequencies, above the lower corner frequency, real-time integration is accomplished by viscous forces arising from the movement of fluid within the slender lumen of each canal. This results in angular velocity sensitive fluid displacements. Reflecting this, a subset of afferent fibers indeed report angular acceleration to the brain for low frequencies of head movement and report angular velocity for higher frequencies. However, a substantial number of afferent fibers also report angular acceleration, or a signal between acceleration and velocity, even at frequencies where the endolymph displacement is known to follow angular head velocity. These non-velocity-sensitive afferent signals cannot be attributed to canal biomechanics alone. The responses of non-velocity-sensitive cells include a mathematical differentiation (first-order or fractional) imparted by hair-cell and/or afferent complexes. This mathematical differentiation from velocity to acceleration cannot be attributed to hair cell ionic currents, but occurs as a result of the dynamics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and their primary afferent fibers. The evidence for this conclusion is reviewed below. PMID:15845995

  13. Contribution of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER?, ER?, and GPER1 in rapid estradiol-mediated enhancement of hippocampal synaptic transmission in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Bean, Linda A; Rani, Asha; Jackson, Travis; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol rapidly modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission; however, the contribution of the various estrogen receptors to rapid changes in synaptic function is unclear. This study examined the effect of estrogen receptor selective agonists on hippocampal synaptic transmission in slices obtained from 3-5-month-old wild type (WT), estrogen receptor alpha (ER?KO), and beta (ER?KO) knockout female ovariectomized mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared 10-16 days following ovariectomy and extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 synaptic contacts before and following application of 17?-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB, 100 pM), the G-protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) agonist G1 (100 nM), the ER? selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, 100 nM), or the ER? selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 1 M). Across all groups, EB and G1 increased the synaptic response to a similar extent. Furthermore, prior G1 application occluded the EB-mediated enhancement of the synaptic response and the GPER1 antagonist, G15 (100 nM), inhibited the enhancement of the synaptic response induced by EB application. We confirmed that the ER? and ER? selective agonists (PPT and DPN) had effects on synaptic responses specific to animals that expressed the relevant receptor; however, PPT and DPN produced only a small increase in synaptic transmission relative to EB or the GPER1 agonist. We demonstrate that the increase in synaptic transmission is blocked by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Furthermore, EB was able to increase ERK activity regardless of genotype. These results suggest that ERK activation and enhancement of synaptic transmission by EB involves multiple estrogen receptor subtypes. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25980457

  14. Non-additive modulation of synaptic transmission by serotonin, adenosine, and cholinergic modulators in the sensory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus relays sensory information to the cortex. Oscillatory activities of the thalamocortical network are modulated by monoamines, acetylcholine, and adenosine, and could be the key features characteristic of different vigilance states. Although the thalamus is almost always subject to the actions of more than just one neuromodulators, reports on the modulatory effect of coexisting neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission are unexpectedly scarce. We found that, if present alone, monoamine or adenosine decreases retinothalamic synaptic strength and short-term depression, whereas cholinergic modulators generally enhance postsynaptic response to presynaptic activity. However, coexistence of different modulators tends to produce non-additive effect, not predictable based on the action of individual modulators. Acetylcholine, acting via nicotinic receptors, can interact with either serotonin or adenosine to abolish most short-term synaptic depression. Moreover, the coexistence of adenosine and monoamine, with or without acetylcholine, results in robustly decreased synaptic strength and transforms short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These findings are consistent with a view that acetylcholine is essential for an “enriched” sensory flow through the thalamus, and the flow is trimmed down by concomitant monoamine or adenosine (presumably for the wakefulness and rapid-eye movement, or REM, sleep states, respectively). In contrast, concomitant adenosine and monoamine would lead to a markedly “deprived” (and high-pass filtered) sensory flow, and thus the dramatic decrease of monoamine may constitute the basic demarcation between non-REM and REM sleep. The collective actions of different neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission thus could be indispensable for the understanding of network responsiveness in different vigilance states. PMID:25852468

  15. Enhanced excitatory and reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission contribute to persistent pain-induced neuronal hyper-responsiveness in anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Gong, K-R; Cao, F-L; He, Y; Gao, C-Y; Wang, D-D; Li, H; Zhang, F-K; An, Y-Y; Lin, Q; Chen, J

    2010-12-29

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the affective dimension of pain. Although much evidence has pointed to an increased excitatory synaptic transmission in the ACC in some of the pathological pain state, the inhibitory synaptic transmission in this process has not been well studied. Also, the overall changes of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission have not been comparatively studied in an animal model displaying both long-term persistent nociception and hyperalgesia. Here we used patch clamp recordings in ACC brain slices to observe the changes in synaptic transmission in a pain model induced by peripheral bee venom injection. First, we show that, comparing with those of naive and saline controlled rats, there was a significant increase in spike frequency in ACC neurons harvested from rats after 2 h period of peripheral persistent painful stimuli. Second, it is further shown that the frequency, amplitude and half-width were all increased in spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs), while the amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (sIPSCs) was decreased. The recordings of miniature post-synaptic currents demonstrate an increase in frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) and a decrease in both frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) in rats' ACC slice of bee venom treatment. Taken together, the present results demonstrate an unparalleled change between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ACC under a state of peripheral persistent nociception that might be underlying mechanisms of the excessive excitability of the ACC neurons. We propose that the painful stimuli when lasts or becomes persistent may cause a disruption of the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission that can contribute to the functional change in the ACC. PMID:20951771

  16. An intact peripheral nerve preparation for monitoring inputs from single muscle afferent fibres.

    PubMed

    Mackie, P D; Rowe, M J

    1997-01-01

    A preparation is described that permits the monitoring of activity from individual muscle afferent nerve fibres in an intact peripheral nerve in the forelimb of the cat. The nerve is a fine branch of the deep radial that supplies the indicis proprius muscle. When it is freed from nearby tissue over a length of 2-5 cm and placed in continuity over a silver hook electrode, it becomes possible to identify and monitor the impulse activity from each muscle afferent fibre activated by stretch or vibration applied to the muscle tendon or by focal mechanical stimulation of the muscle at the presumed site of individual spindle receptors. With this preparation it is possible to examine the central actions and security of transmission at central synaptic targets for single, identified muscle afferent fibres arising in the cat's forearm. PMID:9028790

  17. Delayed reduction of hippocampal synaptic transmission and spines following exposure to repeated subclinical doses of organophosphorus pesticide in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Speed, Haley E; Blaiss, Cory A; Kim, Ahleum; Haws, Michael E; Melvin, Neal R; Jennings, Michael; Eisch, Amelia J; Powell, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural and household organophosphorus (OP) pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AchE), resulting in increased acetylcholine (Ach) in the central nervous system. In adults, acute and prolonged exposure to high doses of AchE inhibitors causes severe, clinically apparent symptoms, followed by lasting memory impairments and cognitive dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of repeated environmental exposure to lower, subclinical doses of OP pesticides in adults is not as well studied. However, repeated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), pyridostigmine, and sarin nerve agent, has been epidemiologically linked to delayed onset symptoms in Gulf War Illness and may be relevant to environmental exposure in farm workers among others. We treated adult mice with a subclinical dose (5 mg/kg) of CPF for 5 consecutive days and investigated hippocampal synaptic transmission and spine density early (2-7 days) and late (3 months) after CPF administration. No signs of cholinergic toxicity were observed at any time during or after treatment. At 2-7 days after the last injection, we found increased synaptic transmission in the CA3-CA1 region of the hippocampus of CPF-treated mice compared with controls. In contrast, at 3 months after CPF administration, we observed a 50% reduction in synaptic transmission likely due to a corresponding 50% decrease in CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic spine density. This study is the first to identify a biphasic progression of synaptic abnormalities following repeated OP exposure and suggests that even in the absence of acute cholinergic toxicity, repeated exposure to CPF causes delayed persistent damage to the adult brain in vivo. PMID:21948870

  18. The quantal component of synaptic transmission from sensory hair cells to the vestibular calyx.

    PubMed

    Highstein, Stephen M; Mann, Mary Anne; Holstein, Gay R; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded in calyx nerve terminals from the turtle vestibular lagena to quantify key attributes of quantal transmission at this synapse. On average, EPSC events had a magnitude of ∼ 42 pA, a rise time constant of τ(0) ∼ 229 μs, decayed to baseline with a time constant of τ(R) ∼ 690 μs, and carried ∼ 46 fC of charge. Individual EPSCs varied in magnitude and decay time constant. Variability in the EPSC decay time constant was hair cell dependent and due in part to a slow protraction of the EPSC in some cases. Variability in EPSC size was well described by an integer summation of unitary quanta, with each quanta of glutamate gating a unitary postsynaptic current of ∼ 23 pA. The unitary charge was ∼ 26 fC for EPSCs with a simple exponential decay and increased to ∼ 48 fC for EPSCs exhibiting a slow protraction. The EPSC magnitude and the number of simultaneous unitary quanta within each event increased with presynaptic stimulus intensity. During tonic hair cell depolarization, both the EPSC magnitude and event rate exhibited adaptive run down over time. Present data from a reptilian calyx are remarkably similar to noncalyceal vestibular synaptic terminals in diverse species, indicating that the skewed EPSC size distribution and multiquantal release might be an ancestral property of inner ear ribbon synapses. PMID:25878150

  19. Anatomical remodelling of the supraoptic nucleus: changes in synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Oliet, S H R; Piet, R

    2004-04-01

    The adult hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system undergoes activity-dependent morphological plasticity that modifies the astrocytic enwrapping of its magnocellular neurones. For a long time, the functional consequences of such changes have remained hypothetical. Modifications in the glial environment of neurones are expected to have important physiological repercussions in view of the various functions played by astrocytes in the central nervous system. In particular, glial cells are essential for uptake of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, and for physically and functionally restricting diffusion of neuroactive substances within the extracellular space. Recent studies performed in the supraoptic nucleus of lactating and chronically dehydrated animals, in conditions where astrocytic coverage of neurones is reduced, have revealed a significant impairment of glutamate clearance. The resulting accumulation of the excitatory amino acid in the extracellular space around glutamatergic inputs causes an enhanced activation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors that inhibit transmitter release. In the supraoptic nucleus of lactating rats, neuroglial remodelling is accompanied by modification of the geometry, size and diffusion properties of the extracellular space. The latter observations suggest that, in the activated supraoptic nucleus, the range of action and the concentration of released neuroactive substances may be significantly enhanced. Overall, our observations indicate that the glial environment of supraoptic neurones influences synaptic glutamatergic transmission, as well as extrasynaptic forms of communication. PMID:15089966

  20. Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renhao; Gaffaney, Jon D.; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    Double C2-like domain-containing proteins alpha and beta (Doc2α and Doc2β) are tandem C2-domain proteins proposed to function as Ca2+ sensors for asynchronous neurotransmitter release. Here, we systematically analyze each of the negatively charged residues that mediate binding of Ca2+ to the β isoform. The Ca2+ ligands in the C2A domain were dispensable for Ca2+-dependent translocation to the plasma membrane, with one exception: neutralization of D220 resulted in constitutive translocation. In contrast, three of the five Ca2+ ligands in the C2B domain are required for translocation. Importantly, translocation was correlated with the ability of the mutants to enhance asynchronous release when overexpressed in neurons. Finally, replacement of specific Ca2+/lipid-binding loops of synaptotagmin 1, a Ca2+ sensor for synchronous release, with corresponding loops from Doc2β, resulted in chimeras that yielded slower kinetics in vitro and slower excitatory postsynaptic current decays in neurons. Together, these data reveal the key determinants of Doc2β that underlie its function during the slow phase of synaptic transmission. PMID:26195798

  1. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Charlton, Milton P.; Carlen, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery. PMID:26934214

  2. Acute lipopolysaccharide exposure facilitates epileptiform activity via enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates brain inflammation has been involved in the genesis of seizures. However, the direct effect of acute inflammation on neuronal circuits is not well known. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to stimulate brain inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we observed the contribution of inflammation induced by 10 μg/mL LPS to the excitability of neuronal circuits in acute hippocampal slices. When slices were incubated with LPS for 30 minutes, significant increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In electrophysiological recordings, we found that frequency of epileptiform discharges and spikes per burst increased 30 minutes after LPS application. LPS enhanced evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents but did not modify evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In addition, exposure to LPS enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by a decrease in rheobase and an increase in action potential frequency elicited by depolarizing current injection. Our observations suggest that acute inflammation induced by LPS facilitates epileptiform activity in vitro and that enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability may contribute to this facilitation. These results may provide new clues for treating seizures associated with brain inflammatory disease. PMID:25170268

  3. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling dichotomously modulates inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in rat inner retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Han; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Miao, Yanying; Zhang, Chuan-Qiang; Dong, Ling-Dan; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2016-01-01

    In the inner retina, ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate and process excitatory signal from bipolar cells (BCs) and inhibitory signal from amacrine cells (ACs). Using multiple labeling immunohistochemistry, we first revealed the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) at the terminals of ACs and BCs in rat retina. By patch-clamp techniques, we then showed how the activation of this receptor dichotomously regulated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), mediated by GABAA receptors and glycine receptors, and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), mediated by AMPA receptors, of RGCs in rat retinal slices. WIN55212-2 (WIN), a CB1R agonist, reduced the mIPSC frequency due to an inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels no matter whether AMPA receptors were blocked. In contrast, WIN reduced the mEPSC frequency by suppressing T-type Ca(2+) channels only when inhibitory inputs to RGCs were present, which could be in part due to less T-type Ca(2+) channels of cone BCs, presynaptic to RGCs, being in an inactivation state under such condition. This unique feature of CB1R-mediated retrograde regulation provides a novel mechanism for modulating excitatory synaptic transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, depolarization of RGCs suppressed mIPSCs of these cells, an effect that was eliminated by the CB1R antagonist SR141716, suggesting that endocannabinoid is indeed released from RGCs. PMID:25273281

  4. Forskolin Enhances Synaptic Transmission in Rat Dorsal Striatum through NMDA Receptors and PKA in Different Phases.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Hyun Ho; Choi, Se Joon; Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Li, Qing-Zhong; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2008-12-01

    The effect of forskolin on corticostriatal synaptic transmission was examined by recording excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in rat brain slices using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Forskolin produced a dose-dependent increase of corticostriatal EPSCs (1, 3, 10, and 30 microM) immediately after its treatment, and the increase at 10 and 30 microM was maintained even after its washout. When the brain slices were pre-treated with (DL)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-V, 100 microM), an NMDA receptor antagonist, the acute effect of forskolin (10 microM) was blocked. However, after washout of forskolin, an increase of corticostriatal EPSCs was still observed even in the presence of AP-V. When KT 5720 (5 microM), a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, was applied through the patch pipette, forskolin (10 microM) increased corticostriatal EPSCs, but this increase was not maintained. When forskolin was applied together with AP-V and KT 5720, both the increase and maintenance of the corticostriatal EPSCs were blocked. These results suggest that forskolin activates both NMDA receptors and PKA, however, in a different manner. PMID:19967070

  5. Muscarinic modulation of synaptic transmission via endocannabinoid signalling in the rat midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Lau, Benjamin K; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2008-11-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is involved in organizing behavioral responses to threat, stress, and pain. These PAG functions are modulated by cholinergic agents. In the present study, we examined the cholinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in the PAG using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from rat midbrain slices. We found that the cholinergic agonist carbachol reduced the amplitude of evoked inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and EPSCs, respectively) in all PAG neurons, and this was abolished by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. Carbachol increased the paired pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs and EPSCs, and it reduced the rate, but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The carbachol inhibition of evoked IPSCs was mimicked by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and was reduced by the M1 and M1/M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists pirenzepine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine, but not by the M2 and M4 antagonists gallamine and PD-102807 (3,6a,11,14-tetrahydro-9-methoxy-2-methyl-(12H)-isoquino [1,2-b]pyrrolo[3,2-f][1,3]benzoxazine-1-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester). The carbachol inhibition of evoked IPSCs was reduced by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) and the diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin, and it was abolished in the presence of both AM251 and gallamine. The carbachol inhibition of evoked EPSCs was also reduced in the combined presence of gallamine and AM251. These results indicate that M1 induced inhibition of GABAergic transmission within the PAG is mediated via endocannabinoids, which are produced via the phospholipase C/DAG lipase pathway and activate presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Thus, presynaptic muscarinic modulation of PAG function is mediated indirectly by M1 receptor-induced endocannabinoid signaling and directly by M2 receptors. PMID:18678620

  6. Functional role of Ca2+ currents in graded and spike-mediated synaptic transmission between leech heart interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Dalton, J F; Stokes, D R; Calabrese, R L

    1997-04-01

    We used intracellular recording and single electrode voltage-clamp techniques to explore Ca2+ currents and their relation to graded and spike-mediated synaptic transmissions in leech heart interneurons. Low-threshold Ca2+ currents (activation begins below -50 mV) consist of a rapidly inactivating component (I(CaF)) and a slowly inactivating component (I(CaS)). The apparent inactivation kinetics of I(CaF) appears to be influenced by Ca2+; both the substitution of Ca2+ (5 mM) with Ba2+ (5 mM) in the saline and the intracellular injection of the rapid Ca2+ chelator, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), from the recording microelectrode, significantly increase its apparent inactivation time constant. The use of saline with a high concentration of Ba2+ (37.5 mM) permitted exploration of divalent ion currents over a broader activation range, by acting as an effective charge carrier and significantly blocking outward currents. Ramp and pulse voltage-clamp protocols both reveal a rapidly activating and inactivating Ba2+ current (I(BaF)) and a less rapidly activating and slowly inactivating Ba2+ current with a broad activation range (I(BaS)). Low concentrations of Cd2+ (100-150 microM) selectively block I(BaS), without significantly diminishing I(BaF). The current that remains in Cd2+ lacks the characteristic delayed activation peak of I(BaS) and inactivates with two distinct time constants. I(BaF) appears to correspond to a combination of I(CaF) and I(CaS), i.e., to low-threshold Ca2+ currents, that can be described as T-like. I(BaS) appears to correspond to a Ca2+ current with a broad activation range, which can be described as L-like. Cd2+ (100 microM) selectively blocks spike-mediated synaptic transmission between heart interneurons without significantly interfering with low-threshold Ca2+ currents and plateau formation in or graded synaptic transmission between heart interneurons. Blockade of spike-mediated synaptic transmission between reciprocally inhibitory heart interneurons with Cd2+ (150 microM), in otherwise normal saline, prevents the expression of normal oscillations (during which activity in the two neurons consists of alternating bursts), so that the neurons fire tonically. We conclude that graded and spike-mediated synaptic transmission may be relatively independent processes in heart interneurons that are controlled predominantly by different Ca2+ currents. Moreover, spike-mediated synaptic inhibition appears to be required for normal oscillation in these neurons. PMID:9114236

  7. Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala (Amyg). The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the MD thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. FPSPs evoked at the mPFC from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals’ avoidance of the reward. FPSPs collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation) when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations. PMID:25688195

  8. Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Cross-synaptic synchrony--correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron--is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. PMID:25180102

  9. Presynaptic large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels control synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Naoki; Takasusuki, Toshifumi; Fukushima, Teruyuki; Hori, Yuuichi

    2008-10-17

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been suggested to play a substantial role in synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn. In the present experiments, we attempted to clarify the physiological significance of BK channels in the modulation of synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn where nociceptive information is processed. Spontaneously occurring excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) were recorded from the neurons located in the superficial dorsal horn of a mouse spinal cord slice, and the effects of iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, on sEPSCs were analyzed. The frequency of sEPSCs was significantly higher in the peripheral nerve-ligated neuropathic mice than in the sham-operated control mice, but the amplitude of sEPSCs was equivalent between the two groups. Iberiotoxin increased the frequency of sEPSCs in the control mice to the same level as that in the neuropathic mice without affecting the amplitude of sEPSCs. In contrast, iberiotoxin did not show any significant effects on the sEPSCs in the neuropathic mice. These findings suggest that the BK channels that are located in presynaptic terminals control synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn, and that functional downregulation of BK channels accompanies the neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury. This downregulation was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the BK channel alpha subunit. Taken together, our present results indicate that BK channels play crucial roles in the synaptic transmission of nociceptive information in the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:18708120

  10. The Role of cGMP on Adenosine A1 Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Isa; Serpa, André; Sebastião, Ana M.; Cascalheira, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Both adenosine A1 receptor and cGMP inhibit synaptic transmission at the hippocampus and recently it was found that A1 receptor increased cGMP levels in hippocampus, but the role of cGMP on A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission remains to be established. In the present work we investigated if blocking the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway using nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase G (PKG), and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitors modify the A1 receptor effect on synaptic transmission. Neurotransmission was evaluated by measuring the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by electrical stimulation at hippocampal slices. N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 15 nM), a selective A1 receptor agonist, reversibly decreased the fEPSPs by 54 ± 5%. Incubation of the slices with an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME, 200 μM) decreased the CPA effect on fEPSPs by 57 ± 9% in female rats. In males, ODQ (10 μM), an sGC inhibitor, decreased the CPA inhibitory effect on fEPSPs by 23 ± 6%, but only when adenosine deaminase (ADA,1 U/ml) was present; similar results were found in females, where ODQ decreased CPA-induced inhibition of fEPSP slope by 23 ± 7%. In male rats, the presence of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823, 1 nM) decreased the CPA effect by 45.0 ± 9%; similar results were obtained in females, where KT5823 caused a 32 ± 9% decrease on the CPA effect. In conclusion, the results suggest that the inhibitory action of adenosine A1 receptors on synaptic transmission at hippocampus is, in part, mediated by the NOS/sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway. PMID:27148059

  11. Presynaptic M3 muscarinic cholinoceptors mediate inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in area CA1 of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    de Vin, Filip; Choi, Sze Men; Bolognesi, Maria L; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2015-12-10

    Acetylcholine can modulate hippocampal network function through activation of both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). All five mAChR subtypes have been identified in the hippocampus. Besides by their involvement in excitability of hippocampal cells, synaptic plasticity and memory, a large body of research has demonstrated the involvement of presynaptic mAChRs in the inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus. Over the years, however, pharmacological and molecular genetic studies have yielded quite contradictory results regarding the mAChR subtype(s) involved. In this study, multi-electrode array technology was used for the pharmacological elucidation of the subtype of mAChR mediating the depression of excitatory synaptic transmission at the SC-CA1 synapse. Using selective antagonists (VU0255035, MT7, tripinamide, MT3) and allosteric potentiators (VU 10010, VU 0238429) the involvement of M1, M2, M4, and M5 subtypes was ruled out thereby implying a major modulatory role for M3 receptors in the inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. PMID:26505913

  12. Histamine H3 receptor-mediated depression of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus of the rat in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Reymann, K G

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of histamine on excitatory synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus region of rat hippocampal slices were examined using extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin (50 microM) was present in the bath in all experiments. 2. Histamine (0.7-70 microM) reversibly depressed field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) or excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded intracellularly by up to 30%. The presynaptic fibre volley and EPSC reversal potential were unaffected by histamine, as were responses following pressure ejection of the glutamate receptor agonist S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (S-AMPA) into the slice. 3. Histamine (7 microM) depressed equally the AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) components of the dual-component EPSC, recorded at -40 mV. 4. In addition to depressing synaptic transmission, histamine also reduced the magnitude of paired-pulse depression (PPD; 40 ms interpulse interval) of the medial perforant path EPSC. 5. Histamine depressed medial perforant path EPSCs more strongly than lateral perforant path EPSCs. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF; 40 ms interpulse interval) in the lateral perforant path was enhanced by histamine. 6. The effects of histamine on synaptic transmission and PPD were mimicked by the selective H3 receptor agonist R-alpha-methylhistamine (0.1-10 microM) but not by the selective H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (10 microM). Similarly, the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (10 microM) blocked the effect of histamine whereas the H1 antagonist mepyramine (1 microM) and the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine (50 microM) were ineffective. 7. Histamine actions on synaptic transmission and PPD were not occluded by application of the metabotropic glutamate agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (AP4). 8. The results indicate that histamine depresses synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus by binding to histamine H3 receptors located on perforant path terminals. The mechanism by which histamine depresses transmission is independent of that used by class III metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:8910206

  13. ANKS1B Gene Product AIDA-1 Controls Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission by Regulating GluN2B Subunit Localization.

    PubMed

    Tindi, Jaafar O; Chávez, Andrés E; Cvejic, Svetlana; Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Castillo, Pablo E; Jordan, Bryen A

    2015-06-17

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, and their dysregulation has been linked to diverse neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. While normal NMDAR function requires regulated expression and trafficking of its different subunits, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. Here we report that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain associated-1 protein (AIDA-1), which associates with NMDARs and is encoded by ANKS1B, a gene recently linked to schizophrenia, regulates synaptic NMDAR subunit composition. Forebrain-specific AIDA-1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit reduced GluN2B-mediated and increased GluN2A-mediated synaptic transmission, and biochemical analyses show AIDA-1 cKO mice have low GluN2B and high GluN2A protein levels at isolated hippocampal synaptic junctions compared with controls. These results are corroborated by immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analyses in primary neuronal cultures following acute lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of AIDA-1. Moreover, hippocampal NMDAR-dependent but not metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent plasticity is impaired in AIDA-1 cKO mice, further supporting a role for AIDA-1 in synaptic NMDAR function. We also demonstrate that AIDA-1 preferentially associates with GluN2B and with the adaptor protein Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase and kinesin KIF17, which regulate the transport of GluN2B-containing NMDARs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to synapses. Consistent with this function, GluN2B accumulates in ER-enriched fractions in AIDA-1 cKO mice. These findings suggest that AIDA-1 regulates NMDAR subunit composition at synapses by facilitating transport of GluN2B from the ER to synapses, which is critical for NMDAR plasticity. Our work provides an explanation for how AIDA-1 dysfunction might contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. PMID:26085624

  14. ANKS1B Gene Product AIDA-1 Controls Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission by Regulating GluN2B Subunit Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tindi, Jaafar O.; Chávez, Andrés E.; Cvejic, Svetlana; Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, and their dysregulation has been linked to diverse neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. While normal NMDAR function requires regulated expression and trafficking of its different subunits, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. Here we report that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain associated-1 protein (AIDA-1), which associates with NMDARs and is encoded by ANKS1B, a gene recently linked to schizophrenia, regulates synaptic NMDAR subunit composition. Forebrain-specific AIDA-1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit reduced GluN2B-mediated and increased GluN2A-mediated synaptic transmission, and biochemical analyses show AIDA-1 cKO mice have low GluN2B and high GluN2A protein levels at isolated hippocampal synaptic junctions compared with controls. These results are corroborated by immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analyses in primary neuronal cultures following acute lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of AIDA-1. Moreover, hippocampal NMDAR-dependent but not metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent plasticity is impaired in AIDA-1 cKO mice, further supporting a role for AIDA-1 in synaptic NMDAR function. We also demonstrate that AIDA-1 preferentially associates with GluN2B and with the adaptor protein Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase and kinesin KIF17, which regulate the transport of GluN2B-containing NMDARs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to synapses. Consistent with this function, GluN2B accumulates in ER-enriched fractions in AIDA-1 cKO mice. These findings suggest that AIDA-1 regulates NMDAR subunit composition at synapses by facilitating transport of GluN2B from the ER to synapses, which is critical for NMDAR plasticity. Our work provides an explanation for how AIDA-1 dysfunction might contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. PMID:26085624

  15. GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus studied in VGAT channelrhodopsin-2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Both glycine and GABA mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In mice, the time course of glycinergic inhibition is slow in bushy cells and fast in multipolar (stellate) cells, and is proposed to contribute to the processing of temporal cues in both cell types. Much less is known about GABAergic synaptic transmission in this circuit. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve or the tuberculoventral pathway evokes little GABAergic synaptic current in brain slice preparations, and spontaneous GABAergic miniature synaptic currents occur infrequently. To investigate synaptic currents carried by GABA receptors in bushy and multipolar cells, we used transgenic mice in which channelrhodopsin-2 and EYFP is driven by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-ChR2-EYFP) and is expressed in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Light stimulation evoked action potentials in EYFP-expressing presynaptic cells, and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in non-expressing bushy and planar multipolar cells. Less than 10% of the IPSP amplitude in bushy cells arose from GABAergic synapses, whereas 40% of the IPSP in multipolar neurons was GABAergic. In voltage clamp, glycinergic IPSCs were significantly slower in bushy neurons than in multipolar neurons, whereas there was little difference in the kinetics of the GABAergic IPSCs between two cell types. During prolonged stimulation, the ratio of steady state vs. peak IPSC amplitude was significantly lower for glycinergic IPSCs. Surprisingly, the reversal potentials of GABAergic IPSCs were negative to those of glycinergic IPSCs in both bushy and multipolar neurons. In the absence of receptor blockers, repetitive light stimulation was only able to effectively evoke IPSCs up to 20 Hz in both bushy and multipolar neurons. We conclude that local GABAergic release within the VCN can differentially influence bushy and multipolar cells. PMID:25104925

  16. Implementing the cellular mechanisms of synaptic transmission in a neural mass model of the thalamo-cortical circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel direction to existing neural mass modeling technique is proposed where the commonly used “alpha function” for representing synaptic transmission is replaced by a kinetic framework of neurotransmitter and receptor dynamics. The aim is to underpin neuro-transmission dynamics associated with abnormal brain rhythms commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders. An existing thalamocortical neural mass model is modified by using the kinetic framework for modeling synaptic transmission mediated by glutamatergic and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric-acid)-ergic receptors. The model output is compared qualitatively with existing literature on in vitro experimental studies of ferret thalamic slices, as well as on single-neuron-level model based studies of neuro-receptor and transmitter dynamics in the thalamocortical tissue. The results are consistent with these studies: the activation of ligand-gated GABA receptors is essential for generation of spindle waves in the model, while blocking this pathway leads to low-frequency synchronized oscillations such as observed in slow-wave sleep; the frequency of spindle oscillations increase with increased levels of post-synaptic membrane conductance for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid) receptors, and blocking this pathway effects a quiescent model output. In terms of computational efficiency, the simulation time is improved by a factor of 10 compared to a similar neural mass model based on alpha functions. This implies a dramatic improvement in computational resources for large-scale network simulation using this model. Thus, the model provides a platform for correlating high-level brain oscillatory activity with low-level synaptic attributes, and makes a significant contribution toward advancements in current neural mass modeling paradigm as a potential computational tool to better the understanding of brain oscillations in sickness and in health. PMID:23847522

  17. Neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission, LTP and EPSP-spike coupling in the dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Peter; Vnencak, Matej; Krueger, Dilja D; Jungenitz, Tassilo; Brose, Nils; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2015-01-01

    Neuroligins are transmembrane cell adhesion proteins with a key role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Based on previous in vitro and ex vivo studies, neuroligin-1 (NL1) has been suggested to play a selective role in the function of glutamatergic synapses. However, the role of NL1 has not yet been investigated in the brain of live animals. We studied the effects of NL1-deficiency on synaptic transmission in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using field potential recordings evoked by perforant path stimulation in urethane-anesthetized NL1 knockout (KO) mice. We report that in NL1 KOs the activation of glutamatergic perforant path granule cell inputs resulted in reduced synaptic responses. In addition, NL1 KOs displayed impairment in long-term potentiation. Furthermore, field EPSP-population spike (E-S) coupling was greater in NL1 KO than WT mice and paired-pulse inhibition was reduced, indicating a compensatory rise of excitability in NL1 KO granule cells. Consistent with changes in excitatory transmission, NL1 KOs showed a significant reduction in hippocampal synaptosomal expression levels of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and NMDA receptor subunits GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B. Taken together, we provide first evidence that NL1 is essential for normal excitatory transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of intact animals. Our data provide insights into synaptic and circuit mechanisms of neuropsychiatric abnormalities such as learning deficits and autism. PMID:25713840

  18. Deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors reduces synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-03-01

    The effects of cannabinoids are mostly mediated by two types of cannabinoid receptors-CB1 receptors in the nervous system and CB2 receptors in the immune system. However, CB2 cannabinoid receptors have recently been discovered in the brain and also implicated in neurophysiological functions. The deletion of CB2 receptors in mice induces long-term memory deficits and schizophrenia-like behaviors, implying that endogenous activity of CB2 receptors might be involved in neuropsychiatric effects. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which physiological activation of CB2 receptors modulates neuronal functions. We aimed to determine how deletion of CB2 receptors in mice affects synaptic transmission and plasticity. Electrophysiological and morphological studies indicated that CB2 receptor knockout resulted in decreases in excitatory synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, and dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. Our data imply that endogenous activity of CB2 receptors might contribute to the maintenance of synaptic functions and the expression of normal long-term potentiation. This study provides insights into the role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in regulating cognitive functions such as long-term memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663094

  19. A P2X receptor-mediated nociceptive afferent pathway to lamina I of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Gu, Jianguo G

    2005-01-01

    Of the six lamina regions in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, lamina I is a major sensory region involved in nociceptive transmission under both physiological and pathological conditions. While P2X receptors have been shown to be involved in nociception, it remains unknown if P2X receptors are involved in nociceptive transmission to lamina I neurons. Using rat spinal cord slice preparations and patch-clamp recordings, we have demonstrated that the excitatory synaptic transmission between primary afferent fibers and lamina I neurons is significantly affected by ATP and alpha,beta-methylene-ATP. The synaptic effects of them include the increases of the frequency of both miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), and decreases of evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs). These effects were blocked by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 10 microM) and suramin (30 microM). In the neurons for which ATP and alpha,beta-methylene-ATP had effects on mEPSCs, sEPSCs and eEPSCs, capsaicin produced similar synaptic effects. Our results indicate that P2X receptors are expressed on many afferent fibers that directly synapse to lamina I neurons. Furthermore, these P2X receptor-expressing afferent fibers are capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive afferents. Thus, this study reveals a P2X receptor-mediated nociceptive afferent pathway to lamina I of the spinal cord and provides a new insight into the nociceptive functions of P2X receptors. PMID:15813988

  20. Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Potentiation Induction as a Possible Mechanism for Learning Disability in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It has been shown that memory deficits is common in patients with MS. Recent studies using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as an animal model of MS have shown that indicated that EAE causes hippocampal-dependent impairment in learning and memory. Thus far, there have been no in vivo electrophysiological reports describing synaptic transmission in EAE animals. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the synaptic changes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats. Methods: To evaluate changes in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from the stratum radiatum of CA1 neurons, were recorded following Schaffer collateral stimulation. Results: The results showed that EAE causes deficits in synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. In addition, paired-pulse index with a 120 msec interstimulus interval was decreased in the EAE group. These findings indicate that EAE might induce suppression in synaptic transmission and LTP by increasing the inhibitory effect of GABAB receptors on the glutamate-mediated EPSP. Conclusions: In conclusion, influence of inflammation-triggered mechanisms on synaptic transmission may explain the negative effect of EAE on learning abilities in rats. PMID:27032554

  1. Learning-induced modulation of the GABAB-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission: mechanisms and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Kfir, Adi; Ohad-Giwnewer, Naama; Jammal, Luna; Saar, Drorit; Golomb, David; Barkai, Edi

    2014-05-01

    Complex olfactory-discrimination (OD) learning results in a series of intrinsic and excitatory synaptic modifications in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons that enhance the circuit excitability. Such overexcitation must be balanced to prevent runway activity while maintaining the efficient ability to store memories. We showed previously that OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAA-mediated inhibition. Here we show that GABAB-mediated inhibition is also enhanced after learning and study the mechanism underlying such enhancement and explore its functional role. We show that presynaptic, GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is enhanced after learning. In contrast, the population-average postsynaptic GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is unchanged, but its standard deviation is enhanced. Learning-induced reduction in paired pulse facilitation in the glutamatergic synapses interconnecting pyramidal neurons was abolished by application of the GABAB antagonist CGP55845 but not by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels only, indicating enhanced suppression of excitatory synaptic release via presynaptic GABAB-receptor activation. In addition, the correlation between the strengths of the early (GABAA-mediated) and late (GABAB-mediated) synaptic inhibition was much stronger for each particular neuron after learning. Consequently, GABAB-mediated inhibition was also more efficient in controlling epileptic-like activity induced by blocking GABAA receptors. We suggest that complex OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAB-mediated inhibition that enables the cortical network to store memories, while preventing uncontrolled activity. PMID:24598518

  2. Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Cross-synaptic synchrony—correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron—is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03892.001 PMID:25180102

  3. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to an occlusion effect. Inhibition of ryanodine receptors by ryanodine or dantrolene also reduced the action of NaHS on EPC amplitudes. Our results indicate that in mammalian neuromuscular synapses endogenously produced H2S increases spontaneously and evoked quantal transmitter release from motor nerve endings without changing the response of nerve endings. The presynaptic effect of H2S appears mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling and involves presynaptic ryanodine receptors. PMID:26192092

  4. [The role of synaptic transmission in memory and neurodegeneration processes and effects of neurotropic preparations].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A

    2003-01-01

    Academician Zakusov, in his book Pharmacology of Central Synapses (Moscow, 1973), emphasized the central role of synaptic processes in regulation of various forms of behavior, memory, and psychotropic drug action. The paper considers most promising directions in the search for substances possessing nootropic and neuroprotector properties, many of which were developed at the Institute of Pharmacology based on the notion about synaptic processes. These investigations led to the creation of well-known drugs such as mexidole, noopept, nooglutyl, beglimin, etc. Special attention is devoted to the implementation and modern development of the ideas of Academician Zakusov. Recent data are presented on the role of neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in synaptic plasticity, memory processes, and development of neurodegenerative states. PMID:12962041

  5. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca2+ indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL–MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca2+ responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca2+ responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL–MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous ‘associative-stimulation’ of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL–MB synapses but not at the AFV–MB synapses. AL–MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL–MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL–MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL–MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

  6. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input–output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory–inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input–output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  7. Ubiquitin ligase RNF167 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marc P.; Herring, Bruce E.; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Neutzner, Albert; Karbowski, Mariusz; Youle, Richard J.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their density at postsynaptic sites determines synaptic strength. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that dynamically regulates the synaptic expression of many proteins. However, very few of the ubiquitinating enzymes implicated in the process have been identified. In a screen to identify transmembrane RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate surface expression of AMPARs, we identified RNF167. Predominantly lysosomal, a subpopulation of RNF167 is located on the surface of cultured neurons. Using a RING mutant RNF167 or a specific shRNA to eliminate endogenous RNF167, we demonstrate that AMPAR surface expression increases in hippocampal neurons with disrupted RNF167 activity and that RNF167 is involved in activity-dependent ubiquitination of AMPARs. In addition, RNF167 regulates synaptic AMPAR currents, whereas synaptic NMDAR currents are unaffected. Therefore, our study identifies RNF167 as a selective regulator of AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and expands our understanding of how ubiquitination dynamically regulates excitatory synapses. PMID:23129617

  8. Ubiquitin ligase RNF167 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Marc P; Herring, Bruce E; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Neutzner, Albert; Karbowski, Mariusz; Youle, Richard J; Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

    2012-11-20

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their density at postsynaptic sites determines synaptic strength. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that dynamically regulates the synaptic expression of many proteins. However, very few of the ubiquitinating enzymes implicated in the process have been identified. In a screen to identify transmembrane RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate surface expression of AMPARs, we identified RNF167. Predominantly lysosomal, a subpopulation of RNF167 is located on the surface of cultured neurons. Using a RING mutant RNF167 or a specific shRNA to eliminate endogenous RNF167, we demonstrate that AMPAR surface expression increases in hippocampal neurons with disrupted RNF167 activity and that RNF167 is involved in activity-dependent ubiquitination of AMPARs. In addition, RNF167 regulates synaptic AMPAR currents, whereas synaptic NMDAR currents are unaffected. Therefore, our study identifies RNF167 as a selective regulator of AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and expands our understanding of how ubiquitination dynamically regulates excitatory synapses. PMID:23129617

  9. Shank1 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenjie; Watanabe, Takuya; Cho, Sukhee; Frost, Jeffrey L; Truong, Tina; Zhao, Xiaohu; Futai, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    The Shank genes (SHANK1, 2, 3) encode scaffold proteins highly enriched in postsynaptic densities where they regulate synaptic structure in spiny neurons. Mutations in human Shank genes are linked to autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Shank1 mutant mice exhibit intriguing cognitive phenotypes reminiscent of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the human pathophysiological phenotypes and mouse behaviors have not been elucidated. In this study it is shown that Shank1 protein is highly localized in parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. Importantly, a lack of Shank1 in hippocampal CA1 PV+ neurons reduced excitatory synaptic inputs and inhibitory synaptic outputs to pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in Shank1 mutant mice exhibit a shift in the excitatory and inhibitory balance (E-I balance), a pathophysiological hallmark of autism spectrum disorder. The mutant mice also exhibit lower expression of gephyrin (a scaffold component of inhibitory synapses), supporting the dysregulation of E-I balance in the hippocampus. These results suggest that Shank1 scaffold in PV+ interneurons regulates excitatory synaptic strength and participates in the maintenance of E-I balance in excitatory neurons. PMID:25816842

  10. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  11. Electroacupuncture and A-317491 depress the transmission of pain on primary afferent mediated by the P2X3 receptor in rats with chronic neuropathic pain states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Sheng; Tu, Wen-Zhan; Cheng, Rui-Dong; He, Rong; Ruan, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Bo; Lai, Yin-Ping; Zou, En-Miao; Jiang, Song-He

    2014-12-01

    P2X is a family of ligand-gated ion channels that act through adenosine ATP. The P2X3 receptor plays a key role in the transmission of neuropathic pain at peripheral and spinal sites. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat neuropathic pain effectively. To determine the role of EA in neuropathic pain mediated through the P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglion neurons and the spinal cord, a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was used. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham CCI, CCI, CCI plus contralateral EA, and CCI plus ipsilateral EA. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were recorded. Furthermore, the expression of the P2X3 receptor was evaluated through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The effects of EA and A-317491 were investigated through the whole-cell patch-clamp method and intrathecal administration. Our results show that the MWT and TWL of EA groups were higher than those in the CCI group, whereas the expression of the P2X3 receptor was lower than that in the CCI group. However, no significant difference was detected between the two EA groups. EA depressed the currents created by ATP and the upregulation of the P2X3 receptor in CCI rats. Additionally, EA was more potent in reducing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia when combined with A-317491 through intrathecal administration. These results show that both contralateral and ipsilateral EA might inhibit the primary afferent transmission of neuropathic pain induced through the P2X3 receptor. In addition, EA and A-317491 might have an additive effect in inhibiting the transmission of pain mediated by the P2X3 receptor. PMID:25041872

  12. Weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering supports sustained synaptic transmission by distinct mechanisms in rod and cone photoreceptors in salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2015-01-01

    Differences in synaptic transmission between rod and cone photoreceptors contribute to different response kinetics in rod- versus cone-dominated visual pathways. We examined Ca2+ dynamics in synaptic terminals of tiger salamander photoreceptors under conditions that mimicked endogenous buffering to determine the influence on kinetically and mechanistically distinct components of synaptic transmission. Measurements of ICl(Ca) confirmed that endogenous Ca2+ buffering is equivalent to ˜0.05 mmol/L EGTA in rod and cone terminals. Confocal imaging showed that with such buffering, depolarization stimulated large, spatially unconstrained [Ca2+] increases that spread throughout photoreceptor terminals. We calculated immediately releasable pool (IRP) size and release efficiency in rods by deconvolving excitatory postsynaptic currents and presynaptic Ca2+ currents. Peak efficiency of ˜0.2 vesicles/channel was similar to that of cones (˜0.3 vesicles/channel). Efficiency in both cell types was not significantly affected by using weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering. However, weak Ca2+ buffering speeded Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent replenishment of vesicles to ribbons in both rods and cones, thereby enhancing sustained release. In rods, weak Ca2+ buffering also amplified sustained release by enhancing CICR and CICR-stimulated release of vesicles at nonribbon sites. By contrast, elevating [Ca2+] at nonribbon sites in cones with weak Ca2+ buffering and by inhibiting Ca2+ extrusion did not trigger additional release, consistent with the notion that exocytosis from cones occurs exclusively at ribbons. The presence of weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering in rods and cones facilitates slow, sustained exocytosis by enhancing Ca2+/CaM-dependent replenishment of ribbons in both rods and cones and by stimulating nonribbon release triggered by CICR in rods. PMID:26416977

  13. Weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering supports sustained synaptic transmission by distinct mechanisms in rod and cone photoreceptors in salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2015-09-01

    Differences in synaptic transmission between rod and cone photoreceptors contribute to different response kinetics in rod- versus cone-dominated visual pathways. We examined Ca(2+) dynamics in synaptic terminals of tiger salamander photoreceptors under conditions that mimicked endogenous buffering to determine the influence on kinetically and mechanistically distinct components of synaptic transmission. Measurements of IC l(Ca) confirmed that endogenous Ca(2+) buffering is equivalent to ~0.05 mmol/L EGTA in rod and cone terminals. Confocal imaging showed that with such buffering, depolarization stimulated large, spatially unconstrained [Ca(2+)] increases that spread throughout photoreceptor terminals. We calculated immediately releasable pool (IRP) size and release efficiency in rods by deconvolving excitatory postsynaptic currents and presynaptic Ca(2+) currents. Peak efficiency of ~0.2 vesicles/channel was similar to that of cones (~0.3 vesicles/channel). Efficiency in both cell types was not significantly affected by using weak endogenous Ca(2+) buffering. However, weak Ca(2+) buffering speeded Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent replenishment of vesicles to ribbons in both rods and cones, thereby enhancing sustained release. In rods, weak Ca(2+) buffering also amplified sustained release by enhancing CICR and CICR-stimulated release of vesicles at nonribbon sites. By contrast, elevating [Ca(2+)] at nonribbon sites in cones with weak Ca(2+) buffering and by inhibiting Ca(2+) extrusion did not trigger additional release, consistent with the notion that exocytosis from cones occurs exclusively at ribbons. The presence of weak endogenous Ca(2+) buffering in rods and cones facilitates slow, sustained exocytosis by enhancing Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent replenishment of ribbons in both rods and cones and by stimulating nonribbon release triggered by CICR in rods. PMID:26416977

  14. Different mechanisms of Ca2+ regulation that influence synaptic transmission: comparison between crayfish and Drosophila neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Desai-Shah, Mohati; Cooper, Robin L

    2009-12-01

    A brief historical background on synaptic transmission in relation to Ca(2+) dynamics and short-term facilitation is described. This study focuses on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in high output terminals of larval Drosophila compared to a low-output terminal of the crayfish neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Three processes; plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger [NCX], Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) are important in regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) are examined. When the NCX is compromised by reduced [Na(+)](o), no consistent effect occurred; but a NCX blocker KB-R7943 decreased the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitudes. Compromising the PMCA with pH 8.8 resulted in an increase in EPSP amplitude but treatment with a PMCA specific inhibitor carboxyeosin produced opposite results. Thapsigargin exposure to block the SERCA generally decreases EPSP amplitude. Compromising the activity of the above Ca(2+) regulating proteins had no substantial effects on short-term depression. The Kum(170TS) strain (with dysfunctional SERCA), showed a decrease in EPSP amplitudes including the first EPSP within the train. Synaptic transmission is altered by reducing the function of the above three [Ca(2+)](i) regulators; but they are not consistent among different species as expected. Results in crayfish NMJ were more consistent with expected results as compared to the Drosophila NMJ. It is predicated that different mechanisms are used for regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) in high and low output synaptic terminals. PMID:19650116

  15. Nicotinic Transmission onto Layer 6 Cortical Neurons Relies on Synaptic Activation of Non-α7 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hay, Y Audrey; Lambolez, Bertrand; Tricoire, Ludovic

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic excitation in neocortex is mediated by low-affinity α7 receptors and by high-affinity α4β2 receptors. There is evidence that α7 receptors are synaptic, but it is unclear whether high-affinity receptors are activated by volume transmission or synaptic transmission. To address this issue, we characterized responses of excitatory layer 6 (L6) neurons to optogenetic release of acetylcholine (ACh) in cortical slices. L6 responses consisted in a slowly decaying α4β2 current and were devoid of α7 component. Evidence that these responses were mediated by synapses was 4-fold. 1) Channelrhodopsin-positive cholinergic varicosities made close appositions onto responsive neurons. 2) Inhibition of ACh degradation failed to alter onset kinetics and amplitude of currents. 3) Quasi-saturation of α4β2 receptors occurred upon ACh release. 4) Response kinetics were unchanged in low release probability conditions. Train stimulations increased amplitude and decay time of responses and these effects appeared to involve recruitment of extrasynaptic receptors. Finally, we found that the α5 subunit, known to be associated with α4β2 in L6, regulates short-term plasticity at L6 synapses. Our results are consistent with previous anatomical observations of widespread cholinergic synapses and suggest that a significant proportion of these small synapses operate via high-affinity nicotinic receptors. PMID:25934969

  16. Electrical synaptic transmission in developing zebrafish: properties and molecular composition of gap junctions at a central auditory synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Cong; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Delfiner, Matthew; Eddy, Vanessa; Lucaci, Alexander G.; Soto-Riveros, Carolina; Yasumura, Thomas; Rash, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the knowledge of chemical synapses, little is known regarding the properties of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses in developing zebrafish, which provide a valuable model to study neural function at the systems level. Identifiable mixed (electrical and chemical) auditory synaptic contacts known as club endings on Mauthner cells (2 large reticulospinal neurons involved in tail-flip escape responses) allow exploration of electrical transmission in fish. Here, we show that paralleling the development of auditory responses, electrical synapses at these contacts become anatomically identifiable at day 3 postfertilization, reaching a number of ?6 between days 4 and 9. Furthermore, each terminal contains ?18 gap junctions, representing between 2,000 and 3,000 connexon channels formed by the teleost homologs of mammalian connexin 36. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that gap junctions at each of these contacts are functional and that synaptic transmission has properties that are comparable with those of adult fish. Thus a surprisingly small number of mixed synapses are responsible for the acquisition of auditory responses by the Mauthner cells, and these are likely sufficient to support escape behaviors at early developmental stages. PMID:25080573

  17. Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Bie, Xiaohua; Huo, Su; Du, Jubao; Liu, Lin; Song, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreased the numbers of spikes evoked by super stimuli in the presence of 15 μmol/L bicuculline, indicating the existence of inhibitory pathways in the injured rat hippocampus. Diazepam effectively increased the paired-pulse facilitation ratio in the hippocampal CA1 region following fluid percussion injury, reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials, decreased action-potential-dependent glutamine release, and reversed spontaneous glutamine release. These data suggest that diazepam could decrease the fluid percussion injury-induced enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 area. PMID:25558239

  18. Opioid addiction and withdrawal differentially drive long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang; Jia, Yunfang; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Wang, Liping; Xu, Lin; Cao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Addictive behavior is increasingly accepted as a drug-associated pathological memory in which the hippocampus is profoundly engaged. It has been well documented that adaptations of synaptic plasticity of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus may contribute to opioid addiction. However, it remains unknown whether and how adaptive changes of synaptic plasticity of inhibitory transmission in the hippocampus occurs during opioid abuse. Here, we reported that a single in vivo morphine exposure (SM) did not affect inhibitory long-term depression (I-LTD) in the hippocampus, compared with saline control; while repeated morphine exposure (RM) abolished this I-LTD. Interestingly, opioid withdrawal for 3-5 days after repeated (RMW), but not a single morphine exposure (SMW), largely enhanced I-LTD. More importantly, the I-LTD in single morphine treatment is dependent on presynaptic mechanism since it can be blocked by AM251, a selective cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist. While the large I-LTD in RMW group is dependent on combinatorial presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms since it can be blocked by co-application of AM251 and L-type calcium channel blocker LaCl3. Thus, these results demonstrate that opioid use and withdrawal drive the dynamics of presynaptic and postsynaptic I-LTD expression in the hippocampus that may contribute to the persistent behavioral changes during opioid abuse. PMID:25942289

  19. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states. PMID:27069691

  20. Rab11 modulates α-synuclein-mediated defects in synaptic transmission and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Breda, Carlo; Nugent, Marie L; Estranero, Jasper G; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Outeiro, Tiago F; Steinert, Joern R; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2015-02-15

    A central pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of proteinaceous depositions known as Lewy bodies, which consist largely of the protein α-synuclein (aSyn). Mutations, multiplications and polymorphisms in the gene encoding aSyn are associated with familial forms of PD and susceptibility to idiopathic PD. Alterations in aSyn impair neuronal vesicle formation/transport, and likely contribute to PD pathogenesis by neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. aSyn is functionally associated with several Rab family GTPases, which perform various roles in vesicle trafficking. Here, we explore the role of the endosomal recycling factor Rab11 in the pathogenesis of PD using Drosophila models of aSyn toxicity. We find that aSyn induces synaptic potentiation at the larval neuromuscular junction by increasing synaptic vesicle (SV) size, and that these alterations are reversed by Rab11 overexpression. Furthermore, Rab11 decreases aSyn aggregation and ameliorates several aSyn-dependent phenotypes in both larvae and adult fruit flies, including locomotor activity, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and shortened lifespan. This work emphasizes the importance of Rab11 in the modulation of SV size and consequent enhancement of synaptic function. Our results suggest that targeting Rab11 activity could have a therapeutic value in PD. PMID:25305083

  1. Depression of parallel and climbing fiber transmission to Bergmann glia is input specific and correlates with increased precision of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Saju; Bellamy, Tomas C

    2009-03-01

    In the cerebellar cortex, Bergmann glia enclose the synapses of both parallel and climbing fiber inputs to the Purkinje neuron. The glia express Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors, and the GLAST and GLT-1 classes of glutamate transporter, which are activated by glutamate released during synaptic transmission. We have previously reported that parallel fiber to Bergmann glial transmission in rat cerebellar slices exhibits a form of frequency-dependent plasticity, namely long-term depression, following repetitive stimulation at 0.1-1 Hz. Here, we report that this form of plasticity is also present at the climbing fiber input, that climbing and parallel fibers can be depressed independently, that discrete parallel fiber inputs can also be depressed independently, and that depression is maintained when a distributed array of parallel fibers are stimulated (in contrast to several forms of synaptic plasticity at the Purkinje neuron). Depression of glutamate transporter currents does not correlate with a decrease in the stringency with which Purkinje neuron synapses are isolated. Rather, postsynaptic currents in Purkinje neurons decay more rapidly and perisynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors are activated less effectively after stimulation at 0.2 and 1 Hz, suggesting that depression arises from a decrease in extrasynaptic glutamate concentration and not from impairment of glutamate clearance in and around the synapse. These results indicate that neuron-glial plasticity is activity dependent, input specific and does not require spillover between adjacent synapses to manifest. They also argue against a withdrawal of the glial sheath from synaptic regions as the putative mechanism of plasticity. PMID:18837050

  2. The Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of the Nucleus of Solitary Tract Was Potentiated by Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ban; Zhang, Zi-Nan; Lei, Jie; Li, Yun-Qing; Du, Jian-Qing; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition. PMID:25756354

  3. Layer- and area-specific actions of norepinephrine on cortical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Humberto; Treviño, Mario; Atzori, Marco

    2016-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is a critical target of the central noradrenergic system. The importance of norepinephrine (NE) in the regulation of cortical activity is underscored by clinical findings that involve this catecholamine and its receptor subtypes in the regulation of a large number of emotional and cognitive functions and illnesses. In this review, we highlight diverse effects of the LC/NE system in the mammalian cortex. Indeed, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral studies in the last few decades reveal that NE elicits a mixed repertoire of excitatory, inhibitory, and biphasic effects on the firing activity and transmitter release of cortical neurons. At the intrinsic cellular level, NE can produce a series of effects similar to those elicited by other monoamines or acetylcholine, associated with systemic arousal. At the synaptic level, NE induces numerous acute changes in synaptic function, and ׳gates' the induction of long-term plasticity of glutamatergic synapses, consisting in an enhancement of engaged and relevant cortical synapses and/or depression of unengaged synapses. Equally important in shaping cortical function, in many cortical areas NE promotes a characteristic, most often reversible, increase in the gain of local inhibitory synapses, whose extent and temporal properties vary between different areas and sometimes even between cortical layers of the same area. While we are still a long way from a comprehensive theory of the function of the LC/NE system, its cellular, synaptic, and plastic effects are consistent with the hypothesis that noradrenergic modulation is critical in coordinating the activity of cortical and subcortical circuits for the integration of sensory activity and working memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26820639

  4. EPO induces changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of rats.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Melian, William; Mercerón-Martínez, Daymara; Delgado-Ocaña, Susana; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Ledón, Nuris; Bergado, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin has shown wide physiological effects on the central nervous system in animal models of disease, and in healthy animals. We have recently shown that systemic EPO administration 15 min, but not 5 h, after daily training in a water maze is able to induce the recovery of spatial memory in fimbria-fornix chronic-lesioned animals, suggesting that acute EPO triggers mechanisms which can modulate the active neural plasticity mechanism involved in spatial memory acquisition in lesioned animals. Additionally, this EPO effect is accompanied by the up-regulation of plasticity-related early genes. More remarkably, this time-dependent effects on learning recovery could signify that EPO in nerve system modulate specific living-cellular processes. In the present article, we focus on the question if EPO could modulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity like LTP and LTD, which presumably could support our previous published data. Our results show that acute EPO peripheral administration 15 min before the induction of synaptic plasticity is able to increase the magnitude of the LTP (more prominent in PSA than fEPSP-Slope) to facilitate the induction of LTD, and to protect LTP from depotentiation. These findings showing that EPO modulates in vivo synaptic plasticity sustain the assumption that EPO can act not only as a neuroprotective substance, but is also able to modulate transient neural plasticity mechanisms and therefore to promote the recovery of nerve function after an established chronic brain lesion. According to these results, EPO could be use as a molecular tool for neurorestaurative treatments. Synapse 70:240-252, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26860222

  5. Spike timing in CA3 pyramidal cells during behavior: implications for synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Frerking, M.; Schulte, J.; Wiebe, S.P.; Stäubli, U.

    2005-01-01

    Spike timing is thought to be an important mechanism for transmitting information in the CNS. Recent studies have emphasized millisecond precision in spike timing, to allow temporal summation of rapid synaptic signals. However, spike timing over slower timescales could also be important, through mechanisms including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, or temporal summation of slow PSPs such as those mediated by kainate receptors. To determine the extent to which these slower mechanisms contribute to information processing, it is first necessary to understand the properties of behaviorally relevant spike timing over this slow timescale. In this study, we examine the activity of CA3 pyramidal cells during the performance of a complex behavioral task in rats. Sustained firing rates vary over a wide range, and the firing rate of a cell is poorly correlated with the behavioral cues to which the cell responds. Non-random interactions between successive spikes can last for several seconds, but the non-random distribution of interspike intervals (ISIs) can account for the majority of nonrandom multi-spike patterns. During a stimulus, cellular responses are temporally complex, causing a shift in spike timing that favors intermediate ISIs over short and long ISIs. Response discrimination between related stimuli occurs through changes in both response time-course and response intensity. Precise synchrony between cells is limited, but loosely correlated firing between cells is common. This study indicates that spike timing is regulated over long timescales, and suggests that slow synaptic mechanisms could play a substantial role in information processing in the CNS. PMID:15872069

  6. Crossover inhibition in the retina: circuitry that compensates for nonlinear rectifying synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Alyosha; Hsueh, Hain-Ann; Roska, Botond; Werblin, Frank S

    2009-12-01

    In the mammalian retina, complementary ON and OFF visual streams are formed at the bipolar cell dendrites, then carried to amacrine and ganglion cells via nonlinear excitatory synapses from bipolar cells. Bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells also receive a nonlinear inhibitory input from amacrine cells. The most common form of such inhibition crosses over from the opposite visual stream: Amacrine cells carry ON inhibition to the OFF cells and carry OFF inhibition to the ON cells ("crossover inhibition"). Although these synapses are predominantly nonlinear, linear signal processing is required for computing many properties of the visual world such as average intensity across a receptive field. Linear signaling is also necessary for maintaining the distinction between brightness and contrast. It has long been known that a subset of retinal outputs provide exactly this sort of linear representation of the world; we show here that rectifying (nonlinear) synaptic currents, when combined thorough crossover inhibition can generate this linear signaling. Using simple mathematical models we show that for a large set of cases, repeated rounds of synaptic rectification without crossover inhibition can destroy information carried by those synapses. A similar circuit motif is employed in the electronics industry to compensate for transistor nonlinearities in analog circuits. PMID:19636690

  7. Angiotensin II inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission in dorsolateral periaqueductal gray neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in modulating inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl-PAG). The whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to examine inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and EPSCs) of the dl-PAG neurons. Ang II, at the concentration of 2 M, decreased the frequency of miniature IPSCs from 0.83 0.02 to 0.45 0.03 Hz (P < 0.05) in 10 tested neurons. This did not significantly affect the amplitude and decay time constant. The effect of Ang II on miniature IPSCs was blocked by the prior application of Ang II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, but not by AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. Additionally, Ang II decreased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs from 148 15 to 89 7 pA (P < 0.05), and increased the paired-pulse ratio from 96 5% to 125 7% (P < 0.05) in eight tested neurons. In contrast, Ang II had no distinct effects on the EPSCs. Our data suggest that Ang II inhibits GABAergic synaptic inputs to the dl-PAG through activation of presynaptic AT1 receptors. PMID:19429096

  8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Inhibits Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in Dorsolateral Periaqueductal Gray (dl-PAG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong; Li, Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in modulating neuronal activity of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dl-PAG) through excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) of the dl-PAG neurons. Our results show that PGE2 significantly decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs and amplitude of evoked EPSCs. The effects were mimicked by sulprostone, an agonist to PGE2 EP3 receptors. In contrast, PGE2 had no distinct effect on IPSCs. In addition, spontaneous action potential of the dl-PAG neurons was recorded using whole cell current-clamp methods. PGE2 significantly attenuated the discharge rate of the dl-PAG neurons. The decreased firing activity was abolished in the presence of glutamate NMDA and non-NMDA receptors antagonists. The results from the current study provide the first evidence indicating that PGE2 inhibits the neuronal activity of the dl-PAG via selective attenuation of glutamatergic synaptic inputs, likely due to activation of presynaptic EP3 receptors. PMID:17612511

  9. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state. PMID:26424793

  10. Loss of Predominant Shank3 Isoforms Results in Hippocampus-Dependent Impairments in Behavior and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kouser, Mehreen; Speed, Haley E.; Dewey, Colleen M.; Reimers, Jeremy M.; Widman, Allie J.; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Bangash, Muhammad; Xiao, Bo; Worley, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The Shank3 gene encodes a scaffolding protein that anchors multiple elements of the postsynaptic density at the synapse. Previous attempts to delete the Shank3 gene have not resulted in a complete loss of the predominant naturally occurring Shank3 isoforms. We have now characterized a homozygous Shank3 mutation in mice that deletes exon 21, including the Homer binding domain. In the homozygous state, deletion of exon 21 results in loss of the major naturally occurring Shank3 protein bands detected by C-terminal and N-terminal antibodies, allowing us to more definitively examine the role of Shank3 in synaptic function and behavior. This loss of Shank3 leads to an increased localization of mGluR5 to both synaptosome and postsynaptic density-enriched fractions in the hippocampus. These mice exhibit a decrease in NMDA/AMPA excitatory postsynaptic current ratio in area CA1 of the hippocampus, reduced long-term potentiation in area CA1, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. In addition, these mice also exhibit motor-coordination deficits, hypersensitivity to heat, novelty avoidance, altered locomotor response to novelty, and minimal social abnormalities. These data suggest that Shank3 isoforms are required for normal synaptic transmission/plasticity in the hippocampus, as well as hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. PMID:24259569

  11. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Haley E.; Kouser, Mehreen; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M.; Ochoa, Christine F.; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan

    2015-01-01

    SHANK3 (also known as PROSAP2) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses in which mutations and deletions have been implicated in patients with idiopathic autism, Phelan–McDermid (aka 22q13 microdeletion) syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we have created a novel mouse model of human autism caused by the insertion of a single guanine nucleotide into exon 21 (Shank3G). The resulting frameshift causes a premature STOP codon and loss of major higher molecular weight Shank3 isoforms at the synapse. Shank3G/G mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, impaired motor coordination, altered response to novelty, and sensory processing deficits. At the cellular level, Shank3G/G mice also exhibit impaired hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity as well as changes in baseline NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. This work identifies clear alterations in synaptic function and behavior in a novel, genetically accurate mouse model of autism mimicking an autism-associated insertion mutation. Furthermore, these findings lay the foundation for future studies aimed to validate and study region-selective and temporally selective genetic reversal studies in the Shank3G/G mouse that was engineered with such future experiments in mind. PMID:26134648

  12. Acute differential modulation of synaptic transmission and cell survival during exposure to pulsed and continuous radiofrequency energy.

    PubMed

    Cahana, Alex; Vutskits, Laszlo; Muller, Dominique

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency, in which short bursts of radiofrequency energy are applied to nervous tissue, has been recently described as an alternative technique devoid of nerve injury, a subsequent side effect of thermal lesions created by continuous radiofrequency lesioning. Yet the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study we compared the acute effects of pulsed versus continuous radiofrequency energy on impulse propagation and synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures and on cell survival in cortical cultures. A differential effect was observed on both systems, with pulsed radiofrequency producing a transient and continuous radiofrequency a lasting inhibition of evoked synaptic activity. In addition, although both continuous radiofrequency and pulsed radiofrequency treatments induced a distance-dependent tissue destruction under the stimulating needle, the effect was more pronounced in the continuous radiofrequency group. These findings suggest that the acute effects of pulsed radiofrequency are more reversible and less destructive in nature than the classic continuous radiofrequency mode, even in normothermal conditions. This model might help elucidate the importance of various parameters for the clinical application of radiofrequency lesioning and might open new horizons for the role of pulsed radiofrequency lesioning in cases of neuropathic pain. PMID:14622704

  13. Modulation of hippocampus-prefrontal cortex synaptic transmission and disruption of executive cognitive functions by MK-801.

    PubMed

    Blot, Kevin; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Bai, Jing; Kemp, Anne; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Giros, Bruno; Tzavara, Eleni; Otani, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and MK-801 are known to impair cognitive function in rodents and humans, and serve as a useful tool to study the cellular basis for pathogenesis of schizophrenia cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we tested in rats the effect of MK-801 on ventral hippocampus (HPC)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) synaptic transmission and the performance in 2 cognitive tasks. We found that single injection of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) induced gradual and long-lasting increases of the HPC-mPFC response, which shares the common expression mechanisms with long-term potentiation (LTP). But unlike LTP, its induction required no enhanced or synchronized synaptic inputs, suggesting aberrant characteristics. In parallel, rats injected with MK-801 showed impairments of mPFC-dependent cognitive flexibility and HPC-mPFC pathway-dependent spatial working memory. The effects of MK-801 on HPC-mPFC responses and spatial working memory decayed in parallel within 24 h. Moreover, the therapeutically important subtype 2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268, which blocked MK-801-induced potentiation, ameliorated the MK-801-induced impairment of spatial working memory. Our results show a novel form of use-independent long-lasting potentiation in HPC-mPFC pathway induced by MK-801, which is associated with impairment of HPC-mPFC projection-dependent cognitive function. PMID:24304584

  14. Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

  15. Postnatal Loss of P/Q-type Channels Confined to Rhombic Lip Derived Neurons Alters Synaptic Transmission at the Parallel Fiber to Purkinje Cell Synapse and Replicates Genomic Cacna1a Mutation Phenotype of Ataxia and Seizures in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Takashi; Wollenweber, Patric; Teusner, Lena U. C.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Herlitze, Stefan; Mark, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia, episodic dyskinesia and thalamocortical seizures are associated with an inherited loss of P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function. P/Q-type channels are widely expressed throughout the neuraxis, obscuring identification of the critical networks underlying these complex neurological disorders. We recently showed that the conditional postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) in mice (purky) leads to these aberrant phenotypes, suggesting that intrinsic alteration in PC output is a sufficient pathogenic factor for disease initiation. The question arises whether P/Q-type channel deletion confined to a single upstream cerebellar synapse might induce the pathophysiological abnormality of genomically inherited P/Q-type channel disorders. PCs integrate two excitatory inputs, climbing fibers from inferior olive and parallel fibers (PFs) from granule cells (GCs) that receive mossy fiber (MF) input derived from precerebellar nuclei. In this paper, we introduce a new mouse model with a selective knock-out of P/Q-type channels in rhombic lip derived neurons including PF- and MF-pathways (quirky). We found that in quirky mice, PF-PC synaptic transmission is reduced during low-frequency stimulation. Using focal light stimulation of GCs that express optogenetic light-sensitive channels, channelrhodopsin-2, we found that modulation of PC firing via GC input is reduced in quirky mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that quirky mice display ataxia, dyskinesia and absence epilepsy. These results suggest that developmental alteration of patterned input confined to only one of the main afferent cerebellar excitatory synaptic pathways has a significant role in generating the neurological phenotype associated with the global genomic loss of P/Q-type channel function. PMID:23516282

  16. Similar oxysterols may lead to opposite effects on synaptic transmission: Olesoxime versus 5α-cholestan-3-one at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Zakyrjanova, G F; Giniatullin, A R; Zefirov, A L; Petrov, A M

    2016-07-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products frequently have a high biological activity. In the present study, we have used microelectrode recording of end plate currents and FM-based optical detection of synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis to investigate the effects of two structurally similar oxysterols, olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime) and 5ɑ-cholestan-3-one (5ɑCh3), on neurotransmission at the frog neuromuscular junction. Olesoxime is an exogenous, potentially neuroprotective, substance and 5ɑCh3 is an intermediate product in cholesterol metabolism, which is elevated in the case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. We found that olesoxime slightly increased evoked neurotransmitter release in response to a single stimulus and significantly reduced synaptic depression during high frequency activity. The last effect was due to an increase in both the number of synaptic vesicles involved in exo-endocytosis and the rate of synaptic vesicle recycling. In contrast, 5ɑCh3 reduced evoked neurotransmitter release during the low- and high frequency synaptic activities. The depressant action of 5ɑCh3 was associated with a reduction in the number of synaptic vesicles participating in exo- and endocytosis during high frequency stimulation, without a change in rate of the synaptic vesicle recycling. Of note, olesoxime increased the staining of synaptic membranes with the B-subunit of cholera toxin and the formation of fluorescent ganglioside GM1 clusters, and decreased the fluorescence of 22-NBD-cholesterol, while 5ɑCh3 had the opposite effects, suggesting that the two oxysterols have different effects on lipid raft stability. Taken together, these data show that these two structurally similar oxysterols induce marked different changes in neuromuscular transmission which are related with the alteration in synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:27102612

  17. The sigma-1 receptor modulates NMDA receptor synaptic transmission and plasticity via SK channels in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Bergeron, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The sigma receptor (σR), once considered a subtype of the opioid receptor, is now described as a distinct pharmacological entity. Modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions by σR-1 ligands is well documented; however, its mechanism is not fully understood. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recordings in CA1 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus and (+)pentazocine, a high-affinity σR-1 agonist, we found that σR-1 activation potentiates NMDAR responses and long-term potentiation (LTP) by preventing a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (SK channels), known to shunt NMDAR responses, to open. Therefore, the block of SK channels and the resulting increased Ca2+ influx through the NMDAR enhances NMDAR responses and LTP. These results emphasize the importance of the σR-1 as postsynaptic regulator of synaptic transmission. PMID:17068104

  18. The effects of geometrical parameters on synaptic transmission: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, P J; Korn, H; Faber, D S

    1997-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of transmitter diffusion and its interactions with postsynaptic receptors have been used to study properties of quantal responses at central synapses. Fast synaptic responses characteristic of those recorded at glycinergic junctions on the teleost Mauthner cell (time to peak approximately 0.3-0.4 ms and decay time constant approximately 3-6 ms) served as the initial reference, and smaller contacts with fewer postsynaptic receptors were also modeled. Consistent with experimental findings, diffusion, simulated using a random walk algorithm and assuming a diffusion coefficient of 0.5-1.0 x 10(-5) cm2 s(-1), was sufficiently fast to account for transmitter removal from the synaptic cleft. Transmitter-receptor interactions were modeled as a two-step binding process, with the double-bound state having opened and closed conformations. Addition of a third binding step only slightly decreased response amplitude but significantly slowed both its rising and decay phases. The model allowed us to assess the sources of response variability and the likelihood of postsynaptic saturation as functions of multiple kinetic and spatial parameters. The method of nonstationary fluctuation analysis, typically used to estimate the number of functional channels at a synapse and single channel current, proved unreliable, presumably because the receptors in the postsynaptic matrix are not uniformly exposed to the same profile of transmitter concentration. Thus, the time course of the probability of channel opening most likely varies among receptors. Finally, possible substrates for phenomena of synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation, were explored, including the diameter of the contact zone, defined by the region of pre- and postsynaptic apposition, the number and distribution of the receptors, and the degree of vesicle filling. Surprisingly, response amplitude is quite sensitive to the size of the receptor-free annulus surrounding the receptor cluster, such that expansion of the contact zone could produce an appreciable increase in quantal size, normally attributed to either the presence of more receptors or the release of more transmitter molecules. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 9 PMID:9414202

  19. Neuronal glutamate transporters regulate synaptic transmission in single synapses on CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kondratskaya, Elena; Shin, Min-Chul; Akaike, Norio

    2010-01-15

    Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in CNS although it causes severe brain damage by pathologic excitotoxicity. Efficient neurotransmission is controlled by powerful protection and support afforded by specific high-affinity glutamate transporters in neurons and glia, clearing synaptic glutamate. While the role of glial cells in glutamate uptake is well defined, the role of neuronal transporters remains poorly understood. The evaluation of impact of neuronal transporters on spontaneous and evoked EPSC in hippocampal CA1 neurons within a model 'single bouton preparation' by pre- and postsynaptic uptake was addressed. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments the influence of blocking, pre- or both pre- and postsynaptic glutamate transporters (GluT) on spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents (sEPSC and eEPSC), was examined by manipulating the content of intracellular solution. Suppressing GluT by non-transportable inhibitor TBOA (10 microM) led to remarkable alteration of glutamate uptake process and was reflected in measurable changes of general properties of synaptic currents. Elimination of intracellular K(+) concentration required for glutamate transporter operation by using Cs(+)-based internal solution (postsynaptic GluTs are non-functional apriori), causes the deficient of presynaptic glutamate transporters. Applied in such conditions glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA (10 microM) affected the occurrence of synaptic event and thus unregulated the transmitter release. eEPSCs were generally suppressed both in amplitude (to 48.73+/-7.03% vs. control) and in success rate (R(suc)) by TBOA (from 91.1+/-7.5% in control to 79.57+/-13.2%). In contrast, with K(+)-based solution in patch pipette (pre- and postsynaptic GluT are intact), amplitude of eEPSC was substantially potentiated by pre-treatment with TBOA (152.1+/-11%), whereas (R(suc)) was reduced to 79.8+/-8.3% in average. The identical reduction of event success rate as well as increased pair-pulse ratios (PPF ratio) for eEPSC in both cases indicates the effect of TBOA on presynaptic uptake. sEPSCs simultaneously recorded from neurons, showed the same pattern of regulation but with less potency, indicating the similar processes in most of excitatory synapses. In conclusion, presynaptic transporters are suggested to act mainly as negative feedback signal on presynaptic release and/or referred to vesicle refilling processes. PMID:19665527

  20. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons and potent modulation by oxycodone in a bone cancer pain model

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanbara, Tomoe; Ono, Hiroko; Tomii, Takako; Morioka, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Minoru; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Mori, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We demonstrated previously that oxycodone has potent antinociceptive effects at supraspinal sites. In this study, we investigated changes in neuronal function and antinociceptive mechanisms of oxycodone at ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) neurons, which are a major site of opioid action, in a femur bone cancer (FBC) model with bone cancer-related pain. Experimental Approach We characterized the supraspinal antinociceptive profiles of oxycodone and morphine on mechanical hypersensitivity in the FBC model. Based on the disinhibition mechanism underlying supraspinal opioid antinociception, the effects of oxycodone and morphine on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VLPAG neurons were evaluated in slices from the FBC model. Key Results The supraspinal antinociceptive effects of oxycodone, but not morphine, were abolished by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium1 (Kir3.1) channels. In slices from the FBC model, GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons was enhanced, as indicated by a leftward shift of the input–output relationship curve of evoked IPSCs, the increased paired-pulse facilitation and the enhancement of miniature IPSC frequency. Following treatment with oxycodone and morphine, IPSCs were reduced in the FBC model, and the inhibition of presynaptic GABA release by oxycodone, but not morphine was enhanced and dependent on Kir3.1 channels. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that Kir3.1 channels are important for supraspinal antinociception and presynaptic GABA release inhibition by oxycodone in the FBC model. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons in the FBC model is an important site of supraspinal antinociception by oxycodone via Kir3.1 channel activation. PMID:25521524

  1. Investigation of the juxtamembrane region of neuronal-Synaptobrevin in synaptic transmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    DeMill, Colin M; Qiu, Xinping; Kisiel, Marta; Bolotta, Alanna; Stewart, Bryan A

    2014-09-15

    In this study, the juxtamembrane region of the Drosophila SNARE protein neuronal-Synaptobrevin (n-Syb) was tested for its role in synaptic transmission. A transgenic approach was used to express n-Syb mutant genes. The transgenes carried engineered point mutations that alter the amino acid sequence of the conserved tryptophan residues in the juxtamembrane sequence. Such transgenes were expressed in an n-syb hypomorphic background, which produces little endogenous protein. On their own, hypomorphic flies displayed severe motor inhibition, limited life span, reduced evoked junctional potentials (EJPs), decreased synchronicity in EJP time to peak, and potentiation of EJPs with 10-Hz stimulation. All of these deficits were restored to wild-type levels with the expression of wild-type transgenic n-syb, regulated by the endogenous promoter (n-syb(WT)). We created transgenic mutants with one additional tryptophan (n-syb(WW)) or one less tryptophan (n-syb(AA)) than the wild-type sequence. While n-syb(WW) resembled n-syb(WT) in all variables listed, n-syb(AA) exhibited decreased EJP amplitude, synchronicity, and quantal content. To determine whether the n-syb juxtamembrane region is important for transduction of force arising from SNARE complex assembly during membrane fusion, we introduced short 6-amino acid (n-syb(L6)) or long 24-amino acid (n-syb(L24)) flexible linkers into the n-syb transgene. We observed a reduced EJP amplitude in n-syb(L6) but not n-syb(L24), while both linker mutants showed a decreased quantal content and an effect on the readily releasable and recycling vesicle pools. In conclusion, mutation of the juxtamembrane region of n-syb deleteriously affected synaptic transmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. PMID:24944220

  2. Attempts at localizing calcium in relation to synaptic transmission: an X-ray microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Joó, F; Párducz, A; Tóth, I; Karnushina, I; Barca-Barca, M A

    1980-09-01

    1. In view of the importance of calcium in triggering the transmitter secretion during nerve stimulation or depolarization, the localization of calcium binding sites was studied in stimulated nerve endings that were fixed in calcium-containing s-collidine buffered paraformaldehyde solution. 2. In cholinergic synapses, such as the superior cervical ganglion of cat, the myoneural junction of rat diaphragm and the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata, a stimulation-dependent accumulation of calcium was found in the mitochondria of presynaptic nerve endings. 3. In synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex, the activity-dependent accumulation of calcium in mitochondria of pinched off nerve endings was also observed. The mitochondrial accumulation of calcium in synaptosomes was dependent on ATP, temperature and could be inhibited by quercetin. 4. In stimulated synapses, only the mitochondria seemed to accumulate calcium in appreciable amounts, whereas other intra-terminal structures, such as the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and synaptic vesicles were devoid of calcium. PMID:6256530

  3. Slow synaptic transmission mediated by TRPV1 channels in CA3 interneurons of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Noriomi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Sora, Ichiro; Mori, Masahiro

    2016-03-11

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate various neuronal functions in the central nervous system. Many studies reported that mGluRs have linkages to neuronal disorders such as schizophrenia and autism related disorders, indicating that mGluRs are involved in critical functions of the neuronal circuits. To study this possibility further, we recorded mGluR-induced synaptic responses in the interneurons of the CA3 stratum radiatum using rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Electrical stimulation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer evoked a slow inward current in the interneurons at a holding potential of -70mV in the presence of antagonists for AMPA/kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. The slow inward current was blocked in the absence of extracellular calcium, suggesting that this was a synaptic response. The slow excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) reversed near 0mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic conductance. The slow EPSC is mediated by group I mGluRs, as it was blocked by AP3, a group I mGluR antagonist. Neither a calcium chelator BAPTA nor a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 affected the slow EPSC. La(3+), a general TRP channel blocker or capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 channel antagonist significantly suppressed the slow EPSC. DHPG, a selective group I mGluRs agonist induced an inward current, which was suppressed by capsazepine. These results indicate that in the interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 stratum radiatum group I mGluRs activate TRPV1 channels independently of PLC and intracellular Ca(2+), resulting in the slow EPSC in the interneurons. PMID:26836139

  4. Kv1.3 channels regulate synaptic transmission in the nucleus of solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Navarro, Angelina; Glazebrook, Patricia A.; Kane-Sutton, Michelle; Padro, Caroline; Kline, David D.

    2011-01-01

    The voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 has been reported to regulate transmitter release in select central and peripheral neurons. In this study, we evaluated its role at the synapse between visceral sensory afferents and secondary neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We identified mRNA and protein for Kv1.3 in rat nodose ganglia using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In immunohistochemical experiments, anti-Kv1.3 immunoreactivity was very strong in internal organelles in the soma of nodose neurons with a weaker distribution near the plasma membrane. Anti-Kv1.3 was also identified in the axonal branches that project centrally, including their presynaptic terminals in the medial and commissural NTS. In current-clamp experiments, margatoxin (MgTx), a high-affinity blocker of Kv1.3, produced an increase in action potential duration in C-type but not A- or Ah-type neurons. To evaluate the role of Kv1.3 at the presynaptic terminal, we examined the effect of MgTx on tract evoked monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in brain slices of the NTS. MgTx increased the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in a subset of neurons, with the major increase occurring during the first stimuli in a 20-Hz train. These data, together with the results from somal recordings, support the hypothesis that Kv1.3 regulates the duration of the action potential in the presynaptic terminal of C fibers, limiting transmitter release to the postsynaptic cell. PMID:21430270

  5. Sodium signals in cerebellar Purkinje neurons and Bergmann glial cells evoked by glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bennay, Mustapha; Langer, Julia; Meier, Silke D; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2008-08-01

    Glial cells express specific high-affinity transporters for glutamate that play a central role in glutamate clearance at excitatory synapses in the brain. These transporters are electrogenic and are mainly energized by the electrochemical gradient for sodium. In the present study, we combined somatic whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with quantitative Na+ imaging in fine cellular branches of cerebellar Bergmann glial cells and in dendrites of Purkinje neurons to analyze intracellular Na+ signals close to activated synapses. We demonstrate that pressure application of glutamate and glutamate agonists causes local Na+ signals in the mM range. Furthermore, we analyzed the pharmacological profile, as well as the time course and spatial distribution of Na+ signals following short synaptic burst stimulation of parallel or climbing fibers. While parallel fibers stimulation resulted in local sodium transients that were largest in processes close to the stimulation pipette, climbing fibers stimulation elicited global sodium transients throughout the entire cell. Glial sodium signals amounted to several mM, were mainly caused by sodium influx following inward transport of glutamate and persisted for tens of seconds. Sodium transients in dendrites of Purkinje neurons, in contrast, were mainly caused by activation of AMPA receptors and had much faster kinetics. By reducing the driving force for sodium-dependent glutamate uptake, intracellular sodium accumulation in glial cells upon repetitive activity might provide a negative feedback mechanism, promoting the diffusion of glutamate and the activation of extrasynaptic glutamate receptors at active synapses in the cerebellum. PMID:18442095

  6. Kalirin and Trio proteins serve critical roles in excitatory synaptic transmission and LTP.

    PubMed

    Herring, Bruce E; Nicoll, Roger A

    2016-02-23

    The molecular mechanism underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) is critical for understanding learning and memory. CaMKII, a key kinase involved in LTP, is both necessary and sufficient for LTP induction. However, how CaMKII gives rise to LTP is currently unknown. Recent studies suggest that Rho GTPases are necessary for LTP. Rho GTPases are activated by Rho guanine exchange factors (RhoGEFs), but the RhoGEF(s) required for LTP also remain unknown. Here, using a combination of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques, we show that the RhoGEF Kalirin and its paralog Trio play critical and redundant roles in excitatory synapse structure and function. Furthermore, we show that CaMKII phosphorylation of Kalirin is sufficient to enhance synaptic AMPA receptor expression, and that preventing CaMKII signaling through Kalirin and Trio prevents LTP induction. Thus, our data identify Kalirin and Trio as the elusive targets of CaMKII phosphorylation responsible for AMPA receptor up-regulation during LTP. PMID:26858404

  7. Cholinergic efferent synaptic transmission regulates the maturation of auditory hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Wedemeyer, Carolina; Vetter, Douglas E.; Adachi, Roberto; Holley, Matthew C.; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity generated by developing sensory cells and neurons is crucial for the maturation of neural circuits. The full maturation of mammalian auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) depends on patterns of spontaneous action potentials during a ‘critical period’ of development. The intrinsic spiking activity of IHCs can be modulated by inhibitory input from cholinergic efferent fibres descending from the brainstem, which transiently innervate immature IHCs. However, it remains unknown whether this transient efferent input to developing IHCs is required for their functional maturation. We used a mouse model that lacks the α9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (α9nAChR) in IHCs and another lacking synaptotagmin-2 in the efferent terminals to remove or reduce efferent input to IHCs, respectively. We found that the efferent system is required for the developmental linearization of the Ca2+-sensitivity of vesicle fusion at IHC ribbon synapses, without affecting their general cell development. This provides the first direct evidence that the efferent system, by modulating IHC electrical activity, is required for the maturation of the IHC synaptic machinery. The central control of sensory cell development is unique among sensory systems. PMID:24350389

  8. Mutation of Drosophila Focal Adhesion Kinase Induces Bang-Sensitive Behavior and Disrupts Glial Function, Axonal Conduction and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Atsushi; Grabbe, Caroline; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Jisue; Palmer, Ruth H.; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    The role of the conserved Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in the development and physiological functions of the CNS has long been an area of interest among neuroscientists. In this report, we observe that Drosophila mutants lacking Fak56 exhibit a decreased life span, accompanied by a bang-sensitive phenotype, which is characterised by sensitivity to mechanical and high-frequency electrical stimulation. Fak56 mutant animals display lower thresholds and higher rates of seizures in response to electroconvulsive stimuli, and direct measurements of action potential conduction in larval segmental nerves demonstrate a slowed propagation speed and failure during high-frequency nerve stimulation. In addition, neuromuscular junctions in Fak56 mutant animals display transmission blockade during high-frequency activity as a result of action potential failure. Endogenous Fak56 protein is abundant in glial cells ensheathing the axon bundles, and structural alterations of segmental nerve bundles can be observed in mutants. Manipulation of Fak56 function specifically in glial cells also disrupts action potential conduction and neurotransmission, suggesting a glial component in the Fak56 bang-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, we show that increased intracellular calcium levels result in the dephosphorylation of endogenous Fak56 protein in Drosophila cell lines, in parallel with our observations of highly variable synaptic potentials at a higher Ca2+ level in Fak56 mutant larvae. Together these findings suggest that modulation of Fak56 function is important for action potential propagation and Ca2+-regulated neuromuscular transmission in vivo. PMID:18540882

  9. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein plays a major role in Aβ-induced alterations of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ripoli, Cristian; Cocco, Sara; Li Puma, Domenica D; Piacentini, Roberto; Mastrodonato, Alessia; Scala, Federico; Puzzo, Daniela; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Grassi, Claudio

    2014-09-17

    Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein has been proposed as an early event in AD pathogenesis. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, intraneuronal Aβ immunoreactivity was found especially in brain regions critically involved in the cognitive deficits of AD. Although a large body of evidence demonstrates that Aβ42 accumulates intraneuronally ((in)Aβ), the action and the role of Aβ42 buildup on synaptic function have been poorly investigated. Here, we demonstrate that basal synaptic transmission and LTP were markedly depressed following Aβ42 injection into the neuron through the patch pipette. Control experiments performed with the reverse peptide (Aβ42-1) allowed us to exclude that the effects of (in)Aβ depended on changes in oncotic pressure. To further investigate (in)Aβ synaptotoxicity we used an Aβ variant harboring oxidized methionine in position 35 that does not cross the neuronal plasma membrane and is not uploaded from the extracellular space. This Aβ42 variant had no effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity when applied extracellularly, but induced synaptic depression and LTP inhibition after patch-pipette dialysis. Finally, the injection of an antibody raised against human Aβ42 (6E10) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal brain slices and autaptic microcultures did not, per se, significantly affect LTP and basal synaptic transmission, but it protected against the toxic effects of extracellular Aβ42. Collectively, these findings suggest that Aβ42-induced impairment of glutamatergic synaptic function depends on its internalization and intracellular accumulation thus paving the way to a systemic proteomic analysis of intracellular targets/partners of Aβ42. PMID:25232124

  10. The effect of sevoflurane on the cognitive function of rats and its association with the inhibition of synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deng-Xin; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Zhuang, Qing; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    To observe the effects of different concentrations of sevoflurane on synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) expression, synaptic long term depression (LTD), and paired pulse depression (PPD) in the rat hippocampus as well as to investigate the association between these effects and the cognitive function of rats. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (group A), which inhaled air; group B, which inhaled 0.65 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane for 2 h; and group C, which inhaled 1.30 MAC sevoflurane for 2 h. The subsequent experiments were performed after one day. (1) Y maze tests were performed, and the expression of Syt1 in hippocampal tissues was detected using western blot. (2) The changes in LTD and PPD in rat hippocampal slices were examined using electrophysiological techniques. Compared to the control group, the cognitive function was decreased and Syt1 expression in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats in the 1.30 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group. After 60 min of low frequency stimulation, the amplitudes of population spike (PS) potentials in rat hippocampal slices were significantly decreased. After induction of PPD, the P2/P1 ratio was significantly increased. No indicators in the 0.65 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group showed any significant changes. Inhalation of high concentrations of sevoflurane significantly reduced Syt1 protein levels in the rat hippocampus, significantly inhibited the release of presynaptic neurotransmitters, and reduced the efficiency of synaptic transmission, thus causing memory impairment. PMID:26885010

  11. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca(2+)] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  12. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  13. Alterations in striatal synaptic transmission are consistent across genetic mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Damian M; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Since the identification of the gene responsible for HD (Huntington's disease), many genetic mouse models have been generated. Each employs a unique approach for delivery of the mutated gene and has a different CAG repeat length and background strain. The resultant diversity in the genetic context and phenotypes of these models has led to extensive debate regarding the relevance of each model to the human disorder. Here, we compare and contrast the striatal synaptic phenotypes of two models of HD, namely the YAC128 mouse, which carries the full-length huntingtin gene on a yeast artificial chromosome, and the CAG140 KI (knock-in) mouse, which carries a human/mouse chimaeric gene that is expressed in the context of the mouse genome, with our previously published data obtained from the R6/2 mouse, which is transgenic for exon 1 mutant huntingtin. We show that striatal MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in YAC128 and CAG140 KI mice have similar electrophysiological phenotypes to that of the R6/2 mouse. These include a progressive increase in membrane input resistance, a reduction in membrane capacitance, a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and a greater frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subpopulation of striatal neurons. Thus, despite differences in the context of the inserted gene between these three models of HD, the primary electrophysiological changes observed in striatal MSNs are consistent. The outcomes suggest that the changes are due to the expression of mutant huntingtin and such alterations can be extended to the human condition. PMID:20585470

  14. In vivo synaptic transmission and morphology in mouse models of Tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Costello syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiantian; de Kok, Laura; Willemsen, Rob; Elgersma, Ype; Borst, J. Gerard G.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in the rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Ras)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are responsible for several neurodevelopmental disorders. These disorders are an important cause for intellectual disability; additional manifestations include autism spectrum disorder, seizures, and brain malformations. Changes in synaptic function are thought to underlie the neurological conditions associated with these syndromes. We therefore studied morphology and in vivo synaptic transmission of the calyx of Held synapse, a relay synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of the auditory brainstem, in mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and Costello syndrome. Calyces from both Tsc1+/- and from Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice showed increased volume and surface area compared to wild-type (WT) controls. In addition, in Fmr1 KO animals a larger fraction of calyces showed complex morphology. In MNTB principal neurons of Nf1+/- mice the average delay between EPSPs and APs was slightly smaller compared to WT controls, which could indicate an increased excitability. Otherwise, no obvious changes in synaptic transmission, or short-term plasticity were observed during juxtacellular recordings in any of the four lines. Our results in these four mutants thus indicate that abnormalities of mTOR or Ras signaling do not necessarily result in changes in in vivo synaptic transmission. PMID:26190969

  15. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, but not eslicarbazepine, enhance excitatory synaptic transmission onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through an antagonist action at adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Booker, Sam A; Pires, Nuno; Cobb, Stuart; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Vida, Imre

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anticonvulsant and seizure generation effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine (S-Lic) in wild-type mice. Electrophysiological recordings were made to discriminate potential cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying anti- and pro-epileptic actions. The anticonvulsant and pro-convulsant effects were evaluated in the MES, the 6-Hz and the Irwin tests. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects on fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1. The safety window for CBZ, OXC and eslicarbazepine (ED50 value against the MES test and the dose that produces grade 5 convulsions in all mice), was 6.3, 6.0 and 12.5, respectively. At high concentrations the three drugs reduced synaptic transmission. CBZ and OXC enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at low, therapeutically-relevant concentrations. These effects were associated with no change in inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) resulting in altered balance between excitation and inhibition. S-Lic had no effect on EPSC or IPSC amplitudes over the same concentration range. The CBZ mediated enhancement of EPSCs was blocked by DPCPX, a selective antagonist, and occluded by CCPA, a selective agonist of the adenosine A1 receptor. Furthermore, reduction of endogenous adenosine by application of the enzyme adenosine deaminase also abolished the CBZ- and OXC-induced increase of EPSCs, indicating that the two drugs act as antagonists at native adenosine receptors. In conclusion, CBZ and OXC possess pro-epileptic actions at clinically-relevant concentrations through the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission. S-Lic by comparison has no such effect on synaptic transmission, explaining its lack of seizure exacerbation. PMID:25656478

  16. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.; Kirk, Matthew E.; Rennie, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space. PMID:26082693

  17. Vagal afferent control of opioidergic effects in rat brainstem circuits.

    PubMed

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Zheng, Zhongling; Gettys, Thomas W; Travagli, R Alberto

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrated recently that increasing the levels of cAMP allows opioids to modulate GABAergic synaptic transmission between the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Using a combination of electrophysiological, immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, we provide evidence that vagal afferent fibres dampen cAMP levels within the vagal brainstem circuits via tonic activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from identified neurons of the rat DMV. Following chronic vagal deafferentation, the opioid agonist methionine-enkephalin (ME) inhibited the amplitude of evoked IPSC (eIPSC) in 32 of 33 neurons, without exogenous enhancement of cAMP levels. The ME-induced inhibition was prevented by the group II mGluR-selective agonist APDC. Following perfusion with the group II mGluR-selective antagonist EGLU, ME inhibited eIPSC amplitude in brainstem slices of control rats. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that, following vagal deafferentation, mu-opioid receptors were colocalized on GABAergic profiles apposing DMV neurons; the number of colocalized profiles was significantly decreased by pretreatment with APDC. Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analysis showed that cAMP and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) levels in the dorsal vagal complex were increased following vagal deafferentation. Our data show that by tonically dampening the levels of cAMP within the GABAergic synaptic contacts, activated group II mGluRs prevent the modulation of this synapse by endogenous opioids. These data suggest that the plasticity, hence the response, of central circuits controlling the vagal motor outflow to visceral organs is modulated and finely tuned by vagal afferent fibres. PMID:16825311

  18. Conditioned taste aversion prevents the long-lasting BDNF-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission in the insular cortex: A metaplastic effect.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-04-01

    Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strengths to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Metaplasticity is an example of these forms of plasticity that modify the capacity of synapses to experience subsequent Hebbian modifications. In particular, training in several behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Recently, we have reported that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of LTP generated by high frequency stimulation in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC). One of the key molecular players that underlie long-term synaptic plasticity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Previous studies from our group reported that acute microinfusion of BDNF in the IC induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy at the Bla-IC projection. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze whether CTA training modifies the ability to induce subsequent BDNF-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Accordingly, CTA trained rats received intracortical microinfusion of BDNF in order to induce lasting potentiation 48h after the aversion test. Our results show that CTA training prevents the induction of in vivo BDNF-LTP in the Bla-IC projection. The present results provide evidence that CTA modulates BDNF-dependent changes in IC synaptic strength. PMID:26854904

  19. Muscarinic slow excitation and muscarinic inhibition of synaptic transmission in the rat neostriatum.

    PubMed Central

    Dodt, H U; Misgeld, U

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular recording from neurones in rat neostriatal slices was used to compare the muscarinic effects of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic neostriatal synapses with the action of exogenously applied muscarinic agonists. Repetitive electrical stimulation in the neostriatum evoked a series of fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) followed by a short, variable period of input resistance decrease. In the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, physostigmine, these potentials were followed by a slow e.p.s.p. which lasted about 60 s. Higher stimulus intensities were needed to elicit the slow e.p.s.p. than the fast e.p.s.p. The slow e.p.s.p. could not be observed after a single stimulus. Its amplitude was graded and increased with stimulus strength. The slow e.p.s.p. was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (10 microM) and by Ba2+ (100 microM). Input resistance increased during the slow e.p.s.p. Depolarization of the cell increased the size of the slow e.p.s.p. and hyperpolarization decreased it. Simultaneously, resting input resistance increased with membrane depolarization and decreased with membrane hyperpolarization. Repetitive intrastriatal stimulation was followed by a hyperpolarization instead of the depolarization at membrane potentials negative to -75 mV. Input resistance increased during this hyperpolarization as it did during the slow e.p.s.p. The slow e.p.s.p. persisted at membrane potentials of -70 to -80 mV if K+ concentration in the saline was reduced from 5 to 2 mM. In 10 mM-K+, the repetitive stimulation was followed by a hyperpolarization even at membrane potentials as low as -60 to -50 mV. Bath perfusion of high concentrations (100 microM) of muscarine or carbachol induced a sustained increase in the input resistance. The muscarinic agonists also reduced the amplitude of intrastriatally evoked fast e.p.s.p.s; however, this effect was transient and compensated by the increase in input resistance. The effects of the muscarinic agonists on input resistance and e.p.s.p. amplitude were antagonized by atropine (10 microM). Sustained decreases of e.p.s.p. amplitude were induced by the bath application of low doses (0.5-10 microM) of muscarine or carbachol. Input resistance was not altered. Atropine (1-10 microM) antagonized this effect. A sustained reduction of fast e.p.s.p. amplitude resulted also from inhibition of AChE by application of physostigmine (1-100 microM). Input resistance and neuronal excitability were not affected by AChE blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3039125

  20. Adenosine effects on inhibitory synaptic transmission and excitation–inhibition balance in the rat neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Bannon, Nicholas M; Ilin, Vladimir; Volgushev, Maxim; Chistiakova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine might be the most widespread neuromodulator in the brain: as a metabolite of ATP it is present in every neuron and glial cell. However, how adenosine affects operation of neurons and networks in the neocortex is poorly understood, mostly because modulation of inhibitory transmission by adenosine has been so little studied. To clarify adenosine's role at inhibitory synapses, and in excitation–inhibition balance in pyramidal neurons, we recorded pharmacologically isolated inhibitory responses, compound excitatory–inhibitory responses and spontaneous events in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in slices from rat visual cortex. We show that adenosine (1–150 μm) suppresses inhibitory transmission to these neurons in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. The suppression was mediated by presynaptic A1 receptors (A1Rs) because it was blocked by a selective A1 antagonist, DPCPX, and associated with changes of release indices: paired-pulse ratio, inverse coefficient of variation and frequency of miniature events. At some synapses (12 out of 24) we found evidence for A2ARs: their blockade led to a small but significant increase of the magnitude of adenosine-mediated suppression. This effect of A2AR blockade was not observed when A1Rs were blocked, suggesting that A2ARs do not have their own effect on transmission, but can modulate the A1R-mediated suppression. At both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, the magnitude of A1R-mediated suppression and A2AR–A1R interaction expressed high variability, suggesting high heterogeneity of synapses in the sensitivity to adenosine. Adenosine could change the balance between excitation and inhibition at a set of inputs to a neuron bidirectionally, towards excitation or towards inhibition. On average, however, these bidirectional changes cancelled each other, and the overall balance of excitation and inhibition was maintained during application of adenosine. These results suggest that changes of adenosine concentration may lead to differential modulation of excitatory–inhibitory balance in pyramidal neurons, and thus redistribution of local spotlights of activity in neocortical circuits, while preserving the balanced state of the whole network. PMID:25565160

  1. AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated downregulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by calcineurin after seizures in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Russell M; Dai, Weimin; Levada, Rachel E; Lippman, Jocelyn J; Jensen, Frances E

    2005-03-30

    Hypoxia is the most common cause of perinatal seizures and can be refractory to conventional anticonvulsant drugs, suggesting an age-specific form of epileptogenesis. A model of hypoxia-induced seizures in immature rats reveals that seizures result in immediate activation of the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) in area CA1 of hippocampus. After seizures, CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit a downregulation of GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition that was reversed by CaN inhibitors. CaN activation appears to be dependent on seizure-induced activation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (AMPARs), because the upregulation of CaN activation and GABA(A)R inhibition were attenuated by GYKI 52466 [1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride] or Joro spider toxin. GABA(A)R beta2/3 subunit protein was dephosphorylated at 1 h after seizures, suggesting this subunit as a possible substrate of CaN in this model. Finally, in vivo administration of the CaN inhibitor FK-506 significantly suppressed hypoxic seizures, and posttreatment with NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline) or FK-506 blocked the hypoxic seizure-induced increase in CaN expression. These data suggest that Ca2+-permeable AMPARs and CaN regulate inhibitory synaptic transmission in a novel plasticity pathway that may play a role in epileptogenesis in the immature brain. PMID:15800199

  2. Chronic liver failure in rats impairs glutamatergic synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in hippocampus and learning ability.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Pilar; Erceg, Slaven; Piedrafita, Blanca; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive function is impaired in patients with liver disease by unknown mechanisms. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is considered the basis of some forms of learning and memory. The aims of this work were to assess (i) whether chronic liver failure impairs hippocampal LTP; (ii) if this impairment may be due to alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission, and (iii) if impairment of LTP is associated with reduced learning ability. It is shown that liver failure in Wistar rats induces the following alterations in the hippocampus; (i) alters the phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors; (ii) reduces the expression of NMDA and AMPA receptors in membranes, (iii) reduces the magnitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) induced by activation of NMDA or AMPA receptors, and (iv) impairs NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. Liver failure also impairs learning of the Morris water maze task. Impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and NMDA receptor-mediated responses may be involved in the alterations of cognitive function in patients with liver disease. PMID:17439494

  3. Reduction of the Cholesterol Sensor SCAP in the Brains of Mice Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Altered Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ?30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states. PMID:23585733

  4. Prenatal Stress Enhances Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in the Frontal Cortex of Adult Offspring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Joanna; Bobula, Bartosz; Glombik, Katarzyna; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal stress procedure were investigated in 3 months old male rats. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, including increased immobility, decreased mobility and decreased climbing. In ex vivo frontal cortex slices originating from prenatally stressed animals, the amplitude of extracellular field potentials (FPs) recorded in cortical layer II/III was larger, and the mean amplitude ratio of pharmacologically-isolated NMDA to the AMPA/kainate component of the field potential—smaller than in control preparations. Prenatal stress also resulted in a reduced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the mean frequency, but not the mean amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that stress during pregnancy may lead not only to behavioral disturbances, but also impairs the glutamatergic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex of the adult offspring. PMID:25749097

  5. Endothelin-1 facilitates synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii in normotensive rats but not in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Y; Shihara, M; Eshima, K; Hori, N; Takeshita, A

    1999-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases the neuronal activity of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and augments the response to glutamate (Glu), using in vitro brainstem slice preparations of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This study was designed to determine whether the effects of ET-1 on neuronal activity and synaptic transmission in the NTS are altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experiments were performed with WKY rats and age-matched SHR. We recorded the extracellular single unit of neuronal activity of NTS neurons in response to electrical stimulation of the solitary tracts using in vitro brainstem slice preparations. ET-1 or Glu was iontophoretically applied to the recording neurons. ET-1 increased the neuronal activity of NTS neurons in SHR as well as WKY. The magnitude of the increase in the neuronal activity evoked by Glu was augmented by application of ET-1 in WKY rats (6.1 +/- 0.6 to 11.1 +/- 1.7 spikes/s, p < 0.05) but not in SHR (5.6 +/- 0.5 to 5.6 +/- 0.6 spikes/s). These results indicate that ET-1 increases the neuronal activity of the NTS in both SHR and WKY. However, the increase in neuronal activity in response to Glu is augmented by ET-1 in WKY but not in SHR, suggesting that reflex control is impaired in SHR. PMID:10221350

  6. GABAergic interneuronal loss and reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Prager, Eric M; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Marini, Ann M; Li, Zheng; Eiden, Lee E; Braga, Maria F M

    2015-11-01

    Patients that suffer mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) often develop cognitive impairments, including memory and learning deficits. The hippocampus shows a high susceptibility to mTBI-induced damage due to its anatomical localization and has been implicated in cognitive and neurological impairments after mTBI. However, it remains unknown whether mTBI cognitive impairments are a result of morphological and pathophysiological alterations occurring in the CA1 hippocampal region. We investigated whether mTBI induces morphological and pathophysiological alterations in the CA1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. Seven days after CCI, animals subjected to mTBI showed cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test and deficits to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Deficiencies in inducing or maintaining LTP were likely due to an observed reduction in the activation of NMDA but not AMPA receptors. Significant reductions in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous and miniature GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were also observed 7 days after CCI. Design-based stereology revealed that although the total number of neurons was unaltered, the number of GABAergic interneurons is significantly reduced in the CA1 region 7 days after CCI. Additionally, the surface expression of α1, ß2/3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were reduced, contributing to a reduced mIPSC frequency and amplitude, respectively. Together, these results suggest that mTBI causes a significant reduction in GABAergic inhibitory transmission and deficits to NMDA receptor mediated currents in the CA1, which may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability and subsequent cognitive impairments after mTBI. PMID:26238734

  7. Pretreatment of Guinea Pigs with Galantamine Prevents Immediate and Delayed Effects of Soman on Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Elena A.; Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F. R.

    2010-01-01

    Galantamine has emerged as a potential antidote to prevent the acute toxicity of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Changes in inhibitory GABAergic activity in different brain regions can contribute to both induction and maintenance of seizures in subjects exposed to the OP nerve agent soman. Here, we tested the hypothesis that galantamine can prevent immediate and delayed effects of soman on hippocampal inhibitory synaptic transmission. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1 h, 24 h, or 6 to 9 days after the injection of guinea pigs with saline (0.5 ml/kg i.m.), 1×LD50 soman (26.3 μg/kg s.c.), galantamine (8 mg/kg i.m.), or galantamine at 30 min before soman. Soman-challenged animals that were not pretreated showed mild, moderate, or severe signs of acute intoxication. At 1 h after the soman injection, the mean IPSC amplitude recorded from slices of mildly intoxicated animals and the mean IPSC frequency recorded from slices of severely intoxicated animals were larger and lower, respectively, than those recorded from slices of control animals. Regardless of the severity of the acute toxicity, at 24 h after the soman challenge the mean IPSC frequency was lower than that recorded from slices of control animals. At 6 to 9 days after the challenge, the IPSC frequency had returned to control levels, whereas the mean IPSC amplitude became larger than control. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented soman-induced changes in IPSCs. Counteracting the effects of soman on inhibitory transmission can be an important determinant of the antidotal effectiveness of galantamine. PMID:20554906

  8. Motor recovery after spinal cord injury enhanced by strengthening corticospinal synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bunday, Karen L; Perez, Monica A

    2012-12-18

    The corticospinal tract is an important target for motor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Voluntary motor output depends on the efficacy of synapses between corticospinal axons and spinal motoneurons, which can be modulated by the precise timing of neuronal spikes. Using noninvasive techniques, we developed tailored protocols for precise timing of the arrival of descending and peripheral volleys at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of an intrinsic finger muscle in humans with chronic incomplete SCI. We found that arrival of presynaptic volleys prior to motoneuron discharge enhanced corticospinal transmission and hand voluntary motor output. The reverse order of volley arrival and sham stimulation did not affect or decreased voluntary motor output and electrophysiological outcomes. These findings are the first demonstration that spike timing-dependent plasticity of residual corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses provides a mechanism to improve motor function after SCI. Modulation of residual corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses may present a novel therapeutic target for enhancing voluntary motor output in motor disorders affecting the corticospinal tract. PMID:23200989

  9. Modulation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission: The role of presynaptic calcium and potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sylvain; Zbili, Mickaël; Debanne, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Action potentials are usually considered as the smallest unit of neuronal information conveyed by presynaptic neurons to their postsynaptic target. Thus, neuronal signaling in brain circuits is all-or-none or digital. However, recent studies indicate that subthreshold analog variation in presynaptic membrane potential modulates spike-evoked transmission. The informational content of each presynaptic action potential is therefore greater than initially expected. This property constitutes a form of fast activity-dependent modulation of functional coupling. Therefore, it could have important consequences on information processing in neural networks in parallel with more classical forms of presynaptic short-term facilitation based on repetitive stimulation, modulation of presynaptic calcium or modifications of the release machinery. We discuss here how analog voltage shift in the presynaptic neuron may regulate spike-evoked release of neurotransmitter through the modulation of voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in the axon and presynaptic terminal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25461842

  10. Glutamate spillover modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the rat midbrain periaqueductal grey via metabotropic glutamate receptors and endocannabinoid signaling.

    PubMed

    Drew, Geoffrey M; Mitchell, Vanessa A; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2008-01-23

    Glutamate spillover regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission at several CNS synapses via presynaptic ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). We have previously demonstrated that activation of group I-III mGluRs inhibits GABAergic transmission in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region involved in organizing behavioral responses to threat, stress, and pain. Here, we examined the role of glutamate spillover in the modulation of GABAergic transmission in the PAG. Using whole-cell recordings from rat PAG slices, we found that evoked IPSCs were reduced by the nonspecific glutamate transport blockers DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) and L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid, but not by the glial GLT1-specific blocker dihydrokainate. In contrast, TBOA had no effect on evoked IPSCs when glutamate uptake into the postsynaptic neuron was selectively impaired. TBOA increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs and reduced the rate but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The effect of TBOA on evoked IPSCs was abolished by the broad-spectrum mGluR antagonist (2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid (100 microM), reduced by the mGluR5-specific antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) and mimicked by the mGluR1/5 agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG). Furthermore, the effects of both TBOA and DHPG were reduced by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). Finally, although MPEP and AM251 had no effect on single evoked IPSCs, they increased evoked IPSCs during repetitive stimulation. These results indicate that neuronal glutamate transporters limit mGluR5 activation and endocannabinoid signaling, but may be overwhelmed during conditions of elevated glutamate release. Thus, neuronal glutamate transporters play a key role in regulating endocannabinoid-mediated cross talk between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses within the PAG. PMID:18216189

  11. σ2-Adaptin Facilitates Basal Synaptic Transmission and Is Required for Regenerating Endo-Exo Cycling Pool Under High-Frequency Nerve Stimulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Saumitra Dey; Mushtaq, Zeeshan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Balakrishnan, Sruthi S; Thakur, Rajan S; Krishnan, Kozhalmannom S; Raghu, Padinjat; Ramaswami, Mani; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2016-05-01

    The functional requirement of adapter protein 2 (AP2) complex in synaptic membrane retrieval by clathrin-mediated endocytosis is not fully understood. Here we isolated and functionally characterized a mutation that dramatically altered synaptic development. Based on the aberrant neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse, we named this mutation angur (a Hindi word meaning "grapes"). Loss-of-function alleles of angur show more than twofold overgrowth in bouton numbers and a dramatic decrease in bouton size. We mapped the angur mutation to σ2-adaptin, the smallest subunit of the AP2 complex. Reducing the neuronal level of any of the subunits of the AP2 complex or disrupting AP2 complex assembly in neurons phenocopied the σ2-adaptin mutation. Genetic perturbation of σ2-adaptin in neurons leads to a reversible temperature-sensitive paralysis at 38°. Electrophysiological analysis of the mutants revealed reduced evoked junction potentials and quantal content. Interestingly, high-frequency nerve stimulation caused prolonged synaptic fatigue at the NMJs. The synaptic levels of subunits of the AP2 complex and clathrin, but not other endocytic proteins, were reduced in the mutants. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was altered in these mutants and was restored by normalizing σ2-adaptin in neurons. Thus, our data suggest that (1) while σ2-adaptin facilitates synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling for basal synaptic transmission, its activity is also required for regenerating SVs during high-frequency nerve stimulation, and (2) σ2-adaptin regulates NMJ morphology by attenuating TGFβ signaling. PMID:26920756

  12. Autism-Associated Mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 Impair Synaptic Transmission and Neurexin–Neuroligin-Mediated Transsynaptic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Arons, Magali H.; Thynne, Charlotte J.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.; Li, Dong; Schoen, Michael; Cheyne, Juliette E.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Montgomery, Johanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in several postsynaptic proteins have recently been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Neuroligins, Neurexins, and members of the ProSAP/Shank family, thereby suggesting that these genetic forms of autism may share common synaptic mechanisms. Initial studies of ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 support a role for this protein in glutamate receptor function and spine morphology, but these synaptic phenotypes are not universally penetrant, indicating that other core facets of ProSAP2/Shank3 function must underlie synaptic deficits in patients with ASDs. In the present study, we have examined whether the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Neuroligins functions to coordinate pre/postsynaptic signaling through the Neurexin–Neuroligin signaling complex in hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Indeed, we find that synaptic levels of ProSAP2/Shank3 regulate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and induce widespread changes in the levels of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins via Neurexin–Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling. ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 disrupt not only postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling but also interfere with the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to signal across the synapse to alter presynaptic structure and function. These data indicate that ASD-associated mutations in a subset of synaptic proteins may target core cellular pathways that coordinate the functional matching and maturation of excitatory synapses in the CNS. PMID:23100419

  13. Regulatory role of the cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 in GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaoqi; Mandai, Kenji; Maruo, Tomohiko; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Takai, Yoshimi; Mori, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Proper operation of a neural circuit relies on both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. We previously showed that cell adhesion molecules nectin-1 and nectin-3 are localized at puncta adherentia junctions of the hippocampal mossy fiber glutamatergic excitatory synapses and that they do not regulate the excitatory synaptic transmission onto the CA3 pyramidal cells. We studied here the roles of these nectins in the GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission onto the CA3 pyramidal cells using nectin-1-deficient and nectin-3-deficient cultured mouse hippocampal slices. In these mutant slices, the amplitudes and frequencies of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents were indistinguishable from those in the control slices. In the nectin-1-deficient slices, but not in the nectin-3-deficient slices, however, the amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) was larger than that in the control slices, although the frequency of the mIPSCs was not different between these two groups of slices. In the dissociated culture of hippocampal neurons from the nectin-1-deficient mice, the amplitude and frequency of mIPSCs were indistinguishable from those in the control neurons. Nectin-1 was not localized at or near the GABAergic inhibitory synapses. These results indicate that nectin-1 regulates the neuronal activities in the CA3 region of the hippocampus by suppressing the GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:26663531

  14. [Effects of etomidate on local synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Luo, Ceng; Sun, Yan-Yan; Chen, Jun

    2004-06-25

    By using blind spinal slice whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we observed the influence of etomidate (ET) on synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (7~8 weeks old) were anaesthetized with urethane (1.2 g/kg, i.p.), and then lumbosacral laminectomy was performed. The lumbosacral spinal cord (L1~S3) was removed and placed in preoxygenated Krebs solution at 1~3 degrees C. After cutting all of the ventral and dorsal roots, the pia-arachnoid membrane was removed. The spinal cord was mounted on a vibrating microslicer and then a 500 microm thick transverse slice was cut. The slice was placed on a nylon mesh in the recording chamber, and then perfused at a rate of 15~20 ml/min with Krebs solution saturated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, and maintained at 36+/-1 degrees C. Substantia gelatinosa neurons were identified by their location. Under a binocular microscope and with transmitted illumination, the substantia gelatinosa was clearly discernible as a relatively translucent band across the dorsal horn. The resistance of patch clamp electrodes was 8~12 Msigma. Signals were gained by using an Axopatch 200B amplifier with low-passfiltered at 5 kHz, and digitized at 333 kHz with an A/D converter. The results are as follows. (1) To see whether or not ET has any effects on the local miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC), the holding potential was set up at -70 mV. Under such a condition extracellular superfusion was made with 1 micromol/L TTX for 2 min first, which was followed by consistent application of 500 micromol/L ET and 1 micromol/L TTX for 1 min. It was shown that ET did not influence the decay time, frequency and amplitude of mEPSC, when compared to the control. (2) To see whether or not ET has any effects on the local miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) mediated by GABA(A) receptor, the holding potential was set up at 0 mV. Under this condition extracellular superfusion was made with 1 micromol/L TTX and 1 micromol/L strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptor, for 2 min, and then with consistent application of 50 micromol/L ET, 1 micromol/L TTX and 1 micromol/L strychnine for 1 min. ET prolonged the decay time of GABAergic mIPSC by 45.57+/-12.46% (P<0.05), but did not influence the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic mIPSC, when compared with the control. (3) To see whether or not ET has any effects on the local mIPSC mediated by glycine receptor, the holding potential was also set up at 0 mV, and under this condition extracellular superfusion was made with 1 mmol/L TTX and 10 mmol/L bicuculline, an antagonist also set up at 0 mV, and under this condition extracellular superfusion was made with 1 micromol/L TTX and 10 micromol/L bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptor, for 2 min, and then with consistent application of 50 micromol/L ET, 1 micromol/L TTX and 10 micromol/L bicuculline for 1 min. ET had no effects on decay time, frequency and amplitude of glycinergic mIPSC. The above-mentioned results show that ET plays anesthetic or analgesic roles by modulating the decay time of GABAergic mIPSC, i.e. by prolonging the mean open time of GABA(A) receptors, however, ET has no direct effect on local excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord. PMID:15224160

  15. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope > 200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX + PCB170 (1-100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached > 250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX + 100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca{sup 2+}-dependence of [{sup 3}H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca{sup 2+} appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs.

  16. Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas P; Filoteo, Adelaida G; Knopfel, Thomas; Empson, Ruth M

    2007-02-15

    Plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms (PMCAs) are expressed in a wide variety of tissues where cell-specific expression provides ample opportunity for functional diversity amongst these transporters. The PMCAs use energy derived from ATP to extrude submicromolar concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) out of the cell. Their high affinity for Ca2+ and the speed with which they remove [Ca2+]i depends upon splicing at their carboxy (C)-terminal site. Here we provide biochemical and functional evidence that a brain-specific, C-terminal truncated and therefore fast variant of PMCA2, PMCA2a, has a role at hippocampal CA3 synapses. PMCA2a was enriched in forebrain synaptosomes, and in hippocampal CA3 it colocalized with the presynaptic marker proteins synaptophysin and the vesicular glutamate transporter 1, but not with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. PMCA2a also did not colocalize with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65, a marker of GABA-ergic terminals, although it did localize to a small extent with parvalbumin-positive presumed inhibitory terminals. Pharmacological inhibition of PMCA increased the frequency but not the amplitude of mEPSCs with little effect on mIPSCs or paired-pulse depression of evoked IPSCs. However, inhibition of PMCA activity did enhance the amplitude and slowed the recovery of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of evoked EPSCs. These results indicated that fast PMCA2a-mediated clearance of [Ca2+]i from presynaptic excitatory terminals regulated excitatory synaptic transmission within hippocampal CA3. PMID:17170045

  17. Opioid Peptides Inhibit Excitatory But Not Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Rat Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E.; Travagli, R. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Opioid peptides produce gastrointestinal inhibition and increase feeding when applied to the brainstem. The present studies were designed to determine the actions of opioid peptides on synaptic transmission within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and the localization of μ-opioid receptors. Whole-cell recordings were made from identified gastrointestinal-projecting DMV neurons in thin brainstem slices of the rat. Electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius evoked EPSCs and IPSCs. In all neurons tested, methionine (Met)-enkephalin (0.003–30 μm) inhibited the peak amplitude of the EPSCs. The effect was prevented by naloxone (1 μm) as well as by naloxonazine (0.2 μm). An increase in the ratio of the evoked paired pulses indicated that the inhibition was attributable to actions at presynaptic receptors. This presynaptic inhibitory action was mimicked by [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (0.1 μm) and the analgesic dipeptide kyotorphin (10 μm) but not by cyclic[d-Pen2, d-Pen5]-enkephalin (1 μm) and trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (1 μm). In contrast, the amplitude of evoked IPSCs was not altered either by Met-enkephalin or by any of the opioid receptor-selective agonists. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that nerve terminals apposing DMV neurons showed immunoreactivity to μ-opioid receptors colocalized with glutamate immunoreactivity but not glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity. These results suggest that within the DMV, μ-opioid receptors are present on the nerve terminals of excitatory but not inhibitory inputs to GI motoneurons. Such specificity may imply that the central inhibitory action of opioid peptides on gastrointestinal function targets selected pathways. PMID:11943802

  18. Changes in synaptic transmission and protein expression in the brains of adult offspring after prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway.

    PubMed

    Forrest, C M; Khalil, O S; Pisar, M; McNair, K; Kornisiuk, E; Snitcofsky, M; Gonzalez, N; Jerusalinsky, D; Darlington, L G; Stone, T W

    2013-12-19

    During early brain development, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in cell migration, neuritogenesis, axon guidance and synapse formation, but the mechanisms which regulate NMDA receptor density and function remain unclear. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes an agonist (quinolinic acid) and an antagonist (kynurenic acid) at NMDA receptors and we have previously shown that inhibition of the pathway using the kynurenine-3-monoxygenase inhibitor Ro61-8048 in late gestation produces rapid changes in protein expression in the embryos and effects on synaptic transmission lasting until postnatal day 21 (P21). The present study sought to determine whether any of these effects are maintained into adulthood. After prenatal injections of Ro61-8048 the litter was allowed to develop to P60 when some offspring were euthanized and the brains removed for examination. Analysis of protein expression by Western blotting revealed significantly reduced expression of the GluN2A subunit (32%) and the morphogenetic protein sonic hedgehog (31%), with a 29% increase in the expression of doublecortin, a protein associated with neurogenesis. No changes were seen in mRNA abundance using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Neuronal excitability was normal in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices but paired-pulse stimulation revealed less inhibition at short interpulse intervals. The amount of long-term potentiation was decreased by 49% in treated pups and recovery after low-frequency stimulation was delayed. The results not only strengthen the view that basal, constitutive kynurenine metabolism is involved in normal brain development, but also show that changes induced prenatally can affect the brains of adult offspring and those changes are quite different from those seen previously at weaning (P21). Those changes may be mediated by altered expression of NMDAR subunits and sonic hedgehog. PMID:24076085

  19. Long range afferents in rat spinal cord. III. Failure of impulse transmission in axons and relief of the failure after rhizotomy of dorsal roots.

    PubMed

    Wall, P D; McMahon, S B

    1994-01-29

    Dorsal root afferents entering the spinal cord form a T-junction with a caudal branch descending many segments and giving off side branches terminating in the dorsal horn. This anatomical finding contrasts with the physiological observation that the postsynaptic effects of arriving afferents in the dorsal horn are limited to a few segments on either side of the root carrying the input. This paper explores the possibility that one explanation for this paradox is that orthodromic impulse conduction fails to penetrate the long range parts of the caudal branch. The experiments show that when all roots are intact, very few fibres can be detected carrying orthodromic impulses as far as 20 mm caudal to the entry point. After section of neighbouring dorsal roots, however, large numbers of conducting fibres can be recorded at that point. Signs of orthodromic conduction begin 7 days after root section. These results were confirmed by another method which compared the relative refractory period of the membrane of the descending branch produced either after a local stimulus had evoked an action potential or after a rostral distant stimulus had produced an orthodromic action potential. Again, in the intact cord, the results indicate that impulses fail to penetrate long distances into the descending branches but that, as soon as 2 days after rhizotomy in the area of suspected conduction failure, orthodromic conduction is restored. It is proposed that the failure and release of conduction may depend on the control of membrane potential in the primary afferents, which would form a pre-presynaptic control mechanism. PMID:8146235

  20. Ia-afferent input to motoneurons during shortening and lengthening muscle contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nicolas T; Butler, Jane E; Carpenter, Mark G; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system employs different strategies to execute specific motor tasks. Because afferent feedback during shortening and lengthening muscle contractions differs, the neural strategy underlying these tasks may be quite distinct. Cortical drive may be adjusted or afferent input regulated. The exact mechanisms are not clear. Here, we examine the control of synaptic transmission across the Ia synapse during shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Subjects were instructed to maintain isolated activity in a single tibialis anterior (TA) motor unit while muscle length was varied from flexion to extension and back. At a fixed interval after a firing of the active motor unit, a single electrical stimulus was applied to the common peroneal nerve to activate Ia afferents from the TA muscle. We investigated the stimulus-induced change in firing probability of 19 individual low-threshold TA motor units during shortening and lengthening contractions. Any change in firing probability depends on both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. In this experiment, motoneuron firing rate was similar during both contraction types. There was no difference in the firing probability between shortening and lengthening contractions (0.23 +/- 0.03 and 0.20 +/- 0.02, respectively). We suggest that there is no contraction type-specific control of Ia input to the motoneurons during shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Cortical adjustments may have occurred. PMID:16959913

  1. Clinically relevant concentrations of ketamine mainly affect long-term potentiation rather than basal excitatory synaptic transmission and do not change paired-pulse facilitation in mouse hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrcia O; Tom, Angelo R; Silva, Henrique B; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Antunes, Lus M

    2014-04-29

    Ketamine, an analgesic/anesthetic drug, is increasingly popular in clinical practice due to its analgesic properties and importance for emergency procedures. The impact of ketamine on basal excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity are not yet fully understood. Therefore we investigated the effects of different concentrations of ketamine on basal excitatory synaptic transmission and on two forms of synaptic plasticity: paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in Schaffer fiber - CA1 pyramid synapses of mouse hippocampal slices and the initial slope of the fEPSP was measured to estimate the percentage of inhibition of the basal synaptic transmission. Presynaptic volley amplitude, PPF and LTP induction and maintenance were also calculated. For basal synaptic transmission and PPF increasing concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 200, 300 and 600?M) were applied to each slice and for LTP individual slices were used for each concentration (3, 10, 30 or 100?M). Clinically relevant concentrations of ketamine decreased LTP in a concentration-dependent manner without changing PPF, whereas basal excitatory synaptic transmission and presynaptic volley amplitude was affected only with high concentrations of ketamine (300 and 600?M). These results allow dissociating the blockade of LTP from a reduced synaptic input in the action of clinically relevant concentrations of ketamine in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. Moreover, this work shows that the effects of ketamine on LTP and on basal synaptic transmission are dependent of the concentration used. PMID:24637258

  2. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. PMID:26864754

  3. A temperature-sensitive allele of Drosophila sesB reveals acute functions for the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase in synaptic transmission and dynamin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rikhy, Richa; Ramaswami, Mani; Krishnan, K S

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly reversible, temperature-sensitive (ts) paralytic mutants of Drosophila have been useful in delineating immediate in vivo functions of molecules involved in synaptic transmission. Here we report isolation and characterization of orangi (org), an enhancer of shibire (shi), a ts paralytic mutant in Drosophila dynamin. org is an allele of the stress sensitive B (sesB) locus that encodes a mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and results in a unique ts paralytic behavior that is accompanied by a complete loss of synaptic transmission in the visual system. sesB(org) reduces the restrictive temperature for all shi(ts) alleles tested except for shi(ts1). This characteristic allele-specific interaction of sesB(org) with shi is shared by abnormal wing discs (awd), a gene encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK). sesB(org) shows independent synergistic interactions, an observation that is consistent with a shared pathway by which org and awd influence shi function. Genetic and electrophysiological analyses presented here, together with the observation that the sesB(org) mutation reduces biochemically assayed ANT activity, suggest a model in which a continuous mitochondrial ANT-dependent supply of ATP is required to sustain NDK-dependent activation of presynaptic dynamin during a normal range of synaptic activity. PMID:14668379

  4. NMDA and non-NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic transmission between the medial geniculate body and the lateral nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Li, X F; Phillips, R; LeDoux, J E

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether the NMDA class of excitatory amino acid receptors contribute to synaptic transmission in the pathway connecting the medial geniculate body (MGB) with the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) using extracellular single unit recordings and microiontophoresis. Cells were identified in LA on the basis of responsivity to electrical stimulation of the MGB. For each cell, a level of current was found for the iontophoretic ejection of the NMDA antagonist AP5 that blocked responses elicited by iontophoresis of NMDA, but had no effect on responses elicited by AMPA. Iontophoresis of AP5 with this level of current blocked the excitatory response elicited by MGB stimulation in most cells tested. Microinfusion of AP5 (25, 50, or 100 microM) also blocked the responses. Additional studies tested individual cells with both AP5 and the AMPA antagonist CNQX and showed that blockade of either NMDA or AMPA receptors interferes with synaptic transmission. Finally, iontophoretic ejection of either AP5 or CNQX blocked short-latency (< 25 ms) responses elicited in LA by peripheral auditory stimulation. Together, these results suggest that the synaptic evocation of action potentials in the thalamo-amygdala pathway depends on both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. We hypothesize that non-NMDA receptors are most likely required to depolarize the cell sufficiently to remove the blockade of NMDA channels by magnesium and NMDA receptors are required to further depolarize the membrane to the level required for action potential generation. PMID:7589322

  5. Positive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor modulators have different impact on synaptic transmission in the thalamus and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan-Fang; Kessler, Markus; Arai, Amy C

    2005-04-01

    Earlier studies showed that positive modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors enhance synaptic responses and facilitate synaptic plasticity. Those studies focused mainly on hippocampal functions. However, AMPA receptors have regionally distinct subunit compositions and thus potencies and efficacies of modulators may vary across the brain. The present study compared the effects of CX546 [1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl) piperidine], a benzamide-type modulator, on synaptic transmission in neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), which regulates the firing mode of relay cells in other thalamic nuclei, and on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. CX546 greatly prolonged synaptic responses in CA1 pyramidal cells, but at the same concentration it had only weak modulatory effects in RTN neurons. Effects on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were similar to those on EPSCs in both regions, suggesting that variations in neuronal morphology and transmitter release kinetics do not account for the differences. Relay cells in the ventrobasal thalamus also exhibited weak modulatory effects that were comparable with those in RTN neurons. Regionally different effects on response duration were also observed with CX516 [BDP-12, 1-(quinoxalin-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine], a second benzamide drug. In contrast, 100 microM cyclothiazide produced comparable synaptic enhancements in hippocampus and RTN. The regional selectivity of benzamide drugs (ampakines) may be explained, at least in part, by a lower potency at thalamic AMPA receptors, perhaps due to the prevalence of the subunits GluR3 and 4. Although regional preferences of the ampakines were modest in their extent, they may be sufficient to be of relevance when considering future therapeutic applications of such compounds. PMID:15626725

  6. Astrocytes optimize synaptic fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter; Levine, Herbert

    2007-03-01

    Most neuronal synapses in the central nervous system are enwrapped by an astrocytic process. This relation allows the astrocyte to listen to and feed back to the synapse and to regulate synaptic transmission. We combine a tested mathematical model for the Ca^2+ response of the synaptic astrocyte and presynaptic feedback with a detailed model for vesicle release of neurotransmitter at active zones. The predicted Ca^2+ dependence of the presynaptic synaptic vesicle release compares favorably for several types of synapses, including the Calyx of Held. We hypothesize that the feedback regulation of the astrocyte onto the presynaptic terminal optimizes the fidelity of the synapse in terms of information transmission.

  7. Systemic dexmedetomidine augments inhibitory synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn through activation of descending noradrenergic control: an in vivo patch-clamp analysis of analgesic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Funai, Yusuke; Pickering, Anthony Edward; Uta, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu; Mori, Takashi; Asada, Akira; Imoto, Keiji; Furue, Hidemasa

    2014-01-01

    α2-adrenoceptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the systemic administration of α2-agonists such as dexmedetomidine produces clinically useful, centrally-mediated sedation and analgesia; however, these same actions also limit the utility of these agents (ie unwanted sedative actions). Despite a wealth of data on cellular and synaptic actions of α2-agonists in vitro, it is not known which neuronal circuits are modulated in vivo to produce the analgesic effect. To address this issue, we made in vivo recordings of membrane currents and synaptic activities in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons and examined their responses to systemic dexmedetomidine. We found that dexmedetomidine at doses that produce analgesia (<10 μg/kg) enhanced inhibitory postsynaptic transmission within the superficial dorsal horn without altering excitatory synaptic transmission or evoking direct postsynaptic membrane currents. In contrast, higher doses of dexmedetomidine (>10 μg/kg) induced outward currents by a direct postsynaptic action. The dexmedetomidine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) facilitation was not mimicked by spinal application of dexmedetomidine and was absent in spinalized rats, suggesting it acts at a supraspinal site. Further it was inhibited by spinal application of the α1-antagonist prazosin. In the brain stem, low doses of systemic dexmedetomidine produced an excitation of locus coeruleus neurons. These results suggest that systemic α2-adrenoceptor stimulation may facilitate inhibitory synaptic responses in the superficial dorsal horn to produce analgesia mediated by activation of the pontospinal noradrenergic inhibitory system. This novel mechanism may provide new targets for intervention perhaps allowing analgesic actions to be dissociated from excessive sedation. PMID:24355412

  8. Primary afferent depolarization and flexion reflexes produced by radiant heat stimulation of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Burke, R. E.; Rudomin, P.; Vyklický, L.; Zajac, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. The reflex effects of pulses of intense radiant heat applied to the skin of the central plantar pad have been studied in unanaesthetized (decerebrate) spinal cats. 2. Pad heat pulses produced flexion of the ipsilateral hind limb and increased ipsilateral flexor monosynaptic reflexes, due to post-synaptic excitation of flexor alpha motoneurones. These effects were accompanied by reduction of extensor monosynaptic reflexes and post-synaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurones. 3. Ipsilateral (and contralateral) pad heat pulses consistently evoked negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) as well as increased excitability of both cutaneous and group Ib muscle afferent terminals. The excitability of group Ia afferents was sometimes also increased during pad heat pulses, but to a lesser extent. 4. Pad heat pulses produced negative DRPs in preparations in which positive DRP components could be demonstrated following electrical stimulation of both skin and muscle nerves. 5. The motor and primary afferent effects of heat pulses always accompanied one another, beginning after the pad surface temperature had reached rather high levels (usually 48-55° C). 6. Negative DRPs increased excitability of cutaneous and group Ib afferents, and motoneurone activation produced by pad heat pulses was essentially unmodified when conduction in large myelinated afferents from the central plantar pad was blocked by cooling the posterior tibial nerve trunk. 7. It is concluded that adequate noxious activation of cutaneous afferents of small diameter produces primary afferent depolarization in a variety of large diameter afferent fibres, as well as post-synaptic effects in alpha motoneurones. PMID:5575337

  9. Reactive oxygen species enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons by activating TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Nishio, N; Taniguchi, W; Sugimura, Y K; Takiguchi, N; Yamanaka, M; Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Yamada, H; Miyazaki, N; Yoshida, M; Nakatsuka, T

    2013-09-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) in the spinal cord, such as chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI), is an incurable ailment. However, little is known about the spinal cord mechanisms underlying CNP. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized to play an important role in CNP of the spinal cord. However, it is unclear how ROS affect synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To clarify how ROS impact on synaptic transmission, we investigated the effects of ROS on synaptic transmission in rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), an ROS donor, into the spinal cord markedly increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in SG neurons. This t-BOOH-induced enhancement was not suppressed by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin. However, in the presence of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, t-BOOH did not generate any sEPSCs. Furthermore, in the presence of a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel antagonist (HC-030031) or a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist (capsazepine or AMG9810), the t-BOOH-induced increase in the frequency of sEPSCs was inhibited. These results indicate that ROS enhance the spontaneous release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto SG neurons through TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activation. Excessive activation of these ion channels by ROS may induce central sensitization in the spinal cord and result in chronic pain such as that following SCI. PMID:23707800

  10. Frequency-dependent facilitation of synaptic throughput via postsynaptic NMDA receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huan; Peters, James H; Zhu, Mingyan; Page, Stephen J; Ritter, Robert C; Appleyard, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) receive vagal afferent innervations that initiate gastrointestinal and cardiovascular reflexes. Glutamate is the fast excitatory neurotransmitter released in the NTS by vagal afferents, which arrive there via the solitary tract (ST). ST stimulation elicits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NTS neurons mediated by both AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (-Rs). Vagal afferents exhibit a high probability of vesicle release and exhibit robust frequency-dependent depression due to presynaptic vesicle depletion. Nonetheless, synaptic throughput is maintained even at high frequencies of afferent activation. Here we test the hypothesis that postsynaptic NMDA-Rs are essential in maintaining throughput across ST–NTS synapses. Using patch clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brainstem slices, we found that NMDA-Rs, including NR2B subtypes, carry up to 70% of the charge transferred across the synapse during high frequency stimulations (>5 Hz). In contrast, their relative contribution to the ST-EPSC is much less during low (<2 Hz) frequency stimulations. Afferent-driven activation of NMDA-Rs produces a sustained depolarization during high, but not low, frequencies of stimulation as a result of relatively slow decay kinetics. Hence, NMDA-Rs are critical for maintaining action potential generation at high firing rates. These results demonstrate a novel role for NMDA-Rs enabling a high probability of release synapse to maintain the fidelity of synaptic transmission during high frequency firing when glutamate release and AMPA-R responses are reduced. They also suggest why NMDA-Rs are critical for responses that may depend on high rates of afferent discharge. PMID:25281729

  11. Potent and specific action of the mGlu1 antagonists YM-298198 and JNJ16259685 on synaptic transmission in rat cerebellar slices

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, I; Yeo, C H; Batchelor, A M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Specific and selective inhibitors for mGlu1 receptors are presently inadequate. A new generation of non-competitive mGlu1 antagonists with low nanomolar potencies is emerging. We evaluated two new compounds, YM-298198 and JNJ16259685, for effectiveness, potency and specificity for the first time in a brain slice preparation. Experimental approach: Patch-clamp recording of Purkinje neurones in cerebellar slices were obtained. The slow mGlu1-mediated EPSP was used to establish a concentration-response curve. Fast excitatory synaptic inputs were tested for non-specific effects. Key results: YM-298198 and JNJ16259685 inhibited the synaptic activation of mGlu1 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 values of 24 nM and 19 nM, respectively). The antagonists were slow to inhibit and to reverse on washout, probably due to their lipophilic nature. There were no non-specific effects on fast AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. Conclusions and implications: These compounds are more than a thousand-fold more potent than previously available compounds. Their selectivity and specificity will be very useful for studying the role of mGlu1 receptors both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17502847

  12. Interplay of cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms tailors synaptic connectivity of converging axons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Okawa, Haruhisa; Santina, Luca Della; Schwartz, Gregory W.; Rieke, Fred; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neurons receive input from diverse afferents but form stereotypic connections with axons of each type to execute their precise functions. Developmental mechanisms that specify the connectivity of individual axons across populations of converging afferents are not well-understood. Here, we untangled the contributions of activity-dependent and independent interactions that regulate connections of two input types providing major and minor input onto a neuron. Individual transmission-deficient retinal bipolar cells (BCs) reduced synapses with retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but active BCs of the same type sharing the dendrite surprisingly did not compensate for this loss. Genetic ablation of some BC neighbors resulted in increased synaptogenesis by the remaining axons in a transmission-independent manner. Presence but not transmission of the major BC input also dissuades wiring with the minor input, and with synaptically-compatible but functionally-mismatched afferents. Cell-autonomous, activity-dependent and non-autonomous, activity-independent mechanisms thus together tailor connections of individual axons amongst converging inner retinal afferents. PMID:24698272

  13. Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxin-Induced Blockade of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beske, Phillip H; Bradford, Aaron B; Grynovicki, Justin O; Glotfelty, Elliot J; Hoffman, Katie M; Hubbard, Kyle S; Tuznik, Kaylie M; McNutt, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical manifestations of tetanus and botulism result from an intricate series of interactions between clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) and nerve terminal proteins that ultimately cause proteolytic cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and functional blockade of neurotransmitter release. Although detection of cleaved SNARE proteins is routinely used as a molecular readout of CNT intoxication in cultured cells, impaired synaptic function is the pathophysiological basis of clinical disease. Work in our laboratory has suggested that the blockade of synaptic neurotransmission in networked neuron cultures offers a phenotypic readout of CNT intoxication that more closely replicates the functional endpoint of clinical disease. Here, we explore the value of measuring spontaneous neurotransmission frequencies as novel and functionally relevant readouts of CNT intoxication. The generalizability of this approach was confirmed in primary neuron cultures as well as human and mouse stem cell-derived neurons exposed to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G and tetanus neurotoxin. The sensitivity and specificity of synaptic activity as a reporter of intoxication was evaluated in assays representing the principal clinical and research purposes of in vivo studies. Our findings confirm that synaptic activity offers a novel and functionally relevant readout for the in vitro characterizations of CNTs. They further suggest that the analysis of synaptic activity in neuronal cell cultures can serve as a surrogate for neuromuscular paralysis in the mouse lethal assay, and therefore is expected to significantly reduce the need for terminal animal use in toxin studies and facilitate identification of candidate therapeutics in cell-based screening assays. PMID:26615023

  14. VGLUT3-immunoreactive afferents of the lateral septum: ultrastructural evidence for a modulatory role of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Anett; Stöber, Franziska; Richter, Karin; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Miettinen, Riitta; Budinger, Eike

    2013-01-01

    Through its extensive connections with various brain regions, the lateral septum (LS) participates in the processing of cognitive, emotional and autonomic information. It is decisively involved in the generation of behavioral responses according to environmental demands. Modulatory afferents reaching the LS from the brain stem (e.g. dopaminergic, serotonergic) play a role in the adjustment of these behavioral responses. Recently, a population of vesicular glutamate transporter 3-immunoreactive (VGLUT3-ir) fibers forming prominent pericellular basket-like structures (PBLS) was described in the rat LS. These VGLUT3-ir PBLS are distributed in a layer-like pattern, which is very typical for modulatory afferents of the LS. There is meanwhile broad evidence that glutamate can act as a modulatory or co-transmitter and that those neurons, which make use of this transmission mode, primarily express VGLUT3. Thus, the VGLUT3-ir fibers within the LS could also display features typical for non-canonical glutamatergic transmission. Employing pre-embedding electron microscopy for VGLUT3 in rats, we show now that the VGLUT3-ir fibers outlining LS neurons represent axonal terminals, which primarily form symmetric synapses with somata and proximal dendrites of their target neurons. Occasionally, we also found VGLUT3-ir terminals that make canonical asymmetric synapses on distal dendrites and spines. Thus, VGLUT3-ir boutons in the LS form two different, disproportionate, populations of synaptic contacts with their target neurons. The larger one of them is indicative of employing glutamate as a modulatory transmitter. PMID:22374223

  15. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent upon both DAG and enhanced intracellular Ca2+. These signaling pathways may collaborate to enhance sensory and mnemonic function in the entorhinal cortex during tonic release of dopamine. PMID:26133167

  16. Defective synaptic transmission and structure in the dentate gyrus and selective fear memory impairment in the Rsk2 mutant mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise; Farley, Séverine; Poirier, Roseline; Dallerac, Glenn; Chagneau, Carine; Pannetier, Solange; Hanauer, André; Davis, Sabrina; Vaillend, Cyrille; Laroche, Serge

    2013-10-01

    The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of intellectual disability caused by loss-of-function of the RSK2 serine/threonine kinase encoded by the rsk2 gene. Rsk2 knockout mice, a murine model of CLS, exhibit spatial learning and memory impairments, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. In the current study, we examined the performance of Rsk2 knockout mice in cued, trace and contextual fear memory paradigms and identified selective deficits in the consolidation and reconsolidation of hippocampal-dependent fear memories as task difficulty and hippocampal demand increase. Electrophysiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were carried out in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to explore potential alterations in neuronal functions and structure. In vivo and in vitro electrophysiology revealed impaired synaptic transmission, decreased network excitability and reduced AMPA and NMDA conductance in Rsk2 knockout mice. In the absence of RSK2, standard measures of short-term and long-term potentiation (LTP) were normal, however LTP-induced CREB phosphorylation and expression of the transcription factors EGR1/ZIF268 were reduced and that of the scaffolding protein SHANK3 was blocked, indicating impaired activity-dependent gene regulation. At the structural level, the density of perforated and non-perforated synapses and of multiple spine boutons was not altered, however, a clear enlargement of spine neck width and post-synaptic densities indicates altered synapse ultrastructure. These findings show that RSK2 loss-of-function is associated in the dentate gyrus with multi-level alterations that encompass modifications of glutamate receptor channel properties, synaptic transmission, plasticity-associated gene expression and spine morphology, providing novel insights into the mechanisms contributing to cognitive impairments in CLS. PMID:23742761

  17. Neutralization of inhibitory molecule NG2 improves synaptic transmission, retrograde transport, and locomotor function after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Hayk A; Hunanyan, Arsen S; Alessi, Valentina; Schnell, Lisa; Levine, Joel; Arvanian, Victor L

    2013-02-27

    NG2 belongs to the family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are major inhibitory factors restricting the growth of fibers after SCI. Neutralization of NG2's inhibitory effect on axon growth by anti-NG2 monoclonal antibodies (NG2-Ab) has been reported. In addition, recent studies show that exogenous NG2 induces a block of axonal conduction. In this study, we demonstrate that acute intraspinal injections of NG2-Ab prevented an acute block of conduction by NG2. Chronic intrathecal infusion of NG2-Ab improved the following deficits induced by chronic midthoracic lateral hemisection (HX) injury: (1) synaptic transmission to lumbar motoneurons, (2) retrograde transport of fluororuby anatomical tracer from L5 to L1, and (3) locomotor function assessed by automated CatWalk gait analysis. We collected data in an attempt to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the NG2-Ab-induced improvement of synaptic transmission in HX-injured spinal cord. These data showed the following: (1) that chronic NG2-Ab infusion improved conduction and axonal excitability in chronically HX-injured rats, (2) that antibody treatment increased the density of serotonergic axons with ventral regions of spinal segments L1-L5, (3) and that NG2-positive processes contact nodes of Ranvier within the nodal gap at the location of nodal Na(+) channels, which are known to be critical for propagation of action potentials along axons. Together, these results demonstrate that treatment with NG2-Ab partially improves both synaptic and anatomical plasticity in damaged spinal cord and promotes functional recovery after HX SCI. Neutralizing antibodies against NG2 may be an excellent way to promote axonal conduction after SCI. PMID:23447612

  18. GABA(B) receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition has history-dependent effects on synaptic transmission during physiologically relevant spike trains.

    PubMed

    Ohliger-Frerking, Patricia; Wiebe, Sherman P; Stäubli, Ursula; Frerking, Matthew

    2003-06-15

    Presynaptic inhibition is a form of neuromodulation that interacts with activity-dependent short-term plasticity so that the magnitude, and sometimes even the polarity, of that activity-dependent short-term plasticity is changed. However, the functional consequences of this interaction during physiologically relevant spike trains are poorly understood. We examined the effects of presynaptic inhibition on excitatory synaptic transmission during physiologically relevant spike trains, using the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R) agonist baclofen to engage presynaptic inhibition and field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in hippocampal slices to monitor synaptic output. We examined the effects of baclofen on the relationship between an fEPSP during the spike train and the timing of spikes preceding that fEPSP, a relationship that we refer to as the history dependence of synaptic transmission. Baclofen alters this history dependence by causing no inhibition during short interspike intervals (ISIs) in the spike train but a maximal inhibition during long ISIs. This effect strengthens the dependence of the fEPSP on the first ISI preceding it. One consequence of this effect is that the apparent affinity of baclofen is strongly reduced during physiologically relevant spike trains when compared with conventional stimulus paradigms, and a second consequence is that the overall inhibition experienced by a synapse will vary considerably during repeated trials of a behavioral task. We conclude that GABA(B)R-mediated presynaptic inhibition is more accurately described as a high-pass filter than as a simple inhibition, and that this filtering must be taken into account to accurately assess the effects of presynaptic inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:12832501

  19. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and long-term potentiation enhance synaptic transmission by the same mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Lledo, P M; Hjelmstad, G O; Mukherji, S; Soderling, T R; Malenka, R C; Nicoll, R A

    1995-01-01

    Ca(2+)-sensitive kinases are thought to play a role in long-term potentiation (LTP). To test the involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM-K II), truncated, constitutively active form of this kinase was directly injected into CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells. Inclusion of CaM-K II in the recording pipette resulted in a gradual increase in the size of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). No change in evoked responses occurred when the pipette contained heat-inactivated kinase. The effects of CaM-K II mimicked several features of LTP in that it caused a decreased incidence of synaptic failures, an increase in the size of spontaneous EPSCs, and an increase in the amplitude of responses to iontophoretically applied alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate. To determine whether the CaM-K II-induced enhancement and LTP share a common mechanism, occlusion experiments were carried out. The enhancing action of CaM-K II was greatly diminished by prior induction of LTP. In addition, following the increase in synaptic strength by CaM-K II, tetanic stimulation failed to evoke LTP. These findings indicate that CaM-K II alone is sufficient to augment synaptic strength and that this enhancement shares the same underlying mechanism as the enhancement observed with LTP. PMID:7479960

  20. Loss of neuronal GSK3β reduces dendritic spine stability and attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission via β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, S M; Dorostkar, M M; Aramuni, G; Schön, C; Filser, S; Pöschl, J; Kremer, A; Van Leuven, F; Ovsepian, S V; Herms, J

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome or anxiety disorder. Many drugs employed to treat these conditions inhibit GSK3β either directly or indirectly. We studied how conditional knockout of GSK3β affected structural synaptic plasticity. Deletion of the GSK3β gene in a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons in adult mice led to reduced spine density. In vivo imaging revealed that this was caused by a loss of persistent spines, whereas stabilization of newly formed spines was reduced. In electrophysiological recordings, these structural alterations correlated with a considerable drop in the frequency and amplitude of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Expression of constitutively active β-catenin caused reduction in spine density and electrophysiological alterations similar to GSK3β knockout, suggesting that the effects of GSK3β knockout were mediated by the accumulation of β-catenin. In summary, changes of dendritic spines, both in quantity and in morphology, are correlates of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity; thus, these results may help explain the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs inhibiting GSK3β. PMID:24912492

  1. Synaptic function.

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Janet

    2005-01-01

    C. elegans has emerged as a powerful genetic model organism in which to study synaptic function. Most synaptic proteins in the C. elegans genome are highly conserved and mutants can be readily generated by forward and reverse genetics. Most C. elegans synaptic protein mutants are viable affording an opportunity to study the functional consequences in vivo. Recent advances in electrophysiological approaches permit functional analysis of mutant synapses in situ. This has contributed to an already powerful arsenal of techniques available to study synaptic function in C. elegans. This review highlights C. elegans mutants affecting specific stages of the synaptic vesicle cycle, with emphasis on studies conducted at the neuromuscular junction. PMID:18050398

  2. Long-term potentiation of synaptic acetylcholine release in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, C A; McAfee, D A; McCaman, R E

    1985-01-01

    The release of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) from the in vitro rat superior cervical ganglion was measured by assaying the bathing medium. Simultaneously, synaptic transmission in the ganglion was assessed by recording post-ganglionic compound action potentials. A brief period of tetanic preganglionic stimulation (20 Hz for 20 s) induced a long-term potentiation of the post-ganglionic compound action potential. The same tetanic stimulation also consistently induced a long-term potentiation of stimulated ACh release. Spontaneous (non-stimulated) ACh release was not enhanced after tetanic stimulation. The content of ACh in the ganglion was not measurably increased after tetanic stimulation. These results suggest that the long-term increase in synaptic efficacy is due, at least in part, to an increase in the amount of ACh released by the afferent impulse. PMID:2991505

  3. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Idaira; Wanat, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review, we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders. PMID:27014097

  4. Potentiation of Acetylcholine-Mediated Facilitation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission by an Azaindolizione Derivative, ZSET1446 (ST101), in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Yoshimasa; Hino, Masataka; Kato, Fusao

    2016-02-01

    The integrity of the hippocampal network depends on the coordination of excitatory and inhibitory signaling, which are under dynamic control by various regulatory influences such as the cholinergic systems. ZSET1446 (ST101; spiro[imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3,2-indan]-2(3H)-one) is a newly synthesized azaindolizinone derivative that significantly improves learning deficits in various types of Alzheimer disease (AD) models in rats. We examined the effect of ZSET1446 on the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats. ZSET1446 significantly potentiated the facilitatory effect of nicotine and ACh on the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) recorded in CA1 pyramidal neurons with a maximum effect at 100 pM (tested range, 10 pM-1000 pM). The basal sPSC frequency without ACh was not affected. Such potentiation by ZSET1446 was observed in both the pharmacologic isolations of inhibitory and excitatory sPSCs and markedly reduced by blockade of either α7 or α4β2 nAChRs. ZSET1446 did not affect ACh-activated inward currents or depolarization of interneurons in the stratum radiatum and the lacunosum moleculare. These results indicate that ZSET1446 potentiates the nicotine-mediated enhancement of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal neurons without affecting nAChRs themselves, providing a novel possible mechanism of procognitive action that might improve learning deficits in clinical therapy. PMID:26578264

  5. Synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic control of thalamic reticular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beierlein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal networks of the thalamus are the target of extensive cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and the brainstem. Activation of these afferents can regulate neuronal excitability, transmitter release, and firing patterns in thalamic networks, thereby altering the flow of sensory information during distinct behavioural states. However, cholinergic regulation in the thalamus has been primarily examined by using receptor agonist and antagonist, which has precluded a detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics that govern cholinergic signalling under physiological conditions. This review summarizes recent studies on cholinergic synaptic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure intimately involved in the control of sensory processing and the generation of rhythmic activity in the thalamocortical system. This work has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) released from individual axons can rapidly and reliably activate both pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, thereby controlling TRN neuronal activity with high spatiotemporal precision. PMID:24973413

  6. Virtual leak channels modulate firing dynamics and synaptic integration in rat sympathetic neurons: implications for ganglionic transmission in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mitchell G; Kullmann, Paul H M; Horn, John P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The excitability of rat sympathetic neurons and integration of nicotinic EPSPs were compared in primary cell culture and in the acutely isolated intact superior cervical ganglion using whole cell patch electrode recordings. When repetitive firing was classified by Hodgkin's criteria in cultured cells, 18% displayed tonic class 1 excitability, 36% displayed adapting class 2 excitability and 46% displayed phasic class 3 excitability. In the intact ganglion, 71% of cells were class 1 and 29% were class 2. This diverges from microelectrode reports that nearly 100% of superior cervical ganglion neurons show phasic class 3 firing. The hypothesis that the disparity between patch and microelectrode data arises from a shunt conductance was tested using the dynamic clamp in cell culture. Non-depolarizing shunts of 310nS converted cells from classes 1 and 2 to class 3 dynamics with currentvoltage relations that replicated microelectrode data. Primary and secondary EPSPs recorded from the intact superior cervical ganglion were modelled as virtual synapses in cell culture using the dynamic clamp. Stimulating sympathetic neurons with virtual synaptic activity, designed to replicate in vivo recordings of EPSPs in muscle vasoconstrictor neurons, produced a 2.4-fold amplification of presynaptic activity. This gain in postsynaptic output did not differ between neurons displaying the three classes of excitability. Mimicry of microelectrode damage by virtual leak channels reduced and eventually obliterated synaptic gain by inhibiting summation of subthreshold EPSPs. These results provide a framework for interpreting sympathetic activity recorded from intact animals and support the hypothesis that paravertebral ganglia function as activity-dependent amplifiers of spinal output from preganglionic circuitry. PMID:25398531

  7. TRPA1–expressing primary afferents synapse with specific morphological subtypes of substantia gelatinosa neurons in the adult rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Pickering, Anthony E.; Rashid, Md Harunor; Mizuguchi-Takase, Hiroko; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Imoto, Keiji; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2014-01-01

    The TRPA1-channel has been proposed to be a molecular transducer of cold and inflammatory nociceptive signals. It is expressed on a subset of small primary afferent neurons both in the peripheral terminals, where it serves as a sensor, and on the central nerve endings in the dorsal horn. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord is a key site for integration of noxious inputs. The SG neurons are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous and the precise synaptic circuits of the SG are poorly understood. We examined how activation of TRPA1 channels affects synaptic transmission onto SG neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and morphological analyses in adult rat spinal cord slices. Cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist) elicited a barrage of EPSCs in a subset of the SG neurons that responded to allyl isothiocyanate (less specific TRPA1 agonist) and capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Cinnamaldehyde evoked EPSCs in vertical and radial, but not islet or central SG cells. Notably, cinnamaldehyde produced no change in IPSCs nor did it produce direct post-synaptic effects. In the presence of TTX, cinnamaldehyde increased the frequency but not amplitude of miniature EPSCs. Intriguingly, cinnamaldehyde had a selective inhibitory action on monosynaptic C (but not Aδ) fiber-evoked EPSCs. These results indicate that activation of spinal TRPA1 presynaptically facilitates miniature excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferents onto vertical and radial cells to initiate action potentials. The presence of TRPA1 channels on the central terminals raises the possibility of a novel mechanism for a cell type-specific bidirectional modulatory action on the SG. PMID:20497466

  8. Convergence in segmental reflex pathways from nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferents to alpha-motoneurones in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, H; Schomburg, E D

    1993-01-01

    1. Reflex interaction between nociceptive and non-nociceptive segmental afferents was investigated by testing for spatial facilitation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in alpha-motoneurones recorded in anaemically decapitated, high spinal cats. Nociceptive segmental afferents were activated by applying noxious radiant heat to the skin. Non-nociceptive skin mechanoreceptors were activated by puffs of air. Non-nociceptive skin, joint and group I-III muscle afferents were stimulated by electrical pulses delivered to various nerves. 2. Conditioning by stimulation of nociceptive afferents facilitated transmission in various ipsilateral segmental pathways. Such spatial facilitation occurred in both excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Pathways that were facilitated included those activated by low to medium threshold cutaneous afferents, joint afferents, and group Ib and II muscle afferents. 3. In contrast, monosynaptic EPSPs evoked by stimulating ipsilateral group Ia muscle afferents did not show spatial facilitation but rather inhibition during conditioning stimulation of nociceptive afferents. Spatial facilitation of reciprocal group Ia IPSPs was rare and small if it occurred. 4. Pathways activated by cutaneous and group II muscle afferents were depressed by contralateral stimulation of nociceptive afferents. 5. We conclude that spatial facilitation observed between nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferents results from a convergence of inputs on common interneurones in the reflex pathways to alpha-motoneurones. Therefore nociceptive afferents have to be regarded as constituents of flexor reflex afferents (FRAs) and may add a specific nocifensive function to the FRA system. PMID:8410691

  9. Haploinsufficiency in peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase leads to altered synaptic transmission in the amygdala and impaired emotional responses

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, ED; Rodriguiz, RM; Ma, XM; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Bousquet-Moore, D; Wetsel, WC; Eipper, BA

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian amygdala expresses various neuropeptides whose signaling has been implicated in emotionality. Many neuropeptides require amidation for full activation by peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a transmembrane vesicular cuproenzyme and regulator of the secretory pathway. Mice heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) exhibit physiological and behavioral abnormalities related to specific peptidergic pathways. In the present study, we evaluated emotionality and examined molecular and cellular responses that characterize neurophysiological differences in the PAM+/− amygdala. PAM+/− mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero maze that were alleviated by diazepam. PAM+/− animals were deficient in short- and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning and required higher shock intensities to establish fear-potentiated startle than their wildtype littermates. Immunohistochemical analysis of the amygdala revealed PAM expression in pyramidal neurons and local interneurons that synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We performed whole-cell recordings of pyramidal neurons in the PAM+/− amygdala to elucidate neurophysiological correlates of the fear behavioral phenotypes. Consistent with these observations, thalamic afferent synapses in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus were deficient in long-term potentiation. This deficit was apparent in the absence and presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and was abolished when both GABAA and GABAB receptors were blocked. Both evoked and spontaneous excitatory signals were enhanced in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus. Phasic GABAergic signaling was also augmented in the PAM+/− amygdala, and this difference was comprised of activity-independent and activity-dependent components. These physiological findings represent perturbations in the PAM+/− amygdala that may underlie the aberrant emotional responses in the intact animal. PMID:20943906

  10. Synaptic retinoic acid signaling and homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Lau, Anthony G; Sarti, Federica

    2014-03-01

    One of the defining features of the nervous system is its ability to modify synaptic strength in an experience-dependent manner. Chronic elevation or reduction of network activity activates compensatory mechanisms that modulate synaptic strength in the opposite direction (i.e. reduced network activity leads to increased synaptic strength), a process called homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Among the many mechanisms that mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity, retinoic acid (RA) has emerged as a novel signaling molecule that is critically involved in homeostatic synaptic plasticity induced by blockade of synaptic activity. In neurons, silencing of synaptic transmission triggers RA synthesis. RA then acts at synapses by a non-genomic mechanism that is independent of its well-known function as a transcriptional regulator, but operates through direct activation of protein translation in neuronal dendrites. Protein synthesis is activated by RA-binding to its receptor RARα, which functions locally in dendrites in a non-canonical manner as an RNA-binding protein that mediate RA's effect on translation. The present review will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the novel role of RA, which led to the identification of RA as a critical synaptic signaling molecule that mediates activity-dependent regulation of protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23270606

  11. Role of primary afferents in the developmental regulation of motor axon synapse numbers on Renshaw cells.

    PubMed

    Siembab, Valerie C; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Rotterman, Travis M; Shneider, Neil A; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2016-06-15

    Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development. In other well-studied neurons, such as Purkinje cells, heterosynaptic competition between inputs from different sources shapes synaptic organization. To examine the possibility that sensory afferents modulate synaptic maturation on developing Renshaw cells, we used three animal models in which afferent inputs in the ventral horn are dramatically reduced (ER81(-/-) knockout), weakened (Egr3(-/-) knockout), or strengthened (mlcNT3(+/-) transgenic). We demonstrate that increasing the strength of sensory inputs on Renshaw cells prevents their deselection and reduces motor axon synaptic density, and, in contrast, absent or diminished sensory afferent inputs correlate with increased densities of motor axons synapses. No effects were observed on other glutamatergic inputs. We conclude that the early strength of Ia synapses influences their maintenance or weakening during later development and that heterosynaptic influences from sensory synapses during early development regulates the density and organization of motor inputs on mature Renshaw cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1892-1919, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660356

  12. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the location of P2Y receptors in lipid rafts speeds up the modulatory effect of ATP. Uncovered mechanisms may contribute to motor dysfunctions and neuromuscular diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25463521

  13. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Biao; Huang, Fen-Sheng; Fen, Ban; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The function of the urinary bladder is partly controlled by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN). Our recent work demonstrated that endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-immunoreactive (IR) terminals form synapses with μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-expressing PPNs in the rat SPN. Here, we examined the effects of EM-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of the PPNs in young rats (24–30 days old) using a whole-cell patch-clamp approach. PPNs were identified by retrograde labeling with the fluorescent tracer tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR). EM-2 (3 μM) markedly decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of the spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and mEPSCs) of PPNs. EM-2 not only decreased the resting membrane potentials (RMPs) in 61.1% of the examined PPNs with half-maximal response at the concentration of 0.282 μM, but also increased the rheobase current and reduced the repetitive action potential firing of PPNs. Analysis of the current–voltage relationship revealed that the EM-2-induced current was reversed at −95 ± 2.5 mV and was suppressed by perfusion of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or BaCl2 or by the addition of guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt (GDP-β-S) to the pipette solution, suggesting the involvement of the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel. The above EM-2-invoked inhibitory effects were abolished by the MOR selective antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), indicating that the effects of EM-2 on PPNs were mediated by MOR via pre- and/or post-synaptic mechanisms. EM-2 activated pre- and post-synaptic MORs, inhibiting excitatory neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminals and decreasing the excitability of PPNs due to hyperpolarization of their membrane potentials, respectively. These inhibitory effects of EM-2 on PPNs at the spinal cord level may explain the mechanism of action of morphine treatment and morphine-induced bladder dysfunction in the clinic. PMID:26074773

  14. Synaptic transmission between end bulbs of Held and bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of mice with a mutation in Otoferlin

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Samantha; Hwang, Youngdeok

    2014-01-01

    Mice that carry a mutation in a calcium binding domain of Otoferlin, the putative calcium sensor at hair cell synapses, have normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), but auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) are absent. In mutant mice mechanotransduction is normal but transmission of acoustic information to the auditory pathway is blocked even before the onset of hearing. The cross-sectional area of the auditory nerve of mutant mice is reduced by 54%, and the volume of ventral cochlear nuclei is reduced by 46% relative to hearing control mice. While the tonotopic organization was not detectably changed in mutant mice, the axons to end bulbs of Held and the end bulbs themselves were smaller. In mutant mice bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (aVCN) have the electrophysiological hallmarks of control cells. Spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) occur with similar frequencies and have similar shapes in deaf as in hearing animals, but they are 24% larger in deaf mice. Bushy cells in deaf mutant mice are contacted by ∼2.6 auditory nerve fibers compared with ∼2.0 in hearing control mice. Furthermore, each fiber delivers more synaptic current, on average 4.8 nA compared with 3.4 nA, in deaf versus hearing control mice. The quantal content of evoked EPSCs is not different between mutant and control mice; the increase in synaptic current delivered in mutant mice is accounted for by the increased response to the size of the quanta. Although responses to shocks presented at long intervals are larger in mutant mice, they depress more rapidly than in hearing control mice. PMID:25253474

  15. Dopaminergic Presynaptic Modulation of Nigral Afferents: Its Role in the Generation of Recurrent Bursting in Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Neurons

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Aceves, José; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernández, Ricardo; Plata, Víctor; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types) that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct) pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway). We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral) and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral) synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism. PMID:21347219

  16. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  17. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  18. Analysis of mutations in 7 genes associated with neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in a cohort of children with non-syndromic infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Anna Ka-Yee; Ho, Alvin Chi-Chung; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei

    2015-01-01

    Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE) is a heterogeneous condition in which cognitive, sensory and/or motor functions deteriorate as a consequence of epileptic activity, which consists of frequent seizures and/or major interictal paroxysmal activity. There are various causes of EE and they may occur at any age in early childhood. Genetic mutations have been identified to contribute to an increasing number of children with early onset EE which had been previously considered as cryptogenic. We identified 26 patients with Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (IEE) of unknown etiology despite extensive workup and without any specific epilepsy syndromic phenotypes. We performed genetic analysis on a panel of 7 genes (ARX, CDKL5, KCNQ2, PCDH19, SCN1A, SCN2A, STXBP1) and identified 10 point mutations [ARX (1), CDKL5 (3), KCNQ2 (2), PCDH19 (1), SCN1A (1), STXBP1 (2)] as well as one microdeletion involving both SCN1A and SCN2A. The high rate (42%) of mutations suggested that genetic testing of this IEE panel of genes is recommended for cryptogenic IEE with no etiology identified. These 7 genes are associated with channelopathies or synaptic transmission and we recommend early genetic testing if possible to guide the treatment strategy. PMID:25951140

  19. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca2+ signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  20. Analysis of Mutations in 7 Genes Associated with Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Transmission in a Cohort of Children with Non-Syndromic Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Anna Ka-Yee; Ho, Alvin Chi-Chung; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei

    2015-01-01

    Epileptic Encephalopathy (EE) is a heterogeneous condition in which cognitive, sensory and/or motor functions deteriorate as a consequence of epileptic activity, which consists of frequent seizures and/or major interictal paroxysmal activity. There are various causes of EE and they may occur at any age in early childhood. Genetic mutations have been identified to contribute to an increasing number of children with early onset EE which had been previously considered as cryptogenic. We identified 26 patients with Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (IEE) of unknown etiology despite extensive workup and without any specific epilepsy syndromic phenotypes. We performed genetic analysis on a panel of 7 genes (ARX, CDKL5, KCNQ2, PCDH19, SCN1A, SCN2A, STXBP1) and identified 10 point mutations [ARX (1), CDKL5 (3), KCNQ2 (2), PCDH19 (1), SCN1A (1), STXBP1 (2)] as well as one microdeletion involving both SCN1A and SCN2A. The high rate (42%) of mutations suggested that genetic testing of this IEE panel of genes is recommended for cryptogenic IEE with no etiology identified. These 7 genes are associated with channelopathies or synaptic transmission and we recommend early genetic testing if possible to guide the treatment strategy. PMID:25951140

  1. Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Juan; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Couve, Alejandro; Buño, Washington; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of pre-postsynaptic activity is vital for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) at many central synapses. We show in synapses of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro that spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols that induce LTP at glutamatergic synapses can evoke LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents or STDP-iLTD. The STDP-iLTD requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) increase, a release of endocannabinoids (eCBs), the activation of type-1 endocananabinoid receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors that mediate a decreased probability of GABA release. In contrast, the STDP-iLTD is independent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, GABAB Rs and G protein-coupled postsynaptic receptors at pyramidal neurons. We determine that the downregulation of presynaptic Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein Kinase A pathways is essential for the induction of STDP-iLTD. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the activation of cholinergic neurons and retrograde signaling by eCBs can modulate the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission in ways that may contribute to information processing and storage in the hippocampus. PMID:23966210

  2. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca(2+) signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  3. Blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium channels increases initial neurotransmitter release probability, reinstates synaptic transmission altered by GABAB receptor activation in rat midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangying; Liu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Yang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype B (GABAB) receptors in the midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) induces both postsynaptic and presynaptic inhibition. Whereas the postsynaptic inhibition is mediated by G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, the presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release is primarily mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels. Using whole-cell recordings from acute rat PAG slices, we report here that the bath application of 4-aminopyridine, a voltage-gated K channel blocker, increases the initial GABA and glutamate release probability (P) and reinstates P depressed by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation at inhibitory and excitatory synapses, respectively. However, Ba, which blocks G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, does not produce similar effects. Our data suggest that the blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K channels in vlPAG facilitates neurotransmitter release and reinstates synaptic transmission that has been altered by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation. Because vlPAG is involved in the descending pain control system, the present results may have potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26575285

  4. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus.

    PubMed

    Baird, R A; Schuff, N R

    1994-04-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into medial and lateral parts. Utricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrastriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. Most afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have previously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology (Lewis and Li: Brain Res. 83:35-50, 1975). Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely contacted Type B and Type C hair cells, particularly on the outer rows of the medial striola. Afferents supplying more central striolar regions innervated fewer Type B and large numbers of Type E and Type F hair cells. Striolar afferents with thin parent axons largely supplied Type E hair cells with bulbed kinocilia in the innermost striolar rows. PMID:8201035

  5. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely contacted Type B and Type C hair cells, particularly on the outer rows of the medial striola. Afferents supplying more central striolar regions innervated fewer Type B and larger numbers of Type E and Type F hair cells. Striolar afferents with thin parent axons largely supplied Type E hair cells with bulbed kniocilia in the innermost striolar rows.

  6. Differential sensitivity of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission to modulation by nitric oxide in rat nucleus tractus solitarii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Paton, Julian F R; Kasparov, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is a key central link in control of multiple homeostatic reflexes. A number of studies have demonstrated that exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) within NTS regulates visceral function, but further understanding of the role of NO in the NTS is hampered by the lack of information about its intracellular actions. We studied effects of NO in acute rat brainstem slices. Aqueous NO solution (NO(aq)) potentiated electrically evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs, respectively) in different neuronal subpopulations and, in some neurones, caused a depolarization. Similar effects were observed using the NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO). The threshold NO concentration as determined using an NO electrochemical sensor was estimated as approximately 0.4 nm (EC(50) approximately 0.9 nm) for potentiating glutamatergic EPSPs but approximately 3 nm for monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs. Bath application of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) abolished NO(aq)- and DEA/NO-induced potentiation of evoked EPSPs, IPSPs and depolarization. All NO actions were mimicked by the non-NO-dependent guanylate cyclase activator Bay 41-2272. The effects of NO on EPSPs and IPSPs persisted in cells where postsynaptic sGC was blocked by ODQ and therefore were presynaptic, owing to a direct modulation of transmitter release combined with depolarization of presynaptic neurones. Therefore, while lower concentrations of NO may be important for fine tuning of glutamatergic transmission, higher concentrations are required to directly engage GABAergic inhibition. This differential sensitivity of excitatory and inhibitory connections to NO may be important for determining the specificity of the effects of this freely diffusible gaseous messenger. PMID:17138620

  7. High Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Leads to Presynaptic GABA(B)-Dependent Depression of Subthalamo-Nigral Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dvorzhak, Anton; Gertler, Christoph; Harnack, Daniel; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Patients with akinesia benefit from chronic high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Among the mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic success of HFS-STN might be a suppression of activity in the output region of the basal ganglia. Indeed, recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of fully adult mice revealed that HFS-STN consistently produced a reduction of compound glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents at a time when the tetrodotoxin-sensitive components of the local field potentials had already recovered after the high frequency activation. These observations suggest that HFS-STN not only alters action potential conduction on the way towards the SNr but also modifies synaptic transmission within the SNr. A classical conditioning-test paradigm was then designed to better separate the causes from the indicators of synaptic depression. A bipolar platinum-iridium macroelectrode delivered conditioning HFS trains to a larger group of fibers in the STN, while a separate high-ohmic glass micropipette in the rostral SNr provided test stimuli at minimal intensity to single fibers. The conditioning-test interval was set to 100 ms, i.e. the time required to recover the excitability of subthalamo-nigral axons after HFS-STN. The continuity of STN axons passing from the conditioning to the test sites was examined by an action potential occlusion test. About two thirds of the subthalamo-nigral afferents were occlusion-negative, i.e. they were not among the fibers directly activated by the conditioning STN stimulation. Nonetheless, occlusion-negative afferents exhibited signs of presynaptic depression that could be eliminated by blocking GABA(B) receptors with CGP55845 (1 µM). Further analysis of single fiber-activated responses supported the proposal that the heterosynaptic depression of synaptic glutamate release during and after HFS-STN is mainly caused by the tonic release of GABA from co-activated striato-nigral afferents to the SNr. This mechanism would be consistent with a gain-of-function hypothesis of DBS. PMID:24376521

  8. Synaptic Effects Induced by Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) has effects on numerous cellular molecular targets, and alterations in synaptic function are prominent among these effects. Acute exposure to EtOH activates or inhibits the function of proteins involved in synaptic transmission, while chronic exposure often produces opposing and/or compensatory/homeostatic effects on the expression, localization, and function of these proteins. Interactions between different neurotransmitters (e.g., neuropeptide effects on release of small molecule transmitters) can also influence both acute and chronic EtOH actions. Studies in intact animals indicate that the proteins affected by EtOH also play roles in the neural actions of the drug, including acute intoxication, tolerance, dependence, and the seeking and drinking of EtOH. This chapter reviews the literature describing these acute and chronic synaptic effects of EtOH and their relevance for synaptic transmission, plasticity, and behavior. PMID:21786203

  9. Differential effects of opioids on sacrocaudal afferent pathways and central pattern generators in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Blivis, D; Mentis, G Z; O'donovan, M J; Lev-Tov, A

    2007-04-01

    The effects of opioids on sacrocaudal afferent (SCA) pathways and the pattern-generating circuitry of the thoracolumbar and sacrocaudal segments of the spinal cord were studied in isolated spinal cord and brain stem-spinal cord preparations of the neonatal rat. The locomotor and tail moving rhythm produced by activation of nociceptive and nonnociceptive sacrocaudal afferents was completely blocked by specific application of the mu-opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt (DAMGO) to the sacrocaudal but not the thoracolumbar segments of the spinal cord. The rhythmic activity could be restored after addition of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone to the experimental chamber. The opioid block of the SCA-induced rhythm is not due to impaired rhythmogenic capacity of the spinal cord because a robust rhythmic activity could be initiated in the thoracolumbar and sacrocaudal segments in the presence of DAMGO, either by stimulation of the ventromedial medulla or by bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate/serotonin. We suggest that the opioid block of the SCA-induced rhythm involves suppression of synaptic transmission through sacrocaudal interneurons interposed between SCA and the pattern-generating circuitry. The expression of mu opioid receptors in several groups of dorsal, intermediate and ventral horn interneurons in the sacrocaudal segments of the cord, documented in this study, provides an anatomical basis for this suggestion. PMID:17287435

  10. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid/glycinergic synaptic transmission in mediating bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation in developing auditory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin-Lu; Liang, Min; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Lu-Yang; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:26476400

  11. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T.; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J.; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1dw mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1dw IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1dw IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1dw IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  12. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1(dw) ) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1(dw) mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1(dw) IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1(dw) IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1(dw) IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  13. Vagal afferent modulation of nociception.

    PubMed

    Randich, A; Gebhart, G F

    1992-01-01

    Chemical, electrical or physiological activation of cardiopulmonary vagal (cervical, thoracic or cardiac), diaphragmatic vagal (DVAG) or subdiaphragmatic vagal (SDVAG) afferents can result in either facilitation or inhibition of nociception in some species. In the rat, these effects depend upon vagal afferent input to the NTS and subsequent CNS relays, primarily in the NRM and ventral LC/SC, although specific relay nuclei vary as a function of the vagal challenge stimulus. Spinal pathways and neurotransmitters have been identified for vagally mediated effects on nociception and consistently implicate the involvement of descending 5-HT and noradrenergic systems, as well as intrinsic spinal opioid receptors. Species differences may exist with respect to both the effects of DVAG and SDVAG afferents on nociception and the efficacy of vagal afferents to modulate nociception. However, it is also possible that such differences reflect the modality of noxious input (e.g., visceral versus cutaneous), the type of neuronal activity investigated (e.g., resting versus noxious-evoked), spinal location of recording (e.g., thoracic versus lumbosacral) and/or parameters of stimulation. It is also possible that activation of some vagal afferents is aversive, but whether this contributes to changes in nociception produced by vagal activation has not clearly been established. Finally, the vagal-nociceptive networks described in this review provide a fertile area for future study. These networks can provide an understanding of physiological and pathophysiological peripheral events that affect nociception. PMID:1327371

  14. Vanilloids selectively sensitize thermal glutamate release from TRPV1 expressing solitary tract afferents.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Vanilloids, high temperature, and low pH activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. In spinal dorsal root ganglia, co-activation of one of these gating sites on TRPV1 sensitized receptor gating by other modes. Here in rat brainstem slices, we examined glutamate synaptic transmission in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons where most cranial primary afferents express TRPV1, but TRPV1 sensitization is unknown. Electrical shocks to the solitary tract (ST) evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs). Activation of TRPV1 with capsaicin (100 nM) increased spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) but inhibited ST-EPSCs. High concentrations of the ultra-potent vanilloid resiniferatoxin (RTX, 1 nM) similarly increased sEPSC rates but blocked ST-EPSCs. Lowering the RTX concentration to 150 pM modestly increased the frequency of the sEPSCs without causing failures in the evoked ST-EPSCs. The sEPSC rate increased with raising bath temperature to 36 °C. Such thermal responses were larger in 150 pM RTX, while the ST-EPSCs remained unaffected. Vanilloid sensitization of thermal responses persisted in TTX but was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Our results demonstrate that multimodal activation of TRPV1 facilitates sEPSC responses in more than the arithmetic sum of the two activators, i.e. co-activation sensitizes TRPV1 control of spontaneous glutamate release. Since action potential evoked glutamate release is unaltered, the work provides evidence for cooperativity in gating TRPV1 plus a remarkable separation of calcium mechanisms governing the independent vesicle pools responsible for spontaneous and evoked release at primary afferents in the NTS. PMID:26471418

  15. The afferent volleys responsible for spinal proprioceptive reflexes in man

    PubMed Central

    Burke, David; Gandevia, Simon C.; McKeon, Brian

    1983-01-01

    1. To define the neural volleys responsible for the Achilles tendon jerk and the H reflex, muscle afferent activity was recorded using micro-electrodes inserted percutaneously into appropriate fascicles of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa. 2. The response of soleus muscle afferents to tendon percussion consisted of a dispersed volley, starting 3·5-7·0 ms after percussion, increasing to a peak over 6·5-11·0 ms, and lasting 25-30 ms, depending on the strength of percussion. Electrical stimuli to the sciatic nerve at a level adequate to evoke an H reflex but subthreshold for the M wave produced a more synchronized volley, the fastest fibres of which had conduction velocities of 62-67 m/s, and the slowest 36-45 m/s. 3. The wave of acceleration produced by percussion subthreshold for the ankle jerk spread along the skin at over 150 m/s. Midway between the bellies of the gastrocnemii it consisted of a damped oscillation with four to five separate phases and maximum amplitude approximately one-twentieth of that recorded on the Achilles tendon. 4. With ten primary spindle endings, tendon percussion subthreshold for the ankle jerk elicited two to five spike discharges per tap, the shortest interspike intervals being 4-7 ms. Tendon percussion elicited single discharges from two Golgi tendon organs, and altered the discharge pattern of a single secondary spindle ending. The degree of dispersion of the multi-unit muscle afferent volley can be explained by the pattern of discharge of primary spindle endings. 5. Percussion on the Achilles tendon evoked crisp afferent volleys in recordings from nerve fascicles innervating flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, the intrinsic muscles of the foot and the skin of the foot. Electrical stimuli delivered to the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa at a level sufficient for the H reflex of soleus produced either a volley in muscle afferents from the intrinsic muscles of the foot or a volley in cutaneous afferents from the foot. 6. For comparable stimuli in the two positions, the H reflex was inhibited but the Achilles tendon jerk enhanced when the ankle was dorsiflexed from 105° to 90°. 7. The duration of the rise times of the excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) produced in soleus motoneurones by electrical stimulation, and by tendon percussion subthreshold for the H reflex and the ankle jerk respectively, was estimated from post-stimulus time histograms of the discharge of voluntarily activated single motor units in soleus. The mean e.p.s.p. rise times were 1·9 ms for electrical stimulation and 6·6 ms for tendon percussion. There was evidence that the duration of the electrically evoked e.p.s.p. was curtailed by an inhibitory post-synaptic potential (i.p.s.p.) of only slightly longer latency than the e.p.s.p. 8. The mechanically induced and electrically induced afferent volleys are not homogeneous volleys in group I a afferents from triceps surae. The afferent volleys differ in so many respects that it is probably invalid to compare the H reflex and tendon jerk as a measure of fusimotor activity. It is suggested that neither reflex can be considered a purely monosynaptic reflex. PMID:6887033

  16. Vagal afferent NMDA receptors modulate CCK-induced reduction of food intake through synapsin I phosphorylation in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos A; Shiina, Hiroko; Silvas, Michael; Page, Stephen; Ritter, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Vagal afferent nerve fibers transmit gastrointestinal satiation signals to the brain via synapses in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Despite their pivotal role in energy homeostasis, little is known about the cellular mechanisms enabling fleeting synaptic events at vagal sensory endings to sustain behavioral changes lasting minutes to hours. Previous reports suggest that the reduction of food intake by the satiation peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK), requires activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) in the NTS, with subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in NTS vagal afferent terminals. The synaptic vesicle protein synapsin I is phosphorylated by pERK1/2 at serines 62 and 67. This pERK1/2-catalyzed phosphorylation increases synaptic strength by increasing the readily releasable pool of the neurotransmitter. Conversely, dephosphorylation of serines 62 and 67 by calcineurin reduces the size of the readily releasable transmitter pool. Hence, the balance of synapsin I phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can modulate synaptic strength. We postulated that CCK-evoked activation of vagal afferent NMDARs results in pERK1/2-catalyzed phosphorylation of synapsin I in vagal afferent terminals, leading to the suppression of food intake. We found that CCK injection increased the phosphorylation of synapsin I in the NTS and that this increase is abolished after surgical or chemical ablation of vagal afferent fibers. Furthermore, fourth ventricle injection of an NMDAR antagonist or the mitogen-activated ERK kinase inhibitor blocked CCK-induced synapsin I phosphorylation, indicating that synapsin phosphorylation in vagal afferent terminals depends on NMDAR activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, hindbrain inhibition of calcineurin enhanced and prolonged synapsin I phosphorylation and potentiated reduction of food intake by CCK. Our findings are consistent with a mechanism in which NMDAR-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 modulates satiation signals via synapsin I phosphorylation in vagal afferent endings. PMID:23715865

  17. Efferent Control of Hair Cell and Afferent Responses in the Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Richard; Rabbitt, Richard D.; Highstein, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The sensations of sound and motion generated by the inner ear are controlled by the brain through extensive centripetal innervation originating within the brain stem. In the semicircular canals, brain stem efferent neurons make synaptic contacts with mechanosensory hair cells and with the dendrites of afferent neurons. Here, we examine the relative contributions of efferent action on hair cells and afferents. Experiments were performed in vivo in the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. The efferent system was activated via electrical pulses to the brain stem and sensory responses to motion stimuli were quantified by simultaneous voltage recording from afferents and intracellular current- and/or voltage-clamp recordings from hair cells. Results showed synaptic inputs to both afferents and hair cells leading to relatively long-latency intracellular signaling responses: excitatory in afferents and inhibitory in hair cells. Generally, the net effect of efferent action was an increase in afferent background discharge and a simultaneous decrease in gain to angular motion stimuli. Inhibition of hair cells was likely the result of a ligand-gated opening of a major basolateral conductance. The reversal potential of the efferent-evoked current was just below the hair cell resting potential, thus resulting in a small hyperpolarization. The onset latency averaged about 90 ms and latency to peak response was 150–400 ms. Hair cell inhibition often outlasted afferent excitation and, in some cases, latched hair cells in the “off” condition for >1 s following cessation of stimulus. These features endow the animal with a powerful means to adjust the sensitivity and dynamic range of motion sensation. PMID:19571186

  18. Growth factors in synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Vivian Y.; Choi, Sojoong; Park, Mikyoung

    2013-01-01

    Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons. PMID:24065916

  19. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Produces an Antidepressant-Like Effect and Elicits N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Independent Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Gross, Amanda; Kroes, Roger A.; Stanton, Patric K.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play an important role in regulating neurogenesis and synapse formation and may be involved in regulating the antidepressant response to conventional antidepressants. To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods: The antidepressant-like effect of a single IV dose of IGFI was determined using a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm in the rat Porsolt, sucrose preference, novelty-induced hypophagia, and ultrasonic vocalization models. The dependence of the medial prefrontal cortex for these effects was determined by direct medial prefrontal cortex injection followed by Porsolt testing as well as IGFI receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex following an optimal IV antidepressant-like dose of IGFI. The effect of IGFI on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength was assessed in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The dependence of these effects on IGFI and AMPA receptor activation and protein synthesis were also determined. Results: IGFI produced a rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant-like effect in each of the depression models. These effects were blocked by IGFI and AMPA receptor antagonists, and medial prefrontal cortex was localized. IGFI robustly increased synaptic strength in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex and these effects were IGFI receptor and protein synthesis-dependent but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent. IGFI also robustly facilitated hippocampal metaplasticity 24 hours postdosing. Conclusions: These data support the conclusion that the antidepressant-like effects of IGFI are mediated by a persistent, LTP-like enhancement of synaptic strength requiring both IGFIR activation and ongoing protein synthesis. PMID:26374350

  20. Presynaptic calcium stores modulate afferent release in vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Andrea; Perin, Paola; Martini, Marta; Ciubotaru, Catalin D; Prigioni, Ivo; Valli, Paolo; Rossi, Maria L; Mammano, Fabio

    2003-07-30

    Hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of the acoustic and vestibular system, are presynaptic to primary afferent neurons of the eighth nerve and excite neural activity by the release of glutamate. In the present work, the role played by intracellular Ca2+ stores in afferent transmission was investigated, at the presynaptic level, by monitoring changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in vestibular hair cells, and, at the postsynaptic level, by recording from single posterior canal afferent fibers. Application of 1-10 mm caffeine to hair cells potentiated Ca2+ responses evoked by depolarization at selected Ca2+ hot spots, and also induced a graded increase in cell membrane capacitance (DeltaCm), signaling exocytosis of the transmitter. Ca2+ signals evoked by caffeine peaked in a region located approximately 10 microm from the base of the hair cell. [Ca2+]i increases, similarly localized, were observed after 500 msec depolarizations, but not with 50 msec depolarizations, suggesting the occurrence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the same stores. Both Ca2+ and DeltaCm responses were inhibited after incubation with ryanodine (40 microm) for 8-10 min. Consistent with these results, afferent transmission was potentiated by caffeine and inhibited by ryanodine both at the level of action potentials and of miniature EPSPs (mEPSPs). Neither caffeine nor ryanodine affected the shape and amplitude of mEPSPs, indicating that both drugs acted at the presynaptic level. These results strongly suggest that endogenous modulators of the CICR process will affect afferent activity elicited by mechanical stimuli in the physiological frequency range. PMID:12890784

  1. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the edge of chaos, where complex phenomena, including creativity and intelligence, may emerge'. Also in this issue R Stanley Williams and colleagues report results from simulations that demonstrate the potential for using Mott transistors as building blocks for scalable neuristor-based integrated circuits without transistors [5]. The scalability of neural chip designs is also tackled in the design reported by Narayan Srinivasa and colleagues in the US [6]. Meanwhile Carsten Timm and Massimiliano Di Ventra describe simulations of a molecular transistor in which electrons strongly coupled to a vibrational mode lead to a Franck-Condon (FC) blockade that mimics the spiking action potentials in synaptic memory behaviour [7]. The 'atomic switches' used to demonstrate synaptic behaviour by a collaboration of researchers in California and Japan also come under further scrutiny in this issue. James K Gimzewski and colleagues consider the difference between the behaviour of an atomic switch in isolation and in a network [8]. As the authors point out, 'The work presented represents steps in a unified approach of experimentation and theory of complex systems to make atomic switch networks a uniquely scalable platform for neuromorphic computing'. Researchers in Germany [9] and Sweden [10] also report on theoretical approaches to modelling networks of memristive elements and complementary resistive switches for synaptic devices. As Vincent Derycke and colleagues in France point out, 'Actual experimental demonstrations of neural network type circuits based on non-conventional/non-CMOS memory devices and displaying function learning capabilities remain very scarce'. They describe how their work using carbon nanotubes provides a rare demonstration of actual function learning with synapses based on nanoscale building blocks [11]. However, this is far from the only experimental work reported in this issue, others include: short-term memory of TiO2-based electrochemical capacitors [12]; a neuromorphic circuit composed of a nanoscale 1-kbit resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cross-point array of synapses and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) neuron circuits [13]; a WO3-x-based nanoionics device from Masakazu Aono's group with a wide scale of reprogrammable memorization functions [14]; a new spike-timing dependent plasticity scheme based on a MOS transistor as a selector and a RRAM as a variable resistance device [15]; a new hybrid memristor-CMOS neuromorphic circuit [16]; and a photo-assisted atomic switch [17]. Synaptic electronics evidently has many emerging facets, and Duygu Kuzum, Shimeng Yu, and H-S Philip Wong in the US provide a review of the field, including the materials, devices and applications [18]. In embracing the expertise acquired over thousands of years of evolution, biomimetics and bio-inspired design is a common, smart approach to technological innovation. Yet in successfully mimicking the physiological mechanisms of the human mind synaptic electronics research has a potential impact that is arguably unprecedented. That the quirks and eccentricities recently unearthed in the behaviour of nanomaterials should lend themselves so accommodatingly to emulating synaptic functions promises some very exciting developments in the field, as the articles in this special issue emphasize. References [1] von Neumann J (ed) 2012 The Computer and the Brain 3rd edn (Yale: Yale University Press) [2] Strukov D B, Snider G S, Stewart D R and Williams R S 2008 The missing memristor found Nature 453 80-3 [3] Chua L O 1971 Memristor—the missing circuit element IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory 18 507-19 [4] Chua L O 2013 Memristor, Hodgkin-Huxley, and Edge of Chaos Nanotechnology 24 383001 [5] Pickett M D and Williams R S 2013 Phase transitions enable computational universality in neuristor-based cellular automata Nanotechnology 24 384002 [6] Cruz-Albrecht J M, Derosier T and Srinivasa N 2013 Scalable neural chip with synaptic electronics using CMOS integrated memristors Nanotechnology 24 384011 [7] Timm C and Di Ventra M 2013 Molecular neuron based on the Franck-Condon blockade Nanotechnology 24 384001 [8] Sillin H O, Aguilera R, Shieh H-H, Avizienis A V, Aono M, Stieg A Z and Gimzewski J K 2013 A theoretical and experimental study of neuromorphic atomic switch networks for reservoir computing Nanotechnology 24 384004 [9] Linn E, Menzel S, Ferch S and Waser R 2013 Compact modeling of CRS devices based on ECM cells for memory, logic and neuromorphic applications Nanotechnology 24 384008 [10] Konkoli Z and Wendin G 2013 A generic simulator for large networks of memristive elements Nanotechnology 24 384007 [11] Gacem K, Retrouvey J-M, Chabi D, Filoramo A, Zhao W, Klein J-O and Derycke V 2013 Neuromorphic function learning with carbon nanotube-based synapses Nanotechnology 24 384013 [12] Lim H, Kim I, Kim J-S, Hwang C S and Jeong D S 2013 Short-term memory of TiO2-based electrochemical capacitors: empirical analysis with adoption of a sliding threshold Nanotechnology 24 384005 [13] Park S, Noh J, Choo M-L, Sheri A M, Chang M, Kim Y-B, Kim C J, Jeon M, Lee B-G, Lee B H and Hwang H 2013 Nanoscale RRAM-based synaptic electronics: toward a neuromorphic computing device Nanotechnology 24 384009 [14] Yang R, Terabe K, Yao Y, Tsuruoka T, Hasegawa T, Gimzewski J K and Aono M 2013 Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in WO3-x-based nanoionics device by using principle of atomic switch operation Nanotechnology 24 384002 [15] Ambrogio S, Balatti S, Nardi F, Facchinetti S and Ielmini D 2013 Spike-timing dependent plasticity in a transistor-selected resistive switching memory Nanotechnology 24 384012 [16] Indiveria G, Linares-Barranco B, Legenstein R, Deligeorgis G and Prodromakise T 2013 Integration of nanoscale memristor synapses in neuromorphic computing architectures Nanotechnology 24 384010 [17] Hino T, Hasegawa T, Tanaka H, Tsuruoka T, Terabe K, Ogawa T and Aono M 2013 Volatile and nonvolatile selective switching of a photo-assited initialized atomic switch Nanotechnology 24 384006 [18] Kuzum D, Yu S and Wong H-S P 2013 Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications Nanotechnology 24 382001

  2. Molecular Underpinnings of Synaptic Vesicle Pool Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devon C.; Kavalali, Ege T.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal communication relies on chemical synaptic transmission for information transfer and processing. Chemical neurotransmission is initiated by synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic active zone resulting in release of neurotransmitters. Classical models have assumed that all synaptic vesicles within a synapse have the same potential to fuse under different functional contexts. In this model, functional differences among synaptic vesicle populations are ascribed to their spatial distribution in the synapse with respect to the active zone. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that synaptic vesicles are not a homogenous population of organelles, and they possess intrinsic molecular differences and differential interaction partners. Recent studies have reported a diverse array of synaptic molecules that selectively regulate synaptic vesicles' ability to fuse synchronously and asynchronously in response to action potentials or spontaneously irrespective of action potentials. Here we discuss these molecular mediators of vesicle pool heterogeneity that are found on the synaptic vesicle membrane, on the presynaptic plasma membrane, or within the cytosol and consider some of the functional consequences of this diversity. This emerging molecular framework presents novel avenues to probe synaptic function and uncover how synaptic vesicle pools impact neuronal signaling. PMID:25620674

  3. Exercise modulates synaptic acetylcholinesterase at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Blotnick, E; Anglister, L

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase plays a major role in neuromuscular transmission and is regulated by neuromuscular activity. Since fast-twitch motor units are recruited with increased motor demand, we examined acetylcholinesterase regulation in rat leg muscles following treadmill training. Total acetylcholinesterase and specifically the membrane-bound tetramer increased in exercised fast-, but not slow-twitch muscles, while other isoforms remained unchanged. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase increased markedly in neuromuscular junctions of trained fibers, without concomitant changes in synaptic acetylcholine receptor, thus elevating synaptic acetylcholinesterase/receptor ratios. Electron microscopy showed that acetylcholinesterase increased in postjunctional folds and primary cleft, where it was added adjacent to the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Thus, although the primary acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction is the collagen-tailed asymmetric isoform associated with synaptic basal lamina, physiological demands such as strenuous exercise, or potentially pathological conditions, can selectively recruit the membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase tetramer to the synapse for optimal synaptic transmission. PMID:26820598

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor drives the changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat superficial dorsal horn that follow sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Van B; Biggs, James E; Stebbing, Martin J; Balasubramanyan, Sridhar; Todd, Kathryn G; Lai, Aaron Y; Colmers, William F; Dawbarn, David; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can promote neuropathic pain. The basis of the 'central sensitization' that underlies this often intractable condition was investigated using 14-20-day chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve of 20-day-old rats followed by electrophysiological analysis of acutely isolated spinal cord slices. In addition, defined-medium organotypic spinal cord slice cultures were exposed for 5-6 days to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 200 ng ml(-1)) or to medium conditioned with activated microglia (aMCM). Since microglial activation is an early consequence of CCI, the latter manipulation allowed us to model the effect of peripheral nerve injury on the dorsal horn in vitro. Using whole-cell recording from superficial dorsal horn neurons, we found that both BDNF and CCI increased excitatory synaptic drive to putative excitatory 'radial delay' neurons and decreased synaptic excitation of inhibitory 'tonic islet/central' neurons. BDNF also attenuated synaptic excitation of putative GABAergic neurons identified by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunoreactivity. Intrinsic neuronal properties (rheobase, input resistance and action potential discharge rates) were unaffected. Exposure of organotypic cultures to either BDNF or aMCM increased overall excitability of the dorsal horn, as seen by increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) responses to 35 mm K(+) as monitored by confocal Fluo-4AM imaging. The effect of aMCM was attenuated by the recombinant BDNF binding protein TrkBd5 and the effect of BDNF persisted when GABAergic inhibition was blocked with SR95531. These findings suggest that CCI enhances excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons but decreases that to inhibitory neurons. Both effects are mediated by nerve injury-induced release of BDNF from microglia. PMID:19124536

  5. Learning with two sites of synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Körding, K P; König, P

    2000-02-01

    Since the classical work of D O Hebb 1949 The Organization of Behaviour (New York: Wiley) it is assumed that synaptic plasticity solely depends on the activity of the pre- and the postsynaptic cells. Synapses influence the plasticity of other synapses exclusively via the post-synaptic activity. This confounds effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal activation and, thus, makes it difficult to implement networks which optimize global measures of performance. Exploring solutions to this problem, inspired by recent research on the properties of apical dendrites, we examine a network of neurons with two sites of synaptic integration. These communicate in such a way that one set of synapses mainly influences the neurons' activity; the other set gates synaptic plasticity. Analysing the system with a constant set of parameters reveals: (1) the afferents that gate plasticity act as supervisors, individual to every cell. (2) While the neurons acquire specific receptive fields the net activity remains constant for different stimuli. This ensures that all stimuli are represented and, thus, contributes to information maximization. (3) Mechanisms for maximization of coherent information can easily be implemented. Neurons with non-overlapping receptive fields learn to fire correlated and preferentially transmit information that is correlated over space. (4) We demonstrate how a new measure of performance can be implemented: cells learn to represent only the part of the input that is relevant to the processing at higher stages. This criterion is termed 'relevant infomax'. PMID:10735527

  6. Utricular afferents: morphology of peripheral terminals.

    PubMed

    Huwe, J A; Logan, G J; Williams, B; Rowe, M H; Peterson, E H

    2015-04-01

    The utricle provides critical information about spatiotemporal properties of head movement. It comprises multiple subdivisions whose functional roles are poorly understood. We previously identified four subdivisions in turtle utricle, based on hair bundle structure and mechanics, otoconial membrane structure and hair bundle coupling, and immunoreactivity to calcium-binding proteins. Here we ask whether these macular subdivisions are innervated by distinctive populations of afferents to help us understand the role each subdivision plays in signaling head movements. We quantified the morphology of 173 afferents and identified six afferent classes, which differ in structure and macular locus. Calyceal and dimorphic afferents innervate one striolar band. Bouton afferents innervate a second striolar band; they have elongated terminals and the thickest processes and axons of all bouton units. Bouton afferents in lateral (LES) and medial (MES) extrastriolae have small-diameter axons but differ in collecting area, bouton number, and hair cell contacts (LES > MES). A fourth, distinctive population of bouton afferents supplies the juxtastriola. These results, combined with our earlier findings on utricular hair cells and the otoconial membrane, suggest the hypotheses that MES and calyceal afferents encode head movement direction with high spatial resolution and that MES afferents are well suited to signal three-dimensional head orientation and striolar afferents to signal head movement onset. PMID:25632074

  7. Utricular afferents: morphology of peripheral terminals

    PubMed Central

    Huwe, J. A.; Logan, G. J.; Williams, B.; Rowe, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The utricle provides critical information about spatiotemporal properties of head movement. It comprises multiple subdivisions whose functional roles are poorly understood. We previously identified four subdivisions in turtle utricle, based on hair bundle structure and mechanics, otoconial membrane structure and hair bundle coupling, and immunoreactivity to calcium-binding proteins. Here we ask whether these macular subdivisions are innervated by distinctive populations of afferents to help us understand the role each subdivision plays in signaling head movements. We quantified the morphology of 173 afferents and identified six afferent classes, which differ in structure and macular locus. Calyceal and dimorphic afferents innervate one striolar band. Bouton afferents innervate a second striolar band; they have elongated terminals and the thickest processes and axons of all bouton units. Bouton afferents in lateral (LES) and medial (MES) extrastriolae have small-diameter axons but differ in collecting area, bouton number, and hair cell contacts (LES >> MES). A fourth, distinctive population of bouton afferents supplies the juxtastriola. These results, combined with our earlier findings on utricular hair cells and the otoconial membrane, suggest the hypotheses that MES and calyceal afferents encode head movement direction with high spatial resolution and that MES afferents are well suited to signal three-dimensional head orientation and striolar afferents to signal head movement onset. PMID:25632074

  8. Correlated network activity enhances synaptic efficacy via BDNF and the ERK pathway at immature CA3–CA1 connections in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Majid H.; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Zacchi, Paola; Aguilera, Pedro; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    At early developmental stages, correlated neuronal activity is thought to exert a critical control on functional and structural refinement of synaptic connections. In the hippocampus, between postnatal day 2 (P2) and P6, network-driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) are generated by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, which is depolarizing and excitatory. Here the rising phase of GDPs was used to trigger Schaffer collateral stimulation in such a way that synchronized network activity was coincident with presynaptic activation of afferent input. This procedure produced a persistent increase in spontaneous and evoked α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxadepropionic acid-mediated glutamatergic currents, an effect that required calcium influx through postsynaptic L-type calcium channels. No potentiation was observed when a delay of 3 sec was introduced between GDPs and afferent stimulation. Pairing-induced potentiation was prevented by scavengers of endogenous BDNF or tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor antagonists. Blocking TrkB receptors in the postsynaptic cell did not prevent the effects of pairing, suggesting that BDNF, possibly secreted from the postsynaptic cell during GDPs, acts on TrkB receptors localized on presynaptic neurons. Application of exogenous BDNF mimicked the effects of pairing on synaptic transmission. In addition, pairing-induced synaptic potentiation was blocked by ERK inhibitors, suggesting that BDNF activates the MAPK/ERK cascade, which may lead to transcriptional regulation and new protein synthesis in the postsynaptic neuron. These results support the hypothesis that, during a critical period of postnatal development, GABAA-mediated GDPs are instrumental in tuning excitatory synaptic connections and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. PMID:17656555

  9. Novel Afferent Terminal Structure in the Crista Ampullaris of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, Pamela J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1996-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we have identified a new type of afferent terminal structure in the crista ampullaris of the goldfish Carassius auratus. In addition to the bouton-type afferent terminals previously described in the ear of this species, the crista also contained enlarged afferent terminals that enveloped a portion of the basolateral hair cell membrane. The hair cell membrane was evaginated and protruded into the afferent terminal in a glove-and-finger configuration. The membranes of the two cells were regularly aligned in the protruded region of the contact and had a distinct symmetrical electron density. The electron-dense profiles of these contacts were easily identified and were present in every crista sampled. In some cases, efferent terminals synapsed onto the afferents at a point where the hair cell protruded into the terminal. The ultrastructural similarities of the goldfish crista afferents to calyx afferents found in amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals) are discussed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that structural variation in the vertebrate inner ear may have evolved much earlier in evolution than previously supposed.

  10. [Research progress of synaptic vesicle recycling].

    PubMed

    Li, Ye-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Xing; Duan, Shu-Min

    2015-12-25

    Neurotransmission begins with neurotransmitter being released from synaptic vesicles. To achieve this function, synaptic vesicles endure the dynamic "release-recycle" process to maintain the function and structure of presynaptic terminal. Synaptic transmission starts with a single action potential that depolarizes axonal bouton, followed by an increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration that triggers the synaptic vesicle membrane fusion with presynaptic membrane to release neurotransmitter; then the vesicle membrane can be endocytosed for reusing afterwards. This process requires delicate regulation, intermediate steps and dynamic balances. Accumulating evidence showed that the release ability and mobility of synapses varies under different stimulations. Synaptic vesicle heterogeneity has been studied at molecular and cellular levels, hopefully leading to the identification of the relationships between structure and function and understanding how vesicle regulation affects synaptic transmission and plasticity. People are beginning to realize that different types of synapses show diverse presynaptic activities. The steady advances of technology studying synaptic vesicle recycling promote people's understanding of this field. In this review, we discuss the following three aspects of the research progresses on synaptic vesicle recycling: 1) presynaptic vesicle pools and recycling; 2) research progresses on the differences of glutamatergic and GABAergic presynaptic vesicle recycling mechanism and 3) comparison of the technologies used in studying presyanptic vesicle recycling and the latest progress in the technology development in this field. PMID:26701630

  11. Endogenous Interleukin-1β in Neuropathic Rats Enhances Glutamate Release from the Primary Afferents in the Spinal Dorsal Horn through Coupling with Presynaptic N-Methyl-d-aspartic Acid Receptors*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Excessive activation of glutamate receptors and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the spinal dorsal horn, are key mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which endogenous IL-1β alters glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with neuropathic pain induced by ligation of the L5 spinal nerve. We demonstrated that endogenous IL-1β in neuropathic rats enhances glutamate release from the primary afferent terminals and non-NMDA glutamate receptor activities in postsynaptic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is a mediator used by IL-1β to enhance non-NMDA glutamate receptor activities in postsynaptic neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. Presynaptic NMDA receptors are effector receptors used by the endogenous IL-1β to enhance glutamate release from the primary afferents in neuropathic rats. This is further supported by the fact that NMDA currents recorded from small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion of normal rats are potentiated by exogenous IL-1β. Furthermore, we provided evidence that functional coupling between IL-1β receptors and presynaptic NMDA receptors at the primary afferent terminals is mediated by the neutral sphingomyelinase/ceramide signaling pathway. Hence, functional coupling between IL-1β receptors and presynaptic NMDA receptors at the primary afferent terminals is a crucial mechanism leading to enhanced glutamate release and activation of non-NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn neurons in neuropathic pain conditions. Interruption of such functional coupling could be an effective approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:24003233

  12. A Model of Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity: From Signaling Network to Channel Conductance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellani, Gastone C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.; Bersani, Ferdinando; Cooper, Leon N.; Shouval, Harel Z.

    2005-01-01

    In many regions of the brain, including the mammalian cortex, the strength of synaptic transmission can be bidirectionally regulated by cortical activity (synaptic plasticity). One line of evidence indicates that long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term synaptic depression (LTD), correlate with the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of…

  13. Distinct recurrent versus afferent dynamics in cortical visual processing.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Kimberly; Lien, Anthony D; Scanziani, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    How intracortical recurrent circuits in mammalian sensory cortex influence dynamics of sensory representation is not understood. Previous methods could not distinguish the relative contributions of recurrent circuits and thalamic afferents to cortical dynamics. We accomplish this by optogenetically manipulating thalamus and cortex. Over the initial 40 ms of visual stimulation, excitation from recurrent circuits in visual cortex progressively increased to exceed direct thalamocortical excitation. Even when recurrent excitation exceeded thalamic excitation, upon silencing thalamus, sensory-evoked activity in cortex decayed rapidly, with a time constant of 10 ms, which is similar to a neuron's integration time window. In awake mice, this cortical decay function predicted the time-locking of cortical activity to thalamic input at frequencies <15 Hz and attenuation of the cortical response to higher frequencies. Under anesthesia, depression at thalamocortical synapses disrupted the fidelity of sensory transmission. Thus, we determine dynamics intrinsic to cortical recurrent circuits that transform afferent input in time. PMID:26502263

  14. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron. PMID:26763783

  15. Identity of Endogenous NMDAR Glycine Site Agonist in Amygdala Is Determined by Synaptic Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Sacchi, Silvia; Pollegioni, Loredano; Basu, Alo C.; Coyle, Joseph T.; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity contribute to the acquisition and retention of conditioned fear memory. However, synaptic rules which may determine the extent of NMDA receptor activation in the amygdala, a key structure implicated in fear learning, remain unknown. Here we show that the identity of the NMDAR glycine site agonist at synapses in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala may depend on the level of synaptic activation. Tonic activation of NMDARs at synapses in the amygdala under low-activity conditions is supported by ambient D-serine, whereas glycine may be released from astrocytes in response to afferent impulses. The release of glycine may decode the increases in afferent activity levels into enhanced NMDAR-mediated synaptic events, serving an essential function in the induction of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways. PMID:23612301

  16. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  17. Topoisomerase 1 inhibition reversibly impairs synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Mabb, Angela M.; Kullmann, Paul H. M.; Twomey, Margaret A.; Miriyala, Jayalakshmi; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Topotecan is a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor that is used to treat various forms of cancer. We recently found that topotecan reduces the expression of multiple long genes, including many neuronal genes linked to synapses and autism. However, whether topotecan alters synaptic protein levels and synapse function is currently unknown. Here we report that in primary cortical neurons, topotecan depleted synaptic proteins that are encoded by extremely long genes, including Neurexin-1, Neuroligin-1, Cntnap2, and GABAAβ3. Topotecan also suppressed spontaneous network activity without affecting resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, or neuron health. Topotecan strongly suppressed inhibitory neurotransmission via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms and reduced excitatory neurotransmission. The effects on synaptic protein levels and inhibitory neurotransmission were fully reversible upon drug washout. Collectively, our findings suggest that TOP1 controls the levels of multiple synaptic proteins and is required for normal excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:25404338

  18. Deep mRNA Sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea Brain Transcriptome Provides Access to Gene Homologues for Neuronal Excitability, Synaptic Transmission and Peptidergic Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level. Results We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes). BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis) revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA. Conclusions Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain. PMID:25719197

  19. In vivo imaging reveals dendritic targeting of laminated afferents by zebrafish retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Mumm, Jeff S.; Williams, Philip R.; Godinho, Leanne; Koerber, Amy; Pittman, Andrew J.; Roeser, Tobias; Chien, Chi-Bin; Baier, Herwig; Wong, Rachel O.L.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Targeting of axons and dendrites to particular synaptic laminae is an important mechanism by which precise patterns of neuronal connectivity are established. Although axons target specific laminae during development, dendritic lamination has been thought to occur largely by pruning of inappropriately placed arbors. We discovered by in vivo time-lapse imaging, that retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites in zebrafish show growth patterns implicating dendritic targeting as a mechanism for contacting appropriate synaptic partners. Populations of RGCs labeled in transgenic animals establish distinct dendritic strata sequentially, predominantly from the inner to outer retina. Imaging individual cells over successive days confirmed that multistratified RGCs generate strata sequentially, each arbor elaborating within a specific lamina. Simultaneous imaging of RGCs and subpopulations of presynaptic amacrine interneurons revealed that RGC dendrites appear to target amacrine plexuses that had already laminated. Dendritic targeting of pre-patterned afferents may thus be a novel mechanism for establishing proper synaptic connectivity. PMID:17114046

  20. Neuroligins and Neurexins Link Synaptic Function to Cognitive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Südhof, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Preface The brain processes information by transmitting signals at synapses, which connect neurons into vast networks of communicating cells. In these networks, synapses not only transmit, but also process and refine information. Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell-adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynaptic neurons at synapses, mediate trans-synaptic signaling, and shape neural network properties by specifying synaptic functions. In humans, alterations in neurexin or neuroligin genes are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, connecting synaptic cell adhesion to cognition and its disorders. Thus, neurexins and neuroligins are core components of the molecular machinery that controls synaptic transmission and enables neural networks to process complex signals. PMID:18923512

  1. Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2011-01-01

    The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

  2. Botulinum toxin in migraine: Role of transport in trigemino-somatic and trigemino-vascular afferents.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Lam, Carmen; Yaksh, Tony L

    2015-07-01

    Migraine secondary to meningeal input is referred to extracranial regions innervated by somatic afferents that project to homologous regions in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Reported efficacy of extracranial botulinum toxin (BoNT) in treating migraine is surprising since a local extracranial effect of BoNT cannot account for its effect upon meningeal input. We hypothesize that intradermal BoNT acts through central transport in somatic afferents. Anesthetized C57Bl/6 mice (male) received unilateral supraorbital (SO) injections of BoNT-B (1.5 U/40 μl) or saline. 3 days later, mice received ipsilateral (ipsi)-SO capsaicin (20 μl of 0.5mM solution) or meningeal capsaicin (4 μl of 0.35 μM). Pre-treatment with ipsi-SO BoNT-B i) decreased nocicsponsive ipsilateral wiping behavior following ipsi-SO capsaicin; ii) produced cleavage of VAMP in the V1 region of ipsi-TG and in TG neurons showing WGA after SO injection; iii) reduced expression of c-fos in ipsi-TNC following ipsi-SO capsaicin; iv) reduced c-fos activation and NK-1 internalization in ipsi-TNC secondary to ipsi-meningeal capsaicin; and vi) SO WGA did not label dural afferents. We conclude that BoNT-B is taken up by peripheral afferents and transported to central terminals where it inhibits transmitter release resulting in decreased activation of second order neurons. Further, this study supports the hypothesis that SO BoNT exerts a trans-synaptic action on either the second order neuron (which receives convergent input from the meningeal afferent) or the terminal/TG of the converging meningeal afferent. PMID:25958249

  3. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Robin W.; Peled, Einat; Guerrero, Giovanna; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strength between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  4. Involvement of peripheral purinoceptors in sympathetic modulation of capsaicin-induced sensitization of primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Zou, Xiaoju; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing

    2006-11-01

    Purinoceptors are distributed in primary afferent terminals, where transmission of nociceptive information is modulated by these receptors. In the present study, we evaluated whether the activation or blockade of purinoceptors of subtypes P2X and P2Y in the periphery affected the sensitization of primary afferents induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin (CAP) and examined their role in sympathetic modulation of sensitization of primary nociceptive afferents. Afferent activity was recorded from single Adelta- and C-primary afferent fibers in the tibial nerve in anesthetized rats. Peripheral pretreatment with alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP), a P2X-selective receptor agonist, could potentiate the CAP-induced enhancement of responses of Adelta- and C-primary afferent nociceptive fibers to mechanical stimuli in sympathetically intact rats. After sympathetic denervation, the enhanced responses of both Adelta- and C-fibers after CAP injection were dramatically reduced. However, this reduction could be restored when P2X receptors were activated by alpha,beta-meATP. A blockade of P2X receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid could significantly reduce the CAP-induced sensitization of Adelta- and C-fibers. Pretreatment with uridine 5'-triphosphate, a P2Y-selective receptor agonist, did not significantly affect or restore the CAP-induced sensitization of Adelta- and C-fibers under sympathetically intact or sympathectomized conditions. Our study supports the view that ATP plays a role in modulation of primary afferent nociceptor sensitivity mainly by P2X receptors. Combined with our previous study, our data also provide further evidence that the sensitization of primary afferent nociceptors is subject to sympathetic modulation by activation of P2X as well as alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. PMID:16885522

  5. Synaptic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Picconi, Barbara; Piccoli, Giovanni; Calabresi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent modifications in synaptic efficacy, such as long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), represent key cellular substrates for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. The impairment of these two forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus striatum could account for the onset and the progression of motor and cognitive symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by the massive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In fact, both LTD and LTP are peculiarly controlled and modulated by dopaminergic transmission coming from nigrostriatal terminals. Changes in corticostriatal and nigrostriatal neuronal excitability may influence profoundly the threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity, and changes in striatal synaptic transmission efficacy are supposed to play a role in the occurrence of PD symptoms. Understanding of these maladaptive forms of synaptic plasticity has mostly come from the analysis of experimental animal models of PD. A series of cellular and synaptic alterations occur in the striatum of experimental parkinsonism in response to the massive dopaminergic loss. In particular, dysfunctions in trafficking and subunit composition of glutamatergic NMDA receptors on striatal efferent neurons contribute to the clinical features of the experimental parkinsonism. Interestingly, it has become increasingly evident that in striatal spiny neurons, the correct assembly of NMDA receptor complex at the postsynaptic site is a major player in early phases of PD, and it is sensitive to distinct degrees of DA denervation. The molecular defects at the basis of PD progression may be not confined just at the postsynaptic neuron: accumulating evidences have recently shown that the genes linked to PD play a critical role at the presynaptic site. DA release into the synaptic cleft relies on a proper presynaptic vesicular transport; impairment of SV trafficking, modification of DA flow, and altered presynaptic plasticity have been described in several PD animal models. Furthermore, an impaired DA turnover has been described in presymptomatic PD patients. Thus, given the pathological events occurring precociously at the synapses of PD patients, post- and presynaptic sites may represent an adequate target for early therapeutic intervention. PMID:22351072

  6. Modeling the spinal pudendo-vesical reflex for bladder control by pudendal afferent stimulation.

    PubMed

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a promising approach to restore continence and micturition following bladder dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury. Although the pudendo-vesical reflex and its physiological properties are well established, there is limited understanding of the specific neural mechanisms that mediate this reflex. We sought to develop a computational model of the spinal neural network that governs the reflex bladder response to PN stimulation. We implemented and validated a neural network architecture based on previous neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies. Using synaptically-connected integrate and fire model neurons, we created a network model with realistic spiking behavior. The model produced expected sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) neuron firing rates from prescribed neural inputs and predicted bladder activation and inhibition with different frequencies of pudendal afferent stimulation. In addition, the model matched experimental results from previous studies of temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation and selective pharmacological blockade of inhibitory neurons. The frequency- and pattern-dependent effects of pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by changes in firing rate of spinal interneurons, suggesting that neural network interactions at the lumbosacral level can mediate the bladder response to different frequencies or temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation. Further, the anatomical structure of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the network model was necessary and sufficient to reproduce the critical features of the pudendo-vesical reflex, and this model may prove useful to guide development of novel, more effective electrical stimulation techniques for bladder control. PMID:26968615

  7. AMPA Receptors and Kainate Receptors Encode Different Features of Afferent Activity

    PubMed Central

    Frerking, Matthew; Ohliger-Frerking, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Postsynaptic kainate receptors (KARs) have been found in the CNS along with AMPA receptors (AMPARs), but because KAR-mediated EPSCs are much smaller and slower than AMPAR-mediated EPSCs, it remains unclear whether these postsynaptic KARs are functionally significant. In this study we measured KAR- and AMPAR-mediated EPSPs in hippocampal interneurons, and then we used these EPSPs in a model to examine the effects of afferent firing on each receptor. In this model the KARs generated a large tonic depolarization when activated by a small population of afferent fibers firing asynchronously at physiologically relevant firing rates (1–5 Hz). At 3–5 Hz this tonic depolarization exceeded the peak depolarization mediated by AMPARs in response to the same afferent activity. We also found that, unlike AMPARs, KARs did not generate large oscillations in membrane potential during theta rhythms. When simulated EPSCs were injected into interneurons to mimic afferents firing at 5 Hz, we found that currents simulating KARs elicited more spiking than currents simulating AMPARs. We also found that simulated AMPARs, but not KARs, could transmit presynaptic theta rhythms into postsynaptic spiking at the theta rhythm. Our results suggest that synaptically activated KARs have a strong influence on membrane potential and that AMPARs and KARs differ in their ability to encode temporal information. PMID:12196565

  8. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Tim D; Ostrowski, Daniela; Hasser, Eileen M; Kline, David D

    2014-06-15

    Serotonin (5-HT), and its 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) subtype, is a powerful modulator of the cardiorespiratory system and its sensory reflexes. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) serves as the first central station for visceral afferent integration and is critical for cardiorespiratory reflex responses. However, the physiological and synaptic role of 5-HT1ARs in the nTS is relatively unknown. In the present study, we examined the distribution and modulation of 5-HT1ARs on cardiorespiratory and synaptic parameters in the nTS. 5-HT1ARs were widely distributed to cell bodies within the nTS but not synaptic terminals. In anesthetized rats, activation of 5-HT1ARs by microinjection of the 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT into the caudal nTS decreased minute phrenic neural activity via a reduction in phrenic amplitude. In brain stem slices, 8-OH-DPAT decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, and reduced overall spontaneous excitatory nTS network activity. These effects persisted in the presence of GABAA receptor blockade and were antagonized by coapplication of 5-HT1AR blocker WAY-100135. 5-HT1AR blockade alone had no effect on tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, but increased excitatory network activity. On the other hand, GABAergic nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents did not change by activation of the 5-HT1ARs, but spontaneous inhibitory nTS network activity decreased. Blocking 5-HT1ARs tended to increase nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents and inhibitory network activity. Taken together, 5-HT1ARs in the caudal nTS decrease breathing, likely via attenuation of afferent transmission, as well as overall nTS network activity. PMID:24671532

  9. Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-08-01

    In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and decides with a shorter observation of data. DSNN performance in the benchmark pattern recognition problem shows 96.7% accuracy in classifying three classes of spiking activity. PMID:24867390

  10. Ventral hippocampal afferents to the nucleus accumbens regulate susceptibility to depression

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parise, Eric M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Maze, Ian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Persaud, Brianna; Cachope, Roger; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.; Cheer, Joseph; Deisseroth, Karl; Han, Ming-Hu; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region critical for reward and motivation, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, the afferent source of this increased glutamate tone is not known. The NAc receives glutamatergic inputs from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and basolateral amygdala (AMY). Here, we demonstrate that glutamatergic vHIP afferents to NAc regulate susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We observe reduced activity in vHIP in mice resilient to CSDS. Furthermore, attenuation of vHIP-NAc transmission by optogenetic induction of long-term depression is pro-resilient, whereas acute enhancement of this input is pro-susceptible. This effect is specific to vHIP afferents to the NAc, as optogenetic stimulation of either mPFC or AMY afferents to the NAc is pro-resilient. These data indicate that vHIP afferents to NAc uniquely regulate susceptibility to CSDS, highlighting an important, novel circuit-specific mechanism in depression. PMID:25952660

  11. Methamphetamine blunts Ca(2+) currents and excitatory synaptic transmission through D1/5 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    González, Betina; Rivero-Echeto, Celeste; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is associated with dysfunctions in frontal cortex. Previous data demonstrated that repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH) can alter prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent functions. Here, we show that withdrawal from repetitive non-contingent METH administration (7 days, 1 mg/kg) depressed voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa ) and increased hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH ) amplitude and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in deep-layer pyramidal mPFC neurons. Most of these effects were blocked by systemic co-administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.05 mg/kg). In vitro METH (i.e. bath-applied to slices from naïve-treated animals) was able to emulate its systemic effects on ICa and evoked EPSCs paired-pulse ratio. We also provide evidence of altered mRNA expression of (1) voltage-gated calcium channels P/Q-type Cacna1a (Cav 2.1), N-type Cacna1b (Cav 2.2), T-type Cav 3.1 Cacna1g, Cav 3.2 Cacna1h, Cav 3.3 Cacna1i and the auxiliary subunit Cacna2d1 (α2δ1); (2) hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels Hcn1 and Hcn2; and (3) glutamate receptors subunits AMPA-type Gria1, NMDA-type Grin1 and metabotropic Grm1 in the mouse mPFC after repeated METH treatment. Moreover, we show that some of these changes in mRNA expression were sensitive D1/5 receptor blockade. Altogether, these altered mechanisms affecting synaptic physiology and transcriptional regulation may underlie PFC functional alterations that could lead to PFC impairments observed in METH-addicted individuals. PMID:25871318

  12. Imbalanced suppression of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission onto mouse striatal projection neurons during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oose, Yoshiyuki; Miura, Masami; Inoue, Ritsuko; Andou, Nozomi; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Kinya

    2012-05-01

    Suppression of movement during induction of anesthesia is mediated through subcortical structures. We studied the effects of a brief, 5-min application of a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (two minimum alveolar concentration) on the electrophysiological activities of the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum in brain slice preparations, using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that sevoflurane slightly depolarized principal neurons in the cortex and the striatum without a significant alteration in spike threshold. Furthermore, it depressed the peak, as well as the net, charge transfer of intrastriatally evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) much more strongly than those of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and this inhibition was accompanied by an elevated paired-pulse ratio. The strong suppression of eIPSCs paralleled a significant suppression of the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs), and was associated with a transient increase in the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs. Treatment with the Ca(2+) channel blocker Cd(2+) restored the frequency of mIPSCs to the control level, indicating sevoflurane's strong presynaptic suppression of γ-aminobutyric acid release in the striatum. In contrast, in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons sevoflurane produced an enhancement of the net charge transfer of IPSCs, while it suppressed EPSCs to an equivalent degree to that in striatal MSNs. These results suggest that, in contrast to its effects on other brain structures, sevoflurane shifts the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the direction of excitation in the striatum, thereby causing involuntary movements during induction of anesthesia by sevoflurane. PMID:22507597

  13. Methamphetamine blunts Ca2+ currents and excitatory synaptic transmission through D1/5 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    González, Betina; Rivero-Echeto, Celeste; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is associated with dysfunctions in frontal cortex. Previous data demonstrated that repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH) can alter prefrontal cortex (PFC) dependent functions. Here, we show that withdrawal from repetitive non-contingent METH administration (7 days, 1mg/kg) depressed voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) and increased IH amplitude and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in deep-layer pyramidal mPFC neurons. Most of these effects were blocked by systemic co-administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.05 mg/kg). In vitro METH (i.e bath-applied to slices from naïve-treated animals) was able to emulate its systemic effects on ICa and evoked EPSCs paired-pulse ratio. We also provide evidence of altered mRNA expression of i) voltage-gated calcium channels P/Q-type Cacna1a (Cav2.1), N-type Cacna1b (Cav2.2), T-type Cav3.1 Cacna1g, Cav3.2 Cacna1h, Cav3.3 Cacna1i and the auxiliary subunit Cacna2d1 (α2δ1), ii) hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels Hcn1 and Hcn2 and iii) glutamate receptors subunits AMPA-type Gria1, NMDA-type Grin1 and metabotropic Grm1 in the mouse mPFC after repeated METH treatment. Moreover, we show that some of these changes in mRNA expression were sensitive D1/5 receptor blockade. Altogether these altered mechanisms affecting synaptic physiology and transcriptional regulation may underlie prefrontal cortex functional alterations that could lead to PFC impairments observed in METH-addicted individuals. PMID:25871318

  14. Finite Post Synaptic Potentials Cause a Fast Neuronal Response

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going beyond both approximations, we find that in the presence of synaptic impulses the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from previous predictions. It is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, depends non-linearly on the amplitude of the impulse, is asymmetric for excitation and inhibition and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. These findings resolve contradictions between the earlier theory and experimental observations. Here we review the recent theoretical progress that enabled these insights. We explain why the membrane potential near threshold is sensitive to properties of the afferent noise and show how this shapes the neural response. A further extension of the theory to time evolution in discrete steps quantifies simulation artifacts and yields improved methods to cross check results. PMID:21427776

  15. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  16. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kristin L.; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M.; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A.; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca2+ levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca2+-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca2+-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  17. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Kristin L; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A; Chen, Lu

    2015-10-20

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca(2+) levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca(2+)-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca(2+)-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  18. Entorhinal Denervation Induces Homeostatic Synaptic Scaling of Excitatory Postsynapses of Dentate Granule Cells in Mouse Organotypic Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vlachos, Andreas; Becker, Denise; Jedlicka, Peter; Winkels, Raphael; Roeper, Jochen; Deller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Denervation-induced changes in excitatory synaptic strength were studied following entorhinal deafferentation of hippocampal granule cells in mature (≥3 weeks old) mouse organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in response to denervation during the first week after denervation. By the end of the second week synaptic strength had returned to baseline. Because these adaptations occurred in response to the loss of excitatory afferents, they appeared to be in line with a homeostatic adjustment of excitatory synaptic strength. To test whether denervation-induced changes in synaptic strength exploit similar mechanisms as homeostatic synaptic scaling following pharmacological activity blockade, we treated denervated cultures at 2 days post lesion for 2 days with tetrodotoxin. In these cultures, the effects of denervation and activity blockade were not additive, suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved. Finally, we investigated whether entorhinal denervation, which removes afferents from the distal dendrites of granule cells while leaving the associational afferents to the proximal dendrites of granule cells intact, results in a global or a local up-scaling of granule cell synapses. By using computational modeling and local electrical stimulations in Strontium (Sr2+)-containing bath solution, we found evidence for a lamina-specific increase in excitatory synaptic strength in the denervated outer molecular layer at 3–4 days post lesion. Taken together, our data show that entorhinal denervation results in homeostatic functional changes of excitatory postsynapses of denervated dentate granule cells in vitro. PMID:22403720

  19. Convergence of trigeminal afferents on retractor bulbi motoneurones in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, K; Horcholle-Bossavit, G

    1983-01-01

    Retractor bulbi motoneurones were identified by intracellular recording of their antidromic invasion following stimulation of the motor axons. Characteristics of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) evoked by electrical stimulation of long ciliary nerves (corneal afferents), the supraorbital nerve and the ipsilateral or contralateral vibrissae were analysed. Comparison of the orthodromic responses induced by supra-threshold stimulation of the four trigeminal inputs showed that the most powerful excitatory effect was due to corneal afferent stimulation. Excitatory synaptic potentials were followed in some cases by a period of hyperpolarization lasting 15-20 msec. It is suggested that this is an inhibitory potential of post-synaptic origin. Interaction between condition and test e.p.s.p.s evoked by long ciliary nerve and supraorbital nerve stimulation revealed a partial blocking of test e.p.s.p.s over a longer period (more than 30 msec), and it is suggested that inhibitory mechanisms within the trigeminal nucleus may be in part responsible for the absence of facilitation at the level of the motoneurone. PMID:6887029

  20. Dopaminergic Modulation of Striatal Inhibitory Transmission and Long-Term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Mendoza, Elizabeth; Hernández Echeagaray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission and its plasticity in the striatum; however it is not well known how DA modulates long-term plasticity of striatal GABAergic inhibitory synapses. This work focused on the analysis of both dopaminergic modulation of inhibitory synapses and the synaptic plasticity established between GABAergic afferents to medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Our results showed that low and high DA concentrations mainly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory synaptic response; however detailed analysis of the D1 and D2 participation in this modulation displayed a wide variability in synaptic response. Analyzing DA participation in striatal GABAergic plasticity we observed that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of GABAergic interneurons in the presence of DA at a low concentration (200 nM) favored the expression of inhibitory striatal LTD, whereas higher concentration of DA (20 μM) primarily induced LTP. Interestingly, the plasticity induced in an animal model of striatal degeneration mimicked that induced in the presence of DA at a high concentration, which was not abolished with D2 antagonist but was prevented by PKA blocker. PMID:26294980

  1. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca(2+) influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca(2+) dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca(2+) influx at voltages sub-threshold for action potential generation. PMID:25741235

  2. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    PubMed Central

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action potential generation. PMID:25741235

  3. Morphological and electrophysiological determination of the projections of jaw-elevator muscle spindle afferents in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Appenteng, K; Donga, R; Williams, R G

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescent compound Lucifer Yellow was injected into the somata of nine identified jaw-elevator muscle spindle afferents, located in the V mesencephalic nucleus. Reconstructions of the central course of their axons were subsequently made from serial, transverse, sections to identify sites of projection. Three sites of termination were identified on the basis of collaterals that ended in varicosities and/or boutons. All afferents projected to the V nucleus oralis and, all but one, also to the V motor nucleus. Two out of nine afferents had terminations in the supra-trigeminal nucleus, though a further four appeared to send collaterals to this area. The relative density of projection, judged by the number of collaterals supplied to each area, decreased in the order: V nucleus oralis, V motor nucleus and supra-trigeminal nucleus. The central course of the afferent axons was such that impulses from the periphery would arrive first at the V motor nucleus, then the V nucleus oralis, the supra-trigeminal nucleus, and finally the afferent somata in the V mesencephalic nucleus. In animals in which the masseter nerve was exposed in-continuity for electrical stimulation, electrophysiological recordings were made in the three areas described above to identify units that received a monosynaptic input from spindles in the masseter muscle. Criteria were formulated on the basis of the pattern of responses on stimulation of the masseter nerve, and the morphology of labelled neurones, for differentiating between afferents, interneurones, and motoneurones. In the V motor nucleus, monosynaptic excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) were obtained in both synergist and masseter motoneurones. These were assumed to arise from a masseter muscle spindle input as the thresholds for exciting such afferents and eliciting e.p.s.p.s were similar. Some interneurones, chiefly in the V nucleus oralis, were activated at thresholds close to that of muscle spindle afferents and could also fire in response to muscle stretch. As their latencies (measured extracellularly) were similar to that of e.p.s.p.s in motoneurones, they were assumed to receive a monosynaptic muscle spindle input. However, most interneurones were activated at longer latencies (up to 7 ms) and some also fired to muscle stretch. Arguments are advanced, based on the long rise time of e.p.s.p.s recorded in some, that the majority of these may also be candidates for monosynaptic activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2936881

  4. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc.

    PubMed

    Kalappa, Bopanna I; Anderson, Charles T; Goldberg, Jacob M; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-12-22

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26647187

  5. Cerebellar Synaptic Plasticity and the Credit Assignment Problem.

    PubMed

    Jörntell, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which a learnt synaptic weight change can contribute to learning or adaptation of brain function is a type of credit assignment problem, which is a key issue for many parts of the brain. In the cerebellum, detailed knowledge not only of the local circuitry connectivity but also of the topography of different sources of afferent/external information makes this problem particularly tractable. In addition, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and their general rules of induction have been identified. In this review, we will discuss the possible roles of synaptic and cellular plasticity at specific locations in contributing to behavioral changes. Focus will be on the parts of the cerebellum that are devoted to limb control, which constitute a large proportion of the cortex and where the knowledge of the external connectivity is particularly well known. From this perspective, a number of sites of synaptic plasticity appear to primarily have the function of balancing the overall level of activity in the cerebellar circuitry, whereas the locations at which synaptic plasticity leads to functional changes in terms of limb control are more limited. Specifically, the postsynaptic forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber synapses made on interneurons and Purkinje cells, respectively, are the types of plasticity that mediate the widest associative capacity and the tightest link between the synaptic change and the external functions that are to be controlled. PMID:25417189

  6. Projection of cat jaw muscle spindle afferents related to intrafusal fibre influence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Durbaba, R; Rodgers, J F

    1993-06-01

    1. A method of classification of muscle spindle afferents using succinylcholine (SCh) and ramp stretches has recently been described, which appears to estimate separately the strength of influence of bag1 (b1) and of bag2 (b2) intrafusal fibres. Increase in dynamic difference (delta DD) indicates b1 influence whilst increase in initial frequency (delta IF) indicates b2 influence. The significance of this classification has now been examined by correlation with the strength of synaptic projection of jaw muscle spindle afferents to the fifth motor nucleus (MotV) and the supratrigeminal region (STR) in anaesthetized cats. 2. Projection strength was estimated by computing the extracellular focal synaptic potential (FSP) from spike-triggered averages of 1024 sweeps at 100 microns intervals along tracks through STR and MotV. Trigger pulses were derived from spindle afferent cell bodies of the jaw-closer muscles recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, and characterized by the effect of SCh on their responses to ramp-and-hold stretches. 3. The maximum size of FSPs in tracks traversing STR and MotV ranged from 2.08 to 36.99 microV with a mean of 7.55 microV. The amplitudes were bimodally distributed into roughly equal-sized groups with high and low amplitude FSPs. 4. Mean values of delta IF were significantly greater for the group with large FSPs than for those with small FSPs. There were no significant differences in delta DD. FSP amplitude was significantly positively correlated with delta IF, but not with delta DD. 5. Spindle afferents with high values of FSP amplitude in MotV had a wide range of values of delta DD (b1b2c and b2c groups), while units with large FSPs in STR were all in the b2c category. Some evidence is presented to indicate that this reflects a preferential projection of secondary afferents to the STR. 6. For those units with projection to both STR and to MotV, there was a significant positive correlation between FSP amplitude in the two nuclei. 7. These results indicate that the extent of the b2 influence on spindle afferents predicts the central projection strength better than does the b1 influence. This finding is discussed from the viewpoint of possible developmental and functional issues. PMID:8229855

  7. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shitara, H.; Shinozaki, T.; Takagishi, K.; Honda, M.; Hanakawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10–20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

  8. Proopiomelanocortin neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius are activated by visceral afferents: regulation by cholecystokinin and opioids.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Suzanne M; Bailey, Timothy W; Doyle, Mark W; Jin, Young-Ho; Smart, James L; Low, Malcolm J; Andresen, Michael C

    2005-04-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) receives dense terminations from cranial visceral afferents, including those from the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although the NTS integrates peripheral satiety signals and relays this signal to central feeding centers, little is known about which NTS neurons are involved or what mechanisms are responsible. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are good candidates for GI integration, because disruption of the POMC gene leads to severe obesity and hyperphagia. Here, we used POMC-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice to identify NTS POMC neurons. Intraperitoneal administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induced c-fos gene expression in NTS POMC-EGFP neurons, suggesting that they are activated by afferents stimulated by the satiety hormone. We tested the synaptic relationship of these neurons to visceral afferents and their modulation by CCK and opioids using patch recordings in horizontal brain slices. Electrical activation of the solitary tract (ST) evoked EPSCs in NTS POMC-EGFP neurons. The invariant latencies, low failure rates, and substantial paired-pulse depression of the ST-evoked EPSCs indicate that NTS POMC-EGFP neurons are second-order neurons directly contacted by afferent terminals. The EPSCs were blocked by the glutamate antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline. CCK increased the amplitude of the ST-stimulated EPSCs and the frequency of miniature EPSCs, effects attenuated by the CCK1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. In contrast, the orexigenic opioid agonists [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin and met-enkephalin inhibited both ST-stimulated EPSCs and the frequency of miniature EPSCs. These findings identify a potential satiety pathway in which visceral afferents directly activate NTS POMC-EGFP neurons with excitatory inputs that are appropriately modulated by appetite regulators. PMID:15814788

  9. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Robert P.; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C.; Boyle, Kieran A.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to “unclassified” cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  10. Possible role of afferent autonomic signals in abdominal organs in anorexic and cardiovascular responses to nicotine injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Tanida, Mamoru; Satomi, Jun

    2015-05-27

    Smoking generally causes an increase in nicotine levels in the blood, affecting the brain components, such as the hypothalamus (feeding-related area) or the brain stem (cardiovascular control area). In terms of nicotine transmission to the brain, a new insight that the afferent vagal nerve in the liver is important for sensing increased nicotine levels in the blood and informing the brain was reported in an experiment with rats. However, it has not been clarified whether the afferent autonomic nerve system is implicated in feeding and cardiovascular responses to nicotine. Here, we examined the possible role of afferent autonomic nerve transmission in rats in regulating feeding behavior and cardiovascular functions by nicotine. An intravenous injection of nicotine dose dependently increased the blood pressure (BP) in urethane-anesthetized rats; high nicotine doses also led to an increase in BP in conscious rats. Further, an intravenous injection of nicotine for 3 days reduced food intake and body weight gain in rats. The weight-reducing action of intravenous nicotine was abolished by blocking the afferent sympathetic signals in the abdominal organs, but not the vagal nerve signals. Moreover, the hypertensive action of nicotine was not abolished either by afferent sympathectomy or by vagotomy. Thus, these data suggest that nicotine injected into the vein acts on the afferent sympathetic nerve in the abdominal organs and transmits signals to the brain for reducing body weight, but not for suppressing appetite or increasing BP. PMID:25875474

  11. Vestibular afferent responses to microrotational stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1991-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode recording/labeling techniques were used to investigate vestibular afferent responses in the bullfrog, to very small amplitude (less than 5 deg p-p) sinusoidal rotations in the vertical plane over the frequency range of 0.063-4 Hz. Robust responses to peak accelerations as low as 0.031 deg/sec per sec were obtained from units subsequently traced to either the central portion of the anterior canal crista or the striolar region of the utricle. All of these microrotationally sensitive afferent neurons had irregular resting discharge rates, and the majority had transfer ratios (relative to rotational velocity) of 1-40 spikes/sec per deg/sec. Individual utricular afferent velocity transfer ratios were nearly constant over the frequency range of 0.125-4 Hz. Canal units displayed decreasing response transfer ratios as stimulus frequencies increased. These findings indicate that, although utricular striolar and central crista afferent velocity transfer ratios to microrotations were very similar, utricular striolar afferent neurons were more faithful sensors of very small amplitude rotational velocity in the vertical plane.

  12. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  13. The effect of sleep upon the transmission of afferent activity in the somatic afferent system.

    PubMed

    Gücer, G

    1979-01-15

    Macaque monkeys were trained to fall asleep while sitting in a primate chair with their heads restrained. A gentle vibratory stimulus was delivered to the glabrous skin of the hand; it did not provoke awakening or change the sleep cycle of the macaque. Postcentral neuronal response to the amplitude of a sine wave mechanical stimulus and neuronal spontaneous activity were observed repetitively during all the phases of normal night sleep cycles. One hundred six neurons which could be entrained by a cutaneous mechanical stimulus were studied during both waking and sleep. At threshold, cyclic entrainment of the discharges of postcentral neurons decreased to 81 +/- 0.25% during light sleep (S1 + S2), to 64 +/- 0.26% during deep sleep (S3 + S4), and to 9 +/- 0.98% during desynchronized sleep with rapid eye movements (REMs). PMID:217703

  14. Distinct roles for Cav2.1-2.3 in activity-dependent synaptic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ricoy, Ulises M; Frerking, Matthew E

    2014-06-15

    Synaptic transmission throughout most of the CNS is steeply dependent on presynaptic calcium influx through the voltage-gated calcium channels Cav2.1-Cav2.3. In addition to triggering exocytosis, this calcium influx also recruits short-term synaptic plasticity. During the complex patterns of presynaptic activity that occur in vivo, several forms of plasticity combine to generate a synaptic output that is dynamic, in which the size of a given excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in response to a given spike depends on the short-term history of presynaptic activity. It remains unclear whether the different Cav2 channels play distinct roles in defining these synaptic dynamics and, if so, under what conditions different Cav2 family members most effectively determine synaptic output. We examined these questions by measuring the effects of calcium channel-selective toxins on synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral synapse in hippocampal slices from adult mice in response to both low-frequency stimulation and complex stimulus trains derived from in vivo recordings. Blockade of Cav2.1 had a greater inhibitory effect on synaptic transmission during low-frequency components of the stimulus train than on synaptic transmission during high-frequency components of the train, indicating that Cav2.1 had a greater fractional contribution to synaptic transmission at low frequencies than at high frequencies. Relative to Cav2.1, Cav2.2 had a disproportionately reduced contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >20 Hz, while Cav2.3 had a disproportionately increased contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >1 Hz. These activity-dependent effects of different Cav2 family members shape the filtering characteristics of GABAB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition. Thus different Cav2 channels vary in their coupling to synaptic transmission over different frequency ranges, with consequences for the frequency tuning of both synaptic dynamics and presynaptic neuromodulation. PMID:24523520

  15. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy-Aksel, Ayla; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2013-01-01

    In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic) path (pp-CA1 synapse) and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse). Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We observed that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 synapse have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (>24 h) was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing. PMID:23986697

  16. Evidence that the Tritonia diomedea Swim Afferent Neurons Are Glutamatergic

    PubMed Central

    Megalou, E.V.; Brandon, C.J.; Frost, W.N.

    2011-01-01

    The escape swim response of the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea is a well-established model system for studies of the neural basis of behavior. While the swim neural network is reasonably well understood, little is known about the transmitters used by its constituent neurons. In the present study, we provide immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence that the S-cells, the afferent neurons that detect aversive skin stimuli and in turn trigger Tritonia’s escape swim response, use glutamate as their transmitter. First, immunolabeling revealed that S-cell somata contain elevated levels of glutamate compared to most other neurons in the Tritonia brain, consistent with findings from glutamatergic neurons in many species. Second, pressure-applied puffs of glutamate produced the same excitatory response in the target neurons of the S-cells as the naturally released S-cell transmitter itself. Third, the glutamate receptor antagonist CNQX completely blocked S-cell synaptic connections. These findings support glutamate as a transmitter used by the S-cells, and will facilitate studies using this model system to explore a variety of issues related to the neural basis of behavior. PMID:19366921

  17. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Deborah M.; Hermes, Sam M.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Aicher, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. PMID:24996127

  18. Astrocytes: Orchestrating synaptic plasticity?

    PubMed

    De Pittà, M; Brunel, N; Volterra, A

    2016-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of a preexisting connection between two neurons to change in strength as a function of neural activity. Because synaptic plasticity is the major candidate mechanism for learning and memory, the elucidation of its constituting mechanisms is of crucial importance in many aspects of normal and pathological brain function. In particular, a prominent aspect that remains debated is how the plasticity mechanisms, that encompass a broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, come to play together in a concerted fashion. Here we review and discuss evidence that pinpoints to a possible non-neuronal, glial candidate for such orchestration: the regulation of synaptic plasticity by astrocytes. PMID:25862587

  19. Myelination: an overlooked mechanism of synaptic plasticity?

    PubMed

    Fields, R Douglas

    2005-12-01

    Myelination of the brain continues through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood--the question is, Why? Two new articles provide intriguing evidence that myelination may be an underappreciated mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity: one study reported increased myelination associated with extensive piano playing, another indicated that rats have increased myelination of the corpus callosum when raised in environments providing increased social interaction and cognitive stimulation. These articles make it clear that activity-dependent effects on myelination cannot be considered strictly a developmental event. They raise the question of whether myelination is an overlooked mechanism of activity-dependent plasticity, extending in humans until at least age 30. It has been argued that regulating the speed of conduction across long fiber tracts would have a major influence on synaptic response, by coordinating the timing of afferent input to maximize temporal summation. The increase in synaptic amplitude could be as large as neurotransmitter-based mechanisms of plasticity, such as LTP. These new findings raise a larger question: How did the oligodendrocytes know they were practicing the piano or that their environment was socially complex? PMID:16282593

  20. Synaptic mechanisms of adenosine A2A receptor-mediated hyperexcitability in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Diogo M; Newton, Kathryn; Nissen, Wiebke; Badurek, Sylvia; Horn, Jacqueline M; Minichiello, Liliana; Jefferys, John G R; Sebastiao, Ana M; Lamsa, Karri P

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine inhibits excitatory neurons widely in the brain through adenosine A1 receptor, but activation of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) has an opposite effect promoting discharge in neuronal networks. In the hippocampus A2A R expression level is low, and the receptor's effect on identified neuronal circuits is unknown. Using optogenetic afferent stimulation and whole-cell recording from identified postsynaptic neurons we show that A2A R facilitates excitatory glutamatergic Schaffer collateral synapses to CA1 pyramidal cells, but not to GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. In addition, A2A R enhances GABAergic inhibitory transmission between CA1 area interneurons leading to disinhibition of pyramidal cells. Adenosine A2A R has no direct modulatory effect on GABAergic synapses to pyramidal cells. As a result adenosine A2A R activation alters the synaptic excitation - inhibition balance in the CA1 area resulting in increased pyramidal cell discharge to glutamatergic Schaffer collateral stimulation. In line with this, we show that A2A R promotes synchronous pyramidal cell firing in hyperexcitable conditions where extracellular potassium is elevated or following high-frequency electrical stimulation. Our results revealed selective synapse- and cell type specific adenosine A2A R effects in hippocampal CA1 area. The uncovered mechanisms help our understanding of A2A R's facilitatory effect on cortical network activity. PMID:25402014

  1. Caudal ventrolateral medulla mediates baroreceptor afferent inputs to subfornical organ angiotensin II responsive neurons.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, John

    2013-01-23

    Although anatomical data indicates that the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) projects directly to the subfornical organ (SFO), little is known about the afferent information relayed through the CVLM to SFO. Experiments were done in the anesthetized rat to investigate whether CVLM neurons mediate baroreceptor afferent information to SFO and whether this afferent information alters the response of SFO neurons to systemic injections of angiotensin II (ANG II). Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 78 spontaneously discharging single units in SFO. Of these, 32 (41%) responded to microinjection of L-glutamate (L-Glu; 0.25M; 10nl) into CVLM (27/32 were inhibited and 5/32 were excited). All 32 units also were excited by systemic injections of ANG II (250ng/0.1ml, ia). However, only those units inhibited by CVLM (n=27) were found to be inhibited by the reflex activation of baroreceptors following systemic injections of phenylephrine (2μg/kg, iv). Activation of CVLM or arterial baroreceptors in conjunction with ANG II resulted in an attenuation of the SFO unit's response to ANG II. Finally, microinjections (100nl) of the synaptic blocker CoCl(2) or the non-specific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid into CVLM attenuated (10/13 units tested) the SFO neuron's response to activation of baroreceptors, but not the unit's response evoked by systemic ANG II. Taken together, these data suggest that baroreceptor afferent information relayed through CVLM functions to modulate of the activity of neurons within SFO to extracellular signals of body fluid balance. PMID:23142269

  2. Resting Discharge Patterns of Macular Primary Afferents in Otoconia-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S. M.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestibular primary afferents in the normal mammal are spontaneously active. The consensus hypothesis states that such discharge patterns are independent of stimulation and depend instead on excitation by vestibular hair cells due to background release of synaptic neurotransmitter. In the case of otoconial sensory receptors, it is difficult to test the independence of resting discharge from natural tonic stimulation by gravity. We examined this question by studying discharge patterns of single vestibular primary afferent neurons in the absence of gravity stimulation using two mutant strains of mice that lack otoconia (OTO−; head tilt, het-Nox3, and tilted, tlt-Otop1). Our findings demonstrated that macular primary afferent neurons exhibit robust resting discharge activity in OTO− mice. Spike interval coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean spike interval) values reflected both regular and irregular discharge patterns in OTO− mice, and the range of values for rate-normalized CV was similar to mice and other mammals with intact otoconia although there were proportionately fewer irregular fibers. Mean discharge rates were slightly higher in otoconia-deficient strains even after accounting for proportionately fewer irregular fibers [OTO− = 75.4 ± 31.1(113) vs OTO+ = 68.1 ± 28.5(143) in sp/s]. These results confirm the hypothesis that resting activity in macular primary afferents occurs in the absence of ambient stimulation. The robust discharge rates are interesting in that they may reflect the presence of a functionally ‘up-regulated’ tonic excitatory process in the absence of natural sensory stimulation. PMID:18661184

  3. Nothing can be coincidence: synaptic inhibition and plasticity in the cerebellar nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jason R.; Raman, Indira M.

    2009-01-01

    Many cerebellar neurons fire spontaneously, generating 10–100 action potentials per second even without synaptic input. This high basal activity correlates with information-coding mechanisms that differ from those of cells that are quiescent until excited synaptically. For example, in the deep cerebellar nuclei, Hebbian patterns of coincident synaptic excitation and postsynaptic firing fail to induce long-term increases in the strength of excitatory inputs. Instead, excitatory synaptic currents are potentiated by combinations of inhibition and excitation that resemble the activity of Purkinje and mossy fiber afferents that is predicted to occur during cerebellar associative learning tasks. Such results indicate that circuits with intrinsically active neurons have rules for information transfer and storage that distinguish them from other brain regions. PMID:19178955

  4. Presynaptic melanocortin-4 receptors on vagal afferent fibers modulate the excitability of rat nucleus tractus solitarius neurons.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shuxia; Browning, Kirsteen N; Coleman, F Holly; Sutton, Gregory; Zheng, Hiyuan; Butler, Andrew; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Travagli, R Alberto

    2008-05-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) integrates visceral sensory signals with information from the forebrain to control homeostatic functions, including food intake. Melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MC3/4R) ligands administered directly to the caudal brainstem powerfully modulate meal size but not frequency, suggesting the enhancement of visceral satiety signals. Using whole-cell recordings from rat brainstem slices, we examined the effects of melanocortin ligands, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) and melanotan II (MTII), on EPSC in NTS neurons. Thirty-two percent of NTS neurons responded to perfusion with MTII or alphaMSH with either an increase (24%) or a decrease (8%) in the frequency, but not amplitude, of spontaneous EPSCs; the effects of MTII were abolished by pretreatment with SHU9119. After surgical vagal deafferentation, only four of 34 (9%) NTS neurons responded to MTII with an increase in EPSC frequency. When EPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the tractus solitarius in Krebs' solution with 2.4 mm Ca(2+)(e), alphaMSH and MTII increased the amplitude in six of the 28 neurons tested, decreased amplitude in 14 with no effect in the remaining eight neurons. In four of six neurons unresponsive to MTII, decreasing Ca(2+)(e) levels to 1.5 mM uncovered an excitatory effect of MTII on EPSC amplitude. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed the presence of MC4R, but not MC3R, in nodose ganglia. These results show that MC4R signaling leads mainly to presynaptic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and suggest that melanocortinergic-induced decrease of food intake may occur via enhancement of vagal afferent satiation signals from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18463249

  5. Hippocampal synaptic connectivity in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Horling, Katja; Schlegel, Gudrun; Schulz, Sarah; Vierk, Ricardo; Ullrich, Kurt; Santer, René; Rune, Gabriele M

    2015-02-15

    In humans, lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) activity results in phenylketonuria (PKU), which is associated with the development of severe mental retardation after birth. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Mutations of the Pah gene in Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice result in elevated levels of phenylalanine in serum similar to those in humans suffering from PKU. In our study, long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation, measured at CA3-CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses, were impaired in acute hippocampal slices of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice. In addition, we found reduced expression of presynaptic proteins, such as synaptophysin and the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), and enhanced expression of postsynaptic marker proteins, such as synaptopodin and spinophilin. Stereological counting of spine synapses at the ultrastructural level revealed higher synaptic density in the hippocampus, commencing at 3 weeks and persisting up to 12 weeks after birth. Consistent effects were seen in response to phenylalanine treatment in cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurones. Most importantly, in the hippocampus of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice, we found a significant reduction in microglia activity. Reorganization of hippocampal circuitry after birth, namely synaptic pruning, relies on elimination of weak synapses by activated microglia in response to neuronal activity. Hence, our data strongly suggest that reduced microglial activity in response to impaired synaptic transmission affects physiological postnatal remodelling of synapses in the hippocampus and may trigger the development of mental retardation in PKU patients after birth. PMID:25296915

  6. Calcium-Fluxing Glutamate Receptors Associated With Primary Gustatory Afferent Terminals In Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huesa, Gema; Ikenaga, Takanori; Böttger, Bärbel; Finger, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors modulate transmission at primary afferent synapses in several glutamatergic systems. In order to test whether primary gustatory afferent fibers express Ca++ permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, we utilized kainate-stimulated uptake of Co++ along with immunocytochemistry for the Ca++-binding proteins (CaBPs), calbindin and calretinin to investigate the primary gustatory afferents in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In goldfish, the primary gustatory nucleus (equivalent to the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract) includes the vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure protruding dorsally from the medulla. Kainate-stimulated uptake of Co++ (a measure of Ca++-fluxing glutamate receptors) shows punctate staining distributed in the distinct laminar pattern matching the layers of termination of the primary gustatory afferent fibers. In addition, CaBP immunocytochemistry, which correlates highly with expression of Ca++ permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, shows a laminar pattern of distribution similar to that found with kainite-stimulated cobalt uptake. Nearly all neurons of the vagal gustatory ganglion show Co++ uptake and are immunopositive for CaBPs. Transection of the vagus nerve proximal to the ganglion results in loss of such punctate Co++ uptake and of punctate CaBP staining as soon as 4 days post-lesion. These results are consonant with the presence of Ca++ fluxing glutamate receptors on the presynaptic terminals of primary gustatory terminals, providing an avenue for modulation of primary gustatory input. PMID:18067143

  7. The synaptosome as a model system for studying synaptic physiology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gareth J O

    2015-05-01

    Alongside rodent brain slices and primary neuronal cultures, synaptosomes (isolated nerve terminals) have been an important model system for studying the molecular mechanisms of synaptic function in the brain. Synaptosomes were first prepared in the late 1950s by Whittaker and colleagues and were instrumental in studying synaptic structure and defining the functional components of the synapse, including the identity of the major neurotransmitters and their uptake mechanisms. Synaptosomes can also be stimulated to release neurotransmitters and were used to discover a number of regulatory signaling pathways that fine-tune synaptic transmission. In the past decade, landmark proteomic studies of synaptosomes and synaptic vesicle preparations have further dissected the protein composition of the synapse. This introduction briefly describes the history of the synaptosome preparation and highlights how it continues to be relevant as our focus in the neuroscience community centers on synaptic dysfunction in aging and neurological disease. PMID:25934942

  8. Simulation studies of vestibular macular afferent-discharge patterns using a new, quasi-3-D finite volume method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Linton, S. W.; Parnas, B. R.

    2000-01-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional finite-volume numerical simulator was developed to study passive voltage spread in vestibular macular afferents. The method, borrowed from computational fluid dynamics, discretizes events transpiring in small volumes over time. The afferent simulated had three calyces with processes. The number of processes and synapses, and direction and timing of synapse activation, were varied. Simultaneous synapse activation resulted in shortest latency, while directional activation (proximal to distal and distal to proximal) yielded most regular discharges. Color-coded visualizations showed that the simulator discretized events and demonstrated that discharge produced a distal spread of voltage from the spike initiator into the ending. The simulations indicate that directional input, morphology, and timing of synapse activation can affect discharge properties, as must also distal spread of voltage from the spike initiator. The finite volume method has generality and can be applied to more complex neurons to explore discrete synaptic effects in four dimensions.

  9. Blockage of vibrissae afferents: I. Motor effects.

    PubMed

    Prchal, A; Albarracín, A L; Décima, E E

    2004-02-01

    In the past, it has been proposed that the rat vibrissae play an important role in other hand, postural abnormalities, muscle tone decreases and hypomotility after sensory organ destructions were proposed as evidence supporting the "level setting" or "tonic" hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that afferent activity, besides its well know transductive functions, sets the excitability state of the central nervous system. We thought the vibrissal system to be a good model to dissect these two postulated roles because vibrissae trimming would annul the transductive function without affecting the integrity of nerve activity. Thus we compare the effects of trimming the whiskers with blocking the vibrissal afferent nerves on two types of motor behavior: activity in an open field and walking over a rope connecting two elevated platforms. We found that only vibrissal afferent blockage (both nerve section and local anaesthesia) produced severe failures in the motor performances studied. These effects could not be fully explained by the abolition of the vibrissae as a sensory modality because cutting the whiskers did not significantly affect the motor performance. These data are discussed in reference to a tonic or general excitatory function of sensory inputs upon the central nervous system. PMID:15143620

  10. Synaptic cooperativity regulates persistent network activity in neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Morgana; Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    During behavioral quiescence, the neocortex generates spontaneous slow oscillations, which may consist of Up and Down states. Up states are short epochs of persistent activity that resemble the activated neocortex during arousal and cognition. Neural activity in neocortical pathways can trigger Up states but the variables that control their occurrence are poorly understood. We used thalamocortical slices from adult mice to explore the role of thalamocortical and intracortical synaptic cooperativity (the number of coincident afferents) in driving Up states. Cooperativity was adjusted by varying the intensity of electrical or blue light stimuli in pathways that express channelrhodopsin-2. We found that optogenetics greatly improves the study of thalamocortical pathways in slices because it produces thalamocortical responses that resemble those observed in vivo. The results indicate that more synaptic cooperativity, caused by either thalamocortical or intracortical fast AMPA receptor excitation, leads to more robust inhibition of Up states because it drives stronger feed-forward inhibition. Conversely, during strong synaptic cooperativity that suppresses Up states, blocking fast excitation, and as a result the feed-forward inhibition it drives, unmasks Up states that are entirely mediated by slow NMDA receptor excitation. Regardless of the pathway’s origin, cooperativity mediated by fast excitation is inversely related to the ability of excitatory synaptic pathways to trigger Up states in neocortex. PMID:23407969

  11. Upward synaptic scaling is dependent on neurotransmission rather than spiking

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ming-fai; Newman, Jonathan P.; Potter, Steve M.; Wenner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity encompasses a set of mechanisms that are thought to stabilize firing rates in neural circuits. The most widely studied form of homeostatic plasticity is upward synaptic scaling (upscaling), characterized by a multiplicative increase in the strength of excitatory synaptic inputs to a neuron as a compensatory response to chronic reductions in firing rate. While reduced spiking is thought to trigger upscaling, an alternative possibility is that reduced glutamatergic transmission generates this plasticity directly. However, spiking and neurotransmission are tightly coupled, so it has been difficult to determine their independent roles in the scaling process. Here we combined chronic multielectrode recording, closed-loop optogenetic stimulation, and pharmacology to show that reduced glutamatergic transmission directly triggers cell-wide synaptic upscaling. This work highlights the importance of synaptic activity in initiating signalling cascades that mediate upscaling. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that upscaling functions to homeostatically stabilize firing rates. PMID:25751516

  12. Sleep and synaptic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Faraguna, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades a substantial knowledge about sleep mechanisms has been accumulated. However, the function of sleep still remains elusive. The difficulty with unraveling sleep's function may arise from the lack of understanding of how the multitude of processes associated with waking and sleep-from gene expression and single neuron activity to the whole brain dynamics and behavior-functionally and mechanistically relate to each other. Therefore, novel conceptual frameworks, which integrate and take into account the variety of phenomena occurring during waking and sleep at different levels, will likely lead to advances in our understanding of the function of sleep, above and beyond what merely descriptive or correlative approaches can provide. One such framework, the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis, focuses on wake- and sleep-dependent changes in synaptic strength. The core claim of this hypothesis is that learning and experience during wakefulness are associated with a net increase in synaptic strength. In turn, the proposed function of sleep is to provide synaptic renormalization, which has important implications with respect to energy needs, intracranial space, metabolic supplies, and, importantly, enables further plastic changes. In this article we review the empirical evidence for this hypothesis, which was obtained at several levels-from gene expression and cellular excitability to structural synaptic modifications and behavioral outcomes. We conclude that although the mechanisms behind the proposed role of sleep in synaptic homeostasis are undoubtedly complex, this conceptual framework offers a unique opportunity to provide mechanistic and functional explanation for many previously disparate observations, and define future research strategies. PMID:24844680

  13. Cortical Presynaptic Control of Dorsal Horn C–Afferents in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C–fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C–fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C–fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C–fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. PMID:23935924

  14. Cortical presynaptic control of dorsal horn C-afferents in the rat.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Yunuen; Pérez-Sánchez, Jimena; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C-fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C-fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C-fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C-fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. PMID:23935924

  15. Cellular effects of acute direct current stimulation: somatic and synaptic terminal effects

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Asif; Reato, Davide; Arlotti, Mattia; Gasca, Fernando; Datta, Abhishek; Parra, Lucas C; Bikson, Marom

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique to modulate cortical excitability. Although increased/decreased excitability under the anode/cathode electrode is nominally associated with membrane depolarization/hyperpolarization, which cellular compartments (somas, dendrites, axons and their terminals) mediate changes in cortical excitability remains unaddressed. Here we consider the acute effects of DCS on excitatory synaptic efficacy. Using multi-scale computational models and rat cortical brain slices, we show the following. (1) Typical tDCS montages produce predominantly tangential (relative to the cortical surface) direction currents (4–12 times radial direction currents), even directly under electrodes. (2) Radial current flow (parallel to the somatodendritic axis) modulates synaptic efficacy consistent with somatic polarization, with depolarization facilitating synaptic efficacy. (3) Tangential current flow (perpendicular to the somatodendritic axis) modulates synaptic efficacy acutely (during stimulation) in an afferent pathway-specific manner that is consistent with terminal polarization, with hyperpolarization facilitating synaptic efficacy. (4) Maximal polarization during uniform DCS is expected at distal (the branch length is more than three times the membrane length constant) synaptic terminals, independent of and two–three times more susceptible than pyramidal neuron somas. We conclude that during acute DCS the cellular targets responsible for modulation of synaptic efficacy are concurrently somata and axon terminals, with the direction of cortical current flow determining the relative influence. PMID:23478132

  16. Engrailed Alters the Specificity of Synaptic Connections of Drosophila Auditory Neurons with the Giant Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H.; Marie, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON–GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

  17. [Depolarization of primary afferents during real scratching in the cat].

    PubMed

    Baev, K V; Esipenko, V B

    1985-01-01

    Changes in depolarization of primary afferents and their correlation with afferent impulsation and limb movement were studied in the lumbar spinal cord during real scratching of decerebrated cats. Two components in rhythmic dorsal root potential were observed. First--centrally evoked, retained during fictitive scratching after immobilization; second--evoked by afferent discharge, coming to the spinal cord during the scratching phase of the limb movement. PMID:3974754

  18. Afferent innervation patterns of the saccule in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakir, M.; Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The innervation patterns of vestibular saccular afferents were quantitatively investigated in pigeons using biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. Type I hair cells were found throughout a large portion of the macula, with the highest density observed in the striola. Type II hair cells were located throughout the macula, with the highest density in the extrastriola. Three classes of afferent innervation patterns were observed, including calyx, dimorph, and bouton units, with 137 afferents being anatomically reconstructed and used for quantitative comparisons. Calyx afferents were located primarily in the striola, innervated a number of type I hair cells, and had small innervation areas. Most calyx afferent terminal fields were oriented parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and the morphological polarization reversal line. Dimorph afferents were located throughout the macula, contained fewer type I hair cells in a calyceal terminal than calyx afferents and had medium sized innervation areas. Bouton afferents were restricted to the extrastriola, with multi-branching fibers and large innervation areas. Most of the dimorph and bouton afferents had innervation fields that were oriented dorso-ventrally but were parallel to the neighboring reversal line. The organizational morphology of the saccule was found to be distinctly different from that of the avian utricle or lagena otolith organs and appears to represent a receptor organ undergoing evolutionary adaptation toward sensing linear motion in terrestrial and aerial species.

  19. Hair-Cell Versus Afferent Adaptation in the Semicircular Canals

    PubMed Central

    Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Holstein, G. R.; Highstein, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    The time course and extent of adaptation in semicircular canal hair cells was compared to adaptation in primary afferent neurons for physiological stimuli in vivo to study the origins of the neural code transmitted to the brain. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Afferent firing-rate adaptation followed a double-exponential time course in response to step cupula displacements. The dominant adaptation time constant varied considerably among afferent fibers and spanned six orders of magnitude for the population (~1 ms to >1,000 s). For sinusoidal stimuli (0.120 Hz), the rapidly adapting afferents exhibited a 90 phase lead and frequency-dependent gain, whereas slowly adapting afferents exhibited a flat gain and no phase lead. Hair-cell voltage and current modulations were similar to the slowly adapting afferents and exhibited a relatively flat gain with very little phase lead over the physiological bandwidth and dynamic range tested. Semicircular canal microphonics also showed responses consistent with the slowly adapting subset of afferents and with hair cells. The relatively broad diversity of afferent adaptation time constants and frequency-dependent discharge modulations relative to hair-cell voltage implicate a subsequent site of adaptation that plays a major role in further shaping the temporal characteristics of semicircular canal afferent neural signals. PMID:15306633

  20. Distinct roles for Cav2.1–2.3 in activity-dependent synaptic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ricoy, Ulises M.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic transmission throughout most of the CNS is steeply dependent on presynaptic calcium influx through the voltage-gated calcium channels Cav2.1–Cav2.3. In addition to triggering exocytosis, this calcium influx also recruits short-term synaptic plasticity. During the complex patterns of presynaptic activity that occur in vivo, several forms of plasticity combine to generate a synaptic output that is dynamic, in which the size of a given excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in response to a given spike depends on the short-term history of presynaptic activity. It remains unclear whether the different Cav2 channels play distinct roles in defining these synaptic dynamics and, if so, under what conditions different Cav2 family members most effectively determine synaptic output. We examined these questions by measuring the effects of calcium channel-selective toxins on synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral synapse in hippocampal slices from adult mice in response to both low-frequency stimulation and complex stimulus trains derived from in vivo recordings. Blockade of Cav2.1 had a greater inhibitory effect on synaptic transmission during low-frequency components of the stimulus train than on synaptic transmission during high-frequency components of the train, indicating that Cav2.1 had a greater fractional contribution to synaptic transmission at low frequencies than at high frequencies. Relative to Cav2.1, Cav2.2 had a disproportionately reduced contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >20 Hz, while Cav2.3 had a disproportionately increased contribution to synaptic transmission at frequencies >1 Hz. These activity-dependent effects of different Cav2 family members shape the filtering characteristics of GABAB receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition. Thus different Cav2 channels vary in their coupling to synaptic transmission over different frequency ranges, with consequences for the frequency tuning of both synaptic dynamics and presynaptic neuromodulation. PMID:24523520

  1. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. PMID:8763628

  2. [Synaptic zinc in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    López-García, C; Molowny, A; Ponsoda, X; Nácher, J; Sancho-Bielsa, F

    Apart from iron, zinc is the most abundant oligoelement in the nervous tissue. Although the majority of zinc constitutes a stable fraction that is tightly bound to molecules and molecular complexes (structural or metabolic zinc), a small proportion (10 15% of cerebral zinc) remains as an ion and it is stored inside membranous compartments (ionic vesicular zinc). In neurons, most of this ionic zinc can be found inside synaptic vesicles and it is released outside the neuron during synaptic transmission: this is the synaptic zinc. In the surroundings of the synapse, zinc acts over a variety of neuronal receptors and ionic channels, playing a modulatory role that is not yet fully understood. The prolonged presence of zinc in the vicinity of the synapse allows its translocation to postsynaptic neurons, which lack the defensive mechanisms (membrane transporters that store zinc into vesicles). In this case, zinc acts as a neurotoxic and it can induce neuronal cell death. Neurons and glial cells have very efficient, although not well known, cleaning mechanisms that eliminate synaptic zinc from the extracellular space; it probably is simultaneous with glutamate clearance. It is feasible that dysfunction of these zinc cleaning systems could induce compensatory mechanisms (precipitation induced by amyloid precursor protein) which in turn could potentiate ethiologic factors of Alzheimer s disease. PMID:11588729

  3. Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vizi, ES; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

    2010-01-01

    Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the ‘what’ of brain function, the ‘how’ of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the ‘how’ that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic–extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron–glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

  4. APP is cleaved by Bace1 in pre-synaptic vesicles and establishes a pre-synaptic interactome, via its intracellular domain, with molecular complexes that regulate pre-synaptic vesicles functions.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Dolores; Lombino, Franco; Liu, Xinran; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type I membrane protein that undergoes extensive processing by secretases, including BACE1. Although mutations in APP and genes that