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1

Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. The major differences between these two synapses are the neurotransmitters and the higher resting release rate and higher sensitivity of release to increased K+ concentrations of the hair cells over that of motor nerve terminals. These differences reflect the functional roles of the two synapses: the motor nerve terminal response in an all-or-nothing signal consequent from action potential invasion, while the hair cell releases transmitter in a graded fashion, proportionate to the extent of stereocilial deflection. Despite these differences between the two junctions, the similar actions of these elemental cations upon synaptic function at each implies that these ions may participate similarly in the operations of other synapses, independent of the neurotransmitter type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Cochran, S. L.

1995-01-01

2

Peptide and Lipid Modulation of Glutamatergic Afferent Synaptic Transmission in the Solitary Tract Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST) with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g., hypothalamus) neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1), vasopressin (V1a), oxytocin, opioid (MOR), ghrelin (GHSR1), and cholecystokinin differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus. PMID:23335875

Andresen, Michael C.; Fawley, Jessica A.; Hofmann, Mackenzie E.

2013-01-01

3

Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia.  

PubMed

Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. PMID:25104469

Petitjean, Hugues; Hugel, Sylvain; Barthas, Florent; Bohren, Yohann; Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy

2014-10-01

4

Role of capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferents in neuropathic pain-induced synaptic potentiation in the nociceptive amygdala  

PubMed Central

Background Neurons in the capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeC), a region also called "nociceptive amygdala," receive nociceptive information from the dorsal horn via afferent pathways relayed from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB). As the central amygdala is known to be involved in the acquisition and expression of emotion, this pathway is thought to play central roles in the generation of affective responses to nociceptive inputs. Excitatory synaptic transmission between afferents arising from the LPB and these CeC neurons is potentiated in arthritic, visceral, neuropathic, inflammatory and muscle pain models. In neuropathic pain models following spinal nerve ligation (SNL), in which we previously showed a robust LPB-CeC potentiation, the principal behavioral symptom is tactile allodynia triggered by non-C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor afferents. Conversely, recent anatomical studies have revealed that most of the spinal neurons projecting to the LPB receive C-fiber afferent inputs. Here, we examined the hypothesis that these C-fiber-mediated inputs are necessary for the full establishment of robust synaptic potentiation of LPB-CeC transmission in the rats with neuropathic pain. Results Postnatal capsaicin treatment, which has been shown to denervate the C-fibers expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels, completely abolished eye-wiping responses to capsaicin eye instillation in rats, but this treatment did not affect mechanical allodynia in the nerve-ligated animals. However, the postnatal capsaicin treatment prevented LPB-CeC synaptic potentiation after SNL, unlike in the vehicle-treated rats, primarily due to the decreased incidence of potentiated transmission by elimination of TRPV1-expressing C-fiber afferents. Conclusions C-fiber-mediated afferents in the nerve-ligated animals may be a required facilitator of the establishment of nerve injury-evoked synaptic potentiation in the CeC. These inputs might play essential roles in the chronic pain-induced plastic changes in the central network linking nociception and negative emotion. PMID:22776418

2012-01-01

5

TRPV1 marks synaptic segregation of multiple convergent afferents at the rat medial solitary tract nucleus.  

PubMed

TRPV1 receptors are expressed on most but not all central terminals of cranial visceral afferents in the caudal solitary tract nucleus (NTS). TRPV1 is associated with unmyelinated C-fiber afferents. Both TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents enter NTS but their precise organization remains poorly understood. In horizontal brainstem slices, we activated solitary tract (ST) afferents and recorded ST-evoked glutamatergic excitatory synaptic currents (ST-EPSCs) under whole cell voltage clamp conditions from neurons of the medial subnucleus. Electrical shocks to the ST produced fixed latency EPSCs (jitter<200 µs) that identified direct ST afferent innervation. Graded increases in shock intensity often recruited more than one ST afferent and ST-EPSCs had consistent threshold intensity, latency to onset, and unique EPSC waveforms that characterized each unitary ST afferent contact. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (100 nM) blocked the evoked TRPV1+ ST-EPSCs and defined them as either TRPV1+ or TRPV1- inputs. No partial responses to capsaicin were observed so that in NTS neurons that received one or multiple (2-5) direct ST afferent inputs--all were either blocked by capsaicin or were unaltered. Since TRPV1 mediates asynchronous release following TRPV1+ ST-evoked EPSCs, we likewise found that recruiting more than one ST afferent further augmented the asynchronous response and was eliminated by capsaicin. Thus, TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents are completely segregated to separate NTS neurons. As a result, the TRPV1 receptor augments glutamate release only within unmyelinated afferent pathways in caudal medial NTS and our work indicates a complete separation of C-type from A-type afferent information at these first central neurons. PMID:21949835

Peters, James H; McDougall, Stuart J; Fawley, Jessica A; Andresen, Michael C

2011-01-01

6

The correlated blanching of synaptic bodies and reduction in afferent firing rates caused by transmitter-depleting agents in the frog semicircular canal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synaptic bodies (SBs) associated with rings of synaptic vesicles and well-defined, pre- and post-synaptic membrane structures are indicators of maturity in most hair cell-afferent nerve junctions. The role of the SBs remains elusive despite several experiments showing that they may be involved in storage of neurotransmitter. Our results demonstrate that SBs of the adult posterior semicircular canal (SCC) cristae hair cells become less electron dense following incubation of the SCC with the transmitter-depleting drug tetrabenazine (TBZ). Objective quantification and comparison of the densities of the SBs in untreated and TBZ-treated frog SCC demonstrated that TBZ significantly decreased the electron density of SBs. This reduction in electron density was accompanied by a reduction in firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. A second transmitter-depleting drug, guanethidine, previously shown to reduce the electron density of hair cell SBs, also reduced the firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. In contrast, the electron density of dense granules (DG), similar in size and shape to synaptic bodies (SB) in hair cells, did not change after incubation in TBZ, thus indicating that granules and SBs are not similar in regard to their electron density. The role of SBs in synaptic transmission and the transmitter, if any, stored in the SBs remain unknown. Nonetheless, the association of the lessening of electron density with a reduction in afferent firing rate provides impetus for the further investigation of the SB's role in neurotransmission.

Guth, P.; Norris, C.; Fermin, C. D.; Pantoja, M.

1993-01-01

7

Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

2004-01-01

8

GPCR Mediated Regulation of Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Synaptic transmission is a finely regulated mechanism of neuronal communication. The release of neurotransmitter at the synapse is not only the reflection of membrane depolarization events, but rather, is the summation of interactions between ion channels, G protein coupled receptors, second messengers, and the exocytotic machinery itself which exposes the components within a synaptic vesicle to the synaptic cleft. The focus of this review is to explore the role of G protein signaling as it relates to neurotransmission, as well as to discuss the recently determined inhibitory mechanism of G?? dimers acting directly on the exocytotic machinery proteins to inhibit neurotransmitter release. PMID:22307060

Betke, Katherine M.; Wells, Christopher A.; Hamm, Heidi E.

2012-01-01

9

Stability of thalamocortical synaptic transmission across awake brain states  

PubMed Central

Sensory cortical neurons are highly sensitive to brain state, with many neurons showing changes in spatial and/or temporal response properties and some neurons becoming virtually unresponsive when subjects are not alert. While some of these changes are undoubtedly due to state-related filtering at the thalamic level, another likely source of such effects is the thalamocortical (TC) synapse, where activation of nicotinic receptors on TC terminals have been shown to enhance synaptic transmission in vitro. However, monosynaptic TC synaptic transmission has not been directly examined during different states of alertness. Here, in awake rabbits that shifted between alert and non-alert EEG states, we examined the monosynaptic TC responses and short-term synaptic dynamics generated by spontaneous impulses of single visual and somatosensory TC neurons. We did this using spike-triggered current source density analysis, an approach that enables assessment of monosynaptic extracellular currents generated in different cortical layers by impulses of single TC afferents. Spontaneous firing rates of TC neurons were higher, and burst rates were much lower in the alert state. However, we found no state-related changes in the amplitude of monosynaptic TC responses when TC spikes with similar preceding interspike interval were compared. Moreover, the relationship between the preceding interspike interval of the TC spike and postsynaptic response amplitude was not influenced by state. These data indicate that TC synaptic transmission and dynamics are highly conserved across different states of alertness and that observed state-related changes in receptive field properties that occur at the cortical level result from other mechanisms. PMID:19474312

Stoelzel, Carl R.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.

2009-01-01

10

Development of Synaptic Transmission to Respiratory Motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Respiratory motoneurons provide the exclusive drive to respiratory muscles and therefore are a key relay between brainstem neural circuits that generate respiratory rhythm and respiratory muscles that control moment of gases into and out of the airways and lungs. This review is focused on postnatal development of fast ionotropic synaptic transmission to respiratory motoneurons, with a focus on hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). Glutamatergic synaptic transmission to HMs involves activation of both non-NMDA and NMDA receptors and during the postnatal period co-activation of these receptors located at the same synapse may occur. Further, the relative role of each receptor type in inspiratory-phase motoneuron depolarization is dependent on the type of preparation used (in vitro versus in vivo; neonatal versus adult). Respiratory motoneurons receive both glycinergic and GABAergic inhibitory synaptic inputs. During inspiration phrenic and HMs receive concurrent excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. During postnatal development in HMs GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic inputs have slow kinetics and are depolarizing and with postnatal development they become faster and hyperpolarizing. Additionally shunting inhibition may play an important role in synaptic processing by respiratory motoneurons. PMID:21382524

Berger, Albert J.

2011-01-01

11

Decreased afferent excitability contributes to synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation in hippocampal area CA1  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is often induced experimentally by continuous high-frequency afferent stimulation (HFS), typically at 100 Hz for 1 s. Induction of LTP requires postsynaptic depolarization and voltage-dependent calcium influx. Induction is more effective if the same number of stimuli are given as a series of short bursts rather than as continuous HFS, in part because excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) become strongly depressed during HFS, reducing postsynaptic depolarization. In this study, we examined mechanisms of EPSP depression during HFS in area CA1 of rat hippocampal brain slices. We tested for presynaptic terminal vesicle depletion by examining minimal stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) during 100-Hz HFS. While transmission failures increased, consistent with vesicle depletion, EPSC latencies also increased during HFS, suggesting a decrease in afferent excitability. Extracellular recordings of Schaffer collateral fiber volleys confirmed a decrease in afferent excitability, with decreased fiber volley amplitudes and increased latencies during HFS. To determine the mechanism responsible for fiber volley changes, we recorded antidromic action potentials in single CA3 pyramidal neurons evoked by stimulating Schaffer collateral axons. During HFS, individual action potentials decreased in amplitude and increased in latency, and these changes were accompanied by a large increase in the probability of action potential failure. Time derivative and phase-plane analyses indicated decreases in both axon initial segment and somato-dendritic components of CA3 neuron action potentials. Our results indicate that decreased presynaptic axon excitability contributes to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission during HFS at synapses between Schaffer collaterals and CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22773781

Kim, Eunyoung; Owen, Benjamin; Holmes, William R.

2012-01-01

12

Stimulation of ?1-Adrenoceptors Reduces Glutamatergic Synaptic Input from Primary Afferents through GABAA Receptors and T-type Ca2+ Channels  

PubMed Central

Activation of the descending noradrenergic system inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Although both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors in the spinal cord are involved in the modulation of nociceptive transmission, it is not clear how ?1-adrenoceptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at the spinal level. In this study, inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs and EPSCs, respectively) were recorded from lamina ? neurons in rat spinal cord slices. The specific ?1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine significantly increased the frequency of GABAergic spontaneous IPSCs in a concentration dependent manner, and this effect was abolished by the ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101. Phenylephrine also significantly reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic and polysynaptic EPSCs evoked from primary afferents. The inhibitory effect of phenylephrine on evoked monosynaptic glutamatergic EPSCs was largely blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and, to a lesser extent, by the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845. Furthermore, blocking T-type Ca2+ channels with amiloride or mibefradil diminished the inhibitory effect produced by phenylephrine or the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol on monosynaptic EPSCs evoked from primary afferents. Collectively, these findings suggest that activation of ?1-adrenoceptors in the spinal cord increases synaptic GABA release, which attenuates glutamatergic input from primary afferents mainly through GABAA receptors and T-type Ca2+ channels. This mechanism of presynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord may be involved in the regulation of nociception by the descending noradrenergic system. PMID:19068225

Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Pan, Hui-Lin

2009-01-01

13

Detection of weak synaptic interactions between single Ia afferent and motor-unit spike trains in the decerebrate cat.  

PubMed Central

1. Spike trains from identified single Ia afferents from soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were recorded (while 'in continuity' with the spinal cord) simultaneously with single-motor-unit EMG spike trains from the same muscles in decerebrate cats. 2. A total of 143 Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs were examined for the presence of correlated activity between the Ia afferent and motor-unit and between the motor-unit and Ia afferent. Four types of correlation were identified on the basis of the cross-intensity function estimated for individual Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs. These correlations were attributed to the absence or presence of a central Ia afferent-motoneurone interaction or a peripheral motor-unit-muscle spindle interaction. 3. In addition to the cross-correlation-based second-order cross-intensity function, third-order cumulants were defined and used further to investigate Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions. A third-order cumulant density-based approach to signal processing offers improved signal-to-noise ratios, compared with the traditional product density approach, for parameters characterizing certain kinds of linear processes as well as a description of non-linear interactions. Two classes of third-order relations were described. One class was associated with a strong central connection and the other with a weak central connection. 4. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs with significant second-order central correlations were able to detect a period of decreased motoneuronal excitability. In addition, temporal summation prior to spike initiation could be identified in cases where the afferent discharge was suitably high. 5. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs in which no significant second-order central correlation existed identified the presence of weak synaptic interactions. It is argued that these interactions result from the summation from the recorded Ia afferent discharge and other spontaneous synaptic inputs to the motoneurone. 6. The results of the second-order cross-intensity analysis of Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions, combined with those from the third-order cumulant density analysis, showed that 77% of the recorded afferents had a detectable influence on motor-unit behaviour. 7. The results of this study suggest that the third-order cumulant, based on the analysis of spike trains, will provide a useful tool for detecting synaptic interactions not found by the use of the second-order cross-correlation histogram alone, and may also be used to estimate the time course of post-spike depression in motoneurones, as well as other non-linear regions of motoneurone membrane trajectory. PMID:8120812

Conway, B A; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R

1993-01-01

14

What is transmitted in "synaptic transmission"?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next" is equivalent to (and often expressed explicitly as) "the action potential passes from one neuron to the next." More than half of four groups of students who were asked to comment on an excerpt from a recent physiology textbook that openly stated the misconception had no clear objection to the text presented. We propose that the first culprit in generating this misconception is the term "synaptic transmission," which promotes the notion of transferring something or passing something along (implicitly unchanged). To avoid establishing this misconception, the first simple suggestion is to use words like "synaptic integration" rather than "synaptic transmission" right from the start. More generally, it would be important to focus on the function of synaptic events rather than on rote listing of all the numerous steps that are known to occur, which are so complex as to saturate the mind of the student.

Erik Montagna (Institute of Chemistry)

2010-06-01

15

Synaptic GluN2A and GluN2B containing NMDA receptors within the superficial dorsal horn activated following primary afferent stimulation.  

PubMed

NMDA receptors are important elements in pain signaling in the spinal cord dorsal horn. They are heterotetramers, typically composed of two GluN1 and two of four GluN2 subunits: GluN2A-2D. Mice lacking some of the GluN2 subunits show deficits in pain transmission yet functional synaptic localization of these receptor subtypes in the dorsal horn has not been fully resolved. In this study, we have investigated the composition of synaptic NMDA receptors expressed in monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways from peripheral sensory fibers to lamina I neurons in rats. We focused on substance P receptor-expressing (NK1R+) projection neurons, critical for expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia. EAB-318 and (R)-CPP, GluN2A/B antagonists, blocked both monosynaptic and polysynaptic NMDA EPSCs initiated by primary afferent activation by ?90%. Physiological measurements exploiting the voltage dependence of monosynaptic EPSCs similarly indicated dominant expression of GluN2A/B types of synaptic NMDA receptors. In addition, at synapses between C fibers and NK1R+ neurons, NMDA receptor activation initiated a secondary, depolarizing current. Ifenprodil, a GluN2B antagonist, caused modest suppression of monosynaptic NMDA EPSC amplitudes, but had a widely variable, sometimes powerful, effect on polysynaptic responses following primary afferent stimulation when inhibitory inputs were blocked to mimic neuropathic pain. We conclude that GluN2B subunits are moderately expressed at primary afferent synapses on lamina I NK1R+ neurons, but play more important roles for polysynaptic NMDA EPSCs driven by primary afferents following disinhibition, supporting the view that the analgesic effect of the GluN2B antagonist on neuropathic pain is at least in part, within the spinal cord. PMID:25122884

Tong, Chi-Kun; MacDermott, Amy B

2014-08-13

16

Experience-Driven Axon Retraction in the Pharmacologically Inactivated Visual Cortex Does Not Require Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Experience during early postnatal development plays an important role in the refinement of specific neural connections in the brain. In the mammalian visual system, altered visual experiences induce plastic adaptation of visual cortical responses and guide rearrangements of afferent axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus. Previous studies using visual deprivation demonstrated that the afferents serving an open eye significantly retract when cortical neurons are pharmacologically inhibited by applying a ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor agonist, muscimol, whereas those serving a deprived eye are rescued from retraction, suggesting that presynaptic activity can lead to the retraction of geniculocortical axons in the absence of postsynaptic activity. Because muscimol application suppresses the spike activity of cortical neurons leaving transmitter release intact at geniculocortical synapses, local synaptic interaction may underlie the retraction of active axons in the inhibited cortex. Method and Findings New studies reported here determined whether experience-driven axon retraction can occur in the visual cortex inactivated by blocking synaptic inputs. We inactivated the primary visual cortex of kittens by suppressing synaptic transmission with cortical injections of botulinum neurotoxin type E, which cleaves a synaptic protein, SNAP-25, and blocks transmitter release, and examined the geniculocortical axon morphology in the animals with normal vision and those deprived of vision binocularly. We found that afferent axons in the animals with normal vision showed a significant retraction in the inactivated cortex, as similarly observed in the muscimol-treated cortex, whereas the axons in the binocularly deprived animals were preserved. Conclusions Therefore, the experience-driven axon retraction in the inactivated cortex can proceed in the absence of synaptic transmission. These results suggest that presynaptic mechanisms play an important role in the experience-driven refinement of geniculocortical axons. PMID:19142221

Watanabe, Kana; Morishima, Yu; Toigawa, Masahito; Hata, Yoshio

2009-01-01

17

The analysis of nonlinear synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

In order to characterize synaptic transmission at a unitary facilitating synapse in the lobster cardiac ganglion, a new nonlinear systems analysis technique for discrete-input systems was developed and applied. From the output of the postsynaptic cell in response to randomly occurring presynaptic nerve impulses, a set of kernels, analogous to Wiener kernels, was computed. The kernels up to third order served to characterize, with reasonable accuracy, the input- output properties of the synapse. A mathematical model of the synapse was also tested with a random impulse train and model predictions were compared with experimental synaptic output. Although the model proved to be even more accurate overall than the kernel characterization, there were slight but consistent errors in the model's performance. These were also reflected as differences between model and experimental kernels. It is concluded that a random train analysis provides a comprehensive and objective comparison between model and experiment and automatically provides an arbitrarily accurate characterization of a system's input-output behavior, even in complicated cases where other approaches are impractical. PMID:197201

1977-01-01

18

Rapid Suppression of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission by Retinoic Acid  

PubMed Central

In brain, properly balanced synaptic excitation and inhibition is critically important for network stability and efficient information processing. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA), a synaptic signaling molecule whose synthesis is activated by reduced neural activity, induces rapid internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons, leading to significant reduction of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Similar to its action at excitatory synapses, action of RA at inhibitory synapses requires protein translation and is mediated by a nontranscriptional function of the RA-receptor RAR?. Different from RA action at excitatory synapses, however, RA at inhibitory synapses causes a loss instead of the gain of a synaptic protein (i.e., GABAARs). Moreover, the removal of GABAARs from the synapses and the reduction of synaptic inhibition do not require the execution of RA's action at excitatory synapses (i.e., downscaling of synaptic inhibition is intact when upscaling of synaptic excitation is blocked). Thus, the action of RA at inhibitory and excitatory synapses diverges significantly after the step of RAR?-mediated protein synthesis, and the regulations of GABAAR and AMPAR trafficking are independent processes. When both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are examined together in the same neuron, the synaptic excitation/inhibition ratio is significantly enhanced by RA. Importantly, RA-mediated downscaling of synaptic inhibition is completely absent in Fmr1 knock-out neurons. Thus, RA acts as a central organizer for coordinated homeostatic plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and impairment of this overall process alters the excitatory/inhibitory balance of a circuit and likely represents a major feature of fragile X-syndrome. PMID:23843516

Sarti, Federica; Zhang, Zhenjie; Schroeder, Jessica

2013-01-01

19

Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

2009-01-01

20

Measuring action potential-evoked transmission at individual synaptic contacts  

PubMed Central

In the neuronal culture experimental system, the total synaptic connection between two neurons can consist of large numbers of synaptic sites, each behaving probabilistically. Studies of synaptic function with paired recordings typically consider the summed response across all of these sites and from this infer the average response. Understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity could be improved by examination of activity at as few synaptic sites as possible. To this end, we develop a system for recording responses from individual contacts. It relies on a precisely regulated pneumatic/hydrostatic pressure system to create a microenvironment within which individual synapses are active, and an acoustic signature method to monitor the stability of this microenvironment noninvasively. With this method we are able to record action potential-evoked postsynaptic currents consistent with individual quanta. The approach does not distort synaptic current waveforms and permits stable recording for several hours. The method is applied to address mechanisms of short-term plasticity, the variability of latency at individual synaptic sites and, in a preliminary experiment, the independence of nearby synapses on the same axon. PMID:22626987

Nauen, David W; Bi, Guo-Qiang

2014-01-01

21

Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants  

PubMed Central

Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) ? subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new ?2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

2009-01-01

22

Regulation of information passing by synaptic transmission: A short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest part of information passed among neurons in the brain occurs by the means of chemical synapses connecting the axons of presynaptic neurons to the dendritic tree of the postsynaptic ones. In the present paper, the most relevant open problems related to the mechanisms of control of the information passing among neurons by synaptic transmission will be shortly reviewed.

Vito Di Maio

2008-01-01

23

Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

2008-01-01

24

Suppression of synaptic transmission may allow combination of associative feedback and self-organizing feedforward connections in the neocortex.  

PubMed

Selective suppression of synaptic transmission during learning is proposed as a physiological mechanism for combining associative memory function at feedback synapses with self-organization of feedforward synapses in neocortical structures. A computational model demonstrates how selective suppression of feedback transmission allows this combination of synaptic function. During learning, sensory stimuli and the desired response are simultaneously presented as input to the network. Feedforward connections form self-organized representations of input, while suppressed feedback connections learn the transpose of the feedforward connectivity. During recall, suppression of transmission is removed, input activates the self-organized representation, and activity settles into a learned solution to the problem. This computational model can be used for learning of problems which are not linearly separable, including the negative patterning task (the XOR problem). Experiments in brain slice preparations of the rat somatosensory cortex tested whether the combination of self-organization and associative memory function could be provided by cholinergic suppression selective for feedback versus feedforward synapses. The cholinergic agonist carbachol selectively suppressed synaptic potentials elicited by stimulation of layer I (which contains a high percentage of feedback synapses), while having no effect on synaptic potentials elicited by stimulation of layer IV (with a high percentage of afferent and feedforward synapses). PMID:8883827

Hasselmo, M E; Cekic, M

1996-09-01

25

How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology  

PubMed Central

A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy. PMID:24101894

Dallérac, Glenn; Chever, Oana; Rouach, Nathalie

2013-01-01

26

From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

2012-01-01

27

Noradrenergic synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion.  

PubMed

Morphology of dendrites of principal neurons in the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) was re-examined by an intracellular staining method followed by electron microscopic analysis. They exhibit a varying complexity in their morphology and arborization. Some dendrites show specializations such as a glomerular plexus, where extensively branched dendritic collaterals form synaptic connections comprising not only axodendritic synapses between preganglionic axons and principal cell dendrites, but also dendrodendritic synapses between principal cell dendrites. Most presynaptic elements of adrenergic synapses observed by conventional methods appear to represent these specialized dendritic collaterals of principal neurons. In denervated SCG, focal stimulation revoked an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in some principal neurons. The response was completely blocked by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. The inhibitory synaptic connection between principal neurons via dendrodendritic synapses may be an important addition to the conventional scheme of intraganglionic synaptic transmission. Sympathetic ganglia may thus function as more than a simple relay station, with specialized neuronal circuitry that may be involved in the modulation of cholinergic transmission. PMID:10361402

Kawai, Y

1999-04-01

28

Impairments in High-Frequency Transmission, Synaptic Vesicle Docking, and Synaptic Protein Distribution in the Hippocampus of BDNF Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses by a presyn- aptic enhancement of synaptic transmission during high- frequency stimulation (HFS). Here we have investigated the mechanisms of BDNF action using two lines of BDNF knockout mice. Among other presynaptic impairments, the mutant mice exhibited more pronounced synaptic fatigue at CA1 synapses during high-frequency stimulation, compared

Lucas D. Pozzo-Miller; Wolfram Gottschalk; Li Zhang; Kathryn McDermott; Jing Du; Raj Gopalakrishnan; Chikara Oho; Zu-Hang Sheng; Bai Lu

1999-01-01

29

Demonstrating the Temperature Sensitivity of Synaptic Transmission in a Drosophila Mutant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an exercise that illustrates the temperature sensitivity of synaptic transmission. The temperature dependence of synaptic transmission is demonstrated by cooling the larval Drosophila melanogaster preparation and recording excitatory junction potentials. Vesicle recycling is explored by utilizing a mutation of the shibire gene.

Jacob L. Krans, Patricia K. Rivlin, and Ronald R. Hoy (Cornell University;)

2005-09-27

30

Endocannabinoids blunt the augmentation of synaptic transmission by serotonin 2A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS)  

PubMed Central

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor modulate cardiovascular and autonomic function in part through actions in the nTS, the primary termination and integration point for cardiorespiratory afferents in the brainstem. In other brain regions, 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2R) modify synaptic transmission directly, as well as through 5-HT2AR-induced endocannabinoid release. This study examined the role of 5-HT2AR as well as their interaction with endocannabinoids on neurotransmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS). Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in monosynaptic nTS neurons were recorded in the horizontal brainstem slice during activation and blockade of 5-HT2ARs. 5-HT2AR activation augmented solitary tract (TS) evoked EPSC amplitude whereas 5-HT2AR blockade depressed TS-EPSC amplitude at low and high TS stimulation rates. The 5-HT2AR-induced increase in neurotransmission was reduced by endocannabinoid receptor block and increased endogenous endocannabinoids in the synaptic cleft during high frequency, but not low, TS stimulation. Endocannabinoids did not tonically modify EPSCs. These data suggest 5-HT acting through the 5-HT2AR is an excitatory neuromodulator in the nTS and its effects are modulated by the endocannabinoid system. PMID:24041777

Austgen, James R.; Kline, David D.

2013-01-01

31

Extracellular ATP Hydrolysis Inhibits Synaptic Transmission by Increasing pH Buffering in the Synaptic Cleft  

PubMed Central

Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism. Here we show that horizontal cells feed back to photoreceptors via an unexpected synthesis of the two. The first one is a very fast ephaptic mechanism that has no synaptic delay, making it one of the fastest inhibitory synapses known. The second one is a relatively slow (??200 ms), highly intriguing mechanism. It depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons form a pH buffer with a pKa of 7.2, which keeps the pH in the synaptic cleft relatively acidic. This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize, the pannexin 1 channels decrease their conductance, the ATP release decreases, and the formation of the pH buffer reduces. The resulting alkalization in the synaptic cleft consequently increases cone glutamate release. Surprisingly, the hydrolysis of ATP instead of ATP itself mediates the synaptic modulation. Our results not only solve longstanding issues regarding horizontal cell to photoreceptor feedback, they also demonstrate a new form of synaptic modulation. Because pannexin 1 channels and ecto-ATPases are strongly expressed in the nervous system and pannexin 1 function is implicated in synaptic plasticity, we anticipate that this novel form of synaptic modulation may be a widespread phenomenon. PMID:24844296

Vroman, Rozan; Klaassen, Lauw J.; Howlett, Marcus H.C.; Cenedese, Valentina; Klooster, Jan; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Kamermans, Maarten

2014-01-01

32

The interplay between inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Excessive glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission and secondary excitotoxicity have been proposed as key determinants of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Soluble mediators of inflammation have recently gained attention owing to their ability to enhance glutamate transmission and affect synaptic sensitivity to neurotransmitters. In the complex crosstalk between soluble immunoactive molecules and synapses, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a central role, exerting an indirect neuroprotective action by inhibiting cytokine-dependent synaptic alterations, and a direct neuroprotective effect by limiting glutamate transmission and excitotoxic damage. On the other hand, the endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated control of synaptic transmission is altered by proinflammatory cytokines with consequent effects in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In this review, we summarize the interactions, at the pre- and postsynaptic level, between major inflammatory cytokines and the ECS. In addition, the behavioral and clinical consequences of the modulation of synaptic transmission during neuroinflammation are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. PMID:25268960

Rossi, Silvia; Motta, Caterina; Musella, Alessandra; Centonze, Diego

2014-09-28

33

Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-to-cell viral transmission via virological synapses has been argued to reduce susceptibility of the virus population to anti-viral drugs through multiple infection of cells, contributing to low-level viral persistence during therapy. Using a mathematical framework, we examine the role of synaptic transmission in treatment susceptibility. A key factor is the relative probability of individual virions to infect a cell during free-virus and synaptic transmission, a currently unknown quantity. If this infection probability is higher for free-virus transmission, then treatment susceptibility is lowest if one virus is transferred per synapse, and multiple infection of cells increases susceptibility. In the opposite case, treatment susceptibility is minimized for an intermediate number of virions transferred per synapse. Hence, multiple infection via synapses does not simply lower treatment susceptibility. Without further experimental investigations, one cannot conclude that synaptic transmission provides an additional mechanism for the virus to persist at low levels during anti-viral therapy.

Komarova, Natalia L.; Levy, David N.; Wodarz, Dominik

2013-07-01

34

A study of synaptic transmission in the absence of nerve impulses  

PubMed Central

1. The axo-axonic giant synapse in the stellate ganglion of the squid has been used to study synaptic transmission. 2. When nerve impulses have been eliminated with tetrodotoxin, synaptic transfer of potential changes can still be obtained by applying brief depolarizing pulses to the presynaptic terminal. 3. Suitably matched pulses are as effective as the normal presynaptic spike in evoking post-synaptic potentials. The synaptic delay and the time course of the post-synaptic potential are very similar to that in the normal preparation. 4. The synaptic transfer (input/output) characteristic has been studied under different experimental conditions. With brief (1-2 msec) current pulses, post-synaptic response becomes detectable when the presynaptic depolarization exceeds about 30 mV. The post-synaptic potential increases about tenfold with 10 mV increments of presynaptic depolarization. 5. Calcium increases, magnesium reduces the slope of the synaptic transfer curve. The influences on this curve of (i) duration of the pulse, (ii) preceding level of membrane potential, (iii) position of recording electrode, (iv) rate of repetitive stimulation are described. 6. After loading the synaptic terminal with tetraethylammonium ions, large inside-positive potentials can be produced in the terminal and maintained for many milliseconds. 7. By raising the internal potential to a sufficiently high level, synaptic transfer becomes suppressed during the pulse, and the post-synaptic response is delayed until the end of the pulse. 8. This observation is in accord with a prediction of the `calcium hypothesis', viz. that inward movement of a positively charged Ca compound, or of the calcium ion itself, constitutes one of the essential links in the `electro-secretory' coupling process of the axon terminal. PMID:4383089

Katz, B.; Miledi, R.

1967-01-01

35

Decreased pain threshold and enhanced synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of experimental hypothyroidism mice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones are essential for the maturation and functions of the central nervous system. Pain sensitivity is related to the thyroid status. However, information on how thyroid hormones affect pain processing and synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is limited. Nociceptive threshold and synaptic transmission in the ACC were detected in the experimental hypothyroidism (HT) mice. Results HT was induced by methimazole and potassium perchlorate in distilled drinking water for 4 weeks. The threshold of pain perception to hot insults, but not mechanical ones, decreased in hypothyroid mice. After treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) for 2 weeks, thermal pain threshold recovered. Electrophysiological recordings revealed enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced GABAergic synaptic transmission in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 significantly rescued this synaptic transmission imbalance. In the same model, HT caused the up-regulation of the GluR1 subunit of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but it down-regulated ?-aminobutyric acid A receptors in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 notably recovered the levels of above proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that HT promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal, and that supplementation with T3 or T4 rescues the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the ACC. PMID:24943008

2014-01-01

36

Absence of synaptotagmin disrupts excitation-secretion coupling during synaptic transmission.  

PubMed Central

Synaptotagmin is an integral synaptic vesicle protein proposed to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis during synaptic transmission. Null mutations in synaptotagmin have been made in Drosophila, and the protein's in vivo function has been assayed at the neuromuscular synapse. In the absence of synaptotagmin, synaptic transmission is dramatically impaired but is not abolished. In null mutants, evoked vesicle release is decreased by a factor of 10. Moreover, the fidelity of excitation-secretion coupling is impaired so that a given stimulus generates a more variable amount of secretion. However, this residual evoked release shows Ca(2+)-dependence similar to normal release, suggesting either that synaptotagmin is not the Ca2+ sensor or that a second, independent Ca2+ sensor exists. While evoked transmission is suppressed, the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion is increased by a factor of 5. We conclude that synaptotagmin is not an absolutely essential component of the Ca(2+)-dependent secretion pathway in synaptic transmission but is necessary for normal levels of transmission. Our data support a model in which synaptotagmin functions as a negative regulator of spontaneous vesicle fusion and acts to increase the efficiency of excitation-secretion coupling during synaptic transmission. Images PMID:7938019

Broadie, K; Bellen, H J; DiAntonio, A; Littleton, J T; Schwarz, T L

1994-01-01

37

Glutamate Transporters Contribute to the Time Course of Synaptic Transmission in Cerebellar Granule Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transporters are thought to assist in the termination of synaptic transmission at some synapses by removing neurotransmitter from the synapse. To investigate the role of glutamate transport in shaping the time course of excitatory transmission at the mossy fiber-granule cell synapse, the effects of transport impairment were studied using whole-cell voltage- and current- clamp recordings in slices of rat cerebellum.

Linda S. Overstreet; Gregory A. Kinney; Ying-Bing Liu; Daniela Billups; N. Traverse

38

Antibody-mediated impairment and homeostatic plasticity of autonomic ganglionic synaptic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are implicated as the cause of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). To characterize ganglionic neurotransmission in an animal model of AAG, evoked and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) were recorded from neurons in isolated mouse superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In vitro exposure of ganglia to IgG from AAG patients progressively inhibited synaptic transmission. After passive

Zhengbei Wang; Phillip A. Low; Steven Vernino

2010-01-01

39

Exposure to cocaine regulates inhibitory synaptic transmission from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens  

PubMed Central

Synaptic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) make up the backbone of the brain reward pathway, a neural circuit that mediates behavioural responses elicited by natural rewards as well as by cocaine and other drugs of abuse. In addition to the well-known modulatory dopaminergic projection, the VTA also provides fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the NAc, directly regulating NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). However, the cellular nature of VTA-to-NAc fast synaptic transmission and its roles in drug-induced adaptations are not well understood. Using viral-mediated in vivo expression of channelrhodopsin 2, the present study dissected fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission from the VTA to NAc MSNs in rats. Our results suggest that, following repeated exposure to cocaine (15 mg kg?1 day?1× 5 days, i.p., 1 or 21 day withdrawal), a presynaptic enhancement of excitatory transmission and suppression of inhibitory transmission occurred at different withdrawal time points at VTA-to-NAc core synapses. In contrast, no postsynaptic alterations were detected at either type of synapse. These results suggest that changes in VTA-to-NAc fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmissions may contribute to cocaine-induced alteration of the brain reward circuitry. PMID:23918773

Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Neumann, Peter A; Wang, Zhijian; Cook, James M; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

2013-01-01

40

Odor-evoked oxygen consumption by action potential and synaptic transmission in the olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

The relationship between metabolism of neuronal activity, microvascular organization and blood flow dynamics is critical for interpreting functional brain imaging. Here we used the rat dorsal olfactory bulb as a model to determine in vivo the correlation between action potential propagation, synaptic transmission, oxygen consumption and capillary density during odor stimulation. We find that capillary lumen occupies about 3 % of the glomerular volume, where synaptic transmission occurs, and only 0.1 % of the overlying nerve layer. In glomeruli, odor triggers a local early decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure that results principally from dendritic activation rather than from firing of axon terminals, transmitter release or astrocyte activation. In the nerve layer, action potential propagation does not generate local changes in tissue oxygen partial pressure. We conclude that capillary density is tightly correlated with the oxidative metabolism of synaptic transmission, and suggest that action potential propagation operates mainly anaerobically. PMID:19193889

Lecoq, Jérôme; Tiret, Pascale; Najac, Marion; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Greer, Charles A.; Charpak, Serge

2009-01-01

41

Antibody-mediated Impairment and Homeostatic Plasticity of Autonomic Ganglionic Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are implicated as the cause of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). To characterize ganglionic neurotransmission in an animal model of AAG, evoked and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) were recorded from neurons in isolated mouse superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In vitro exposure of ganglia to IgG from AAG patients progressively inhibited synaptic transmission. After passive transfer of antibody to mice, evoked EPSP amplitude decreased, and some neurons showed no synaptic responses. EPSP amplitude recovered by day seven despite persistence of ganglionic AChR antibody in the mouse serum. There was a more persistent (at least 14 day) reduction in miniature EPSP amplitude consistent with antibody-mediated reduction in post-synaptic AChR. Although the quantal size was reduced, a progressive increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic events occurred, suggesting a compensatory increase in presynaptic efficacy. The quantal size returned to baseline by 21 days while the frequency remained increased for at least four weeks. Ganglionic AChR antibodies cause an impairment of autonomic ganglionic synaptic transmission. Homeostatic plasticity in autonomic neurotransmission could help explain the spontaneous clinical recovery seen in some AAG patients and may also play an important role in regulating normal autonomic reflexes. PMID:20044994

Wang, Zhengbei; Low, Phillip A.; Vernino, Steven

2010-01-01

42

Antibody-mediated impairment and homeostatic plasticity of autonomic ganglionic synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are implicated as the cause of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). To characterize ganglionic neurotransmission in an animal model of AAG, evoked and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) were recorded from neurons in isolated mouse superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In vitro exposure of ganglia to IgG from AAG patients progressively inhibited synaptic transmission. After passive transfer of antibody to mice, evoked EPSP amplitude decreased, and some neurons showed no synaptic responses. EPSP amplitude recovered by day 7 despite persistence of ganglionic AChR antibody in the mouse serum. There was a more persistent (at least 14-day) reduction in miniature EPSP amplitude consistent with antibody-mediated reduction in post-synaptic AChR. Although the quantal size was reduced, a progressive increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic events occurred, suggesting a compensatory increase in presynaptic efficacy. The quantal size returned to baseline by 21 days while the frequency remained increased for at least four weeks. Ganglionic AChR antibodies cause an impairment of autonomic ganglionic synaptic transmission. Homeostatic plasticity in autonomic neurotransmission could help explain the spontaneous clinical recovery seen in some AAG patients and may also play an important role in regulating normal autonomic reflexes. PMID:20044994

Wang, Zhengbei; Low, Phillip A; Vernino, Steven

2010-03-01

43

Long-term plasticity determines the postsynaptic response to correlated afferents with multivesicular short-term synaptic depression  

PubMed Central

Synchrony in a presynaptic population leads to correlations in vesicle occupancy at the active sites for neurotransmitter release. The number of independent release sites per presynaptic neuron, a synaptic parameter recently shown to be modified during long-term plasticity, will modulate these correlations and therefore have a significant effect on the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. To understand how correlations from synaptic dynamics and from presynaptic synchrony shape the postsynaptic response, we study a model of multiple release site short-term plasticity and derive exact results for the crosscorrelation function of vesicle occupancy and neurotransmitter release, as well as the postsynaptic voltage variance. Using approximate forms for the postsynaptic firing rate in the limits of low and high correlations, we demonstrate that short-term depression leads to a maximum response for an intermediate number of presynaptic release sites, and that this leads to a tuning-curve response peaked at an optimal presynaptic synchrony set by the number of neurotransmitter release sites per presynaptic neuron. These effects arise because, above a certain level of correlation, activity in the presynaptic population is overly strong resulting in wastage of the pool of releasable neurotransmitter. As the nervous system operates under constraints of efficient metabolism it is likely that this phenomenon provides an activity-dependent constraint on network architecture. PMID:24523691

Bird, Alex D.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

2014-01-01

44

Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity  

PubMed Central

The complexity of the signaling network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic signaling is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium signaling and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic transmission. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the signaling pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326

De Pittŕ, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

2012-01-01

45

Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice. Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs (excitatory monosynaptic postsynaptic currents). We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine prevented it. Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory presynaptic A1 receptors. PMID:24926236

Carlsen, Eva Meier; Perrier, Jean-François

2014-01-01

46

Variable timing of synaptic transmission in cerebellar unipolar brush cells  

PubMed Central

The cerebellum ensures the smooth execution of movements, a task that requires accurate neural signaling on multiple time scales. Computational models of cerebellar timing mechanisms have suggested that temporal information in cerebellum-dependent behavioral tasks is in part computed locally in the cerebellar cortex. These models rely on the local generation of delayed signals spanning hundreds of milliseconds, yet the underlying neural mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that a granular layer interneuron, called the unipolar brush cell, is well suited to represent time intervals in a robust way in the cerebellar cortex. Unipolar brush cells exhibited delayed increases in excitatory synaptic input in response to presynaptic stimulation in mouse cerebellar slices. Depending on the frequency of stimulation, delays extended from zero up to hundreds of milliseconds. Such controllable protraction of delayed currents was the result of an unusual mode of synaptic integration, which was well described by a model of steady-state AMPA receptor activation. This functionality extends the capabilities of the cerebellum for adaptive control of behavior by facilitating appropriate output in a broad temporal window. PMID:24706875

van Dorp, Stijn; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

2014-01-01

47

In Vivo Measurement of Cell-Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity and Synaptic Transmission in Layer 2/3 Mouse Barrel Cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracellular recordings of membrane potential in vitro have defined fundamental properties of synaptic communication. Much less is known about the properties of synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in vivo. Here, we combined single-cell optogenetics with whole-cell recordings to investigate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vivo from single identified excitatory neurons onto two genetically defined subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic neurons in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex. We found that parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic neurons received unitary glutamatergic synaptic input with higher probability than somatostatin-expressing (Sst) GABAergic neurons. Unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials onto PV neurons were also faster and more reliable than inputs onto Sst neurons. Excitatory synapses targeting Sst neurons displayed strong short-term facilitation, while those targeting PV neurons showed little short-term dynamics. Our results largely agree with in vitro measurements. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of assessing functional cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity in vivo, allowing future investigations into context-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:25543458

Pala, Aurélie; Petersen, Carl C.H.

2015-01-01

48

In Vivo measurement of cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex.  

PubMed

Intracellular recordings of membrane potential in vitro have defined fundamental properties of synaptic communication. Much less is known about the properties of synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in vivo. Here, we combined single-cell optogenetics with whole-cell recordings to investigate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vivo from single identified excitatory neurons onto two genetically defined subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic neurons in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex. We found that parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic neurons received unitary glutamatergic synaptic input with higher probability than somatostatin-expressing (Sst) GABAergic neurons. Unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials onto PV neurons were also faster and more reliable than inputs onto Sst neurons. Excitatory synapses targeting Sst neurons displayed strong short-term facilitation, while those targeting PV neurons showed little short-term dynamics. Our results largely agree with in vitro measurements. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of assessing functional cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity in vivo, allowing future investigations into context-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:25543458

Pala, Aurélie; Petersen, Carl C H

2015-01-01

49

Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion  

E-print Network

Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion Yair Manor of the lobster Panulirus interruptus is a graded func- tion of membrane potential, with a threshold of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. The pyloric network of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of P

Columbia University

50

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711. While severe hypothyroidis...

51

High-throughput study of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction enabled by optogenetics and microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, optogenetic techniques have become widely used to help elucidate a variety of neuroscience problems. The unique optical control of neurons within a variety of organisms provided by optogenetics allows researchers to probe neural circuits and investigate neuronal function in a highly specific and controllable fashion. Recently, optogenetic techniques have been introduced to investigate synaptic transmission

Jeffrey N. Stirman; Martin Brauner; Alexander Gottschalk; Hang Lu

2010-01-01

52

TRPC3 Channels Are Required for Synaptic Transmission and Motor Coordination  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In the mammalian central nervous system, slow synaptic excitation involves the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). It has been proposed that C1-type transient receptor potential (TRPC1) channels underlie this synaptic excitation, but our analysis of TRPC1-deficient mice does not support this hypothesis. Here, we show unambiguously that it is TRPC3 that is needed for mGluR-dependent synaptic signaling in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. TRPC3 is the most abundantly expressed TRPC subunit in Purkinje cells. In mutant mice lacking TRPC3, both slow synaptic potentials and mGluR-mediated inward currents are completely absent, while the synaptically mediated Ca2+ release signals from intracellular stores are unchanged. Importantly, TRPC3 knockout mice exhibit an impaired walking behavior. Taken together, our results establish TRPC3 as a new type of postsynaptic channel that mediates mGluR-dependent synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is crucial for motor coordination. PMID:18701065

Hartmann, Jana; Dragicevic, Elena; Adelsberger, Helmuth; Henning, Horst A.; Sumser, Martin; Abramowitz, Joel; Blum, Robert; Dietrich, Alexander; Freichel, Marc; Flockerzi, Veit; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Konnerth, Arthur

2009-01-01

53

Nicotine Uses Neuron-Glia Communication to Enhance Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Memory  

PubMed Central

Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions. PMID:23185511

López-Hidalgo, Mónica; Salgado-Puga, Karla; Alvarado-Martínez, Reynaldo; Medina, Andrea Cristina; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.; García-Colunga, Jesús

2012-01-01

54

Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline  

PubMed Central

Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa++ amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5–10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D.; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

2014-01-01

55

Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline.  

PubMed

Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa(++) amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5-10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

2014-01-01

56

The effects of protein kinase C activity on synaptic transmission in two areas of rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

The effects of three protein kinase C (PKC) agonists (phorbol ester, ingenol and indolactam-V) and two PKC antagonists (D-erythro-sphingosine and chelerythrine) on input-output (I-O) relations in the Schaffer collateral pathway to CA1 (SC-CA1) and mossy fiber pathway to CA3 (MF-CA3) were determined in rat hippocampus brain slices. In the SC-CA1 pathway, phorbol esters and indolactam-V had only small effects on field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) in slices from 60-day animals, although ingenol, an activator of novel PKC isozymes, caused a significant decrease of the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials amplitude in 60-day animals, but not in 30-day animals. In contrast, in the MF-CA3 pathway, PKC agonists induced a significant increase in the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. PKC antagonists depressed the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials in the SC-CA1 pathway, but had no significant effect in the MF-CA3 pathway. In the MF-CA3 pathway, paired-pulse facilitation was abolished by PKC agonists and unaffected by antagonists. In SC-CA1, it was depressed by agonists to levels below control, whereas it was significantly increased by chelerythine. We conclude that PKC plays important but different roles in both regions. In the SC-CA1 pathway, PKC is almost maximally active under control circumstances, and PKC antagonists significantly reduce synaptic responses. In contrast, in the MF-CA3 pathway, there is no apparent activation under resting circumstances, but significant potentiation of synaptic transmission is induced when PKC is activated. There are developmental changes in the pattern of PKC isozymes, and both pre- and post-synaptic actions are important. PMID:14568326

Hussain, Rifat J; Carpenter, David O

2003-11-14

57

Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse  

PubMed Central

Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca2+ current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca2+-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse. PMID:18840683

Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Fukuda, Mitsunori

2008-01-01

58

Enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in large aspiny neurons after transient cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Large aspiny neurons and most of the GABAergic interneurons survive transient cerebral ischemia while medium spiny neurons degenerate in 24 h. Expression of a long-term enhancement of excitatory transmission in medium spiny neurons but not in large aspiny neurons has been indicated to contribute to this selective vulnerability. Because neuronal excitability is determined by the counterbalance of excitation and inhibition, the present study examined inhibitory synaptic transmission in large aspiny neurons after ischemia in rats. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced for 22 min using the four-vessel occlusion method and whole-cell voltage-clamp recording was performed on striatal slices. The amplitudes of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in large aspiny neurons were significantly increased at 3 and 24 h after ischemia, which was mediated by the increase of presynaptic release. Postsynaptic responses were depressed at 24 h after ischemia. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents could be evoked in large aspiny neurons at 24 h after ischemia, suggesting that they receive GABAergic inputs from the survived GABAergic interneurons. Muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, presynaptically facilitated inhibitory synaptic transmission at 24 h after ischemia. Such facilitation was dependent on the extracellular calcium and voltage-gated sodium channels. The present study demonstrates an enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in large aspiny neurons after ischemia, which might reduce excitotoxicity and contribute, at least in part, to the survival of large aspiny neurons. Our data also suggest that large aspiny neurons might receive inhibitory inputs from GABAergic interneurons. PMID:19167464

Li, Y; Lei, Z; Xu, Z C

2009-03-17

59

Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics.  

PubMed

Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies that they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, but can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient, but grows slowly, and simulations reveal that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

Nagel, Katherine I; Hong, Elizabeth J; Wilson, Rachel I

2015-01-01

60

Endogenous nonneuronal modulators of synaptic transmission control cortical slow oscillations in vivo  

PubMed Central

Gliotransmission, the release of molecules from astrocytes, regulates neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in situ. Whether this process affects neuronal network activity in vivo is not known. Using a combination of astrocyte-specific molecular genetics, with in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology, we determined that gliotransmission modulates cortical slow oscillations, a rhythm characterizing nonrapid eye movement sleep. Inhibition of gliotransmission by the expression of a dominant negative SNARE domain in astrocytes affected cortical slow oscillations, reducing the duration of neuronal depolarizations and causing prolonged hyperpolarizations. These network effects result from the astrocytic modulation of intracortical synaptic transmission at two sites: a hypofunction of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, and by reducing extracellular adenosine, a loss of tonic A1 receptor-mediated inhibition. These results demonstrate that rhythmic brain activity is generated by the coordinated action of the neuronal and glial networks. PMID:19706442

Fellin, Tommaso; Halassa, Michael M.; Terunuma, Miho; Succol, Francesca; Takano, Hajime; Frank, Marcos; Moss, Stephen J.; Haydon, Philip G.

2009-01-01

61

Neurochemical mechanisms underlying NMDA-independent long-term post-tetanic potentiation of synaptic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments performed on rat transversial slices of the rat dorsal hippocampus, we found that high-frequency tetanic stimulation\\u000a of the mossy fibers (MF) and short-term action of 1 ?M kainic acid on the slices resulted in long-term potentiation of the\\u000a population spikes evoked inCA3 pyramidal neurons by single stimuli applied to the MF. The tetanus-and kainate-induced potentiations of synaptic transmission

I. I. Abramets; Yu. V. Kuznetsov; I. M. Samoilovich; L. Ya. Zin’kovskaya

1999-01-01

62

Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in RA projection neurons of adult zebra finches.  

PubMed

Zebra finches are ideal animals to investigate sex difference in songbirds. Only males can sing. The brain nuclei controlling song learning and production in males are considerably larger than in females. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus, playing a key role in controlling singing. RA receives denser synapse inputs in males than in females. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA projection neurons (PNs) have not been reported. In the present study, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording, spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) of RA PNs in the intact males and females were recorded. The average frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were higher than females. The half-width and decay time of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were longer than females. In order to verify whether these sex differences related to sex steroids, males were castrated. The average frequency of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in castrated males was lower than intact males and was similar to in females; the amplitude was not changed after castrating. These results demonstrate the sexually dimorphic of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA PNs, the RA PNs in males receive more excitatory synaptic transmission and these sex differences were partly affected by sex hormones. These findings contribute to further illuminate the neural mechanisms under the sexually dimorphism in song production of adult zebra finches. PMID:25220700

Wang, Songhua; Meng, Wei; Liu, Shaoyi; Liao, Congshu; Huang, Qingyao; Li, Dongfeng

2014-10-17

63

Extended secondhand tobacco smoke exposure induces plasticity in nucleus tractus solitarius second-order lung afferent neurons in young guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Infants and young children experiencing extended exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased occurrence of asthma, as well as increased cough, wheeze, mucus production and airway hyper-reactivity. Plasticity in lung reflex pathways has been implicated in causing these symptoms, as have changes in substance P-related mechanisms. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings and immunohistochemistry in brainstem slices containing anatomically identified second-order lung afferent nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons, we determined whether extended SHS exposure during the equivalent period of human childhood modified evoked or spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission, and whether those modifications were altered by endogenous substance P. SHS exposure enhanced evoked synaptic transmission between sensory afferents and the NTS second-order neurons by eliminating synaptic depression of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), an effect reversed by the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (SR140333). The recruitment of substance P in enhancing evoked synaptic transmission was further supported by an increased number of substance P-expressing lung afferent central terminals synapsing onto the second-order lung afferent neurons. SHS exposure did not change background spontaneous EPSCs. The data suggest that substance P in the NTS augments evoked synaptic transmission of lung sensory input following extended exposure to a pollutant. The mechanism may help to explain some of the exaggerated respiratory responses of children exposed to SHS. PMID:18657181

Sekizawa, Shin-Ichi; Chen, Chao-Yin; Bechtold, Andrea G; Tabor, Jocelyn M; Bric, John M; Pinkerton, Kent E; Joad, Jesse P; Bonham, Ann C

2008-08-01

64

Intrinsic and Synaptic Long-Term Depression of NTS Relay of Nociceptin-Sensitive and Capsaicin-Sensitive Cardiopulmonary Afferents Hyperactivity  

E-print Network

The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the caudal medulla is a gateway for a variety of cardiopulmonary afferents important for homeostatic regulation and defense against airway and cardiovascular insults and is a key ...

Feinberg-Zadek, Paula

65

Different Mechanism of Transmission Efficiency in Unmyelinated Nerve Fiber Primary Afferent Synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally,the bursting firing pattern of action potential has higher transmission efficiency compared with the consecutive firing pattern in the same average frequency condition.Recently,some articles about the synapse short-term plasticity have shown that there are different mechanism to form short-term plasticity in different presynaptic firing frequency condition probably.This makes us to question whether there are different transmission efficiency between presynaptic bursting

Junran Zhang; JianNan Wang; SanJue Hu

2010-01-01

66

Compartment-Specific Modulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission by TRPV1 Channels in the Dentate Gyrus.  

PubMed

The transient receptor potential TRPV1 or vanilloid receptor is a nonselective ligand-gated channel highly expressed in primary sensory neurons where it mediates nociception. TRPV1 is also expressed in the brain where its activation depresses excitatory synaptic transmission. Whether TRPV1 also regulates inhibitory synapses in the brain is unclear. Here, using a combination of pharmacology, electrophysiology, and an in vivo knockdown strategy, we report that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or by the endocannabinoid anandamide depresses somatic, but not dendritic inhibitory transmission in both rat and mouse dentate gyrus. The effect on somatic inhibition was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice and was also eliminated by two different TRPV1 shRNAs expressed in dentate granule cells, strongly supporting a functional role for TRPV1 in modulating GABAergic synaptic function. Moreover, TRPV1-mediated depression occurs independently of GABA release, requires postsynaptic Ca(2+) rise and activation of calcineurin, and is likely due to clathrin-dependent internalization of GABA receptors. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel form of compartment-specific regulation whereby TRPV1 channels can modify synaptic function in the brain. PMID:25505315

Chávez, Andrés E; Hernández, Vivian M; Rodenas-Ruano, Alma; Chan, C Savio; Castillo, Pablo E

2014-12-10

67

Effects of reduced vesicular filling on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal neurones  

PubMed Central

The consequence of reduced uptake of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles on synaptic transmission was examined in rat hippocampal slices and culture using bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a potent and specific blocker of the vacuolar-type (V-type) ATPase, which eliminates the driving force for the uptake of both glutamate and GABA into synaptic vesicles. After incubation with Baf, both the amplitude and frequency of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were reduced in the slice preparation. Similar effects were seen with glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and GABAergic mIPSCs from cultured neurons. This result indicates that vesicular content is reduced by Baf. The dramatic reduction in the frequency of mPSCs could result either from the exocytosis of empty vesicles or from a mechanism which prevents the exocytosis of depleted vesicles. Vesicle cycling was directly examined using confocal imaging with FM 1–43. In the presence of Baf, vesicles could still be endocytosed and they were released at the same probability as from control untreated synapses. Prolonged high-frequency electrical stimulation of synapses in culture failed to alter the amplitude of mEPSCs, suggesting that the filling of vesicles is rapid compared to the rate of vesicle recycling during repetitive synaptic stimulation. Profound release of glutamate with ?-latrotoxin did cause a small, but reproducible, reduction in quantal size. These results indicate that decreasing the amount of glutamate and GABA in synaptic vesicles reduces quantal size. Furthermore, the probability of vesicle exocytosis appears to be entirely independent of the state of filling of the vesicle. However, even during high-frequency action potential-evoked release of glutamate, quantal size remained unchanged. PMID:10811737

Zhou, Qiang; Petersen, Carl C H; Nicoll, Roger A

2000-01-01

68

Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses  

PubMed Central

The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca2+ action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the immature auditory system in the absence of sensory stimuli. During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. Both the MOC-OHC and the MOC-IHC synapses are cholinergic, fast and inhibitory and mediated by the ?9?10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) coupled to the activation of calcium-activated potassium channels that hyperpolarize the hair cells. In this review we discuss the biophysical, functional and molecular data which demonstrate that at the synapses between MOC efferent fibers and cochlear hair cells, modulation of transmitter release as well as short term synaptic plasticity mechanisms, operating both at the presynaptic terminal and at the postsynaptic hair-cell, determine the efficacy of these synapses and shape the hair cell response pattern. PMID:25520631

Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

2014-01-01

69

Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Depress Synaptic Transmission onto Subicular Burst Firing Neurons  

PubMed Central

The subiculum (SUB) is a pivotal structure positioned between the hippocampus proper and various cortical and subcortical areas. Despite the growing body of anatomical and intrinsic electrophysiological data of subicular neurons, modulation of synaptic transmission in the SUB is not well understood. In the present study we investigated the role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which have been shown to be involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission by suppressing presynaptic cAMP activity. Using field potential and patch-clamp whole cell recordings we demonstrate that glutamatergic transmission at CA1-SUB synapses is depressed by group II mGluRs in a cell-type specific manner. Application of the group II mGluR agonist (2S,1?R,2?R,3?R)-2-(2, 3-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) led to a significantly higher reduction of excitatory postsynaptic currents in subicular bursting cells than in regular firing cells. We further used low-frequency stimulation protocols and brief high-frequency bursts to test whether synaptically released glutamate is capable of activating presynaptic mGluRs. However, neither frequency facilitation is enhanced in the presence of the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495, nor is a test stimulus given after a high-frequency burst. In summary, we present pharmacological evidence for presynaptic group II mGluRs targeting subicular bursting cells, but both low- and high-frequency stimulation protocols failed to activate presynaptically located mGluRs. PMID:22984605

Kintscher, Michael; Breustedt, Jörg; Miceli, Stéphanie; Schmitz, Dietmar; Wozny, Christian

2012-01-01

70

Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

2005-03-01

71

Tuning synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by stress: the CRH system  

PubMed Central

To enhance survival, an organism needs to remember—and learn from—threatening or stressful events. This fact necessitates the presence of mechanisms by which stress can influence synaptic transmission in brain regions, such as hippocampus, that subserve learning and memory. A major focus of this series of monographs is on the role and actions of adrenal-derived hormones, corticosteroids, and of brain-derived neurotransmitters, on synaptic function in the stressed hippocampus. Here we focus on the contribution of hippocampus-intrinsic, stress-activated CRH-CRH receptor signaling to the function and structure of hippocampal synapses. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is expressed in interneurons of adult hippocampus, and is released from axon terminals during stress. The peptide exerts time- and dose-dependent effects on learning and memory via modulation of synaptic function and plasticity. Whereas physiological levels of CRH, acting over seconds to minutes, augment memory processes, exposure to presumed severe-stress levels of the peptide results in spine retraction and loss of synapses over more protracted time-frames. Loss of dendritic spines (and hence of synapses) takes place through actin cytoskeleton collapse downstream of CRHR1 receptors that reside within excitatory synapses on spine heads. Chronic exposure to stress levels of CRH may promote dying-back (atrophy) of spine-carrying dendrites. Thus, the acute effects of CRH may contribute to stress-induced adaptive mechanisms, whereas chronic or excessive exposure to the peptide may promote learning problems and premature cognitive decline. PMID:22514519

Chen, Yuncai; Andres, Adrienne L.; Frotscher, Michael; Baram, Tallie Z.

2012-01-01

72

Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres  

PubMed Central

1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

1971-01-01

73

Cytoskeletal Changes Underlie Estrogen’s Acute Effects on Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Estrogen, in addition to its genomic effects in brain, causes rapid and reversible changes to synaptic operations. We report here that these acute actions are due to selective activation of an actin-signaling cascade normally used in the production of long-term potentiation (LTP). Estrogen, or a selective agonist of the steroid’s beta-receptor, caused a modest increase in fast glutamatergic transmission and a pronounced facilitation of LTP in adult hippocampal slices; both effects were completely eliminated by latrunculin, a toxin that prevents actin filament assembly. Estrogen also increased spine concentrations of filamentous actin and strongly enhanced its polymerization in association with LTP. A search for the origins of these effects showed that estrogen activates the small GTPase RhoA and phosphorylates (inactivates) the actin severing protein cofilin, a downstream target of RhoA. Moreover, an antagonist of RhoA kinase (ROCK) blocked estrogen’s synaptic effects. Estrogen thus emerges as a positive modulator of a RhoA>ROCK>LIM kinase>cofilin pathway that regulates the sub-synaptic cytoskeleton. It does not, however, strongly affect a second LTP-related pathway, involving the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and their effector p21-activated kinase, which may explain why its acute effects are reversible. Finally, ovariectomy depressed RhoA activity, spine cytoskeletal plasticity, and LTP whereas brief infusions of estrogen rescued plasticity, suggesting that the deficits in plasticity arise from acute, as well as genomic, consequences of hormone loss. PMID:19828812

Kramár, Enikö A.; Chen, Lulu Y.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Christopher, S. Rex; Liu, Feng; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary

2009-01-01

74

Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.  

PubMed

At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, ? = 1/(D??s), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, ? is the vesicle diameter, ? is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons. PMID:25311636

Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

2014-11-01

75

Layer- and area-specificity of the adrenergic modulation of synaptic transmission in the rat neocortex.  

PubMed

The mammalian neocortex is a multilayered structure receiving extensive adrenergic projections both in rostral and caudal areas. The cellular mechanisms of norepinephrine (NE) in the neocortex are incompletely understood. We used electrophysiology to determine whether NE modulation of synaptic transmission were similar in rostral versus caudal cortical areas, and in infra- versus supra-granular cortical layers. To address these questions we used bath applications of NE (20 µM) to determine its effects on pharmacologically isolated electrically-evoked 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic currents (eEPSCs), or ?-amino butyric acid A receptor (GABAAR)-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents (eIPSCs). We monitored synaptic currents in pyramidal neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from supragranular layer 2/3 (L2/3) and infragranular layer 5 (L5) neurons in a thin-slice preparation of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results were compared with the effects in the temporal cortex (TC) under similar experimental conditions. We found that NE uniformly and transiently depressed eEPSCs from supragranular to infragranular layers in both the PFC and the TC. On the contrary, the effects of NE on eIPSC were area- and layer-dependent, as NE enhanced the mean amplitude in TC L2/3 and PFC L5 eIPSCs (which displayed the largest saturation currents in the areas studied) but depressed PFC L2/3 eIPSCs, without affecting TC L5 eIPSCs. While the precise physiological meaning of these results is still unclear, our data are consistent with the existence of a dense noradrenergic-controlled GABAergic cortical network in the PFC, in which L5 may act as a decisional bottleneck for behavioral inhibition. PMID:25266551

Roychowdhury, Swagata; Zwierzchowski, Amy N; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Olguin, Roberto Cuevas; Delgado, Roberto Salgado; Atzori, Marco

2014-12-01

76

Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources  

PubMed Central

Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001 PMID:24368731

Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

2013-01-01

77

Propagation of Epileptiform Activity Can Be Independent of Synaptic Transmission, Gap Junctions, or Diffusion and Is Consistent with Electrical Field Transmission  

PubMed Central

The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ?0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission. PMID:24453330

Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P.; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.

2014-01-01

78

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits ?3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident ?1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited ?3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

2014-01-01

79

5-HT inhibits calcium current and synaptic transmission from sensory neurons in lamprey.  

PubMed

In the lamprey spinal cord, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunoreactivity (ir) is present in the ventromedial plexus originating from intraspinal neurons, ventrolateral column arising from the brainstem, and dorsal column. The latter 5-HT system originates from small dorsal root ganglion neurons. Combined Lucifer yellow intracellular labeling of the intraspinal sensory neurons, dorsal cells, and 5-HT immunohistochemistry showed close appositions between 5-HT-ir fibers and dorsal cell axons. Application of 5-HT depressed monosynaptic EPSPs evoked in giant interneurons by stimulation of single dorsal cells, dorsal roots, or dorsal column without any detectable change in the input resistance of postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, the amplitude of AMPA-evoked depolarizations in giant interneurons was unaffected by 5-HT. The lack of postsynaptic effects of 5-HT indicates that the decrease of the amplitude of sensory monosynaptic EPSPs by 5-HT is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. The inhibition of monosynaptic EPSPs by 5-HT was not counteracted by an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors. 5-HT also reduced the amplitude of the calcium current recorded in isolated dorsal cells and slowed down its kinetics. The inhibition of calcium channels could represent the mechanism mediating the depression of synaptic transmission at the axonal level. These results show that activation of 5-HT receptors on dorsal cell axons as well as on other sensory neurons mediates inhibition of sensory synaptic transmission to giant interneurons. In intact animals, 5-HT could be released from small 5-HT neurons in dorsal root ganglia, which thus may underlie direct sensory-sensory interactions. PMID:9030637

El Manira, A; Zhang, W; Svensson, E; Bussičres, N

1997-03-01

80

Synaptic transmission at parasympathetic neurons of the major pelvic ganglion from normal and diabetic male mice  

PubMed Central

Bladder and erectile dysfunction are common urologic complications of diabetes and are associated with reduced parasympathetic autonomic control. To determine whether disruption of ganglionic neurotransmission contributes to the loss of function, we investigated synaptic transmission at parasympathetic, major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons in control and chronically (20 wk) diabetic mice. In contrast to what has been reported for sympathetic neurons, diabetes did not cause an interruption of synaptic transmission at parasympathetic MPG neurons from streptozotocin-treated C57BL/6J (STZ) or db/db mice. Cholinergically mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were suprathreshold during 5-s trains of 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz stimuli. Asynchronous neurotransmitter release, observed as miniature EPSPs (mEPSPs) during and after stimulation, permitted quantitative assessment of postganglionic, cholinergic receptor sensitivity. mEPSP amplitude following tetanic stimulation (recorded at ?60 mV) was reduced in STZ (4.95 ± 0.4 vs. 3.71 ± 0.3 mV, P = 0.03), but not db/db mice. The number of posttetanic mEPSPs was significantly greater in db/db mice at all frequencies tested. Assessment of basic electrophysiological properties revealed that parasympathetic MPG neurons from db/db mice had less negative membrane potentials, lower input resistances, and shorter afterhyperpolarizations relative to their control. MPG neurons from STZ had longer afterhyperpolarizations but were otherwise similar to controls. Membrane excitability, measured by the membrane responsiveness to long-duration (1 s), suprathreshold depolarizing pulses, was unchanged in either model. The present study indicates that, while parasympathetic neurotransmission at the MPG is intact in chronically diabetic mice, obese, type 2 diabetic animals exhibit an altered presynaptic regulation of neurotransmitter release. PMID:23197460

Vizzard, Margaret A.; Parsons, Rodney L.

2013-01-01

81

Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

2014-01-01

82

Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels  

PubMed Central

In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish were generated that lack connexin 55.5 hemichannels in horizontal cells. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were made from isolated horizontal cells and cones in flat mount retinas. Light-induced feedback from horizontal cells to cones was reduced in mutants. A reduction of feedback was also found when horizontal cells were pharmacologically hyperpolarized but was absent when they were pharmacologically depolarized. Hemichannel currents in isolated horizontal cells showed a similar behavior. The hyperpolarization-induced hemichannel current was strongly reduced in the mutants while the depolarization-induced hemichannel current was not. Intracellular recordings were made from horizontal cells. Consistent with impaired feedback in the mutant, spectral opponent responses in horizontal cells were diminished in these animals. A behavioral assay revealed a lower contrast-sensitivity, illustrating the role of the horizontal cell to cone feedback pathway in contrast enhancement. Model simulations showed that the observed modifications of feedback can be accounted for by an ephaptic mechanism. A model for feedback, in which the number of connexin hemichannels is reduced to about 40%, fully predicts the specific asymmetric modification of feedback. To our knowledge, this is the first successful genetic interference in the feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. It provides direct evidence for an unconventional role of connexin hemichannels in the inhibitory synapse between horizontal cells and cones. This is an important step in resolving a long-standing debate about the unusual form of (ephaptic) synaptic transmission between horizontal cells and cones in the vertebrate retina. PMID:21811399

Klaassen, Lauw J.; Sun, Ziyi; Steijaert, Marvin N.; Bolte, Petra; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Klooster, Jan; Claassen, Yvonne; Shields, Colleen R.; Ten Eikelder, Huub M. M.; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Zoidl, Georg; McMahon, Douglas G.; Kamermans, Maarten

2011-01-01

83

De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

2014-10-01

84

Serotonin, Dopamine and Noradrenaline Adjust Actions of Myelinated Afferents via Modulation of Presynaptic Inhibition in the Mouse Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs) or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs) recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75%) but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic transmission in the dorsal horn are broadly reduced by descending monoamine transmitters. These actions likely integrate with modulatory actions elsewhere to reconfigure spinal circuits during motor behaviors. PMID:24587177

García-Ramírez, David L.; Calvo, Jorge R.; Hochman, Shawn; Quevedo, Jorge N.

2014-01-01

85

STIM1 controls neuronal Ca˛? signaling, mGluR1-dependent synaptic transmission, and cerebellar motor behavior.  

PubMed

In central mammalian neurons, activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor type1 (mGluR1) evokes a complex synaptic response consisting of IP3 receptor-dependent Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores and a slow depolarizing potential involving TRPC3 channels. It is largely unclear how mGluR1 is linked to its downstream effectors. Here, we explored the role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in regulating neuronal Ca(2+) signaling and mGluR1-dependent synaptic transmission. By analyzing mouse cerebellar Purkinje neurons, we demonstrate that STIM1 is an essential regulator of the Ca(2+) level in neuronal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Both mGluR1-dependent synaptic potentials and IP3 receptor-dependent Ca(2+) signals are strongly attenuated in the absence of STIM1. Furthermore, the Purkinje neuron-specific deletion of Stim1 causes impairments in cerebellar motor behavior. Together, our results demonstrate that in the mammalian nervous system STIM1 is a key regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling, metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic transmission, and motor coordination. PMID:24811382

Hartmann, Jana; Karl, Rosa M; Alexander, Ryan P D; Adelsberger, Helmuth; Brill, Monika S; Rühlmann, Charlotta; Ansel, Anna; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Yoshihiro; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Misgeld, Thomas; Konnerth, Arthur

2014-05-01

86

Prolactin-releasing peptide affects gastric motor function in rat by modulating synaptic transmission in the dorsal vagal complex  

PubMed Central

Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a recently discovered neuropeptide implicated in the central control of feeding behaviour and autonomic homeostasis. PrRP-containing neurones and PrRP receptor mRNA are found in abundance in the caudal portion of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), an area which together with the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) comprises an integrated structure, the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) that processes visceral afferent signals from and provides parasympathetic motor innervation to the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, microinjection experiments were conducted in vivo in combination with whole-cell recording from neurones in rat medullary slices to test the hypothesis that PrRP plays a role in the central control of gastric motor function, acting within the DVC to modulate the activity of preganglionic vagal motor neurones that supply the stomach. Microinjection of PrRP (0.2 pmol (20 nl)?1) into the DMV at the level of the area postrema (+0.2 to +0.6 mm from the calamus scriptorius, CS) markedly stimulated gastric contractions and increased intragastric pressure (IGP). Conversely, administration of peptide into the DMV at sites caudal to the obex (0.0 to ?0.3 mm from the CS) decreased IGP and reduced phasic contractions. These effects occurred without change in mean arterial pressure and were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy, indicating mediation via a vagal-dependent mechanism(s). The pattern of gastric motor responses evoked by PrRP mimicked that produced by administration of l-glutamate at the same sites, and both the effects of l-glutamate and PrRP were abolished following local administration of NMDA and non-NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists. On the other hand, microinjection of PrRP into the medial or comissural nucleus of the solitary tract (mNTS and comNTS, respectively) resulted in less robust changes in IGP in a smaller percentage of animals, accompanied by marked alterations in arterial pressure. Superfusion of brain slices with PrRP (100–300 nm) produced a small depolarization and increased spontaneous firing in 10 of 30 retrogradely labelled gastric-projecting DMV neurones. The excitatory effects were blocked by administration of TTX (2 ?m) or specific glutamate receptor antagonists, indicating that they resulted from interactions of PrRP at a presynaptic site. Congruent with this, PrRP increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs, 154 ± 33%, 12 of 25 neurones) evoked by electrical stimulation in mNTS or comNTS. In addition, administration of PrRP decreased the paired-pulse ratio of EPSCs evoked by two identical stimuli delivered 100 ms apart (from 0.95 ± 0.08 to 0.71 ± 0.11, P < 0.05), whereas it did not affect the amplitude of inward currents evoked by exogenous application of l-glutamate to the slice. The frequency, but not amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs and action potential-independent miniature EPSCs was also increased by administration of PrRP, suggesting that the peptide was acting at least in part at receptors on presynaptic nerve terminals to enhance glutamatergic transmission. In recordings obtained from a separate group of slices, we did not observe any direct effects of PrRP on spontaneous discharge or postsynaptic excitability in either mNTS or comNTS neurones (n = 31). These data indicate that PrRP may act within the DVC to regulate gastric motor function by modulating the efficacy of conventional excitatory synaptic inputs from the NTS onto gastric-projecting vagal motor neurones. PMID:15486017

Grabauskas, Gintautas; Zhou, Shi-Yi; Das, Sudipto; Lu, Yuanxu; Owyang, Chung; Moises, Hylan C

2004-01-01

87

Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreased the numbers of spikes evoked by super stimuli in the presence of 15 ?mol/L bicuculline, indicating the existence of inhibitory pathways in the injured rat hippocampus. Diazepam effectively increased the paired-pulse facilitation ratio in the hippocampal CA1 region following fluid percussion injury, reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials, decreased action-potential-dependent glutamine release, and reversed spontaneous glutamine release. These data suggest that diazepam could decrease the fluid percussion injury-induced enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 area.

Cao, Lei; Bie, Xiaohua; Huo, Su; Du, Jubao; Liu, Lin; Song, Weiqun

2014-01-01

88

Regulation of Synaptic Transmission at the Caenorhabditis elegans M4 Neuromuscular Junction by an Antagonistic Relationship Between Two Calcium Channels  

PubMed Central

In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, the synapse from motor neuron M4 to pharyngeal terminal bulb (TB) muscles is silent, and the muscles are instead excited by gap junction connections from adjacent muscles. An eat-5 innexin mutant lacking this electrical connection has few TB contractions and is unable to grow well on certain foods. We showed previously that this defect can be overcome by activation of the M4 ? TB synapse. To identify genes that negatively regulate synaptic transmission, we isolated new suppressors of eat-5. To our surprise, these suppressors included null mutations in NPQR-type calcium channel subunit genes unc-2 and unc-36. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Ca2+ entry through the NPQR-type channel inhibits synaptic transmission by activating the calcium-activated K+ channel SLO-1, thus antagonizing the EGL-19 L-type calcium channel. PMID:25378475

Steciuk, Mark; Cheong, Mi; Waite, Christopher; You, Young-Jai; Avery, Leon

2014-01-01

89

Acute lipopolysaccharide exposure facilitates epileptiform activity via enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in vitro  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence indicates brain inflammation has been involved in the genesis of seizures. However, the direct effect of acute inflammation on neuronal circuits is not well known. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to stimulate brain inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we observed the contribution of inflammation induced by 10 ?g/mL LPS to the excitability of neuronal circuits in acute hippocampal slices. When slices were incubated with LPS for 30 minutes, significant increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 1? were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In electrophysiological recordings, we found that frequency of epileptiform discharges and spikes per burst increased 30 minutes after LPS application. LPS enhanced evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents but did not modify evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In addition, exposure to LPS enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by a decrease in rheobase and an increase in action potential frequency elicited by depolarizing current injection. Our observations suggest that acute inflammation induced by LPS facilitates epileptiform activity in vitro and that enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability may contribute to this facilitation. These results may provide new clues for treating seizures associated with brain inflammatory disease. PMID:25170268

Gao, Fei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Jiang, Wen

2014-01-01

90

FMRP Regulates Neurotransmitter Release and Synaptic Information Transmission by Modulating Action Potential Duration via BK channels  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the physiological functions of FMRP remain highly debatable. Here we show that FMRP regulates neurotransmitter release in CA3 pyramidal neurons by modulating action potential (AP) duration. Loss of FMRP leads to excessive AP broadening during repetitive activity, enhanced presynaptic calcium influx and elevated neurotransmitter release. The AP broadening defects caused by FMRP loss have a cell-autonomous presynaptic origin and can be acutely rescued in postnatal neurons. These presynaptic actions of FMRP are translation-independent and are mediated selectively by BK channels via interaction of FMRP with BK channel’s regulatory ?4 subunits. Information-theoretical analysis demonstrates that loss of these FMRP functions causes marked dysregulation of synaptic information transmission. FMRP-dependent AP broadening is not limited to the hippocampus, but also occurs in cortical pyramidal neurons. Our results thus suggest major translation-independent presynaptic functions of FMRP that may have important implications for understanding FXS neuropathology. PMID:23439122

Deng, Pan-Yue; Rotman, Ziv; Blundon, Jay A.; Cho, Yongcheol; Cui, Jianmin; Cavalli, Valeria; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Klyachko, Vitaly A.

2013-01-01

91

Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala (Amyg). The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the MD thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. FPSPs evoked at the mPFC from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals’ avoidance of the reward. FPSPs collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation) when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations.

López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M.

2015-01-01

92

Optogenetic analysis of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable method for recording evoked synaptic events in identified neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans would greatly accelerate our understanding of its nervous system at the molecular, cellular and network levels. Here we describe a method for recording synaptic currents and potentials from identified neurons in nearly intact worms. Dissection and exposure of postsynaptic neurons is facilitated by microfabricated agar substrates,

Theodore H. Lindsay; Tod R. Thiele; Shawn R. Lockery

2011-01-01

93

Combined delivery of neurotrophin-3 and NMDA receptors 2D subunit strengthens synaptic transmission in contused and staggered double hemisected spinal cord of neonatal rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether administration of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NMDA-2D-expressing units, found previously to enhance transmission in neonatal rat spinal cord, strengthens synaptic connections in the injured neonatal cord. We employed electrophysiological methods to evaluate the strength of synaptic transmission to individual motoneurons in the contusion and staggered double hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI) models. SCI at caudal thoracic levels (T11–T12)

Victor L. Arvanian; William J. Bowers; Aileen Anderson; Philip J. Horner; Howard J. Federoff; Lorne M. Mendell

2006-01-01

94

Potentiation of inhibitory synaptic transmission by extracellular ATP in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei.  

PubMed

The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the circadian master clock in mammals, releases ATP in a rhythm, but the role of extracellular ATP in the SCN is still unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of ATP-gated P2X receptors (P2XRs) in the SCN neurons of slices isolated from the brain of 16- to 20-day-old rats. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the SCN contains mRNA for P2X 1-7 receptors and several G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Among the P2XR subunits, the P2X2 > P2X7 > P2X4 mRNAs were the most abundant. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from SCN neurons revealed that extracellular ATP application increased the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs without changes in their amplitudes. The effect of ATP appears to be mediated by presynaptic P2X2Rs because ATP?S and 2MeS-ATP mimics, while the P2XR antagonist PPADS blocks, the observed enhancement of the frequency of GABA currents. There were significant differences between two SCN regions in that the effect of ATP was higher in the ventrolateral subdivision, which is densely innervated from outside the SCN. Little evidence was found for the presence of P2XR channels in somata of SCN neurons as P2X2R immunoreactivity colocalized with synapsin and ATP-induced current was observed in only 7% of cells. In fura-2 AM-loaded slices, BzATP as well as ADP stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) increase, indicating that the SCN cells express functional P2X7 and P2Y receptors. Our data suggest that ATP activates presynaptic P2X2Rs to regulate inhibitory synaptic transmission within the SCN and that this effect varies between regions. PMID:23637193

Bhattacharya, Anirban; Vavra, Vojtech; Svobodova, Irena; Bendova, Zdena; Vereb, Gyorgy; Zemkova, Hana

2013-05-01

95

Enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn mediates antinociceptive effects of TC-2559  

PubMed Central

Background TC-2559 is a selective ?4?2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist and ?4?2 nAChR activation has been related to antinociception. The aim of this study is to investigate the analgesic effect of TC-2559 and its underlying spinal mechanisms. Results 1) In vivo bioavailability study: TC-2559 (3 mg/kg) had high absorption rate in rats with maximal total brain concentration reached over 4.6 ?M within first 15 min after administration and eliminated rapidly with brain half life of about 20 min after injection. 2) In vivo behavioral experiments: TC-2559 exerts dose dependent antinociceptive effects in both formalin test in mice and chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats by activation of ?4?2 nAChRs; 3) Whole-cell patch-clamp studies in the superficial dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord slices: perfusion of TC-2559 (2 ?M) significantly increased the frequency, but not amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). The enhancement of sIPSCs was blocked by pre-application of DH?E (2 ?M), a selective ?4?2 nicotinic receptor antagonist. Neither the frequency nor the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) of spinal dorsal horn neurons were affected by TC-2559. Conclusions Enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn via activation of ?4?2 nAChRs may be one of the mechanisms of the antinociceptive effects of TC-2559 on pathological pain models. It provides further evidence to support the notion that selective ?4?2 subtype nAChR agonist may be developed as new analgesic drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21816108

2011-01-01

96

Increased Gene Dosage of Ube3a Results in Autism Traits and Decreased Glutamate Synaptic Transmission in Mice  

PubMed Central

People with autism spectrum disorder are characterized by impaired social interaction, reduced communication, and increased repetitive behaviors. The disorder has a substantial genetic component, and recent studies have revealed frequent genome copy number variations (CNVs) in some individuals. A common CNV that occurs in 1 to 3% of those with autism—maternal 15q11-13 duplication (dup15) and triplication (isodicentric extranumerary chromosome, idic15)—affects several genes that have been suggested to underlie autism behavioral traits. To test this, we tripled the dosage of one of these genes, the ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3a, which is expressed solely from the maternal allele in mature neurons, and reconstituted the three core autism traits in mice: defective social interaction, impaired communication, and increased repetitive stereotypic behavior. The penetrance of these autism traits depended on Ube3a gene copy number. In animals with increased Ube3a gene dosage, glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, synaptic transmission was suppressed as a result of reduced presynaptic release probability, synaptic glutamate concentration, and postsynaptic action potential coupling. These results suggest that Ube3a gene dosage may contribute to the autism traits of individuals with maternal 15q11-13 duplication and support the idea that increased E3A ubiquitin ligase gene dosage results in reduced excitatory synaptic transmission. PMID:21974935

Smith, Stephen E. P.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Guangping; Jin, Zhe; Stoppel, David C.; Anderson, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

97

Learning-induced modulation of the GABAB-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission: mechanisms and functional significance.  

PubMed

Complex olfactory-discrimination (OD) learning results in a series of intrinsic and excitatory synaptic modifications in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons that enhance the circuit excitability. Such overexcitation must be balanced to prevent runway activity while maintaining the efficient ability to store memories. We showed previously that OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAA-mediated inhibition. Here we show that GABAB-mediated inhibition is also enhanced after learning and study the mechanism underlying such enhancement and explore its functional role. We show that presynaptic, GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is enhanced after learning. In contrast, the population-average postsynaptic GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is unchanged, but its standard deviation is enhanced. Learning-induced reduction in paired pulse facilitation in the glutamatergic synapses interconnecting pyramidal neurons was abolished by application of the GABAB antagonist CGP55845 but not by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels only, indicating enhanced suppression of excitatory synaptic release via presynaptic GABAB-receptor activation. In addition, the correlation between the strengths of the early (GABAA-mediated) and late (GABAB-mediated) synaptic inhibition was much stronger for each particular neuron after learning. Consequently, GABAB-mediated inhibition was also more efficient in controlling epileptic-like activity induced by blocking GABAA receptors. We suggest that complex OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAB-mediated inhibition that enables the cortical network to store memories, while preventing uncontrolled activity. PMID:24598518

Kfir, Adi; Ohad-Giwnewer, Naama; Jammal, Luna; Saar, Drorit; Golomb, David; Barkai, Edi

2014-05-01

98

Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina  

PubMed Central

Cross-synaptic synchrony—correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron—is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03892.001 PMID:25180102

Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

2014-01-01

99

Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca2+ indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL–MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca2+ responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca2+ responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL–MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous ‘associative-stimulation’ of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL–MB synapses but not at the AFV–MB synapses. AL–MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL–MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL–MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL–MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

2013-01-01

100

Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL-MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca(2+) responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca(2+) responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL-MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous 'associative-stimulation' of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL-MB synapses but not at the AFV-MB synapses. AL-MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL-MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL-MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL-MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

2013-01-01

101

Recombinant BDNF Rescues Deficits in Basal Synaptic Transmission and Hippocampal LTP in BDNF Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed at high levels in hippocampal neurons, and its expression is modulated by neural activity. Knockout mice can be used to study the roles of molecules like BDNF in synaptic plasticity with more molecular specificity than is possible using pharmacological approaches. Because in conventional knockouts the disrupted gene product is absent in all tissues throughout

Susan L Patterson; Ted Abel; Thomas A. S Deuel; Kelsey C Martin; Jack C Rose; Eric R Kandel

1996-01-01

102

Plasticity of GABA transporters: an unconventional route to shape inhibitory synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

The brain relies on GABAergic neurons to control the ongoing activity of neuronal networks. GABAergic neurons control the firing pattern of excitatory cells, the temporal structure of membrane potential oscillations and the time window for integration of synaptic inputs. These actions require a fine control of the timing of GABA receptor activation which, in turn, depends on the precise timing of GABA release from pre-synaptic terminals and GABA clearance from the extracellular space. Extracellular GABA is not subject to enzymatic breakdown, and its clearance relies entirely on diffusion and uptake by specific transporters. In contrast to glutamate transporters, GABA transporters are abundantly expressed in neuronal pre-synaptic terminals. GABA transporters move laterally within the plasma membrane and are continuously trafficked to/from intracellular compartments. It is hypothesized that due to their proximity to GABA release sites, changes in the concentration and lateral mobility of GABA transporters may have a significant effect on the time course of the GABA concentration profile in and out of the synaptic cleft. To date, this hypothesis remains to be tested. Here we use 3D Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion simulations to analyze how changes in the density of expression and lateral mobility of GABA transporters in the cell membrane affect the extracellular GABA concentration profile and the activation of GABA receptors. Our results indicate that these manipulations mainly alter the GABA concentration profile away from the synaptic cleft. These findings provide novel insights into how the ability of GABA transporters to undergo plastic changes may alter the strength of GABAergic signals and the activity of neuronal networks in the brain. PMID:24860430

Scimemi, Annalisa

2014-01-01

103

Exendin (5-39), an antagonist of GLP-1 receptor, modulates synaptic transmission via glutamate uptake in the dentate gyrus.  

PubMed

Extracellular concentrations of glutamate are mainly controlled by an astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1. We previously reported that exendin (5-39) (Ex), an antagonist of the GLP-1 receptor, improved memory impairment in ?-amyloid protein-treated rats. In this study, we investigated effects of Ex on synaptic transmission through astrocytic GLT-1 in the hippocampus. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of Ex for 1-week increased GLT-1 protein levels in the hippocampus of 4-week-old male Wistar rats. For electrophysiological studies, hippocampal slices were prepared from these Ex-treated rats or vehicle-treated rats. Ex decreased fEPSP decay time, and increased the input-output relation and decreased the paired-pulse ratio in the dentate gyrus (DG). Furthermore, Ex inhibited long-term depression but not long-term potentiation in the DG. These effects were prevented by DHK, a specific GLT-1 inhibitor. In addition, glutamate uptake was significantly increased by Ex-treatment in cultured astrocytes. These results suggest that Ex modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity through astrocytic glutamate uptake in the DG. PMID:23318256

Kobayashi, Kazuma; Iwai, Takashi; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Kamanaka, Gaku; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

2013-04-10

104

Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreased the numbers of spikes evoked by super stimuli in the presence of 15 ?mol/L bicuculline, indicating the existence of inhibitory pathways in the injured rat hippocampus. Diazepam effectively increased the paired-pulse facilitation ratio in the hippocampal CA1 region following fluid percussion injury, reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials, decreased action-potential-dependent glutamine release, and reversed spontaneous glutamine release. These data suggest that diazepam could decrease the fluid percussion injury-induced enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 area. PMID:25558239

Cao, Lei; Bie, Xiaohua; Huo, Su; Du, Jubao; Liu, Lin; Song, Weiqun

2014-11-01

105

Transducin translocation contributes to rod survival and enhances synaptic transmission from rods to rod bipolar cells  

PubMed Central

In rod photoreceptors, several phototransduction components display light-dependent translocation between cellular compartments. Notably, the G protein transducin translocates from rod outer segments to inner segments/spherules in bright light, but the functional consequences of translocation remain unclear. We generated transgenic mice where light-induced transducin translocation is impaired. These mice exhibited slow photoreceptor degeneration, which was prevented if they were dark-reared. Physiological recordings showed that control and transgenic rods and rod bipolar cells displayed similar sensitivity in darkness. After bright light exposure, control rods were more strongly desensitized than transgenic rods. However, in rod bipolar cells, this effect was reversed; transgenic rod bipolar cells were more strongly desensitized than control. This sensitivity reversal indicates that transducin translocation in rods enhances signaling to rod bipolar cells. The enhancement could not be explained by modulation of inner segment conductances or the voltage sensitivity of the synaptic Ca2+ current, suggesting interactions of transducin with the synaptic machinery. PMID:23836670

Majumder, Anurima; Pahlberg, Johan; Boyd, Kimberly K.; Kerov, Vasily; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan; Sampath, Alapakkam P.; Artemyev, Nikolai O.

2013-01-01

106

Modulation of synaptic transmission by adenosine in layer 2/3 of the rat visual cortex in vitro.  

PubMed

Adenosine is a wide-spread endogenous neuromodulator. In the central nervous system it activates A1 and A2A receptors (A1Rs and A2ARs) which have differential distributions, different affinities to adenosine, are coupled to different G-proteins, and have opposite effects on synaptic transmission. Although effects of adenosine are studied in detail in several brain areas, such as the hippocampus and striatum, the heterogeneity of the effects of A1R and A2AR activation and their differential distribution preclude generalization over brain areas and cell types. Here we study adenosine's effects on excitatory synaptic transmission to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in slices of the rat visual cortex. We measured effects of bath application of adenosine receptor ligands on evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs), and membrane properties. Adenosine reduced the amplitude of evoked EPSPs and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and reduced frequency of mEPSPs in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. Concurrent with EPSP/C amplitude reduction was an increase in the paired-pulse ratio. These effects were blocked by application of the selective A1R antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), suggesting that activation of presynaptic A1Rs suppresses excitatory transmission by reducing release probability. Adenosine (20?M) hyperpolarized the cell membrane from -65.3±1.5 to -67.7±1.8mV, and reduced input resistance from 396.5±44.4 to 314.0±36.3MOhm (?20%). These effects were also abolished by DPCPX, suggesting postsynaptic A1Rs. Application of the selective A2AR antagonist SCH-58261 (2-(2-furanyl)-7-(2-phenylethyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-a-mine) on the background of high adenosine concentrations revealed an additional decrease in EPSP amplitude. Moreover, application of the A2AR agonist CGS-21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-?-d-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride) led to an A1R-dependent increase in mEPSP frequency. Dependence of the A2AR effects on the A1R availability suggests interaction between these receptors, whereby A2ARs exert their facilitatory effect on synaptic transmission by inhibiting the A1R-mediated suppression. Our results demonstrate functional pre and postsynaptic A1Rs and presynaptic A2ARs in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex, and suggest interaction between presynaptic A2ARs and A1Rs. PMID:24355495

Bannon, N M; Zhang, P; Ilin, V; Chistiakova, M; Volgushev, M

2014-02-28

107

Retrograde Control of Synaptic Transmission by Postsynaptic CaMKII at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde signaling plays an important role in synaptic homeostasis, growth, and plasticity. A retrograde signal at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila controls the homeostasis of neurotransmitter release. Here, we show that this retrograde signal is regulated by the postsynaptic activity of Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Reducing CaMKII activity in muscles enhances the signal and increases neurotransmitter release, while

A. Pejmun Haghighi; Brian D. McCabe; Richard D. Fetter; Jessica E. Palmer; Sabrina Hom; Corey S. Goodman

2003-01-01

108

Rab11 modulates ?-synuclein-mediated defects in synaptic transmission and behaviour.  

PubMed

A central pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of proteinaceous depositions known as Lewy bodies, which consist largely of the protein ?-synuclein (aSyn). Mutations, multiplications and polymorphisms in the gene encoding aSyn are associated with familial forms of PD and susceptibility to idiopathic PD. Alterations in aSyn impair neuronal vesicle formation/transport, and likely contribute to PD pathogenesis by neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. aSyn is functionally associated with several Rab family GTPases, which perform various roles in vesicle trafficking. Here, we explore the role of the endosomal recycling factor Rab11 in the pathogenesis of PD using Drosophila models of aSyn toxicity. We find that aSyn induces synaptic potentiation at the larval neuromuscular junction by increasing synaptic vesicle (SV) size, and that these alterations are reversed by Rab11 overexpression. Furthermore, Rab11 decreases aSyn aggregation and ameliorates several aSyn-dependent phenotypes in both larvae and adult fruit flies, including locomotor activity, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and shortened lifespan. This work emphasizes the importance of Rab11 in the modulation of SV size and consequent enhancement of synaptic function. Our results suggest that targeting Rab11 activity could have a therapeutic value in PD. PMID:25305083

Breda, Carlo; Nugent, Marie L; Estranero, Jasper G; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Outeiro, Tiago F; Steinert, Joern R; Giorgini, Flaviano

2015-02-15

109

Src, a molecular switch governing gain control of synaptic transmission mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors  

PubMed Central

The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system. PMID:10393883

Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

1999-01-01

110

Altered synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of transgenic mice with enhanced central nervous systems expression of interleukin-6.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) occur in a number of CNS disorders. However, little is known about how this condition affects CNS neuronal function. Transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 in the CNS show cognitive changes, increased propensity for hippocampal seizures and reduced number of inhibitory interneurons, suggesting that elevated levels of IL-6 can cause neuroadaptive changes that alter hippocampal function. To identify these neuroadaptive changes, we measured the levels of protein expression using Western blot analysis and synaptic function using field potential recordings in hippocampus from IL-6 transgenic mice (IL-6 tg) and their non-transgenic (non-tg) littermates. Western blot analysis showed enhanced levels of the GFAP and STAT3 in the IL-6 tg hippocampus compared with the non-tg hippocampus, but no difference for several other proteins. Field potential recordings of synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapse showed enhanced dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials and somatic population spikes in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice compared with slices from non-tg littermate controls. No differences were observed for several forms of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity between hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg and non-tg mice. These results demonstrate that elevated levels of IL-6 can alter mechanisms involved in the excitability of hippocampal neurons and synapses, an effect consistent with recent evidence indicating that elevated production of IL-6 plays an important role in conditions associated with seizure activity and in other impairments observed in CNS disorders with a neuroinflammatory component. PMID:22609298

Nelson, T E; Olde Engberink, A; Hernandez, R; Puro, A; Huitron-Resendiz, S; Hao, C; De Graan, P N E; Gruol, D L

2012-08-01

111

Loss of Predominant Shank3 Isoforms Results in Hippocampus-Dependent Impairments in Behavior and Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

The Shank3 gene encodes a scaffolding protein that anchors multiple elements of the postsynaptic density at the synapse. Previous attempts to delete the Shank3 gene have not resulted in a complete loss of the predominant naturally occurring Shank3 isoforms. We have now characterized a homozygous Shank3 mutation in mice that deletes exon 21, including the Homer binding domain. In the homozygous state, deletion of exon 21 results in loss of the major naturally occurring Shank3 protein bands detected by C-terminal and N-terminal antibodies, allowing us to more definitively examine the role of Shank3 in synaptic function and behavior. This loss of Shank3 leads to an increased localization of mGluR5 to both synaptosome and postsynaptic density-enriched fractions in the hippocampus. These mice exhibit a decrease in NMDA/AMPA excitatory postsynaptic current ratio in area CA1 of the hippocampus, reduced long-term potentiation in area CA1, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. In addition, these mice also exhibit motor-coordination deficits, hypersensitivity to heat, novelty avoidance, altered locomotor response to novelty, and minimal social abnormalities. These data suggest that Shank3 isoforms are required for normal synaptic transmission/plasticity in the hippocampus, as well as hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. PMID:24259569

Kouser, Mehreen; Speed, Haley E.; Dewey, Colleen M.; Reimers, Jeremy M.; Widman, Allie J.; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Bangash, Muhammad; Xiao, Bo; Worley, Paul F.

2013-01-01

112

Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

2014-01-01

113

PTP? functions as a presynaptic receptor for the glypican-4/LRRTM4 complex and is essential for excitatory synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases-comprising LAR, PTP?, and PTP?-are synaptic adhesion molecules that organize synapse development. Here, we identify glypican 4 (GPC-4) as a ligand for PTP?. GPC-4 showed strong (nanomolar) affinity and heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent interaction with the Ig domains of PTP?. PTP? bound only to proteolytically cleaved GPC-4 and formed additional complex with leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 4 (LRRTM4) in rat brains. Moreover, single knockdown (KD) of PTP?, but not LAR, in cultured neurons significantly reduced the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4, a postsynaptic ligand of GPC-4, in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Finally, PTP? KD dramatically decreased both the frequency and amplitude of excitatory synaptic transmission. This effect was reversed by wild-type PTP?, but not by a HS-binding-defective PTP? mutant. Our results collectively suggest that presynaptic PTP?, together with GPC-4, acts in a HS-dependent manner to maintain excitatory synapse development and function. PMID:25624497

Ko, Ji Seung; Pramanik, Gopal; Um, Ji Won; Shim, Ji Seon; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Kee Hun; Chung, Gug-Young; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; de Wit, Joris; Park, Kang-Sik; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Ko, Jaewon

2015-02-10

114

Analysing metabotropic glutamate group III receptor mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in the amygdala-kindled dentate gyrus of the rat.  

PubMed

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) provide a powerful control of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and may serve as a target for drug development in human temporal lobe epilepsies. Agonists and antagonists at these receptors influence the development and propagation of seizures in some animal models of epilepsy. Experimental seizures can change the level of expression of mGluRs in the rat hippocampus. In the human dentate gyrus of patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), group III mGluR mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission is almost lost in the sub-group with Ammon's horn sclerosis. We tested the modulation of synaptic transmission by the group III mGluR specific agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) in the dentate gyrus outer molecular layer in control and amygdala-kindled rats, a common model for TLE. Extracellular field potential recordings upon subthreshold stimulation of lateral perforant path fibers were measured simultaneously in the outer molecular layer and granule cell layer. Analysis of 'paired-pulse' characteristics in the absence and presence of L-AP4 and group III mGluR mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the lateral perforant path revealed no significant alterations in fully kindled rats. Since there is no evidence of altered L-AP4 responses, a loss of group III mGluR function, particularly that of subtype mGluR8, seems not necessary for the kindling epilepsy. PMID:10064795

Friedl, M; Clusmann, H; Kral, T; Dietrich, D; Schramm, J

1999-03-01

115

Carbenoxolone Modifies Spontaneous Inhibitory and Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Rat Somatosensory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Gap junction (GJ) coupling between neocortical GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in the synchronization of activity in cortical networks in physiological and pathophysiological states, e.g., seizures. Past studies have shown that GJ blockers exert anticonvulsant actions in both in vivo and in vitro models of epilepsy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these antiepileptic effects have not been fully elucidated. This is due, in part, to a lack of information of the influence of GJ blockade on network activity in the absence of convulsant agents or enhanced neuronal excitation. One key question is whether GJ blockers act on excitatory or inhibitory systems, or both. To address this issue, we examined the effects of the GJ blocker carbenoxolone (CarbX, 150 ?M) on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in acute slices of rat somatosensory cortex. Results showed that CarbX decreased the amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs by 30.2% and 25.7%, respectively. CarbX increased the mean frequency of sEPSCs by 24.1%, but had no effect on sEPSC amplitude. During blockade of GABAA-mediated events with picrotoxin (20 ?M), CarbX induced only a small increase in sEPSC frequency that was not statistically different from control, indicating CarbX enhancement of sEPECs was secondary to the depression of synaptic inhibition. These findings suggest that in neocortex, blockade of GJs leads to an increase in spontaneous excitation by uncoupling GABAergic interneurons, and that electronic communication between inhibitory cells plays a significant role in regulating tonic synaptic excitation. PMID:17382470

Yang, Lie; Ling, Douglas S. F.

2007-01-01

116

Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) protein plays a major role in A?-induced alterations of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity.  

PubMed

Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) protein has been proposed as an early event in AD pathogenesis. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, intraneuronal A? immunoreactivity was found especially in brain regions critically involved in the cognitive deficits of AD. Although a large body of evidence demonstrates that A?42 accumulates intraneuronally ((in)A?), the action and the role of A?42 buildup on synaptic function have been poorly investigated. Here, we demonstrate that basal synaptic transmission and LTP were markedly depressed following A?42 injection into the neuron through the patch pipette. Control experiments performed with the reverse peptide (A?42-1) allowed us to exclude that the effects of (in)A? depended on changes in oncotic pressure. To further investigate (in)A? synaptotoxicity we used an A? variant harboring oxidized methionine in position 35 that does not cross the neuronal plasma membrane and is not uploaded from the extracellular space. This A?42 variant had no effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity when applied extracellularly, but induced synaptic depression and LTP inhibition after patch-pipette dialysis. Finally, the injection of an antibody raised against human A?42 (6E10) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal brain slices and autaptic microcultures did not, per se, significantly affect LTP and basal synaptic transmission, but it protected against the toxic effects of extracellular A?42. Collectively, these findings suggest that A?42-induced impairment of glutamatergic synaptic function depends on its internalization and intracellular accumulation thus paving the way to a systemic proteomic analysis of intracellular targets/partners of A?42. PMID:25232124

Ripoli, Cristian; Cocco, Sara; Li Puma, Domenica D; Piacentini, Roberto; Mastrodonato, Alessia; Scala, Federico; Puzzo, Daniela; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Grassi, Claudio

2014-09-17

117

Kv1.3 channels regulate synaptic transmission in the nucleus of solitary tract.  

PubMed

The voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.3 has been reported to regulate transmitter release in select central and peripheral neurons. In this study, we evaluated its role at the synapse between visceral sensory afferents and secondary neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We identified mRNA and protein for Kv1.3 in rat nodose ganglia using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In immunohistochemical experiments, anti-Kv1.3 immunoreactivity was very strong in internal organelles in the soma of nodose neurons with a weaker distribution near the plasma membrane. Anti-Kv1.3 was also identified in the axonal branches that project centrally, including their presynaptic terminals in the medial and commissural NTS. In current-clamp experiments, margatoxin (MgTx), a high-affinity blocker of Kv1.3, produced an increase in action potential duration in C-type but not A- or Ah-type neurons. To evaluate the role of Kv1.3 at the presynaptic terminal, we examined the effect of MgTx on tract evoked monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in brain slices of the NTS. MgTx increased the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in a subset of neurons, with the major increase occurring during the first stimuli in a 20-Hz train. These data, together with the results from somal recordings, support the hypothesis that Kv1.3 regulates the duration of the action potential in the presynaptic terminal of C fibers, limiting transmitter release to the postsynaptic cell. PMID:21430270

Ramirez-Navarro, Angelina; Glazebrook, Patricia A; Kane-Sutton, Michelle; Padro, Caroline; Kline, David D; Kunze, Diana L

2011-06-01

118

Pentobarbitone interference with inhibitory synaptic transmission in crayfish stretch receptor neurones.  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of pentobarbitone (PB) on GABA-ergic inhibition was investigated in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor. The soma of the slowly adapting neurone was impaled with two micro-electrodes to give an accurate determination of membrane conductances. 2. Application of PB in concentrations from 10(-6) to 10(-3) M increased the rise time constant of the inhibitory post-synaptic potential (i.p.s.p.). The i.p.s.p. percentage amplitude and decay time constant were also increased in eight out of twelve neurones. On prolonged exposure, the percentage amplitude declined at a rate dependent upon the dose and the frequency of stimulation until the i.p.s.p. became undetectable. 3. The response to ionophoretically applied GABA remained essentially unaltered in the presence of PB, but the falling phase was prolonged by up to 8% in four of the ten neurones tested. Resting membrane conductance, i.p.s.p. driving force (i.p.s.p. reversal potential minus resting membrane potential), and parameters of the anti- and orthodromic action potential were not significantly affected. 4. Removal of PB after prolonged exposure usually caused an immediate increase in i.p.s.p. percentage amplitude but the i.p.s.p. rising phase remained slowed. 5. Application of excess extracellular GABA only affected the i.p.s.p. percentage amplitude after it had been reduced by PB. It transiently increased the attenuated i.p.s.p. percentage amplitude in the presence of PB, and after the removal of PB permanently increased the amplitude to its original value. 6. Nipecotic acid and cis-1,3-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid, inhibitors of GABA re-uptake, slightly increased the i.p.s.p. percentage amplitude, and prolonged the falling phase but did not affect the rising phase. The percentage amplitude declined on prolonged exposure. 7. We conclude that PB has no electrophysiologically demonstrable post-synaptic action in the crayfish stretch receptor neurone, but it inhibits the presynaptic release and re-uptake of GABA. PMID:6273538

Aickin, C C; Deisz, R A

1981-01-01

119

Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice  

PubMed Central

Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

2014-01-01

120

Synaptic PRG-1 Modulates Excitatory Transmission via Lipid Phosphate-Mediated Signaling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Plasticity related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific membrane protein related to lipid phosphate phosphatases, which acts in the hippocampus specifically at the excitatory synapse terminating on glutamatergic neurons. Deletion of prg-1 in mice leads to epileptic seizures and augmentation of EPSCs, but not IPSCs. In utero electroporation of PRG-1 into deficient animals revealed that PRG-1 modulates excitation at the synaptic junction. Mutation of the extracellular domain of PRG-1 crucial for its interaction with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) abolished the ability to prevent hyperexcitability. As LPA application in vitro induced hyperexcitability in wild-type but not in LPA2 receptor-deficient animals, and uptake of phospholipids is reduced in PRG-1-deficient neurons, we assessed PRG-1/LPA2 receptor-deficient animals, and found that the pathophysiology observed in the PRG-1-deficient mice was fully reverted. Thus, we propose PRG-1 as an important player in the modulatory control of hippocampal excitability dependent on presynaptic LPA2 receptor signaling. PMID:19766573

Trimbuch, Thorsten; Beed, Prateep; Vogt, Johannes; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Maier, Nikolaus; Kintscher, Michael; Breustedt, Jörg; Schuelke, Markus; Streu, Nora; Kieselmann, Olga; Brunk, Irene; Laube, Gregor; Strauss, Ulf; Battefeld, Arne; Wende, Hagen; Birchmeier, Carmen; Wiese, Stefan; Sendtner, Michael; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Kishimoto-Suga, Mika; Brose, Nils; Baumgart, Jan; Geist, Beate; Aoki, Junken; Savaskan, Nic E.; Bräuer, Anja U.; Chun, Jerold; Ninnemann, Olaf; Schmitz, Dietmar; Nitsch, Robert

2013-01-01

121

Ethanol dually modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area: role of µ-opioid receptors  

PubMed Central

The mesolimbic dopaminergic system, originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is implicated in the rewarding properties of ethanol. VTA dopaminergic neurons are under the tonic control of GABAergic innervations. Application of GABAergic agents changes ethanol consumption. However, it is unclear how acute ethanol modulates GABAergic inputs to dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. This report describes ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations (10–40 mM) dually modulates inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). IPSCs were mediated by GABAA receptors and were recorded from VTA dopaminergic neurons in acute midbrain slices of rats. Acute application of ethanol reduced the amplitude and increased the paired pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Ethanol lowered the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs. Nevertheless, ethanol had no effect on miniature IPSCs recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. These data indicate that ethanol inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission to dopaminergic neurons by presynaptic mechanisms, and that ethanol inhibition depends on the firing of GABAergic neurons. Application of CGP 52432, a GABAB receptor antagonist did not change ethanol inhibition of IPSCs. Tyr-D-Ala- Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol enkephalin (DAMGO), a µ-opioid receptor agonist, conversely, silenced VTA GABAergic neurons and inhibited IPSCs. Of note, in the presence of saturating concentration of DAMGO (3 µM), ethanol potentiated the remaining IPSCs. Thus, ethanol dually modulates GABAergic transmission to dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Ethanol modulation depends on the activity of VTA GABAergic neurons, which were inhibited by the activation of µ-opioid receptors. This dual modulation of GABAergic transmission by ethanol may be an important mechanism underlying alcohol addiction. PMID:18343590

Xiao, Cheng; Ye, Jiang-Hong

2008-01-01

122

Glycinergic synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of mice with normal hearing and age-related hearing loss.  

PubMed

The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cochlear nucleus (CN) is glycine. During age-related hearing loss (AHL), glycinergic inhibition becomes weaker in CN. However, it is unclear what aspects of glycinergic transmission are responsible for weaker inhibition with AHL. We examined glycinergic transmission onto bushy cells of the anteroventral CN in normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice and in DBA/2J mice, a strain that exhibits an early onset AHL. Glycinergic synaptic transmission was examined in brain slices of mice at 10-15 postnatal days old, 20-35 days old, and at 6-7 mo old. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) event frequency and amplitude were the same among all three ages in both strains of mice. However, the amplitudes of IPSCs evoked (eIPSC) from stimulating the dorsal CN were smaller, and the failure rate was higher, with increasing age due to decreased quantal content in both mouse strains, independent of hearing status. The coefficient of variation of the eIPSC amplitude also increased with age. The decay time constant (?) of sIPSCs and eIPSCs were constant in CBA/CaJ mice at all ages, but were significantly slower in DBA/2J mice at postnatal days 20-35, following the onset of AHL, and not at earlier or later ages. Our results suggest that glycinergic inhibition at the synapses onto bushy cells becomes weaker and less reliable with age through changes in release. However, the hearing loss in DBA/2J mice is accompanied by a transiently enhanced inhibition, which could disrupt the balance of excitation and inhibition. PMID:23904491

Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

2013-10-01

123

Glycinergic synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of mice with normal hearing and age-related hearing loss  

PubMed Central

The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cochlear nucleus (CN) is glycine. During age-related hearing loss (AHL), glycinergic inhibition becomes weaker in CN. However, it is unclear what aspects of glycinergic transmission are responsible for weaker inhibition with AHL. We examined glycinergic transmission onto bushy cells of the anteroventral CN in normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice and in DBA/2J mice, a strain that exhibits an early onset AHL. Glycinergic synaptic transmission was examined in brain slices of mice at 10–15 postnatal days old, 20–35 days old, and at 6–7 mo old. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) event frequency and amplitude were the same among all three ages in both strains of mice. However, the amplitudes of IPSCs evoked (eIPSC) from stimulating the dorsal CN were smaller, and the failure rate was higher, with increasing age due to decreased quantal content in both mouse strains, independent of hearing status. The coefficient of variation of the eIPSC amplitude also increased with age. The decay time constant (?) of sIPSCs and eIPSCs were constant in CBA/CaJ mice at all ages, but were significantly slower in DBA/2J mice at postnatal days 20–35, following the onset of AHL, and not at earlier or later ages. Our results suggest that glycinergic inhibition at the synapses onto bushy cells becomes weaker and less reliable with age through changes in release. However, the hearing loss in DBA/2J mice is accompanied by a transiently enhanced inhibition, which could disrupt the balance of excitation and inhibition. PMID:23904491

Xie (???), Ruili

2013-01-01

124

Facilitation of synaptic transmission and pain responses by CGRP in the amygdala of normal rats  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in peripheral and central sensitization. CGRP also is a key molecule in the spino-parabrachial-amygdaloid pain pathway. Blockade of CGRP1 receptors in the spinal cord or in the amygdala has antinociceptive effects in different pain models. Here we studied the electrophysiological mechanisms of behavioral effects of CGRP in the amygdala in normal animals without tissue injury. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurons in the latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC) in rat brain slices showed that CGRP (100 nM) increased excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at the parabrachio-amygdaloid (PB-CeLC) synapse, the exclusive source of CGRP in the amygdala. Consistent with a postsynaptic mechanism of action, CGRP increased amplitude, but not frequency, of miniature EPSCs and did not affect paired-pulse facilitation. CGRP also increased neuronal excitability. CGRP-induced synaptic facilitation was reversed by an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5, 50 ?M) or a PKA inhibitor (KT5720, 1 ?M), but not by a PKC inhibitor (GF109203X, 1 ?M). Stereotaxic administration of CGRP (10 ?M, concentration in microdialysis probe) into the CeLC by microdialysis in awake rats increased audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Behavioral effects of CGRP were largely blocked by KT5720 (100 ?M) but not by GF109203X (100 ?M). The results show that CGRP in the amygdala exacerbates nocifensive and affective behavioral responses in normal animals through PKA- and NMDA receptor-dependent postsynaptic facilitation. Thus, increased CGRP levels in the amygdala might trigger pain in the absence of tissue injury. PMID:20144185

2010-01-01

125

Inhibitory effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmission via dopamine D1-like receptors in neonatal rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dopamine released from the endings of descending dopaminergic nerve fibres in the spinal cord may be involved in modulating functions such as locomotion and nociception. Here, we examined the effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmissions in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spinal reflex potentials, monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and slow ventral root potential (sVRP), were measured in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat. Dopamine release was measured by HPLC. KEY RESULTS Dopamine at lower concentrations (<1 µM) depressed sVRP, which is a C fibre-evoked polysynaptic response and believed to reflect nociceptive transmission. At higher concentrations (>1 µM), in addition to a potent sVRP depression, dopamine depolarized baseline potential and slightly depressed MSR. Depression of sVRP by dopamine was partially reversed by dopamine D1-like but not by D2-like receptor antagonists. SKF83959 and SKF81297, D1-like receptor agonists, and methamphetamine, an endogenous dopamine releaser, also caused the inhibition of sVRP. Methamphetamine also depressed MSR, which was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist. Methamphetamine induced the release of dopamine and 5-HT from spinal cords, indicating that the release of endogenous dopamine and 5-HT depresses sVRP and MSR respectively. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggested that dopamine at lower concentrations preferentially inhibited sVRP, which is mediated via dopamine D1-like and other unidentified receptors. The dopamine-evoked depression is involved in modulating the spinal functions by the descending dopaminergic pathways. PMID:22168428

Kawamoto, K; Otsuguro, K; Ishizuka, M; Ito, S

2012-01-01

126

Analysing metabotropic glutamate group III receptor mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in the amygdala-kindled dentate gyrus of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) provide a powerful control of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and may serve as a target for drug development in human temporal lobe epilepsies. Agonists and antagonists at these receptors influence the development and propagation of seizures in some animal models of epilepsy. Experimental seizures can change the level of expression of mGluRs in the rat

M Friedl; H Clusmann; T Kral; D Dietrich; J Schramm

1999-01-01

127

Activation of 5-HT receptors inhibits GABAergic transmission by pre-and post-synaptic mechanisms in layer II/III of the juvenile rat auditory cortex.  

PubMed

The specific mechanisms by which serotonin (5-HT) modulates synaptic transmission in the auditory cortex are still unknown. In this work, we used whole-cell recordings from layer II/III of pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices to characterize the influence of 5-HT on inhibitory synaptic activity in the auditory cortex after pharmacological blockade of excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We found that bath application of 5-HT (5 µM) reduced the frequency and amplitude of both spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), reduced the amplitude of evoked IPSCs, and enhanced facilitation of paired pulse ratio (PPR), suggesting presynaptic inhibition. To determine which the serotonin receptors were involved in this effect, we studied the influence of specific 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission. The inhibiting influence of 5-HT in the GABAergic synaptic activity was mimicked by using the selective agonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, 8(OH)-DPAT (10 µM) and DOI (10 µM), respectively; and it was prevented by their respective antagonists NAN-190 (1 µM) and ritanserin (1 ?M). Furthermore, the application of the selective agonist of 5-HT1A receptors, 8-(OH)-DPAT (10 µM), produced PPR facilitation, while DOI application (5-HT2A agonist) did not change the PPR. Moreover, the 5-HT2A agonist reduced the amplitude of the IPSCs evoked by application of the selective GABA agonist, muscimol. These results suggest a presynaptic and postsynaptic reduction of GABAergic transmission mediated by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonergic receptors, respectively. Synapse 69:115-127, 2015. ?© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25482075

García-Oscos, Francisco; Torres-Ramírez, Oswaldo; Dinh, Lu; Galindo-Charles, Luis; Pérez Padilla, Elsy Arlene; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Atzori, Marco; Salgado, Humberto

2015-03-01

128

Dextromethorphan inhibits the glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius of guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Dextromethorphan (DEX) is a widely used non-opioid antitussive. However, the precise site of action and its mechanism were not fully understood. We examined the effects of DEX on AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of guinea pigs. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (evoked EPSCs: eEPSCs) were evoked in the second-order neurons by electrical stimulation of the tractus solitarius. DEX reversibly decreased the eEPSC amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner. The DEX-induced inhibition of eEPSC was accompanied by an increased paired-pulse ratio. Miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were also recorded in the presence of Cd(2+) or tetrodotoxin. DEX decreased the frequency of mEPSCs without affecting their amplitude. Topically applied AMPA provoked an inward current in the neurons, which was unchanged during the perfusion of DEX. BD1047, a ?-1-receptor antagonist, did not block the inhibitory effect of DEX on the eEPSCs, but antagonized the inhibition of eEPSCs induced by SKF-10047, a ?-1 agonist. Haloperidol, a ?-1 and -2 receptor ligand, had no influence on the inhibitory action of DEX. These results suggest that DEX inhibits glutamate release from the presynaptic terminals projecting to the second-order NTS neurons, but this effect of DEX is not mediated by the activation of ? receptors. PMID:21487194

Ohi, Yoshiaki; Tsunekawa, Saori; Haji, Akira

2011-01-01

129

Effects of enhanced activity on synaptic transmission in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Transmitter release at neuromuscular junctions of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in mice was studied after 2-8 month periods of unforced running in wheels. 2. Intracellular recordings at 10 Hz stimulation revealed that the quantal content of endplate potentials (EPPs) in Mg(2+)-blocked preparations was larger by 30% in trained (mean number of quanta, m = 1.75 +/- 0.19, n = 7) than in untrained control EDL muscles (m = 1.35 +/- 0.35, n = 7). Similarly the amplitudes of the first, maximum and plateau EPPs during tetanic stimulation (100 Hz for 1 s or 400 ms) in curare-blocked preparations were increased by 28% each; muscle fibre diameters did not differ while other postsynaptic effects were not excluded. 3. Training effects became particularly evident in two pairs of monozygotic twins, in which the time courses of facilitation and depression were changed as well: at 100 Hz stimulation the maximum EPP amplitude was reached on average at 2.6 impulses in controls but at 2.0 impulses in runners, and the following decline below the value of the first EPP at 5.0 and 3.8 impulses respectively. 4. Block resistance, as monitored by isometric tension measurements in different presynaptic (Mg2+) and postsynaptic (curare) blocking solutions, was higher in trained than in control EDL muscles. Depression in a train of four nerve-evoked single twitches at 2 Hz was lower. 5. As expected from the unchanged fibre diameters (see above) isometric tetanic force was similar in trained and control EDL muscles. Muscle fatigue resistance was larger in trained animals and succinic dehydrogenase activity was higher in fibres of trained muscles indicating an endurance training of the EDL muscle. 6. It is concluded that besides changes in muscle fibre properties, prolonged elevated activity causes increased transmitter release in EDL muscles. As a consequence, the safety margin of transmission in trained EDL muscles is markedly elevated. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1648130

Dorlöchter, M; Irintchev, A; Brinkers, M; Wernig, A

1991-01-01

130

Central dysmyelination reduces the temporal fidelity of synaptic transmission and the reliability of postsynaptic firing during high-frequency stimulation.  

PubMed

Auditory brain stem circuits rely on fast, precise, and reliable neurotransmission to process auditory information. To determine the fundamental role of myelination in auditory brain stem function, we examined the evoked auditory brain stem response (ABR) from the Long Evans shaker (LES) rat, which lacks myelin due to a genetic deletion of myelin basic protein. In control rats, the ABR evoked by a click consisted of five well-defined waves (denoted waves I-V). In LES rats, waves I, IV, and V were present, but waves II and III were undetectable, indicating disrupted function in the earliest stages of central nervous system auditory processing. In addition, the developmental shortening of the interval between waves I and IV that normally occurs in control rats was arrested and resulted in a significant increase in the central conduction time in LES rats. In brain stem slices, action potential transmission between the calyx of Held terminals and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) neurons was delayed and less reliable in LES rats, although the resting potential, threshold, input resistance, and length of the axon initial segment of the postsynaptic MNTB neurons were normal. The amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and the degree of synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation were not different between LES rats and controls, but LES rats exhibited a marked slow component to the EPSC decay and a much higher rate of presynaptic failures. Together, these results indicate that loss of myelin disrupts brain stem auditory processing, increasing central conduction time and reducing the reliability of neurotransmission. PMID:23843435

Kim, Sei Eun; Turkington, Karl; Kushmerick, Christopher; Kim, Jun Hee

2013-10-01

131

Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in ‘children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2?3,3?4,4?5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2?3,5?6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope >200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX+PCB170 (1–100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached >250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX+100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca2+-dependence of [3H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca2+ appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs. PMID:19289137

Kim, Authors: Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

2009-01-01

132

Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope > 200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX + PCB170 (1-100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached > 250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX + 100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca{sup 2+}-dependence of [{sup 3}H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca{sup 2+} appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs.

Kim, Kyung Ho [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F. [Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California (United States); Pessah, Isaac N. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: inpessah@ucdavis.edu

2009-06-01

133

Developmental profiles of glutamate receptors and synaptic transmission at a single synapse in the mouse auditory brainstem  

PubMed Central

Using whole-cell recordings from presynaptic terminals and postsynaptic principal neurons in the mouse medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), we have characterized properties of the calyx of Held synapse during the first three postnatal weeks. We observed that evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDAR) increased until postnatal day 11/12 (P11/12) after which they declined to very low or undetectable levels at P16. Meanwhile, EPSCs mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPAR) showed an approximate three-fold increase in amplitude. These changes were paralleled by NMDAR and AMPAR currents evoked by exogenous NMDA and kainate to MNTB neurons except that whole-cell kainate currents remained constant after P7/8 while AMPAR-EPSCs continued to increase. We found that the decay time constant ? for NMDAR-EPSCs and AMPAR-EPSCs declined by about 30 % and 70 %, respectively. Analyses of NMDAR-EPSCs with subunit-specific pharmacological agents including ifenprodil, N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), zinc and Mg2+ revealed subtle developmental changes in subunit composition. As maturation progressed, this synapse displayed a reduction in the number of presynaptic spike failures and the extent of synaptic depression in response to trains of stimuli (50–300 Hz) while the recovery rate from depression accelerated. These results demonstrate profound changes in the size and kinetics of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and in the spike-firing capability of presynaptic terminals at the calyx of Held-MNTB synapse during early development. We suggest that these concurrent presynaptic and postsynaptic adaptations represent important steps for synapse consolidation and refinement and ultimately for the development of fast high-fidelity transmission at this synapse. PMID:11986375

Joshi, Indu; Wang, Lu-Yang

2002-01-01

134

Metaplasticity: the plasticity of synaptic plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In thi paper, we review experimental evidence for a novel form of persistent synaptic plasticity we call metaplasticity. Metaplasticity is induced by synaptic or cellular activity, but it is not necessarilly expressed as a change in the efficacy of normal synaptic transmission. Instead, it is manifest as a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity such as long-term

Wickliffe C. Abraham; Mark F. Bear

1996-01-01

135

Physiological consequences of selective suppression of synaptic transmission in developing cerebral cortical networks in vitro: Differential effects on intrinsically  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1572 2.1. Partial excitatory amino acid receptor blockade homeostasis Spontaneous action potentials Ionotropic glutamate receptors Cholinergic synaptic drive GABAergic medium following development in the presence of excitatory receptor blockers. The former category

van Pelt, Jaap

136

The schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 modulates AMPAR synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus of juvenile DBA/2J mice.  

PubMed

The dystrobrevin binding protein (DTNBP) 1 gene has emerged over the last decade as a potential susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. While no causative mutations have been found, reduced expression of the encoded protein, dysbindin, was reported in patients. Dysbindin likely plays a role in the neuronal trafficking of proteins including receptors. One important pathway suspected to be affected in schizophrenia is the fast excitatory glutamatergic transmission mediated by AMPA receptors. Here, we investigated excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in hippocampal neurons from dysbindin-deficient sandy mice bred on the DBA/2J strain. In cultured neurons an enhancement of AMPAR responses was observed. The enhancement of AMPAR-mediated transmission was confirmed in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, and was not associated with changes in the expression of GluA1-4 subunits or an increase in GluR2-lacking receptor complexes. Lastly, an enhancement in LTP was also found in these mice. These data provide compelling evidence that dysbindin, a widely suspected susceptibility protein in schizophrenia, is important for AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in the developing hippocampus. PMID:24321452

Orozco, Ian J; Koppensteiner, Peter; Ninan, Ipe; Arancio, Ottavio

2014-01-01

137

Regulation of synaptic transmission at the photoreceptor terminal: a novel role for the cation–chloride co-transporter NKCC1  

PubMed Central

The Na+–K+–2Cl? co-transporter type 1 (NKCC1) is localized primarily throughout the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of the distal retina, a synaptic lamina that is comprised of the axon terminals of photoreceptors and the dendrites of horizontal and bipolar cells. Although known to play a key role in development, signal transmission and the gating of sensory signals in other regions of the retina and in the CNS, the contribution of NKCC1 to synaptic transmission within the OPL is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the function of NKCC1 at the photoreceptor–horizontal cell synapse by recording the electrical responses of photoreceptors and horizontal cells before and after blocking the activity of the transporter with bumetanide (BMN). Because NKCC1 co-transports 1 Na+, 1 K+ and 2 Cl?, it is electroneutral and its activation had little effect on membrane conductance. However, recordings from postsynaptic horizontal cells revealed that inhibiting NKCC1 with BMN greatly increased glutamate release from both rod and cone terminals. In addition, we found that NKCC1 directly regulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at the photoreceptor synapse, raising the possibility that NKCC1 serves to suppress bulk release of glutamate vesicles from photoreceptor terminals in the dark and at light offset. Interestingly, NKCC1 gene and protein expressions were upregulated by light, which we attribute to the light-induced release of dopamine acting on D1-like receptors. In sum, our study reveals a new role for NKCC1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in photoreceptors. PMID:23090945

Shen, Wen; Purpura, Lauren A; Li, Baoqin; Nan, Changlong; Chang, Irene J; Ripps, Harris

2013-01-01

138

Dopaminergic enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal neurons is dependent on D?-like receptor-mediated signaling.  

PubMed

The modulatory neurotransmitter dopamine induces concentration-dependent changes in synaptic transmission in the entorhinal cortex, in which high concentrations of dopamine suppress evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and lower concentrations induce an acute synaptic facilitation. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings were used to investigate the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II neurons of the rat lateral entorhinal cortex. A constant bath application of 1 ?M dopamine resulted in a consistent facilitation of EPSPs evoked in layer II fan cells by layer I stimulation; the size of the facilitation was more variable in pyramidal neurons, and synaptic responses in a small group of multiform neurons were not modulated by dopamine. Isolated inhibitory synaptic responses were not affected by dopamine, and the facilitation of EPSPs was not associated with a change in paired-pulse facilitation ratio. Voltage-clamp recordings of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were facilitated by dopamine, but N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents were not. Bath application of the dopamine D?-like receptor blocker SCH23390 (50 ?M), but not the D?-like receptor blocker sulpiride (50 ?M), prevented the facilitation, indicating that it is dependent upon D?-like receptor activation. Dopamine D? receptors lead to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and including the PKA inhibitor H-89 or KT 5720 in the recording pipette solution prevented the facilitation of EPSCs. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of inhibitor 1 or the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated protein phosphatase (DARPP-32) can lead to a facilitation of AMPA receptor responses by inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that reduces dephosphorylation of AMPA receptors, and we found here that inhibition of PP1 occluded the facilitatory effect of dopamine. The dopamine-induced facilitation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in layer II neurons of the lateral entorhinal cortex is therefore likely mediated via a D? receptor-dependent increase in PKA activity and a resulting inhibition in PP1-dependent dephosphorylation of AMPA receptors. PMID:24220689

Glovaci, I; Caruana, D A; Chapman, C A

2014-01-31

139

Thiamethoxam, a poor agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on isolated cell bodies, acts as a full agonist at cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses.  

PubMed

Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a second-generation neonicotinoid which is known to induce toxic effects on insects and mammalians. Recently, it has been proposed that TMX is a poor agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on isolated cell bodies. Here, we have studied its effect on synaptic transmission. Our results demonstrate that TMX acts as an agonist of nAChRs expressed on cockroach cercal afferent giant/interneuron synapses as bath applications of TMX induce a strong reversible depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion. This response was reduced by the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine and methyllicaconitine, but was insensitive to d-tubocurarine. Interestingly, TMX-induced depolarization was partially reduced by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, suggesting that TMX could bind to a 'mixed nicotinic/muscarinic' receptor. Compared to previous studies, we proposed that TMX is able to act as agonist of insect nAChRs expressed at cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses. Moreover, our results suggest that nAChRs expressed on synaptic ganglion are distinct to nAChRs expressed on isolated cell bodies and that synaptic receptors have higher affinity to TMX resulting to a depolarization of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. PMID:21172360

Thany, Steeve H

2011-03-01

140

In vitro studies of prolonged synaptic depression in the neonatal rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

1. Synaptic transmission between dorsal root afferents and alpha-motoneurones was studied in the in vitro hemisected spinal cord preparation isolated from neonatal rats. 2. Repetitive stimulation of the dorsal roots depressed the monosynaptic reflex recorded from the homologous ventral roots. The depression developed within the first five to six pulses in a stimulus train and stabilized at a plateau-like level for many seconds of stimulation. 3. The magnitude of the reflex depression depended on the stimulation interval and was capable of reducing the reflex to 17% of its undepressed control during 5 Hz stimulus trains. Complete recovery from depression was obtained at stimulation intervals greater than or equal to 30 s. 4. Monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded intracellularly after reduction of the activity in polysynaptic pathways by addition of mephenesin to the bathing media. These EPSPs exhibited a prolonged, frequency-dependent synaptic depression. The depression reduced the amplitude of the EPSP to 25% of the undepressed control during 5 Hz stimulus trains, and was alleviated completely at stimulus interval greater than or equal to 60 s. 5. The prolonged EPSP depression was not altered by blockade of glycinergic and type-A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA-ergic) receptors underlying postsynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord. Injection of current steps to motoneurones before and during the prolonged depression revealed similar values of the membrane time constant and input resistance. These excluded changes in the passive properties of the motoneurone membrane as an explanation for the observed synaptic depression. 6. Extracellular recordings of terminal potentials and their accompanying synaptic fields from motor nuclei in the ventrolateral cord revealed that the frequency-dependent depression in the synaptic fields was not preceded by any detectable changes in the amplitude or the shape of the terminal potential, suggesting that the depression cannot be attributed to impairment of action potential invasion to the afferent terminals. 7. Reduction of the basic level of transmitter release in the spinal cord by increasing the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of the bathing solution or by application of 2 microM of L(-)baclofen markedly diminished the synaptic potential depression at all the stimulation intervals tested in this study. Recovery from depression was evident for stimulation intervals greater than or equal to 5 s. Under these conditions, short tetanic trains (5 pulses at 25 Hz) revealed a substantial facilitation and potentiation of the EPSPs. 8. We suggest that prolonged depression of synaptic potentials in the neonatal rat reflects decreased transmitter output from the activated afferent terminals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1593445

Lev-Tov, A; Pinco, M

1992-02-01

141

A serotonergic discrimination favoring synaptic inputs that accompany robust spike firing in lateral amygdala neurons.  

PubMed

The amygdala and serotonergic innervations thereunto are considered to cooperatively modulate affective behaviors. By whole-cell recording, the present study examined effects of serotonin (5-HT) on synaptic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) complex, which is the amygdalar entrance for sensory information. Application of 5-HT-attenuated excitatory postsynaptic currents at synapses from the lateral amygdala (LA) to the BLA proper, and also at synapses from putative thalamic afferents to LA principal neurons, both depending on 5-HT(2) receptors. This reduction of synaptic responses was confirmed in the BLA under current clamp. In the LA, by contrast, synaptic potentials were not reduced, but enhanced by 5-HT. With 5-HT bath-applied, a prolonged depolarization was induced in LA neurons by strong synaptic stimulation, which appears similar to a slow after-depolarization (sADP) induced by injecting depolarizing currents. Occurrence of such current-induced sADP was confirmed in LA neurons. Both the synaptically-activated prolonged depolarization and the current-induced sADPs depended on 5-HT(2) receptor activation and postsynaptic calcium increase, suggesting that the same postsynaptic intrinsic mechanisms are involved. Reduction of potassium currents was identified as a major ionic mechanism for this sADPs. We thus revealed that 5-HT usually reduces overall synaptic transmission in the whole BLA complex, but enables sADPs to occur, thereby increasing synaptic responsiveness of LA neurons in a positive feedback manner. With this duality of 5-HT actions in operation, a weak input to the BLA complex would be usually eliminated, but could be selected were it associated with sufficiently large depolarization. PMID:22698688

Yamamoto, R; Ueta, Y; Sugai, T; Kato, N

2012-09-18

142

Defective synaptic transmission and structure in the dentate gyrus and selective fear memory impairment in the Rsk2 mutant mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.  

PubMed

The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a syndromic form of intellectual disability caused by loss-of-function of the RSK2 serine/threonine kinase encoded by the rsk2 gene. Rsk2 knockout mice, a murine model of CLS, exhibit spatial learning and memory impairments, yet the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. In the current study, we examined the performance of Rsk2 knockout mice in cued, trace and contextual fear memory paradigms and identified selective deficits in the consolidation and reconsolidation of hippocampal-dependent fear memories as task difficulty and hippocampal demand increase. Electrophysiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were carried out in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus to explore potential alterations in neuronal functions and structure. In vivo and in vitro electrophysiology revealed impaired synaptic transmission, decreased network excitability and reduced AMPA and NMDA conductance in Rsk2 knockout mice. In the absence of RSK2, standard measures of short-term and long-term potentiation (LTP) were normal, however LTP-induced CREB phosphorylation and expression of the transcription factors EGR1/ZIF268 were reduced and that of the scaffolding protein SHANK3 was blocked, indicating impaired activity-dependent gene regulation. At the structural level, the density of perforated and non-perforated synapses and of multiple spine boutons was not altered, however, a clear enlargement of spine neck width and post-synaptic densities indicates altered synapse ultrastructure. These findings show that RSK2 loss-of-function is associated in the dentate gyrus with multi-level alterations that encompass modifications of glutamate receptor channel properties, synaptic transmission, plasticity-associated gene expression and spine morphology, providing novel insights into the mechanisms contributing to cognitive impairments in CLS. PMID:23742761

Morice, Elise; Farley, Séverine; Poirier, Roseline; Dallerac, Glenn; Chagneau, Carine; Pannetier, Solange; Hanauer, André; Davis, Sabrina; Vaillend, Cyrille; Laroche, Serge

2013-10-01

143

Release of endogenous cannabinoids from ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and the modulation of synaptic processes.  

PubMed

Endogenous cannabinoids play important roles in a variety of functions in the mammalian brain, including the regulation reward-related information processing. The primary mechanism through which this is achieved is the presynaptic modulation of synaptic transmission. During reward- and reinforcement-related behavior dopamine levels increase in forebrain areas and this has recently been shown to be modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, understanding how endocannabinoids are mobilized to modulate synaptic inputs impinging on midbrain dopamine neurons is crucial to a complete understanding of the roles that these molecules play in reward behavior, drug abuse and addiction. Here we summarize the literature describing short-term and long-term regulation of afferent connections on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and describe the mechanisms through which these molecules are released during reward-based behavior and exposure to abused drugs. PMID:24495779

Wang, Huikun; Lupica, Carl R

2014-07-01

144

Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Alters Synaptic Plasticity in the Dorsolateral Striatum of Rat Offspring via Changing the Reactivity of Dopamine Receptor  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to high-level ethanol (EtOH) has been reported to produce hyperlocomotion in offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated synaptic plasticity in cortical afferent to the dorsolateral (DL) striatum is involved in the pathogensis of hyperlocomotion. Here, prenatal EtOH-exposed rat offspring were used to investigate whether maternal EtOH exposure affected synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum. We found high-frequency stimulation (HFS) induced a weaker long-term potentiation (LTP) in EtOH rats than that in control rats at postnatal day (PD) 15. The same protocol of HFS induced long-term depression (LTD) in control group but still LTP in EtOH group at PD 30 or PD 40. Furthermore, enhancement of basal synaptic transmission accompanied by the decrease of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) was observed in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D1-type receptors (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 recovered synaptic transmission and blocked the induction of abnormal LTP in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D2-type receptors (D2R) agonist quinpirole reversed EtOH-induced LTP into D1R- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent LTD. The data provide the functional evidence that prenatal ethanol exposure led to the persistent abnormal synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum via disturbing the balance between D1R and D2R. PMID:22916128

Zhou, Rong; Wang, Shenjun; Zhu, Xuejiang

2012-01-01

145

Presynaptic Modulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Developing Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the regulation of neuronal survival and differenti- ation, neurotrophins may play a role in synapse development and plasticity. Application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 synapses of neonatal hippocampus, which otherwise exhibit only short- term potentiation. This is attributable, at least in part, to an attenuation of the synaptic fatigue induced by

Wolfram Gottschalk; Pozzo Miller Ld; Alexander Figurov; Bai Lu

1998-01-01

146

Neuronal MHC Class I Molecules are Involved in Excitatory Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses of Marmoset Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies suggested a role for neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in certain\\u000a forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of rodents. Here, we report for the first time on the expression pattern and\\u000a functional properties of MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). We detected a presynaptic,

Adema Ribic; Mingyue Zhang; Christina Schlumbohm; Kerstin Mätz-Rensing; Barbara Uchanska-Ziegler; Gabriele Flügge; Weiqi Zhang; Lutz Walter; Eberhard Fuchs

2010-01-01

147

Primary afferent depolarization of cat pudendal afferents during micturition and segmental afferent stimulation.  

PubMed Central

1. This investigation examined primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of perineal afferents during micturition and evoked by electrical stimulation of perineal, hindlimb cutaneous and muscle-nerves. PAD was inferred from changes in excitability of spinal terminals of single afferents in decerebrate and chloralose-anaesthetized paralysed male cats. Observations were made on perineal afferent fibres travelling in the sensory branch of the pudendal (SPud) and superficial perineal (SPeri) nerves. 2. Micturition was evoked by distension of the bladder and excitability changes were measured in twenty-seven SPud afferents. In ten afferents, there was evidence of PAD during micturition. The time course of PAD was similar to the period of decreased activity in sphincter muscle efferents during micturition. In four afferents, there was decreased excitability during voiding that was interpreted as removal of tonic PAD. In the remaining thirteen afferents there were no detectable changes in excitability. Bladder distension in the absence of micturition failed to change the excitability of any SPud afferents tested. 3. Almost all SPud afferents were subject to PAD upon stimulation of cutaneous nerves. Superficial perineal, long saphenous, caudal cutaneous sural and the predominantly cutaneous posterior tibial nerves were particularly effective in evoking PAD. While group I strength stimulation of hindlimb muscle-nerves produced PAD of some SPud fibres, group II stimulation often increased the magnitude or incidence of PAD. The patterns and magnitude of PAD observed in SPeri afferents were similar to those observed in SPud afferents. 4. Since some SPud afferents were subject to PAD during micturition, PAD is probably one mechanism responsible for suppression of sphincter reflexes during micturition. Additional roles of PAD of perineal afferents evoked by activation of hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 8 PMID:7837101

Angel, M J; Fyda, D; McCrea, D A; Shefchyk, S J

1994-01-01

148

Dissociation of CA3 pyramidal cells with attached, functional, identified mossy fiber and interneuronal boutons for studying glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Pyramidal cells of CA3 area receive glutamatergic signals from the mossy fibers (MFs), perforant path and collaterals of other pyramidal cells, as well as GABAergic inputs from interneurons. In hippocampal slices, an extracellular stimulation electrode is often used to activate the MFs, with the disadvantage of possibly activating fibers other than MFs. We set-up a preparation that allows the analysis of the glutamatergic input from identified, giant MF boutons as well as of GABAergic inputs from boutons of interneurons on single CA3 pyramidal cells. Mossy fiber boutons were labeled by exposing hippocampal slices to a zinc-reactive fluorescent dye, or by injecting a fluorescent dye in the granule cell layer and allowing its transport along the MFs to their terminals in CA3 area. After conducting an enzyme-free, mechanical dissociation of CA3 area, we obtained pyramidal cells containing fluorescent, giant MF boutons attached to their apical dendrites, as well as boutons of interneuronal origin. Whole cell recordings were then performed, whereby synaptic responses could be evoked by selective stimulation of the identified boutons. The synaptic currents evoked by stimulation of MF boutons, unlike those evoked by stimulation of interneuronal boutons, underwent strong frequency potentiation and were depressed by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which are characteristics of transmission of MF origin. Combination of fluorophores can be used to label different tracts/boutons allowing the study of the different characteristics of neurotransmitter release from a variety of sources on single target cells. PMID:22633895

Beltrán, Jesús Q; Reyes, Sebastián; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Vińas, David; Gutiérrez, Rafael

2012-07-15

149

Recurrent inhibition of interneurones monosynaptically activated from group Ia afferents  

PubMed Central

1. Interneurones monosynaptically excited from large muscle spindle (Ia) afferents and inhibited from motor axon collaterals were searched for in the lumbar spinal cord of the cat. 2. Monosynaptic Ia excitation was found in sixty-seven of sixty-nine interneurones inhibited by antidromic volleys. These interneurones were excited from Ia afferents from one or a few muscles (mainly close synergists). Volleys in high threshold muscle and skin afferents (FRA) evoked polysynaptic excitation or inhibition. Weak inhibition from Ia afferents (from antagonists to those giving Ia excitation) was seen in a few cells. Monosynaptic excitation was evoked from the ventral quadrant of the spinal cord and polysynaptic excitation from the dorsal quadrant. 3. Inhibition from motor axon collaterals was evoked with a latency (1·2-2·0 msec) suggesting a disynaptic linkage and had the same time course as in motoneurones. It prevented synaptic activation of 60% of interneurones and decreased the firing index and delayed generation of spikes in the remaining. 4. The interneurones with convergence of monosynaptic Ia excitation and inhibition from motor axon collaterals were found in the ventral horn dorsomedial to motor nuclei. No inhibition by antidromic volleys could be detected in interneurones located in intermediate nucleus and activated monosynaptically from Ia, Ib, group I or cutaneous afferents. 5. It was concluded that the ventral Ia interneurones inhibited by volleys in recurrent motor axon collaterals mediate the reciprocal Ia inhibition to motoneurones. PMID:4253675

Hultborn, H.; Jankowska, El?bieta; Lindström, S.

1971-01-01

150

Influence of organophosphate and anticholinergic agents on Ca++ -dependent processes in synaptic transmission. Final report, 15 September 1981-14 December 1983  

SciTech Connect

The present report reviews progress over a period of 28 months in studies concerning the effects of organophosphates and anticholinergic agents on Ca++ -dependent processes in synaptic transmission. Processes which were studied include voltage-dependent and receptor operated Ca++ channels, Na+/Ca++ exchange, Ca++/Mg++ -ATPase plasma membrane pump, and ATP-dependent Ca++ uptake into endoplasmic reticulum. Initial studies focused on the effect of muscarinic receptor agonists on voltage-dependent Ca++ channels, Ca++/Mg++ -ATPase, ATP-dependent Ca++ uptake, and Na/Ca++ exchange in rat brain synaptosomes and synaptosomal membranes. These studies characterized two phases of Ca++ influx and time courses for Ca++ entry. Acute in vitro soman treatment (50 microns for 2 min) did not alter Ca++ influx through voltage-operated channels.

Ross, D.H.

1989-06-12

151

Time-dependent modulation of GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission by allopregnanolone in locus coeruleus neurons of Mecp2-null mice  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms starting 6–18 mo after birth, while what underlies the delayed onset is unclear. Allopregnanolone (Allop) is a metabolite of progesterone and a potent modulator of GABAA-ergic currents whose defects are seen in RTT. Allop changes its concentration during the perinatal period, which may affect central neurons via the GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission, contributing to the onset of the disease. To determine whether Mecp2 disruption affects Allop modulation, we performed studies in brain slices obtained from wild-type (WT) and Mecp2?/Y mice. Allop dose dependently suppressed locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal excitability in WT mice, while Mecp2-null neurons showed significant defects. Using optogenetic approaches, channelrhodopsin was specifically expressed in GABA-ergic neurons in which optical stimulation evoked action potentials. In LC neurons of WT mice, Allop exposure increased the amplitude of GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked by optical stimulation and prolonged the IPSC decay time. Consistently, Allop augmented both frequency and amplitude of GABAA-ergic spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and extended the decay time of sIPSCs. The Allop-induced potentiation of sIPSCs was deficient in Mecp2?/Y mice. Surprisingly, the impairment occurred at 3 wk postnatal age, while no significant difference in Allop modulation was observed in 1–2 wk between WT and Mecp2?/Y mice. These results indicate that the modulation of GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission by Allop is impaired in LC neurons of Mecp2-null mice at a time when RTT-like symptoms manifest, suggesting a potential mechanism for the delayed onset of the disease. PMID:24067915

Jin, Xin; Zhong, Weiwei

2013-01-01

152

Virtual leak channels modulate firing dynamics and synaptic integration in rat sympathetic neurons: implications for ganglionic transmission in vivo.  

PubMed

The excitability of rat sympathetic neurons and integration of nicotinic EPSPs were compared in primary cell culture and in the acutely isolated intact superior cervical ganglion using whole-cell patch electrode recordings. When repetitive firing was classified by Hodgkin's criteria in cultured cells, 18% displayed tonic class 1 excitability, 36% displayed adapting class 2 excitability and 46% displayed phasic class 3 excitability. In the intact ganglion, 71% of cells were class 1 and 29% were class 2. This diverges from microelectrode reports that nearly 100% of SCG neurons show phasic class 3 firing. The hypothesis that the disparity between patch and microelectrode data arises from a shunt conductance was tested using dynamic clamp in cell culture. Non-depolarizing shunts of 3-10 nS converted cells from classes 1 and 2 to class 3 dynamics with I-V relations that replicated microelectrode data. Primary and secondary EPSPs recorded from the intact SCG were modeled as virtual synapses in cell culture using dynamic clamp. Stimulating sympathetic neurons with virtual synaptic activity, designed to replicate in vivo recordings of EPSPs in muscle vasoconstrictor neurons, produced a 2.4-fold amplification of presynaptic activity. This gain in postsynaptic output did not differ between neurons displaying the three classes of excitability. Mimicry of microelectrode damage by virtual leak channels reduced and eventually obliterated synaptic gain by inhibiting summation of subthreshold EPSPs. These results provide a framework for interpreting sympathetic activity recorded from intact animals and support the hypothesis that paravertebral ganglia function as activity-dependent amplifiers of spinal output from preganglionic circuitry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25398531

Springer, Mitchell G; Kullmann, Paul H M; Horn, John P

2014-11-14

153

The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the location of P2Y receptors in lipid rafts speeds up the modulatory effect of ATP. Uncovered mechanisms may contribute to motor dysfunctions and neuromuscular diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25463521

Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

2015-01-29

154

Roles of neuronal NK1 and NK3 receptors in synaptic transmission during motility reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum  

PubMed Central

The role of NK1 and NK3 receptors in synaptic transmission between myenteric neurons during motility reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum was investigated by recording intracellularly the reflex responses of the circular muscle to distension or compression of the mucosal villi. Experiments were performed in a three-chambered organ bath that enabled drugs to be selectively applied to different sites along the reflex pathways.When applied in the recording chamber, an NK1 receptor antagonist, SR140333 (100?nM), reduced by 40–50% the amplitudes of inhibitory junction potentials (i.j.ps) evoked in the circular muscle by activation of descending reflex pathways. This effect was abolished when synaptic transmission in the stimulus region was blocked with physiological saline containing 0.1?mM Ca2+ plus 10?mM Mg2+, leaving only the component of the descending reflex pathway conducted via long anally directed collaterals of intrinsic sensory neurons.SR140333 (100?nM) had no effect on descending reflex i.j.ps when applied to the stimulus region. Ascending reflexes were also unaffected by SR140333 in the stimulus region or between the stimulus and recording sites.Septide (10?nM), an NK1 receptor agonist, enhanced descending reflexes by 30–60% when in the recording chamber. [Sar9,Met(O2)11]substance P had no effect at 10?nM, but potentiated distension-evoked reflexes at 100?nM.A selective NK3 receptor antagonist, SR142801 (100?nM), when applied to the stimulus region, reduced the amplitude of descending reflex responses to compression by 40%, but had no effect on responses to distension. SR142801 (100?nM) had no effect when applied to other regions of the descending reflex pathways.SR142801 (100?nM) only inhibited ascending reflexes when applied at the recording site. However, after nicotinic transmission in the stimulus region was blocked, SR142801 (100?nM) at this site reduced responses to compression.Contractions of the circular muscle of isolated rings of ileum evoked by low concentrations of septide, but not [Sar9,Met(O2)11]substance P, were potentiated by tetrodotoxin (300?nM).Contractile responses evoked by an NK3 receptor agonist, senktide, were non-competitively inhibited by SR142801. After excitatory neuromuscular transmission was blocked, senktide produced inhibitory responses that were also antagonised by SR142801, but to a lesser extent and in an apparently competitive manner.These results indicate that tachykinins acting via NK1 receptors partly mediate transmission to inhibitory motor neurons. NK3 receptors play a role in transmission from intrinsic sensory neurons and from ascending interneurons to excitatory motor neurons during motility reflexes. PMID:9723948

Johnson, P J; Bornstein, J C; Burcher, E

1998-01-01

155

Activation of Presynaptic GABAB(1a,2) Receptors Inhibits Synaptic Transmission at Mammalian Inhibitory Cholinergic Olivocochlear–Hair Cell Synapses  

PubMed Central

The synapse between olivocochlear (OC) neurons and cochlear mechanosensory hair cells is cholinergic, fast, and inhibitory. The inhibitory sign of this cholinergic synapse is accounted for by the activation of Ca2+-permeable postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors coupled to the opening of hyperpolarizing Ca2+-activated small-conductance type 2 (SK2)K+ channels. Acetylcholine (ACh) release at this synapse is supported by both P/Q- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Although the OC synapse is cholinergic, an abundant OC GABA innervation is present along the mammalian cochlea. The role of this neurotransmitter at the OC efferent innervation, however, is for the most part unknown. We show that GABA fails to evoke fast postsynaptic inhibitory currents in apical developing inner and outer hair cells. However, electrical stimulation of OC efferent fibers activates presynaptic GABAB(1a,2) receptors [GABAB(1a,2)Rs] that downregulate the amount of ACh released at the OC–hair cell synapse, by inhibiting P/Q-type VGCCs. We confirmed the expression of GABABRs at OC terminals contacting the hair cells by coimmunostaining for GFP and synaptophysin in transgenic mice expressing GABAB1–GFP fusion proteins. Moreover, coimmunostaining with antibodies against the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and synaptophysin support the idea that GABA is directly synthesized at OC terminals contacting the hair cells during development. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a physiological role for GABA in cochlear synaptic function. In addition, our data suggest that the GABAB1a isoform selectively inhibits release at efferent cholinergic synapses. PMID:24068816

Wedemeyer, Carolina; Zorrilla de San Martín, Javier; Ballestero, Jimena; Gómez-Casati, María Eugenia; Torbidoni, Ana Vanesa; Fuchs, Paul A.; Bettler, Bernhard; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

2013-01-01

156

Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely contacted Type B and Type C hair cells, particularly on the outer rows of the medial striola. Afferents supplying more central striolar regions innervated fewer Type B and larger numbers of Type E and Type F hair cells. Striolar afferents with thin parent axons largely supplied Type E hair cells with bulbed kniocilia in the innermost striolar rows.

Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

1994-01-01

157

Region-specific impairments in striatal synaptic transmission and impaired instrumental learning in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation and impaired speech. Because patients with this disorder often exhibit motor tremor and stereotypical behaviors, which are associated with basal ganglia pathology, we hypothesized that AS is accompanied by abnormal functioning of the striatum, the input nucleus of the basal ganglia. Using mutant mice with maternal deficiency of AS E6-AP ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+) ), we assessed the effects of Ube3a deficiency on instrumental conditioning, a striatum-dependent task. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recording to measure glutamatergic transmission in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS). Ube3a(m-/p+) mice were severely impaired in initial acquisition of lever pressing. Whereas the lever pressing of wild-type controls was reduced by outcome devaluation and instrumental contingency reversal, the performance of Ube3a(m-/p+) mice were more habitual, impervious to changes in outcome value and action-outcome contingency. In the DMS, but not the DLS, Ube3a(m-/p+) mice showed reduced amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. These results show for the first time a selective deficit in instrumental conditioning in the Ube3a deficient mouse model, and suggest a specific impairment in glutmatergic transmission in the associative corticostriatal circuit in AS. PMID:24329862

Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Castro, Stephen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Yu, Chunxiu; Cao, Xinyu; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Yin, Henry H

2014-03-01

158

Specific Trans-Synaptic Interaction with Inhibitory Interneuronal Neurexin Underlies Differential Ability of Neuroligins to Induce Functional Inhibitory Synapses  

E-print Network

Synaptic transmission depends on the matching and alignment of presynaptically released transmitters and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Neuroligin (NL) and Neurexin (Nrxn) proteins are trans-synaptic adhesion ...

Futai, Kensuke

159

Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons  

PubMed Central

Synaptic ribbons, found at the pre-synaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In Bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed fewer than 3% of the hair cells’ afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range and post-onset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase-lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system. PMID:20519533

Buran, B.N.; Strenzke, N.; Neef, A.; Gundelfinger, E.D.; Moser, T.; Liberman, M.C.

2010-01-01

160

Programmed cell death of retinal cone bipolar cells is independent of afferent or target control.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death contributes to the histogenesis of the nervous system, and is believed to be modulated through the sustaining effects of afferents and targets during the period of synaptogenesis. Cone bipolar cells undergo programmed cell death during development, and we confirm that the numbers of three different types are increased when the pro-apoptotic Bax gene is knocked out. When their cone afferents are selectively eliminated, or when the population of retinal ganglion cells is increased, however, cone bipolar cell number remains unchanged. Programmed cell death of the cone bipolar cell populations, therefore, may be modulated cell-intrinsically rather than via interactions with these synaptic partners. PMID:25169191

Keeley, Patrick W; Madsen, Nils R; St John, Ace J; Reese, Benjamin E

2014-10-15

161

Voltage-gated K(+) channels contributing to temporal precision at the inner hair cell-auditory afferent nerve fiber synapses in the mammalian cochlea.  

PubMed

To perform auditory tasks such as sound localization in the space, auditory neurons in the brain must distinguish sub-millisecond temporal differences in signals from two ears. Such high temporal resolution is possible when each neuron in the ascending auditory pathway fires brief action potential at very accurate timing. Various pre- and postsynaptic machineries ensuring such high temporal precision of auditory synaptic transmission have been identified. Of particular, in this review, the role of K(+) channels in shortening the duration of synaptic potentials will be discussed. First, the contribution of K(+) channels to AP firing of general auditory neurons will be discussed. Then, the focus will be moved to the inner hair cell (IHC)-auditory afferent nerve fiber (ANF) synapses, the first synapses of ascending auditory pathway. Molecular and immunohistological techniques have revealed various K(+) channels in the cell bodies and their processes of ANFs. Since the development of patch-clamp recordings from the ANF dendrites in 2002, it became possible to monitor the IHC-ANF synaptic transmission in greater detail. As revealed in brain auditory synapses, several different K(+) channels appear to participate in reducing the duration of synaptic potentials at the IHC-ANF synapses. In addition, K(+) channels at the ANF dendrites might act as potential targets of efferent feedback from the brain. The hypothesis is that, upon loud sound exposure, efferent neurotransmitters released onto the ANF dendrites activate certain K(+) channels and prevent excitotoxicity of ANFs. Therefore, K(+) channels of the ANF dendrites might provide potential sites of pharmacological actions to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:24925343

Oak, Min-Ho; Yi, Eunyoung

2014-07-01

162

Synaptic Tag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners review the parts of the synapse and their functions by playing a game. The object of the game is to get as many neurotransmitters across the synapse to the dendrite without being caught (deactivated) by the enzyme. This game models the process by which enzymes break down neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine) in the synaptic cleft.

Yoshioka, Melissa

2009-01-01

163

Impaired synaptic clustering of postsynaptic density proteins and altered signal transmission in hippocampal neurons, and disrupted learning behavior in PDZ1 and PDZ2 ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 knockin mice  

PubMed Central

Background Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) are scaffold proteins in PSDs that cluster signaling molecules near NMDA receptors. PSD-MAGUKs share a common domain structure, including three PDZ (PDZ1/2/3) domains in their N-terminus. While multiple domains enable the PSD-MAGUKs to bind various ligands, the contribution of each PDZ domain to synaptic organization and function is not fully understood. Here, we focused on the PDZ1/2 domains of PSD-95 that bind NMDA-type receptors, and studied the specific roles of the ligand binding of these domains in the assembly of PSD proteins, synaptic properties of hippocampal neurons, and behavior, using ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 cDNA knockin (KI) mice. Results The KI mice showed decreased accumulation of mutant PSD-95, PSD-93 and AMPA receptor subunits in the PSD fraction of the hippocampus. In the hippocampal CA1 region of young KI mice, basal synaptic efficacy was reduced and long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced with intact long-term depression. In adult KI mice, there was no significant change in the magnitude of LTP in CA1, but robustly enhanced LTP was induced at the medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses, suggesting that PSD-95 has an age- and subregion-dependent role. In a battery of behavioral tests, KI mice showed markedly abnormal anxiety-like behavior, impaired spatial reference and working memory, and impaired remote memory and pattern separation in fear conditioning test. Conclusions These findings reveal that PSD-95 including its ligand binding of the PDZ1/2 domains controls the synaptic clustering of PSD-MAGUKs and AMPA receptors, which may have an essential role in regulating hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity, and hippocampus-dependent behavior. PMID:23268962

2012-01-01

164

Calcium agonist (BayK 8644) augments voltage-sensitive calcium currents but not synaptic transmission in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the calcium agonist, BayK 8644, and other agents upon voltage-dependent calcium conductance (VSCC) and evoked synaptic activity were studied in cultured mouse spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons. As expected, BayK 8644 increased the VSCC corresponding to L channels. It had relatively little effect on evoked synaptic activity; the small but statistically significant effect that was

C. Yu; M. Jia; M. Litzinger; P. G. Nelson

1988-01-01

165

Role of Afferents in the Differentiation of Bipolar Cells in the Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

To establish dendritic arbors that integrate properly into a neural circuit, neurons must rely on cues from the local environment. The neurons presynaptic to these arbors, the afferents, are one potential source of these cues, but the particular dendritic features they regulate remain unclear. Retinal bipolar cells can be classified by the type of photoreceptor, cone or rod, forming synaptic contacts with their dendrites, suggesting a potential role of these afferents in shaping the bipolar cell dendritic arbor. In the present investigation, the role of photoreceptors in directing the differentiation of bipolar cells has been studied using two genetically modified “coneless” and “conefull” mice. Single cone (Type 7) and rod bipolar cells were labeled with DiI to reveal the entire dendritic arbor, and subsequently analyzed for several morphological features. For both cone and rod bipolar cells, the dendritic field area, number of dendritic terminals, and stratification of terminals in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were comparable among coneless, conefull, and wildtype retinas, and the overall morphological appearance of each type of cell was largely conserved, indicating an independence from afferent specification. The presence of normal afferents was, however, found to be critical for the proper spatial distribution of dendritic terminals, exhibiting a clustered distribution for the cone bipolar cells and a dispersed distribution for the rod bipolar cells. These results demonstrate a selectivity in the afferent dependency of bipolar cell differentiation, their basic morphogenetic plan commanded cell-intrinsically, and their fine terminal connectivity directed by the afferents themselves. PMID:20130177

Keeley, Patrick W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

2010-01-01

166

FMRFamide-related peptide expression in the vestibular-afferent neurons.  

PubMed

Vestibular-afferent neurons innervate hair cells from the sensory epithelia of vestibular end-organs and their action-potential discharge dynamics are driven by linear and angular accelerations of the head. The electrical activity of the vestibular-afferent neurons depends on their intrinsic properties and on the synaptic input from hair cells and from the terminals of the efferent system. Here we report that vestibular-afferent neurons of the rat are immunoreactive to RFamide-related peptides, and that the stronger signal comes from calyx-shaped neuron dendrites, with no signal detected in hair cells or supporting cells. The whole-cell voltage clamp recording of isolated afferent neurons showed that they express robust acid-sensing ionic currents (ASICs). Extracellular multiunit recordings of the vestibular nerve in a preparation in vitro of the rat inner ear showed that the perfusion of FMRFamide (a snail ortholog of this family of neuropeptides) exerts an excitatory effect on the afferent-neurons spike-discharge rate. Because the FMRFamide cannot activate the ASIC but reduces its desensitization generating a more robust current, its effect indicates that the ASIC are tonically active in the vestibular-afferent neurons and modulated by RFamide-like peptides. PMID:22342307

Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván; Ortega, Aida; Almanza, Angélica; Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario

2012-03-28

167

Homotaurine Induces Measurable Changes of Short Latency Afferent Inhibition in a Group of Mild Cognitive Impairment Individuals  

PubMed Central

Current treatment options for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are limited at providing symptomatic relief, with no effects on the underlying pathophysiology. Recently, advances in the understanding of the AD pathogenesis highlighted the role of ABeta (A?) oligomers particularly interfering with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These findings led to the development of potential anti-amyloid therapies, and among them homotaurine, a glycosaminoglycan mimetic designed to interfere with the actions of A? early in the cascade of amyloidogenic events, and by its ?-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) A receptor affinity. Recently, we showed that AD patients have impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as measured by standard theta burst stimulation protocols applied over the primary motor cortex (M1). Furthermore, AD patients have a weakened short latency afferent inhibition (SLAI), a neurophysiological measure of central cholinergic transmission, which changes reflect the cholinergic dysfunction occurring in the pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating whether homotaurine administration could modulate in vivo measured mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, namely LTP and LTD, and also SLAI in a group of mild cognitive impaired patients. We observed that homotaurine administration did not induce relevant changes of both LTP and LTD recordings, while induced changes of SLAI in our group of patients. We suggest that homotaurine effects are dependent on changes of cortical GABA transmission suggesting a potential role for this compound in ameliorating the cholinergic transmission by modulating the inhibitory cortical activity. PMID:25295005

Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Manenti, Guglielmo; Semprini, Roberta; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

168

Synaptic Limitations to Contrast Coding in the Retina of the Blowfly Calliphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of synaptic transmission on early visual processing by examining the passage of signals from photoreceptors to second order neurons (LMCS). We concentrate on the roles played by three properties of synaptic transmission: (1) the shape of the characteristic curve, relating pre- and postsynaptic signal amplitudes, (2) the dynamics of synaptic transmission and (3) the noise introduced

S. B. Laughlin; J. Howard; Barbara Blakeslee

1987-01-01

169

Altered synaptic transmission at olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals in mice lacking N-type calcium channel Cav2.2.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of voltage-activated calcium (Cav) channels for synaptic transmission at mouse olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals at the first synapse of the main and accessory olfactory pathways, respectively. We provided evidence for a central role of the N-type Cav channel subunit Cav2.2 in presynaptic transmitter release at these synapses. Striking Cav2.2 immunoreactivity was localised to the glomerular neuropil of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), and co-localised with presynaptic molecules such as bassoon. Voltage-clamp recordings of sensory nerve-evoked, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in mitral/tufted (M/T) and superficial tufted cells of the MOB and mitral cells of the AOB, in combination with established subtype-specific Cav channel toxins, indicated a predominant role of N-type channels in transmitter release at these synapses, whereas L-type, P/Q-type, and R-type channels had either no or only relatively minor contributions. In Cacna1b mutant mice lacking the Cav2.2 (?1B) subunit of N-type channels, olfactory nerve-evoked M/T cell EPSCs were not reduced but became blocker-resistant, thus indicating a major reorganisation and compensation of Cav channel subunits as a result of the Cav2.2 deletion at this synapse. Cav2.2-deficient mice also revealed that Cav2.2 was critically required for paired-pulse depression of olfactory nerve-evoked EPSCs in M/T cells of the MOB, and they demonstrated an essential requirement for Cav2.2 in vomeronasal nerve-evoked EPSCs of AOB mitral cells. Thus, Cacna1b loss-of-function mutations are unlikely to cause general anosmia but Cacna1b emerges as a strong candidate in the search for mutations causing altered olfactory perception, such as changes in general olfactory sensitivity and altered social responses to chemostimuli. PMID:25195871

Weiss, Jan; Pyrski, Martina; Weissgerber, Petra; Zufall, Frank

2014-11-01

170

Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity. PMID:24162508

Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F

2013-01-01

171

A Model of Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity: From Signaling Network to Channel Conductance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many regions of the brain, including the mammalian cortex, the strength of synaptic transmission can be bidirectionally regulated by cortical activity (synaptic plasticity). One line of evidence indicates that long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term synaptic depression (LTD), correlate with the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of…

Castellani, Gastone C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.; Bersani, Ferdinando; Cooper, Leon N.; Shouval, Harel Z.

2005-01-01

172

Novel Afferent Terminal Structure in the Crista Ampullaris of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using transmission electron microscopy, we have identified a new type of afferent terminal structure in the crista ampullaris of the goldfish Carassius auratus. In addition to the bouton-type afferent terminals previously described in the ear of this species, the crista also contained enlarged afferent terminals that enveloped a portion of the basolateral hair cell membrane. The hair cell membrane was evaginated and protruded into the afferent terminal in a glove-and-finger configuration. The membranes of the two cells were regularly aligned in the protruded region of the contact and had a distinct symmetrical electron density. The electron-dense profiles of these contacts were easily identified and were present in every crista sampled. In some cases, efferent terminals synapsed onto the afferents at a point where the hair cell protruded into the terminal. The ultrastructural similarities of the goldfish crista afferents to calyx afferents found in amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals) are discussed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that structural variation in the vertebrate inner ear may have evolved much earlier in evolution than previously supposed.

Lanford, Pamela J.; Popper, Arthur N.

1996-01-01

173

Alterations in Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity in Mice Over-Expressing Human ?-Synuclein  

PubMed Central

Most forms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are sporadic in nature, but some have genetic causes as first described for the ?-synuclein gene. The ?-synuclein protein also accumulates as insoluble aggregates in Lewy bodies in sporadic PD as well as in most inherited forms of PD. The focus of the present study is the modulation of synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway of transgenic (Tg) mice that over express the human ?-synuclein protein throughout the brain (ASOTg). Paired-pulse facilitation was detected in vitro by activation of corticostriatal afferents in ASOTg mice, consistent with a presynaptic effect of elevated human ?-synuclein. However basal synaptic transmission was unchanged in ASOTg, suggesting that human ?-synuclein could impact paired-pulse facilitation via a presynaptic mechanism not directly related to the probability of neurotransmitter release. Mice lacking ?-synuclein or those expressing normal and A53T human ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons showed, instead, paired-pulse depression. High-frequency stimulation induced a presynaptic form of long-term depression solely in ASOTg striatum. A presynaptic, NMDA receptor-independent form of chemical long-term potentiation induced by forskolin (FSK) was enhanced in ASOTg striatum, while FSK-induced cAMP levels were reduced in ASOTg synaptoneurosome fractions. Overall the results suggest that elevated human ?-synuclein alters presynaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway, possibly reflecting a reduction in glutamate at corticostriatal synapses by modulation of adenylyl cyclase signaling pathways. ASOTg mice may recapitulate an early stage in PD during which over expressed ?-synuclein dampens corticostriatal synaptic transmission and reduces movement. PMID:19361478

Watson, J.B.; Hatami, A.; David, H.; Masliah, E.; Roberts, K.; Evans, C. E.; Levine, M.S.

2009-01-01

174

Central vagal afferent endings mediate reduction of food intake by melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist.  

PubMed

Injection of the melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist melanotan-II (MTII) into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) produces rapid and sustained reduction of food intake. Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are expressed by vagal afferent endings in the NTS, but it is not known whether these endings participate in MTII-induced reduction of food intake. In experiments described here, we evaluated the contribution of central vagal afferent endings in MTII-induced reduction of food intake. Examination of rat hindbrain sections revealed that neuronal processes expressing immunoreactivity for the endogenous MC4R agonist ?-melanoctyte-stimulating hormone course parallel and wrap around anterogradely labeled vagal afferent endings in the NTS and thus are aptly positioned to activate vagal afferent MC4Rs. Furthermore, MTII and endogenous MC4R agonists increased protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of synapsin I in vagal afferent endings, an effect known to increase synaptic strength by enhancing neurotransmitter release in other neural systems. Hindbrain injection of a PKA inhibitor, KT5720, significantly attenuated MTII-induced reduction of food intake and the increase in synapsin I phosphorylation. Finally, unilateral nodose ganglion removal, resulting in degeneration of vagal afferent endings in the ipsilateral NTS, abolished MTII-induced synapsin I phosphorylation ipsilateral to nodose ganglion removal. Moreover, reduction of food intake following MTII injection into the NTS ipsilateral to nodose ganglion removal was significantly attenuated, whereas the response to MTII was not diminished when injected into the contralateral NTS. Altogether, our results suggest that reduction of food intake following hindbrain MC4R activation is mediated by central vagal afferent endings. PMID:25232103

Campos, Carlos A; Shiina, Hiroko; Ritter, Robert C

2014-09-17

175

Pathological effect of homeostatic synaptic scaling on network dynamics in diseases of the cortex.  

PubMed

Slow periodic EEG discharges are common in CNS disorders. The pathophysiology of this aberrant rhythmic activity is poorly understood. We used a computational model of a neocortical network with a dynamic homeostatic scaling rule to show that loss of input (partial deafferentation) can trigger network reorganization that results in pathological periodic discharges. The decrease in average firing rate in the network by deafferentation was compensated by homeostatic synaptic scaling of recurrent excitation among pyramidal cells. Synaptic scaling succeeded in recovering the network target firing rate for all degrees of deafferentation (fraction of deafferented cells), but there was a critical degree of deafferentation for pathological network reorganization. For deafferentation degrees below this value, homeostatic upregulation of recurrent excitation had minimal effect on the macroscopic network dynamics. For deafferentation above this threshold, however, a slow periodic oscillation appeared, patterns of activity were less sparse, and bursting occurred in individual neurons. Also, comparison of spike-triggered afferent and recurrent excitatory conductances revealed that information transmission was strongly impaired. These results suggest that homeostatic plasticity can lead to secondary functional impairment in case of cortical disorders associated with cell loss. PMID:18272691

Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J

2008-02-13

176

Converging axons collectively initiate and maintain synaptic selectivity in a constantly remodeling sensory organ.  

PubMed

Sensory receptors are the functional link between the environment and the brain [1-3]. The repair of sensory organs enables animals to continuously detect environmental stimuli [4]. However, receptor cell turnover can affect sensory acuity by changing neural connectivity patterns [5, 6]. In zebrafish, two to four postsynaptic lateralis afferent axons converge into individual peripheral mechanosensory organs called neuromasts, which contain hair cell receptors of opposing planar polarity [7]. Yet, each axon exclusively synapses with hair cells of identical polarity during development and regeneration to transmit unidirectional mechanical signals to the brain [8, 9]. The mechanism that governs this exceptionally accurate and resilient synaptic selectivity remains unknown. We show here that converging axons are mutually dependent for polarity-selective connectivity. If rendered solitary, these axons establish simultaneous functional synapses with hair cells of opposing polarities to transmit bidirectional mechanical signals. Remarkably, nonselectivity by solitary axons can be corrected upon the reintroduction of additional axons. Collectively, our results suggest that lateralis synaptogenesis is intrinsically nonselective and that interaxonal interactions continuously rectify mismatched synapses. This dynamic organization of neural connectivity may represent a general solution to maintain coherent synaptic transmission from sensory organs undergoing frequent variations in the number and spatial distribution of receptor cells. PMID:25484295

Pujol-Martí, Jesús; Faucherre, Adčle; Aziz-Bose, Razina; Asgharsharghi, Amir; Colombelli, Julien; Trapani, Josef G; López-Schier, Hernán

2014-12-15

177

CaMKII at a central synapse : ?-calcium/calmodium protien kinase II and synaptic plasticity at CA3 Schaffer collateral -- CA1 synapses in the mammalian hippocampus  

E-print Network

Long term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission at the CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapse is a model synaptic plasticity mechanism that may underlie hippocampal dependent learning and memory. Inhibition of post-synaptic ...

Hinds, Heather L., 1969-

2001-01-01

178

Specificity of afferent synapses onto plane-polarized hair cells in the posterior lateral line of the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The proper wiring of the vertebrate brain represents an extraordinary developmental challenge, requiring billions of neurons to select their appropriate synaptic targets. In view of this complexity, simple vertebrate systems provide necessary models for understanding how synaptic specificity arises. The posterior lateral-line organ of larval zebrafish consists of polarized hair cells organized in discrete clusters known as neuromasts. Here we show that each afferent neuron of the posterior lateral line establishes specific contacts with hair cells of the same hair-bundle polarity. We quantify this specificity by modeling the neuron as a biased selector of hair-cell polarity and find evidence for bias from as early as 2.5 days post-fertilization. More than half of the neurons form contacts on multiple neuromasts, but the innervated organs are spatially consecutive and the polarity preference is consistent. Using a novel reagent for correlative electron microscopy, HRP-mCherry, we show that these contacts are indeed afferent synapses bearing vesicle-loaded synaptic ribbons. Moreover, afferent neurons reassume their biased innervation pattern after hair-cell ablation and regeneration. By documenting specificity in the pattern of neuronal connectivity during development and in the context of organ regeneration, these results establish the posterior lateral-line organ as a vertebrate system for the in vivo study of synaptic target selection. PMID:18716202

Nagiel, Aaron; Andor-Ardó, Daniel

2009-01-01

179

Theta Frequency Background Tunes Transmission but Not Summation of Spiking Responses  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30–135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30–135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations. PMID:23383242

Parameshwaran, Dhanya; Bhalla, Upinder S.

2013-01-01

180

BDNF function in adult synaptic plasticity: The synaptic consolidation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in BDNF as an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal structure and function in the adult brain has intensified in recent years. Localization of BDNF-TrkB to glutamate synapses makes this system attractive as a dynamic, activity-dependent regulator of excitatory transmission and plasticity. Despite individual breakthroughs, an integrated understanding of BDNF function in synaptic plasticity is lacking. Here, we attempt to distill

Clive R. Bramham; Elhoucine Messaoudi

2005-01-01

181

Onset Coding Is Degraded in Auditory Nerve Fibers from Mutant Mice Lacking Synaptic Ribbons  

E-print Network

Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the ...

Buran, Bradley N.

182

Formation and Stability of Synaptic Receptor Domains  

E-print Network

Neurotransmitter receptor molecules, concentrated in postsynaptic domains along with scaffold and a number of other molecules, are key regulators of signal transmission across synapses. Employing experiment and theory, we develop a quantitative description of synaptic receptor domains in terms of a reaction-diffusion model. We show that interactions between only receptor and scaffold molecules, together with the rapid diffusion of receptors on the cell membrane, are sufficient for the formation and stable characteristic size of synaptic receptor domains. Our work reconciles long-term stability of synaptic receptor domains with rapid turnover and diffusion of individual receptors.

Christoph A. Haselwandter; Martino Calamai; Mehran Kardar; Antoine Triller; Rava Azeredo da Silveira

2010-12-20

183

Optogenetics reveal delayed afferent synaptogenesis on grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors.  

PubMed

Reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency stem cell state has opened new opportunities in cell replacement therapy and disease modeling in a number of neurological disorders. It still remains unknown, however, to what degree the grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into a functional neuronal phenotype and if they integrate into the host circuitry. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the functional properties and synaptic integration of hiPSC-derived neurons grafted in an in vitro model of hyperexcitable epileptic tissue, namely organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), and in adult rats in vivo. The hiPSCs were first differentiated into long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem (lt-NES) cells, which are known to form primarily GABAergic neurons. When differentiated in OHSCs for 6 weeks, lt-NES cell-derived neurons displayed neuronal properties such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents and action potentials (APs), as well as both spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents, indicating functional afferent synaptic inputs. The grafted cells had a distinct electrophysiological profile compared to host cells in the OHSCs with higher input resistance, lower resting membrane potential, and APs with lower amplitude and longer duration. To investigate the origin of synaptic afferents to the grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons, the host neurons were transduced with Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and optogenetically activated by blue light. Simultaneous recordings of synaptic currents in grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 6 weeks after grafting revealed limited synaptic connections from host neurons. Longer differentiation times, up to 24 weeks after grafting in vivo, revealed more mature intrinsic properties and extensive synaptic afferents from host neurons to the lt-NES cell-derived neurons, suggesting that these cells require extended time for differentiation/maturation and synaptogenesis. However, even at this later time point, the grafted cells maintained a higher input resistance. These data indicate that grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons receive ample afferent input from the host brain. Since the lt-NES cells used in this study show a strong propensity for GABAergic differentiation, the host-to-graft synaptic afferents may facilitate inhibitory neurotransmitter release, and normalize hyperexcitable neuronal networks in brain diseases, for example, such as epilepsy. PMID:25183299

Avaliani, Natalia; Sřrensen, Andreas Toft; Ledri, Marco; Bengzon, Johan; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver; Deisseroth, Karl; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

2014-12-01

184

Quantitative proteomics of synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria: insights for synaptic mitochondrial vulnerability.  

PubMed

Synaptic mitochondria are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis and producing ATP, processes vital for neuronal integrity and synaptic transmission. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased oxidative damage during aging and are more vulnerable to calcium insult than nonsynaptic mitochondria. Why synaptic mitochondria are specifically more susceptible to cumulative damage remains to be determined. In this study, the generation of a super-SILAC mix that served as an appropriate internal standard for mouse brain mitochondria mass spectrometry based analysis allowed for the quantification of the proteomic differences between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria isolated from 10-month-old mice. We identified a total of 2260 common proteins between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria of which 1629 were annotated as mitochondrial. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the proteins common between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria revealed significant differential expression of 522 proteins involved in several pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial fission/fusion, calcium transport, and mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. In comparison to nonsynaptic mitochondria, synaptic mitochondria exhibited increased age-associated mitochondrial DNA deletions and decreased bioenergetic function. These findings provide insights into synaptic mitochondrial susceptibility to damage. PMID:24708184

Stauch, Kelly L; Purnell, Phillip R; Fox, Howard S

2014-05-01

185

Involvement of peripheral purinoceptors in sympathetic modulation of capsaicin-induced sensitization of primary afferent fibers.  

PubMed

Purinoceptors are distributed in primary afferent terminals, where transmission of nociceptive information is modulated by these receptors. In the present study, we evaluated whether the activation or blockade of purinoceptors of subtypes P2X and P2Y in the periphery affected the sensitization of primary afferents induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin (CAP) and examined their role in sympathetic modulation of sensitization of primary nociceptive afferents. Afferent activity was recorded from single Adelta- and C-primary afferent fibers in the tibial nerve in anesthetized rats. Peripheral pretreatment with alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP), a P2X-selective receptor agonist, could potentiate the CAP-induced enhancement of responses of Adelta- and C-primary afferent nociceptive fibers to mechanical stimuli in sympathetically intact rats. After sympathetic denervation, the enhanced responses of both Adelta- and C-fibers after CAP injection were dramatically reduced. However, this reduction could be restored when P2X receptors were activated by alpha,beta-meATP. A blockade of P2X receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid could significantly reduce the CAP-induced sensitization of Adelta- and C-fibers. Pretreatment with uridine 5'-triphosphate, a P2Y-selective receptor agonist, did not significantly affect or restore the CAP-induced sensitization of Adelta- and C-fibers under sympathetically intact or sympathectomized conditions. Our study supports the view that ATP plays a role in modulation of primary afferent nociceptor sensitivity mainly by P2X receptors. Combined with our previous study, our data also provide further evidence that the sensitization of primary afferent nociceptors is subject to sympathetic modulation by activation of P2X as well as alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. PMID:16885522

Ren, Yong; Zou, Xiaoju; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing

2006-11-01

186

Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity thresholds and changes in exploratory and learning behavior in dominant negative NPR-B mutant rats  

PubMed Central

The second messenger cyclic GMP affects synaptic transmission and modulates synaptic plasticity and certain types of learning and memory processes. The impact of the natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its ligand C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), one of several cGMP producing signaling systems, on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning is, however, less well understood. We have previously shown that the NPR-B ligand CNP increases the magnitude of long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal area CA1, while reducing the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). We have extended this line of research to show that bidirectional plasticity is affected in the opposite way in rats expressing a dominant-negative mutant of NPR-B (NSE-NPR-B?KC) lacking the intracellular guanylyl cyclase domain under control of a promoter for neuron-specific enolase. The brain cells of these transgenic rats express functional dimers of the NPR-B receptor containing the dominant-negative NPR-B?KC mutant, and therefore show decreased CNP-stimulated cGMP-production in brain membranes. The NPR-B transgenic rats display enhanced LTP but reduced LTD in hippocampal slices. When the frequency-dependence of synaptic modification to afferent stimulation in the range of 1–100 Hz was assessed in transgenic rats, the threshold for both, LTP and LTD induction, was shifted to lower frequencies. In parallel, NPR-B?KC rats exhibited an enhancement in exploratory and learning behavior. These results indicate that bidirectional plasticity and learning and memory mechanism are affected in transgenic rats expressing a dominant-negative mutant of NPR-B. Our data substantiate the hypothesis that NPR-B-dependent cGMP signaling has a modulatory role for synaptic information storage and learning. PMID:25520616

Barmashenko, Gleb; Buttgereit, Jens; Herring, Neil; Bader, Michael; Özcelik, Cemil; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Braunewell, Karl H.

2014-01-01

187

Synaptic profiles during neurite extension, refinement and retraction in the developing cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background During development, excess synapses form between the central and peripheral nervous systems that are then eliminated to achieve correct connectivity. In the peripheral auditory system, the developing type I spiral ganglion afferent fibres undergo a dramatic re-organisation, initially forming connections with both sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). The OHC connections are then selectively eliminated, leaving sparse innervation by type II afferent fibres, whilst the type I afferent synapses with IHCs are consolidated. Results We examined the molecular makeup of the synaptic contacts formed onto the IHCs and OHCs during this period of afferent fibre remodelling. We observed that presynaptic ribbons initially form at all the afferent neurite contacts, i.e. not only at the expected developing IHC-type I fibre synapses but also at OHCs where type I fibres temporarily contact. Moreover, the transient contacts forming onto OHCs possess a broad set of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, suggesting that functional synaptic connections are formed prior to the removal of type I fibre innervation. AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits were transiently observed at the base of the OHCs, with their downregulation occurring in parallel with the withdrawal of type I fibres, dispersal of presynaptic ribbons, and downregulation of the anchoring proteins Bassoon and Shank. Conversely, at developing type I afferent IHC synapses, the presence of pre- and postsynaptic scaffold proteins was maintained, with differential plasticity in AMPA receptor subunits observed and AMPA receptor subunit composition changing around hearing onset. Conclusions Overall our data show a differential balance in the patterns of synaptic proteins at developing afferent IHC versus OHC synapses that likely reflect their stable versus transient fates. PMID:23217150

2012-01-01

188

Vagal afferent fibres determine the oxytocin-induced modulation of gastric tone  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin (OXT) inputs to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC; nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and area postrema) decrease gastric tone and motility. Our first aim was to investigate the mechanism(s) of OXT-induced gastric relaxation. We demonstrated recently that vagal afferent inputs modulate NTS–DMV synapses involved in gastric and pancreatic reflexes via group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Our second aim was to investigate whether group II mGluRs similarly influence the response of vagal motoneurons to OXT. Microinjection of OXT in the DVC decreased gastric tone in a dose-dependent manner. The OXT-induced gastric relaxation was enhanced following bethanechol and reduced by l-NAME administration, suggesting a nitrergic mechanism of gastroinhibition. DVC application of the group II mGluR antagonist EGLU induced a gastroinhibition that was not dose dependent and shifted the gastric effects of OXT to a cholinergic-mediated mechanism. Evoked and miniature GABAergic synaptic currents between NTS and identified gastric-projecting DMV neurones were not affected by OXT in any neurones tested, unless the brainstem slice was (a) pretreated with EGLU or (b) derived from rats that had earlier received a surgical vagal deafferentation. Conversely, OXT inhibited glutamatergic currents even in naive slices, but their responses were unaffected by EGLU pretreatment. These results suggest that the OXT-induced gastroinhibition is mediated by activation of the NANC pathway. Inhibition of brainstem group II mGluRs, however, uncovers the ability of OXT to modulate GABAergic transmission between the NTS and DMV, resulting in the engagement of an otherwise silent cholinergic vagal neurocircuit. PMID:23587885

Holmes, Gregory M; Browning, Kirsteen N; Babic, Tanja; Fortna, Samuel R; Coleman, F Holly; Travagli, R Alberto

2013-01-01

189

Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.  

PubMed

In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and decides with a shorter observation of data. DSNN performance in the benchmark pattern recognition problem shows 96.7% accuracy in classifying three classes of spiking activity. PMID:24867390

Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

2014-08-01

190

Finite Post Synaptic Potentials Cause a Fast Neuronal Response  

PubMed Central

A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going beyond both approximations, we find that in the presence of synaptic impulses the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from previous predictions. It is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, depends non-linearly on the amplitude of the impulse, is asymmetric for excitation and inhibition and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. These findings resolve contradictions between the earlier theory and experimental observations. Here we review the recent theoretical progress that enabled these insights. We explain why the membrane potential near threshold is sensitive to properties of the afferent noise and show how this shapes the neural response. A further extension of the theory to time evolution in discrete steps quantifies simulation artifacts and yields improved methods to cross check results. PMID:21427776

Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

2011-01-01

191

Convergence of trigeminal afferents on retractor bulbi motoneurones in the anaesthetized cat.  

PubMed Central

Retractor bulbi motoneurones were identified by intracellular recording of their antidromic invasion following stimulation of the motor axons. Characteristics of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) evoked by electrical stimulation of long ciliary nerves (corneal afferents), the supraorbital nerve and the ipsilateral or contralateral vibrissae were analysed. Comparison of the orthodromic responses induced by supra-threshold stimulation of the four trigeminal inputs showed that the most powerful excitatory effect was due to corneal afferent stimulation. Excitatory synaptic potentials were followed in some cases by a period of hyperpolarization lasting 15-20 msec. It is suggested that this is an inhibitory potential of post-synaptic origin. Interaction between condition and test e.p.s.p.s evoked by long ciliary nerve and supraorbital nerve stimulation revealed a partial blocking of test e.p.s.p.s over a longer period (more than 30 msec), and it is suggested that inhibitory mechanisms within the trigeminal nucleus may be in part responsible for the absence of facilitation at the level of the motoneurone. PMID:6887029

Grant, K; Horcholle-Bossavit, G

1983-01-01

192

Synaptic AMPA receptor exchange maintains bidirectional plasticity.  

PubMed

Activity-dependent synaptic delivery of GluR1-, GluR2L-, and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors (-Rs) and removal of GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs mediate synaptic potentiation and depression, respectively. The obvious puzzle is how synapses maintain the capacity for bidirectional plasticity if different AMPA-Rs are utilized for potentiation and depression. Here, we show that synaptic AMPA-R exchange is essential for maintaining the capacity for bidirectional plasticity. The exchange process consists of activity-independent synaptic removal of GluR1-, GluR2L-, or GluR4-containing AMPA-Rs and refilling with GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs at hippocampal and cortical synapses in vitro and in intact brains. In GluR1 and GluR2 knockout mice, initiation or completion of synaptic AMPA-R exchange is compromised, respectively. The complementary AMPA-R removal and refilling events in the exchange process ultimately maintain synaptic strength unchanged, but their long rate time constants ( approximately 15-18 hr) render transmission temporarily depressed in the middle of the exchange. These results suggest that the previously hypothesized "slot" proteins, rather than AMPA-Rs, code and maintain transmission efficacy at central synapses. PMID:16600857

McCormack, Stefanie G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Zhu, J Julius

2006-04-01

193

Ascending tract neurones processing information from group II muscle afferents in sacral segments of the feline spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

1. Ascending tract neurones located in the dorsal horn of sacral segments of the spinal cord have been investigated by extracellular and intracellular recording in the anaesthetized cat. The aim was to determine whether information from group II afferents that terminate within the sacral segments is conveyed to supraspinal structures and which types of neurones are involved. 2. A considerable proportion of ascending tract neurones found in the dorsal horn in the same segments as the pudendal (Onuf's) motor nucleus were excited by group II muscle afferents. The great majority (93%) of these neurones had axons ascending in ipsilateral funiculi. Spinocervical tract neurones constituted the largest proportion (82%) of such neurones, while very few spinocerebellar tract and propriospinal neurones and no postsynaptic dorsal column neurones were found among them. 3. In addition to activation by group II muscle afferents all of the neurones were strongly excited by cutaneous afferents. The most potent excitation was evoked by afferents of the posterior biceps-semitendinosus and gastrocnemius muscle nerves and by afferents of the cutaneous femoris, sural and pudendal nerves. The latencies of intracellularly recorded excitatory potentials were indicative of a high incidence of monosynaptic coupling between the afferents and ascending tract neurones. 4. The highly effective monosynaptic excitation of spinocervical tract neurones in the sacral segments by group II afferents is in contrast to the weak disynaptically mediated actions of group II afferents on such neurones in the L6-L7 segments but comparable to the actions of group II afferents on ascending tract neurones in the midlumbar segments. 5. Both the patterns of peripheral input and the latencies of synaptic actions in ascending tract neurones were similar to those in interneurones at the same locations (accompanying report). Similar information is therefore likely to be processed by both categories of neurones. 6. The role of sacral spinocervical tract neurones as a system for transmitting information from group II muscle afferents to supraspinal centres and the potential contribution of this system to the perception of limb position are discussed. PMID:8006829

Riddell, J S; Jankowska, E; Hammar, I; Szabo-Läckberg, Z

1994-01-01

194

Nicotine and Synaptic Plasticity in Prefrontal Cortex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nicotinic receptor activation enhances working memory and attention. The prefrontal cortex is a key brain area involved in working memory, and plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission within the cortex is likely an important cellular mechanism of memory. A recent study has explored the cellular and synaptic basis of nicotine’s effects on excitability within the prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest that nicotine enhances inhibitory synaptic inputs to layer V pyramidal cells, which suppresses induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). This inhibitory effect can be overcome by stimulating the pyramidal cells in bursts, which suggests a modification in the signal-to-noise ratio for synaptic input. Thus, the impact of strong stimuli on working memory would be enhanced when combined with nicotinic receptor activity. These findings may lead to novel and more effective treatments for memory disorders.

Daniel S. McGehee (University of Chicago; Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care REV)

2007-08-14

195

Synaptic Acidification Enhances GABAA Signaling  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of cellularly generated protons in synaptic signaling, we recorded GABA miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) from cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) while varying the extracellular pH buffering capacity. Consistent with previous reports, we found that increasing pH from 7.4 to 8.0 sped mIPSC rise time, and suppressed both amplitude of the current and total charge transferred. Conversely, acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) slowed the rise time and increased current amplitude and total charge transferred. In a manner consistent with alkalinization, increasing the buffering capacity from 3 to 24 mM HEPES at pH 7.4, resulted in faster mIPSC rise time, a 37% reduction in amplitude, and a 48% reduction in charge transferred. Supplementing the normal physiological buffers (24 mM HCO3?/5%CO2) with 10 mM HEPES similarly diminished mIPSCs in a manner consistent with alkalinization, resulting in faster rise time, a 39% reduction in amplitude and a 51% reduction in charge transferred. These findings suggest the existence of an acidifying synaptic force that is overcome by commonly used concentrations (10 mM) of HEPES buffer. Here we show that Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity appears to, in part, contribute to this synaptic acidification as inhibition of NHE by amiloride or lithium under physiological or weak buffering conditions alters mIPSCs in a manner consistent with alkalinization. These results suggest that acidification of the synaptic cleft occurs physiologically during GABAergic transmission and that NHE plays a critical role in generating the acidic nano-environment at the synapse. PMID:21106843

Dietrich, Craig J.

2010-01-01

196

Activity-Dependent Modulation of Synaptic AMPA Receptor Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both theoretical and experimental work have suggested that central neurons compensate for changes in excitatory synaptic input in order to maintain a relatively constant output. We report here that inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in cultured spinal neurons leads to an increase in mEPSC amplitudes, accompanied by an equivalent increase in the accumulation of AMPA receptors at synapses. Conversely, increasing

Richard J O’Brien; Sunjeev Kamboj; Michael D Ehlers; Kenneth R Rosen; Gerald D Fischbach; Richard L Huganir

1998-01-01

197

GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition of projection neurons in the antennal lobes of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Responses of neurons in the antennal lobe (AL) of the mothManduca sexta to stimulation of the ipsilateral antenna by odors consist of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials (Fig. 2A). Stimulation of primary afferent fibers by electrical shock of the antennal nerve causes a characteristic IPSP-EPSP synaptic response in AL projection neurons (Fig. 2B).2.The IPSP in projection neurons reverses below the

Brian Waldrop; Thomas A. Christensen; John G. Hildebrand

1987-01-01

198

Transmission in a locomotor-related group Ib pathway from hindlimb extensor muscles in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously shown that phasic stimulation of group I afferents from ankle and knee extensor muscles may entrain and\\/or reset the intrinsic locomotor rhythm; these afferents are thus acting on motoneurones through the spinal rhythm generators. It was also concluded that the major part of these effects originates from Golgi tendon organ Ib afferents. Transmission in this pathway

J.-P. Gossard; R. M. Brownstone; I. Barajon; H. Hultborn

1994-01-01

199

Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10–20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

Shitara, H.; Shinozaki, T.; Takagishi, K.; Honda, M.; Hanakawa, T.

2013-01-01

200

A comparative ultrastructural study of primary afferents from the brachial and cervical plexuses to the external cuneate nucleus of gerbils.  

PubMed Central

The synaptic organisation of the primary afferents from the brachial and cervical plexuses to the external cuneate nucleus of gerbils was compared following an intraneural injection of horseradish peroxidase into the musculocutaneous, median, ulnar and radial nerves of the brachial plexus or the main branches of the cervical plexus; 407 labelled primary afferent terminals from the brachial and 459 from the cervical plexus were studied. These boutons made synaptic contacts with 586 and 633 dendritic profiles, respectively. 99.0% of the primary afferent boutons from the brachial plexus contained clear round synaptic vesicles (R boutons); the remaining 1% of boutons contained pleomorphic synaptic vesicles (P boutons). For boutons from the cervical plexus, 95% were R boutons and 5% were P boutons. The labelled R bouton profiles had a wide range of cross-sectional area from 0.4 to 13.1 microns 2, while the P boutonal profiles were of a small variety (range, 0.4-2.3 microns 2; mean, 1.5; S.D., 0.6 micron 2). The R boutons from the brachial plexus (mean, 3.9 microns; S.D., 2.1 microns 2) were generally larger than those from the cervical plexus (mean, 3.3 microns 2; S.D., 1.9 microns 2). On close analysis, 72.4% of R boutons from the brachial plexus were found to synapse on distal dendrites, 15.9% on secondary dendrites, 9.5% on dendritic spines and 2.2% on proximal dendrites. For R boutons from the cervical plexus, 81.1% synapsed on distal dendrites, 12.1% on dendritic spines and 6.8% on secondary dendrites; none was observed on proximal dendrites. Such a different synaptic organisation between the two nerve plexuses may be related to their different perceptuomotor executions. Images Figs 1-3 Figs 4-6 Fig. 7 Figs 8-9 Figs 11-12 PMID:7591972

Lan, C T; Wen, C Y; Tan, C K; Ling, E A; Shieh, J Y

1995-01-01

201

Endogenous Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Tonically Regulates Synaptic and Autonomic Function  

PubMed Central

Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, are highly expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), the principal target of cardiovascular primary afferent input to the brainstem. However, little is known about the role of BDNF signaling in nTS in cardiovascular homeostasis. We examined whether BDNF in nTS modulates cardiovascular function in vivo and regulates synaptic and/or neuronal activity in isolated brainstem slices. Microinjection of BDNF into the rat medial nTS (mnTS), a region critical for baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow, produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) that were blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. In contrast, immunoneutralization of endogenous BDNF (antiBDNF), or microinjection of K252a alone, decreased MAP, HR and LSNA. The effects of antiBDNF were abolished by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors, indicating a role for glutamate signaling in the response to BDNF. In vitro, BDNF reduced the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) as well as solitary tract (TS)-evoked EPSC amplitude and action potential discharge (APD) in second-order nTS neurons. BDNF effects on EPSCs were independent of GABAergic signaling and ablated by AMPA receptor blockade. In contrast, K252a increased spontaneous EPSC frequency and TS-evoked EPSC amplitude. BDNF also attenuated APD evoked by injection of depolarizing current into second-order neurons, indicating reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability. Our data demonstrate that BDNF signaling in mnTS plays a tonic role in regulating cardiovascular function, likely via modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic excitatory transmission and neural activity. PMID:21865474

Clark, Catharine G.; Hasser, Eileen M.; Kunze, Diana L.; Katz, David M.; Kline, David D.

2012-01-01

202

Enhanced Synaptic Inhibition Disrupts the Efferent Code of Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons in Leaner Cav2.1 Ca2+ Channel Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) encode afferent information in the rate and temporal structure of their spike trains. Both spontaneous firing in these neurons and its modulation by synaptic inputs depend on Ca2+ current carried by Cav2.1 (P/Q) type channels. Previous studies have described how loss-of-function Cav2.1 mutations affect intrinsic excitability and excitatory transmission in PCs. This study examines the effects of the leaner mutation on fast GABAergic transmission and its modulation of spontaneous firing in PCs. The leaner mutation enhances spontaneous synaptic inhibition of PCs, leading to transitory reductions in PC firing rate and increased spike rate variability. Enhanced inhibition is paralleled by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) measured under voltage clamp. These differences are abolished by tetrodotoxin, implicating effects of the mutation on spike-induced GABA release. Elevated sIPSC frequency in leaner PCs is not accompanied by increased mean firing rate in molecular layer interneurons, but IPSCs evoked in PCs by direct stimulation of these neurons exhibit larger amplitude, slower decay rate, and a higher burst probability compared to wild-type PCs. Ca2+ release from internal stores appears to be required for enhanced inhibition since differences in sIPSC frequency and amplitude in leaner and wild-type PCs are abolished by thapsigargin, an ER Ca2+ pump inhibitor. These findings represent the first account of the functional consequences of a loss-of-function P/Q channel mutation on PC firing properties through altered GABAergic transmission. Gain in synaptic inhibition shown here would compromise the fidelity of information coding in these neurons and may contribute to impaired cerebellar function resulting from loss-of function mutations in the CaV2.1 channel gene. PMID:20845003

Ovsepian, Saak V.

2013-01-01

203

Extrinsic primary afferent signalling in the gut.  

PubMed

Visceral sensory neurons activate reflex pathways that control gut function and also give rise to important sensations, such as fullness, bloating, nausea, discomfort, urgency and pain. Sensory neurons are organised into three distinct anatomical pathways to the central nervous system (vagal, thoracolumbar and lumbosacral). Although remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the roles of many ion channels, receptors and second messengers in visceral sensory neurons, the basic aim of understanding how many classes there are, and how they differ, has proven difficult to achieve. We suggest that just five structurally distinct types of sensory endings are present in the gut wall that account for essentially all of the primary afferent neurons in the three pathways. Each of these five major structural types of endings seems to show distinctive combinations of physiological responses. These types are: 'intraganglionic laminar' endings in myenteric ganglia; 'mucosal' endings located in the subepithelial layer; 'muscular-mucosal' afferents, with mechanosensitive endings close to the muscularis mucosae; 'intramuscular' endings, with endings within the smooth muscle layers; and 'vascular' afferents, with sensitive endings primarily on blood vessels. 'Silent' afferents might be a subset of inexcitable 'vascular' afferents, which can be switched on by inflammatory mediators. Extrinsic sensory neurons comprise an attractive focus for targeted therapeutic intervention in a range of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23438947

Brookes, Simon J H; Spencer, Nick J; Costa, Marcello; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P

2013-05-01

204

Ageing, hippocampal synaptic activity and magnesium.  

PubMed

Ageing is associated with a general decline in physiological functions. Amongst the different aspects of body deterioration, cognitive impairments, and particularly defects in learning and memory, represent one of the most frequent features in the elderly. However, a great variability exists among aged subjects. Clinical reports and experimental data in animal models of ageing have shown that age-associated memory deficits are broadly identical to those induced by damage to the hippocampus. It is therefore not surprising that many functional properties of hippocampal neuronal networks are particularly altered with ageing. Whereas passive membrane properties of neurons are conserved with age, neuronal excitability is altered, in keeping with weaker performances of aged subjects in memory tasks. Synaptic transmission within hippocampal networks also decreases in brain ageing. Deficits concern both glutamatergic and cholinergic pathways, which represent the main excitatory neurotransmitter systems responsible for neuronal communication in the hippocampus. In addition, long-term changes in synaptic transmission, possible cellular substrates for learning and memory, are also impaired in ageing in correlation with cognitive impairments. Neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity closely depend on ion exchanges between intra- and extracellular compartments. Changes in ion regulation during ageing may therefore participate in altering functional properties of neuronal networks. Calcium dysregulation has been extensively investigated in brain ageing but the role of magnesium has received less attention though ageing constitutes a risk factor for magnesium deficit. One of general properties of magnesium at presynaptic fibre terminals is to reduce transmitter release. At the postsynaptic level, it closely controls the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, a subtype of glutamate receptor, which is critical for the expression of long-term changes in synaptic transmission. In addition, magnesium is a cofactor of many enzymes localized either in neurons or in glial cells that control neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity such as protein-kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and serine racemase. It is therefore likely that a change in magnesium concentration would significantly impair synaptic functions in the aged hippocampus. Experiments addressing this question remain too scarce but recent data indicate that magnesium is involved in age-related deficits in transmitter release, neuronal excitability and in some forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term depression of synaptic transmission. Further studies are still necessary to better delineate to what extent magnesium contributes to the impaired cellular mechanisms of cognitive functions in the elderly which will help to develop new strategies to minimize age-related memory declines. PMID:17172010

Billard, J M

2006-09-01

205

Synaptic plasticity, AMPA-R trafficking, and Ras-MAPK signaling.  

PubMed

Synaptic modification of transmission is a general phenomenon expressed at almost every excitatory synapse in the mammalian brain. Over the last three decades, much has been discovered about the cellular, synaptic, molecular, and signaling mechanisms responsible for controlling synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we present a brief review of these mechanisms with emphasis on the current understanding of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPA-R) trafficking and Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling events involved in controlling synaptic transmission. PMID:17588327

Gu, Yun; Stornetta, Ruth L

2007-07-01

206

Synaptic plasticity, AMPA-R trafficking, and Ras-MAPK signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic modification of transmission is a general phenomenon expressed at almost every excitatory synapse in the mammalian brain. Over the last three decades, much has been discovered about the cellular, synaptic, molecular, and signaling mechanisms responsible for controlling synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we present a brief review of these mechanisms with emphasis on the current understanding of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic

Yun Gu; Ruth L Stornetta

2007-01-01

207

Altered GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission disrupts the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice under conditions that mimic steroid abuse  

PubMed Central

Gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the central regulators of reproduction. GABAergic transmission plays a critical role in pubertal activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Self-administration of excessive doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) disrupts reproductive function and may have critical repercussions for pubertal onset in adolescent users. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment of adolescent male mice with the AAS, 17?-methyltestosterone (17?MT), significantly decreased action potential frequency in GnRH neurons, reduced the serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased testes mass. AAS treatment did not induce significant changes in GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels or alter the amplitude or decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSC) or tonic currents in GnRH neurons. However, AAS treatment significantly increased action potential frequency in neighboring medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons and GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency in GnRH neurons. In addition, physical isolation of the more lateral aspects of the mPOA from the medially-localized GnRH neurons abrogated the AAS-induced increase in GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency and the decrease in action potential firing in the GnRH cells. Our results indicate that AAS act predominantly on steroid-sensitive presynaptic neurons within the mPOA to impart significant increases in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory tone onto downstream GnRH neurons resulting in diminished activity of these pivotal mediators of reproductive function. These AAS-induced changes in central GABAergic circuits of the forebrain may significantly contribute to the disruptive actions of these drugs on pubertal maturation and the development of reproductive competence in male steroid abusers. PMID:20463213

Penatti, Carlos A A; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

2010-01-01

208

Altered GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission disrupts the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice under conditions that mimic steroid abuse.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the central regulators of reproduction. GABAergic transmission plays a critical role in pubertal activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Self-administration of excessive doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) disrupts reproductive function and may have critical repercussions for pubertal onset in adolescent users. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment of adolescent male mice with the AAS 17alpha-methyltestosterone significantly decreased action potential frequency in GnRH neurons, reduced the serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased testes mass. AAS treatment did not induce significant changes in GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels or alter the amplitude or decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) or tonic currents in GnRH neurons. However, AAS treatment significantly increased action potential frequency in neighboring medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons and GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency in GnRH neurons. In addition, physical isolation of the more lateral aspects of the mPOA from the medially localized GnRH neurons abrogated the AAS-induced increase in GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency and the decrease in action potential firing in the GnRH cells. Our results indicate that AAS act predominantly on steroid-sensitive presynaptic neurons within the mPOA to impart significant increases in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory tone onto downstream GnRH neurons, resulting in diminished activity of these pivotal mediators of reproductive function. These AAS-induced changes in central GABAergic circuits of the forebrain may significantly contribute to the disruptive actions of these drugs on pubertal maturation and the development of reproductive competence in male steroid abusers. PMID:20463213

Penatti, Carlos A A; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

2010-05-12

209

Nothing can be coincidence: synaptic inhibition and plasticity in the cerebellar nuclei  

PubMed Central

Many cerebellar neurons fire spontaneously, generating 10–100 action potentials per second even without synaptic input. This high basal activity correlates with information-coding mechanisms that differ from those of cells that are quiescent until excited synaptically. For example, in the deep cerebellar nuclei, Hebbian patterns of coincident synaptic excitation and postsynaptic firing fail to induce long-term increases in the strength of excitatory inputs. Instead, excitatory synaptic currents are potentiated by combinations of inhibition and excitation that resemble the activity of Purkinje and mossy fiber afferents that is predicted to occur during cerebellar associative learning tasks. Such results indicate that circuits with intrinsically active neurons have rules for information transfer and storage that distinguish them from other brain regions. PMID:19178955

Pugh, Jason R.; Raman, Indira M.

2009-01-01

210

Synaptic plasticity and signaling in Rett syndrome.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a disorder that is caused in the majority of cases by mutations in the gene methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2). Children with RTT are generally characterized by normal development up to the first year and a half of age, after which they undergo a rapid regression marked by a deceleration of head growth, the onset of stereotyped hand movements, irregular breathing, and seizures. Animal models of RTT with good construct and face validity are available. Their analysis showed that homeostatic regulation of MeCP2 gene is necessary for normal CNS functioning and that multiple complex pathways involving different neuronal and glial cell types are disrupted in RTT models. However, it is increasingly clear that RTT pathogenetic mechanisms converge at synaptic level impairing synaptic transmission and plasticity. We review novel findings showing how specific synaptic mechanisms and related signaling pathways are affected in RTT models. PMID:23908158

Della Sala, Grazia; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

2014-02-01

211

Myelination: An Overlooked Mechanism of Synaptic Plasticity?  

PubMed Central

Myelination of the brain continues through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood—the question is, Why? Two new articles provide intriguing evidence that myelination may be an underappreciated mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity: one study reported increased myelination associated with extensive piano playing, another indicated that rats have increased myelination of the corpus callosum when raised in environments providing increased social interaction and cognitive stimulation. These articles make it clear that activity-dependent effects on myelination cannot be considered strictly a developmental event. They raise the question of whether myelination is an overlooked mechanism of activity-dependent plasticity, extending in humans until at least age 30. It has been argued that regulating the speed of conduction across long fiber tracts would have a major influence on synaptic response, by coordinating the timing of afferent input to maximize temporal summation. The increase in synaptic amplitude could be as large as neurotransmitter-based mechanisms of plasticity, such as LTP. These new findings raise a larger question: How did the oligodendrocytes know they were practicing the piano or that their environment was socially complex? PMID:16282593

FIELDS, R. DOUGLAS

2006-01-01

212

Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH) on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT) were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment. PMID:25364551

Mahmoud, Ghada S.; Amer, Ayman S.

2014-01-01

213

Sensitisation of gastrointestinal tract afferents  

PubMed Central

Sensory innervation of the viscera serves a number of important functions, including regulation of visceral motility and secretory activity, and transmission of visceral sensations, including pain. There are many ways in which the sensitivity of visceral sensory neurones might be modulated, and these are discussed. Altered sensory neurone responsiveness may contribute to pathophysiological states such as irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms leading to sensory neurone sensitisation offer novel targets for the treatment of such disorders. PMID:14960552

McMahon, S

2004-01-01

214

Caudal ventrolateral medulla mediates baroreceptor afferent inputs to subfornical organ angiotensin II responsive neurons.  

PubMed

Although anatomical data indicates that the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) projects directly to the subfornical organ (SFO), little is known about the afferent information relayed through the CVLM to SFO. Experiments were done in the anesthetized rat to investigate whether CVLM neurons mediate baroreceptor afferent information to SFO and whether this afferent information alters the response of SFO neurons to systemic injections of angiotensin II (ANG II). Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 78 spontaneously discharging single units in SFO. Of these, 32 (41%) responded to microinjection of L-glutamate (L-Glu; 0.25M; 10nl) into CVLM (27/32 were inhibited and 5/32 were excited). All 32 units also were excited by systemic injections of ANG II (250ng/0.1ml, ia). However, only those units inhibited by CVLM (n=27) were found to be inhibited by the reflex activation of baroreceptors following systemic injections of phenylephrine (2?g/kg, iv). Activation of CVLM or arterial baroreceptors in conjunction with ANG II resulted in an attenuation of the SFO unit's response to ANG II. Finally, microinjections (100nl) of the synaptic blocker CoCl(2) or the non-specific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid into CVLM attenuated (10/13 units tested) the SFO neuron's response to activation of baroreceptors, but not the unit's response evoked by systemic ANG II. Taken together, these data suggest that baroreceptor afferent information relayed through CVLM functions to modulate of the activity of neurons within SFO to extracellular signals of body fluid balance. PMID:23142269

Ciriello, John

2013-01-23

215

Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment  

PubMed Central

Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the ‘what’ of brain function, the ‘how’ of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the ‘how’ that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic–extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron–glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

Vizi, ES; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

2010-01-01

216

Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment.  

PubMed

Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the 'what' of brain function, the 'how' of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the 'how' that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic-extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron-glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

Vizi, E S; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

2010-06-01

217

Afferents to the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is influenced by diverse factors such as circadian time, affective states, ambient temperature, pain, etc., but pathways mediating these influences are unknown. To identify pathways that may influence sleep, we examined afferents to the ventro- lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), an area critically implicated in promoting sleep. Injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the VLPO

Thomas C. Chou; Alvhild A. Bjorkum; Stephanie E. Gaus; Jun Lu; Thomas E. Scammell; Clifford B. Saper

2002-01-01

218

Maturation of synaptic partners: functional phenotype and synaptic organization tuned in synchrony  

PubMed Central

Maturation of principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) was assessed in the context of the developmental organization and activity of their presynaptic afferents, which grow rapidly to form calyces of Held and to establish mono-innervation between postnatal days (P)2 and 4. MNTB neurons and their inputs were studied from embryonic day (E)17, when the nucleus was first discernable, until P14 after the onset of hearing. Using a novel slice preparation containing portions of the cochlea, cochlear nucleus and MNTB, we determined that synaptic inputs form onto MNTB neurons at E17 and stimulation of the cochlear nucleus can evoke action potentials (APs) and Ca2+ signals. We analysed converging inputs onto individual MNTB neurons and found that competition among inputs was resolved quickly, as a single large input, typically larger than 4 nA, emerged from P3–P4. During calyx growth but before hearing onset, MNTB cells acquired their mature, phasic firing property and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a coincident increase in low threshold K+ channel mRNA. These events occurred in concert with an increase in somatic surface area and a 7-fold increase in the current threshold (30 to >200 pA) required to evoke action potentials, as input resistance (Rin) settled from embryonic values greater than 1 G? to approximately 200 M?. We postulate that the postsynaptic transition from hyperexcitability to decreased excitability during calyx growth could provide a mechanism to establish the mature 1:1 innervation by selecting the winning calyceal input based on synaptic strength. By comparing biophysical maturation of the postsynaptic cell to alterations in presynaptic organization, we propose that maturation of synaptic partners is coordinated by synaptic activity in a process that is likely to generalize to other neural systems. PMID:20855433

Hoffpauir, Brian K; Kolson, Douglas R; Mathers, Peter H; Spirou, George A

2010-01-01

219

Hippocampal synaptic connectivity in phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

In humans, lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) activity results in phenylketonuria (PKU), which is associated with the development of severe mental retardation after birth. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Mutations of the Pah gene in Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice result in elevated levels of phenylalanine in serum similar to those in humans suffering from PKU. In our study, long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation, measured at CA3-CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses, were impaired in acute hippocampal slices of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice. In addition, we found reduced expression of presynaptic proteins, such as synaptophysin and the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), and enhanced expression of postsynaptic marker proteins, such as synaptopodin and spinophilin. Stereological counting of spine synapses at the ultrastructural level revealed higher synaptic density in the hippocampus, commencing at 3 weeks and persisting up to 12 weeks after birth. Consistent effects were seen in response to phenylalanine treatment in cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurones. Most importantly, in the hippocampus of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice, we found a significant reduction in microglia activity. Reorganization of hippocampal circuitry after birth, namely synaptic pruning, relies on elimination of weak synapses by activated microglia in response to neuronal activity. Hence, our data strongly suggest that reduced microglial activity in response to impaired synaptic transmission affects physiological postnatal remodelling of synapses in the hippocampus and may trigger the development of mental retardation in PKU patients after birth. PMID:25296915

Horling, Katja; Schlegel, Gudrun; Schulz, Sarah; Vierk, Ricardo; Ullrich, Kurt; Santer, René; Rune, Gabriele M

2015-02-15

220

Synaptic cooperativity regulates persistent network activity in neocortex.  

PubMed

During behavioral quiescence, the neocortex generates spontaneous slow oscillations, which may consist of up-states and down-states. Up-states are short epochs of persistent activity that resemble the activated neocortex during arousal and cognition. Neural activity in neocortical pathways can trigger up-states, but the variables that control their occurrence are poorly understood. We used thalamocortical slices from adult mice to explore the role of thalamocortical and intracortical synaptic cooperativity (the number of coincident afferents) in driving up-states. Cooperativity was adjusted by varying the intensity of electrical or blue-light stimuli in pathways that express channelrhodopsin-2. We found that optogenetics greatly improves the study of thalamocortical pathways in slices because it produces thalamocortical responses that resemble those observed in vivo. The results indicate that more synaptic cooperativity, caused by either thalamocortical or intracortical fast AMPA-receptor excitation, leads to more robust inhibition of up-states because it drives stronger feedforward inhibition. Conversely, during strong synaptic cooperativity that suppresses up-states, blocking fast excitation, and as a result the feedforward inhibition it drives, unmasks up-states entirely mediated by slow NMDA-receptor excitation. Regardless of the pathway's origin, cooperativity mediated by fast excitation is inversely related to the ability of excitatory synaptic pathways to trigger up-states in neocortex. PMID:23407969

Favero, Morgana; Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A

2013-02-13

221

Engrailed alters the specificity of synaptic connections of Drosophila auditory neurons with the giant fiber.  

PubMed

We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON-GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H; Marie, Bruno; Blagburn, Jonathan M

2014-08-27

222

Cortical Presynaptic Control of Dorsal Horn C–Afferents in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C–fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C–fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C–fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C–fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. PMID:23935924

Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

2013-01-01

223

APP Is Cleaved by Bace1 in Pre-Synaptic Vesicles and Establishes a Pre-Synaptic Interactome, via Its Intracellular Domain, with Molecular Complexes that Regulate Pre-Synaptic Vesicles Functions  

PubMed Central

Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type I membrane protein that undergoes extensive processing by secretases, including BACE1. Although mutations in APP and genes that regulate processing of APP, such as PSENs and BRI2/ITM2B, cause dementias, the normal function of APP in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and memory formation is poorly understood. To grasp the biochemical mechanisms underlying the function of APP in the central nervous system, it is important to first define the sub-cellular localization of APP in synapses and the synaptic interactome of APP. Using biochemical and electron microscopy approaches, we have found that APP is localized in pre-synaptic vesicles, where it is processed by Bace1. By means of a proteomic approach, we have characterized the synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain. We focused on this region of APP because in vivo data underline the central funtional and pathological role of the intracellular domain of APP. Consistent with the expression of APP in pre-synaptic vesicles, the synaptic APP intracellular domain interactome is predominantly constituted by pre-synaptic, rather than post-synaptic, proteins. This pre-synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain includes proteins expressed on pre-synaptic vesicles such as the vesicular SNARE Vamp2/Vamp1 and the Ca2+ sensors Synaptotagmin-1/Synaptotagmin-2, and non-vesicular pre-synaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, endocytosis and recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles, such as target-membrane-SNAREs (Syntaxin-1b, Syntaxin-1a, Snap25 and Snap47), Munc-18, Nsf, ?/?/?-Snaps and complexin. These data are consistent with a functional role for APP, via its carboxyl-terminal domain, in exocytosis, endocytosis and/or recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles. PMID:25247712

Del Prete, Dolores; Lombino, Franco; Liu, Xinran; D'Adamio, Luciano

2014-01-01

224

Evolutionarily conserved differences in pallial and thalamic short-term synaptic plasticity in striatum  

PubMed Central

The striatum of the basal ganglia is conserved throughout the vertebrate phylum. Tracing studies in lamprey have shown that its afferent inputs are organized in a manner similar to that of mammals. The main inputs arise from the thalamus (Th) and lateral pallium (LPal; the homologue of cortex) that represents the two principal excitatory glutamatergic inputs in mammals. The aim here was to characterize the pharmacology and synaptic dynamics of afferent fibres from the LPal and Th onto identified striatal neurons to understand the processing taking place in the lamprey striatum. We used whole-cell current-clamp recordings in acute slices of striatum with preserved fibres from the Th and LPal, as well as tract tracing and immunohistochemistry. We show that the Th and LPal produce monosynaptic excitatory glutamatergic input through NMDA and AMPA receptors. The synaptic input from the LPal displayed short-term facilitation, unlike the Th input that instead displayed strong short-term synaptic depression. There was also an activity-dependent recruitment of intrastriatal oligosynaptic inhibition from both inputs. These results indicate that the two principal inputs undergo different activity-dependent short-term synaptic plasticity in the lamprey striatum. The difference observed between Th and LPal (cortical) input is also observed in mammals, suggesting a conserved trait throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:23148315

Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Kardamakis, Andreas; Robertson, Brita; Silberberg, Gilad; Grillner, Sten

2013-01-01

225

Regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by calcineurin in different vesicle pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synaptic vesicles keep recycling by the processes of endocytosis and exocytosis to maintain the normal synaptic transmission. The synaptic vesicles are classified as the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the reserve pool (RP). In the endocytosis process, calcineurin (CaN), a Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, has been shown to play important roles. However, it is unclear about its roles in different

Susumu Kumashiro; Yun-Fei Lu; Kazuhito Tomizawa; Masayuki Matsushita; Fan-Yan Wei; Hideki Matsui

2005-01-01

226

Hair-Cell Versus Afferent Adaptation in the Semicircular Canals  

PubMed Central

The time course and extent of adaptation in semicircular canal hair cells was compared to adaptation in primary afferent neurons for physiological stimuli in vivo to study the origins of the neural code transmitted to the brain. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Afferent firing-rate adaptation followed a double-exponential time course in response to step cupula displacements. The dominant adaptation time constant varied considerably among afferent fibers and spanned six orders of magnitude for the population (~1 ms to >1,000 s). For sinusoidal stimuli (0.1–20 Hz), the rapidly adapting afferents exhibited a 90° phase lead and frequency-dependent gain, whereas slowly adapting afferents exhibited a flat gain and no phase lead. Hair-cell voltage and current modulations were similar to the slowly adapting afferents and exhibited a relatively flat gain with very little phase lead over the physiological bandwidth and dynamic range tested. Semicircular canal microphonics also showed responses consistent with the slowly adapting subset of afferents and with hair cells. The relatively broad diversity of afferent adaptation time constants and frequency-dependent discharge modulations relative to hair-cell voltage implicate a subsequent site of adaptation that plays a major role in further shaping the temporal characteristics of semicircular canal afferent neural signals. PMID:15306633

Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Holstein, G. R.; Highstein, S. M.

2010-01-01

227

Berberine chloride improved synaptic plasticity in STZ induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicated that diabetes affects synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, leading to impairments of synaptic plasticity and defects in learning and memory. Although berberine treatment ameliorates memory impairment and improves synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, it is not clear if the effects are pre- or post-synaptic or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of berberine chloride on short-term plasticity in inhibitory interneurons in the dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Experimental groups included: The control, control berberine treated (100 mg/kg), diabetic and diabetic berberine treated (50,100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) groups. The paired pulse paradigm was used to stimulate the perforant pathway and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in dentate gyrus (DG). In comparison with control, paired pulse facilitation in the diabetic group was significantly increased (P?synaptic component of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus is affected under diabetic conditions and that berberine prevents this effect. PMID:23640014

Moghaddam, Hamid Kalalian; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad; Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz

2013-09-01

228

Synaptic State-Dependent Functional Interplay between Postsynaptic Density-95 and Synapse-Associated Protein 102  

PubMed Central

Activity-dependent regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is the basis for establishing differences in synaptic weights among individual synapses during developmental and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Synaptic signaling scaffolds of the Discs large (DLG)–membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family regulate these processes by tethering signaling proteins to receptor complexes. Using a molecular replacement strategy with RNAi-mediated knockdown in rat and mouse hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, a postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) knock-out mouse line and electrophysiological analysis, our current study identified a functional interplay between two paralogs, PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) to regulate synaptic AMPARs. During synaptic development, the SAP102 protein levels normally plateau but double if PSD-95 expression is prevented during synaptogenesis. For an autonomous function of PSD-95 in regulating synaptic AMPARs, in addition to the previously demonstrated N-terminal multimerization and the first two PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg1, zona occludens-1) domains, the PDZ3 and guanylate kinase domains were required. The Src homology 3 domain was dispensable for the PSD-95-autonomous regulation of basal synaptic transmission. However, it mediated the functional interaction with SAP102 of PSD-95 mutants to enhance AMPARs. These results depict a protein domain-based multifunctional aspect of PSD-95 in regulating excitatory synaptic transmission and unveil a novel form of domain-based interplay between signaling scaffolds of the DLG–MAGUK family. PMID:23946397

Bonnet, Stéphanie A. D.; Akad, Derya S.; Samaddar, Tanmoy; Liu, Yanling; Huang, Xiaojie; Dong, Yan

2013-01-01

229

PHYSIOLOGICAL RECRUITMENT OF MOTOR UNITS BY HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF AFFERENT PATHWAYS.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation, but electrically-evoked muscle activation is in several ways different from voluntary muscle contractions. These differences lead to challenges in the use of NMES for restoring muscle function. We investigated the use of low-current, high-frequency nerve stimulation to activate the muscle via the spinal motor neuron (MN) pool in order to achieve more natural activation patterns. Using a novel stimulation protocol, the H-reflex responses to individual stimuli in a train of stimulation pulses at 100 Hz were reliably estimated with surface EMG during low-level contractions. Furthermore, single motor unit recruitment by afferent stimulation was analyzed with intramuscular EMG. The results showed that substantially elevated H-reflex responses were obtained during 100-Hz stimulation with respect to a lower stimulation frequency. Furthermore, motor unit recruitment using 100-Hz stimulation was not fully synchronized, as it occurs in classic NMES, and the discharge rates differed among motor units because each unit was activated only after a specific number of stimuli. The most likely mechanism behind these observations is the temporal summation of sub-threshold excitatory post synaptic potentials from Ia fibers to the MNs. These findings and their interpretation were also verified by a realistic simulation model of afferent stimulation of a MN population. These results suggest that the proposed stimulation strategy may allow generation of considerable levels of muscle activation by motor unit recruitment that resembles the physiological conditions. PMID:25477350

Dideriksen, Jakob L; Muceli, Silvia; Dosen, Strahinja; Laine, Christopher M; Farina, Dario

2014-12-01

230

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus II: Hypothalamic afferents in the rat.  

PubMed

Numerous functions have been attributed to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), including those related to feeding behavior, pain control, alcohol consumption and the stress response. The EW is thought to consist of two parts: one controls accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily comprising cholinergic cells and projecting to the ciliary ganglion; and the other would be involved in the non-ocular functions mentioned above, comprising peptide-producing neurons and projecting to the brainstem, spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. Despite the fact that the EW is well known, its connections have yet to be described in detail. The aim of this work was to produce a map of the hypothalamic sources of afferents to the EW in the rat. We injected the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the EW, and using biotinylated dextran amine, injected into afferent sources as the anterograde control. We found retrogradely labeled cells in the following regions: subfornical organ, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, zona incerta, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus and cerebellar interpositus nucleus. After injecting BDA into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and posterior hypothalamic nucleus, we found anterogradely labeled fibers in close apposition to and potential synaptic contact with urocortin 1-immunoreactive cells in the EW. On the basis of our findings, we can suggest that the connections between the EW and the hypothalamic nuclei are involved in controlling stress responses and feeding behavior. PMID:23619059

da Silva, André V; Torres, Kelly R; Haemmerle, Carlos A; Céspedes, Isabel C; Bittencourt, Jackson C

2013-12-01

231

Hidden complexity of synaptic receptive fields in cat V1.  

PubMed

In the primary visual cortex (V1), Simple and Complex receptive fields (RFs) are usually characterized on the basis of the linearity of the cell spiking response to stimuli of opposite contrast. Whether or not this classification reflects a functional dichotomy in the synaptic inputs to Simple and Complex cells is still an open issue. Here we combined intracellular membrane potential recordings in cat V1 with 2D dense noise stimulation to decompose the Simple-like and Complex-like components of the subthreshold RF into a parallel set of functionally distinct subunits. Results show that both Simple and Complex RFs exhibit a remarkable diversity of excitatory and inhibitory Complex-like contributions, which differ in orientation and spatial frequency selectivity from the linear RF, even in layer 4 and layer 6 Simple cells. We further show that the diversity of Complex-like contributions recovered at the subthreshold level is expressed in the cell spiking output. These results demonstrate that the Simple or Complex nature of V1 RFs does not rely on the diversity of Complex-like components received by the cell from its synaptic afferents but on the imbalance between the weights of the Simple-like and Complex-like synaptic contributions. PMID:24741042

Fournier, Julien; Monier, Cyril; Levy, Manuel; Marre, Olivier; Sári, Katalin; Kisvárday, Zoltán F; Frégnac, Yves

2014-04-16

232

Low levels of methyl ?-cyclodextrin disrupt GluA1-dependent synaptic potentiation but not synaptic depression.  

PubMed

Methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) is a reagent that depletes cholesterol and disrupts lipid rafts, a type of cholesterol-enriched cell membrane microdomain. Lipid rafts are essential for neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and plasticity, which are sensitive to even low doses of M?CD. However, how M?CD changes synaptic function, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activity, remains unclear. We monitored changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity after disrupting lipid rafts with M?CD. At low concentrations (0.5 mg/mL), M?CD decreased basal synaptic transmission and miniature excitatory post-synaptic current without changing NMDA-R-mediated synaptic transmission and the paired-pulse facilitation ratio. Interestingly, low doses of M?CD failed to deplete cholesterol or affect ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R) and NMDA-R levels, while clearly reducing GluA1 levels selectively in the synaptosomal fraction. Low doses of M?CD decreased the inhibitory effects of NASPM, an inhibitor for GluA2-lacking AMPA-R. M?CD successfully decreased NMDA-R-mediated long-term potentiation but did not affect the formation of either NMDA-R-mediated or group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression. M?CD inhibited de-depression without affecting de-potentiation. These results suggest that M?CD regulates GluA1-dependent synaptic potentiation but not synaptic depression in a cholesterol-independent manner. M?CD at low concentrations (0.5 mg/mL) did not deplete cholesterol or affect AMPA-R and NMDA-R levels in the lipid raft fraction, while clearly reducing GluA1 levels in the synaptosomal fraction. Interestingly, M?CD decreased LTP but did not affect LTD induction. These results suggest that M?CD regulates GluA1-dependent synaptic potentiation but not synaptic depression in a lipid raft-independent manner. AMPA-R, ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor; GluA1, AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1; LTD, long-term depression; LTP, long-term potentiation; M?CD, methyl ?-cyclodextrin; NMDA-R, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. PMID:25418874

Choi, Tae-Yong; Jung, Sunmin; Nah, Jihoon; Ko, Hui-Yeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Chung, Gehoon; Park, Kyungpyo; Jung, Yong-Keun; Choi, Se-Young

2015-02-01

233

Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways. PMID:19956694

Suárez, Rodrigo; Villalón, Aldo; Künzle, Heinz; Mpodozis, Jorge

2009-01-01

234

Cell-specific retrograde signals mediate antiparallel effects of angiotensin II on osmoreceptor afferents to vasopressin and oxytocin neurons.  

PubMed

Homeostatic control of extracellular fluid osmolality in rats requires a parallel excitation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurosecretory neurons by osmoreceptor afferents to regulate the amount of water and sodium in the urine under normal conditions. However, during decreased blood volume (hypovolemia), natriuresis is suppressed, whereas osmotically driven antidiuresis is enhanced to promote retention of isotonic fluid. Because Angiotensin II (Ang II) is released centrally to indicate hypovolemia, we hypothesized that Ang II can evoke a state-dependent switch in circuit function. Here, we show that Ang II, a neuropeptide released centrally during hypovolemia, suppresses osmoreceptor-mediated synaptic excitation of OT neurons while potentiating excitation of VP neurons. Ang II does this by inducing cell-autonomous release of nitric oxide by VP neurons and endocannabinoids by OT neurons to respectively enhance and reduce glutamate release by osmoreceptor afferents. These findings indicate that peptide modulators such as Ang II can regulate synaptic communication to achieve a state-dependent and target-specific modulation of circuit activity. PMID:25043186

Stachniak, Tevye J; Trudel, Eric; Bourque, Charles W

2014-07-24

235

Chemical stimulation of vagal afferent neurons and sympathetic vasomotor tone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vagal afferents innervate a diverse range of structures of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. While a proportion of these afferents function as mechanoreceptors and respond to changes in intramural tension within the structures that they innervate, many also sense a broad range of chemical substances ranging from peptides, sugars and lipids present in the intraluminal contents of the gastrointestinal tract,

Anthony J. M. Verberne; Mitsuhiko Saita; Daniela M. Sartor

2003-01-01

236

Afferent Dysgraphia after Right Cerebral Stroke: An Autonomous Syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afferent dysgraphia is an acquired writing deficit characterized by deletions and duplications of letters and strokes. The commonly accepted interpretation states that afferent dysgraphia is associated with three main clinical features: production of spatial writing errors; the presence of left unilateral neglect; and no deterioration in performance when writing blindfolded. In order to test whether these symptoms necessarily co-occur with

Roberto Cubelli; Antonella Guiducci; Patrizia Consolmagno

2000-01-01

237

Synaptic connections from large muscle afferents to the motoneurons of various leg muscles in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-correlations between stimuli delivered to peripheral nerves and the discharges of single, voluntarily activated, motor units can provide information about facilitatory and inhibitory projections to single spinal motoneurons in man. The projection frequency, under the given circumstances, of a facilitatory or inhibitory pathway can be obtained from the proportion of the sampled motor units of a given muscle showing the

C. C. Mao; P. Ashby; M. Wang; D. McCrea

1984-01-01

238

The effect of lesions in the neural crest on the formation of synaptic connexions in the embryonic chick spinal cord  

PubMed Central

1. The pattern of synaptic activity in lateral gastrocnemius (l.g.) motoneurones in the lumbar spinal cord of chick embryos (Stage 44-45, 19-21 d of incubation) has been examined using intracellular recording. In the motoneurones of normal chick embryos, stimulation of different peripheral, sciatic nerve branches gave rise to characteristic synaptic responses. Stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius nerve caused a monosynaptic e.p.s.p. which was graded by the intensity of nerve stimulation. Stimulation of synergistic muscle afferents also caused a brief latency e.p.s.p., followed by longer latency excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials. Stimulation of antagonistic muscle afferents or cutaneous afferents gave rise to longer latency inhibitory and excitatory synaptic potentials respectively. 2. The synaptic activity of l.g. motoneurones was also recorded in embryos in which short segments of the lumbar neural crest had been destroyed by microcautery at 3 d of incubation (Stage 18). The embryos developed without sensory ganglia and dorsal roots in the corresponding region. 3. At 19-21 d of incubation, the amplitude of the l.g. e.p.s.p. of l.g. motoneurones in deafferented segments was on the average only a half to a third of the amplitude seen in motoneurones of intact spinal segments. However, both the l.g. and synergist e.p.s.p.s were larger than those seen in acutely deafferented segments of normal embryos. 4. In spite of the weak monosynaptic input from l.g. and synergistic afferents, the pattern of synaptic activity evoked by antagonistic muscle afferent or cutaneous afferent stimulation was not different from normal. This was even the case for gastrocnemius motoneurones in which no early e.p.s.p. could be evoked by stimulating the l.g. or synergistic muscle nerves. 5. No muscle spindles could be seen in sections of l.g. muscles from embryos with extensive lesions of the lumbosacral neural crest. Incomplete lesions of l.g. segments reduced the number of spindles in the muscle. 6. These results suggest that when motoneurones are deprived of part of their normal synaptic input before the formation of peripheral connexions, the identity of the motoneurones (in terms of the origin of their synaptic input) is preserved. Missing synaptic inputs are either replaced by appropriate afferent fibres, if they are available, or not at all. The chick sensory ganglion cells with monosynaptic connexions to motoneurones appear to be unable to compensate significantly for peripheral or central defects in the innervation of the hind limb. They behave as if their developmental possibilities were quite rigidly determined at an early embryonic stage. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4 PMID:6212673

Eide, Anne-Lill; Jansen, Jan K. S.; Ribchester, Richard R.

1982-01-01

239

Extraocular Muscle Afferent Signals Modulate Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Extraocular muscle afferent signals contribute to oculomotor control and visual localization. Prompted by the close links between the oculomotor and attention systems, it was investigated whether these proprioceptive signals also modulated the allocation of attention in space. Methods. A suction sclera contact lens was used to impose an eye rotation on the nonviewing, dominant eye. With their viewing, nondominant eye, participants (n = 4) fixated centrally and detected targets presented at 5° in the left or right visual hemifield. The position of the viewing eye was monitored throughout the experiment. As a control, visual localization was tested using finger pointing without visual feedback of the hand, whereas the nonviewing eye remained deviated. Results. The sustained passive rotation of the occluded, dominant eye, while the other eye maintained central fixation, resulted in a lateralized change in the detectability of visual targets. In all participants, the advantage in speed and accuracy for detecting right versus left hemifield targets that occurred during a sustained rightward eye rotation of the dominant eye was reduced or reversed by a leftward eye rotation. The control experiment confirmed that the eye deviation procedure caused pointing errors consistent with an approximately 2° shift in perceived eye position, in the direction of rotation of the nonviewing eye. Conclusions. With the caveat of the small number of participants, these results suggest that extraocular muscle afferent signals modulate the deployment of attention in visual space. PMID:22977139

Balslev, Daniela; Newman, William; Knox, Paul C.

2012-01-01

240

Response properties from turtle auditory hair cell afferent fibers suggest spike generation is driven by synchronized release both between and within synapses  

PubMed Central

Inner ear hair cell afferent fiber synapses are capable of transferring information at high rates for long periods of time with extraordinary fidelity. As at other sensory synapses, hair cells rely on graded receptor potentials and unique vesicle trafficking and release properties of ribbon synapses to relay intensity information. Postsynaptic recordings from afferent fibers of the turtle auditory papilla identified excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that were fast AMPA receptor-based responses with rapid onset and decay times. EPSCs varied in amplitude by ?15× per fiber, with kinetics that showed a tendency to slow at larger amplitudes. Complex EPSCs were produced by temporal summation of single events, likely across synapses. Complex EPSCs were more efficient at generating action potentials than single EPSCs. Potassium-evoked release increased the frequency of EPSCs, in particular complex events, but did not increase EPSC amplitudes. Temporal summation of EPSCs across synapses may underlie action potential generation at these synapses. Broad amplitude histograms were probed for mechanisms of multivesicular release with reduced external Ca2+ or the introduction of Cd2+ or Sr2+ to uncouple release. The results are consistent with broad amplitude histograms being generated by a combination of the variability in synaptic vesicle size and coordinated release of these vesicles. It is posited that multivesicular release plays less of a role in multisynaptic ribbon synapses than in single synaptic afferent fibers. PMID:23596330

Schnee, M. E.; Castellano-Muńoz, M.

2013-01-01

241

Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

1997-01-01

242

Distribution and Neurochemical Identification of Pancreatic Afferents in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of primary afferents innervating the pancreas has been shown to contribute to the development of painful symptoms during acute and chronic pancreatitis. To investigate the distribution and neurochemical phenotype of pancreatic afferents, Alexa Fluor-conjugated cholera toxin B (CTB) was injected into the pancreatic head (CTB-488) and tail (CTB-555) of adult male mice to label neurons retrogradely in both the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nodose ganglia (NG). The NG and DRG (T5–T13) were processed for fluorescent immunohistochemistry and visualized by using confocal microscopy. Spinal pancreatic afferents were observed from T5 to T13, with the greatest contribution coming from T9–T12. The pancreatic afferents were equally distributed between right and left spinal ganglia; however, the innervation from the left NG was significantly greater than from the right. For both spinal and vagal afferents there was significantly greater innervation of the pancreatic head relative to the tail. The total number of retrogradely labeled afferents in the nodose was very similar to the total number of DRG afferents. The neurochemical phenotype of DRG neurons was dominated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-positive neurons (75%), GDNF family receptor alpha-3 (GFR?3)-positive neurons (67%), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons(65%) neurons. In the NG, TRPV1-, GFR?3-, and CGRP-positive neurons constituted only 35%, 1%, and 15% of labeled afferents, respectively. The disparity in peptide and receptor expression between pancreatic afferents in the NG and DRG suggests that even though they contribute a similar number of primary afferents to the pancreas, these two populations may differ in regard to their nociceptive properties and growth factor dependency. PMID:18418900

FASANELLA, KENNETH E.; CHRISTIANSON, JULIE A.; CHANTHAPHAVONG, R. SAVANH; DAVIS, BRIAN M.

2009-01-01

243

The synaptic proteome.  

PubMed

Synapses are focal hot spots for signal transduction and plasticity in the brain. A synapse comprises an axon terminus, the presynapse, the synaptic cleft containing extracellular matrix proteins as well as adhesion molecules, and the postsynaptic density as target structure for chemical signaling. The proteomes of the presynaptic and postsynaptic active zones control neurotransmitter release and perception. These tasks demand short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the synapse mediated by its proteinaceous inventory. This review addresses subcellular fractionation protocols and the related proteomic approaches to the various synaptic subcompartments with an emphasis on the presynaptic active zone (PAZ). Furthermore, it discusses major constituents of the PAZ including the amyloid precursor protein family members. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the pre- and postsynapse. The identification of protein candidates of the synapse provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of synaptic proteins with their targets, and the effect of their deletion opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication. The knowledge of the molecular interactome is also a prerequisite for understanding numerous neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25038742

Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Volknandt, Walter

2015-01-01

244

Ia afferent excitation of motoneurones in the in vitro new-born rat spinal cord is selectively antagonized by kynurenate.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recordings from motoneurones in in vitro preparations of new-born rat spinal cord were used to study the sensitivity of the Ia excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) to antagonists of excitatory amino acids, in order to test whether group Ia primary afferents release L-glutamate, or a similar compound, as a neurotransmitter. The Ia e.p.s.p. was isolated for study by using low intensity stimulation of individual muscle nerves and by the addition to the superfusate of high concentrations of divalent cations which suppressed polysynaptic inputs to the motoneurones. The pattern of convergence of group Ia afferents from homonymous, heteronymous and antagonist muscle nerves onto motoneurones in the new-born rat was similar to that reported in the adult cat spinal cord. Homonymous muscle nerve stimulation evoked the largest amplitude Ia e.p.s.p.s while heteronymous muscle nerve stimulation elicited smaller e.p.s.p.s or had no effect. Stimulation of antagonist muscle nerves resulted in inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.p.s.p.). Superfusion of the specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, did not inhibit the Ia e.p.s.p. but did suppress later, polysynaptic components of the response evoked from dorsal roots. Kynurenate was a potent inhibitor of the Ia e.p.s.p. The site of action of kynurenate was examined by observing its effect on synaptic depression and was found to be consistent with a post-synaptic mechanism. Kynurenate selectively blocked the depolarization of motoneurones elicited by L-glutamate and had no effect on the depolarization evoked by carbachol. The selectivity of action of kynurenate was further examined by comparing its effect on the recurrent i.p.s.p. evoked by ventral root stimulation with its effect on the Ia e.p.s.p. The recurrent i.p.s.p. was antagonized by strychnine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine while kynurenate, at a concentration which greatly reduced the Ia e.p.s.p., had no effect. These results suggest that stimulation of group Ia primary afferents evokes the release of L-glutamate, or a similar compound, which activates non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptors on motoneurones which, in turn, mediate the Ia e.p.s.p. PMID:2870179

Jahr, C E; Yoshioka, K

1986-01-01

245

Drosophila neuroligin3 regulates neuromuscular junction development and synaptic differentiation.  

PubMed

Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules thought to be important for synapse maturation and function. Mammalian studies have shown that different Nlgs have different roles in synaptic maturation and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, the roles of Drosophila neuroligin1 (DNlg1), neuroligin2, and neuroligin4 have been examined. However, the roles of neuroligin3 (dnlg3) in synaptic development and function have not been determined. In this study, we used the Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) as a model system to investigate the in vivo role of dnlg3. We showed that DNlg3 was expressed in both the CNS and NMJs where it was largely restricted to the postsynaptic site. We generated dnlg3 mutants and showed that these mutants exhibited an increased bouton number and reduced bouton size compared with the wild-type (WT) controls. Consistent with alterations in bouton properties, pre- and postsynaptic differentiations were affected in dnlg3 mutants. This included abnormal synaptic vesicle endocytosis, increased postsynaptic density length, and reduced GluRIIA recruitment. In addition to impaired synaptic development and differentiation, we found that synaptic transmission was reduced in dnlg3 mutants. Altogether, our data showed that DNlg3 was required for NMJ development, synaptic differentiation, and function. PMID:25228693

Xing, Guanglin; Gan, Guangming; Chen, Dandan; Sun, Mingkuan; Yi, Jukang; Lv, Huihui; Han, Junhai; Xie, Wei

2014-11-14

246

Dystroglycan mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity at GABAergic synapses  

PubMed Central

Dystroglycan (DG), a cell adhesion molecule well known to be essential for skeletal muscle integrity and formation of neuromuscular synapses, is also present at inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system. Mutations that affect DG function not only result in muscular dystrophies, but also in severe cognitive deficits and epilepsy. Here we demonstrate a role of DG during activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of hippocampal inhibitory synapses. Prolonged elevation of neuronal activity up-regulates DG expression and glycosylation, and its localization to inhibitory synapses. Inhibition of protein synthesis prevents the activity-dependent increase in synaptic DG and GABAA receptors (GABAARs), as well as the homeostatic scaling up of GABAergic synaptic transmission. RNAi-mediated knockdown of DG blocks homeostatic scaling up of inhibitory synaptic strength, as does knockdown of like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE)—a glycosyltransferase critical for DG function. In contrast, DG is not required for the bicuculline-induced scaling down of excitatory synaptic strength or the tetrodotoxin-induced scaling down of inhibitory synaptic strength. The DG ligand agrin increases GABAergic synaptic strength in a DG-dependent manner that mimics homeostatic scaling up induced by increased activity, indicating that activation of this pathway alone is sufficient to regulate GABAAR trafficking. These data demonstrate that DG is regulated in a physiologically relevant manner in neurons and that DG and its glycosylation are essential for homeostatic plasticity at inhibitory synapses. PMID:24753587

Pribiag, Horia; Peng, Huashan; Shah, Waris Ali; Stellwagen, David; Carbonetto, Salvatore

2014-01-01

247

Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.  

PubMed

Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. Synapse 69:7-14, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155519

Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

2015-01-01

248

Tracking slow modulations in synaptic gain using dynamic causal modelling: Validation in epilepsy.  

PubMed

In this work we propose a proof of principle that dynamic causal modelling can identify plausible mechanisms at the synaptic level underlying brain state changes over a timescale of seconds. As a benchmark example for validation we used intracranial electroencephalographic signals in a human subject. These data were used to infer the (effective connectivity) architecture of synaptic connections among neural populations assumed to generate seizure activity. Dynamic causal modelling allowed us to quantify empirical changes in spectral activity in terms of a trajectory in parameter space - identifying key synaptic parameters or connections that cause observed signals. Using recordings from three seizures in one patient, we considered a network of two sources (within and just outside the putative ictal zone). Bayesian model selection was used to identify the intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity. Having established the underlying architecture, we were able to track the evolution of key connectivity parameters (e.g., inhibitory connections to superficial pyramidal cells) and test specific hypotheses about the synaptic mechanisms involved in ictogenesis. Our key finding was that intrinsic synaptic changes were sufficient to explain seizure onset, where these changes showed dissociable time courses over several seconds. Crucially, these changes spoke to an increase in the sensitivity of principal cells to intrinsic inhibitory afferents and a transient loss of excitatory-inhibitory balance. PMID:25498428

Papadopoulou, Margarita; Leite, Marco; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Lemieux, Louis; Friston, Karl; Marinazzo, Daniele

2015-02-15

249

Tracking slow modulations in synaptic gain using dynamic causal modelling: Validation in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

In this work we propose a proof of principle that dynamic causal modelling can identify plausible mechanisms at the synaptic level underlying brain state changes over a timescale of seconds. As a benchmark example for validation we used intracranial electroencephalographic signals in a human subject. These data were used to infer the (effective connectivity) architecture of synaptic connections among neural populations assumed to generate seizure activity. Dynamic causal modelling allowed us to quantify empirical changes in spectral activity in terms of a trajectory in parameter space — identifying key synaptic parameters or connections that cause observed signals. Using recordings from three seizures in one patient, we considered a network of two sources (within and just outside the putative ictal zone). Bayesian model selection was used to identify the intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity. Having established the underlying architecture, we were able to track the evolution of key connectivity parameters (e.g., inhibitory connections to superficial pyramidal cells) and test specific hypotheses about the synaptic mechanisms involved in ictogenesis. Our key finding was that intrinsic synaptic changes were sufficient to explain seizure onset, where these changes showed dissociable time courses over several seconds. Crucially, these changes spoke to an increase in the sensitivity of principal cells to intrinsic inhibitory afferents and a transient loss of excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:25498428

Papadopoulou, Margarita; Leite, Marco; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Lemieux, Louis; Friston, Karl; Marinazzo, Daniele

2015-01-01

250

Axonal noise as a source of synaptic variability.  

PubMed

Post-synaptic potential (PSP) variability is typically attributed to mechanisms inside synapses, yet recent advances in experimental methods and biophysical understanding have led us to reconsider the role of axons as highly reliable transmission channels. We show that in many thin axons of our brain, the action potential (AP) waveform and thus the Ca++ signal controlling vesicle release at synapses will be significantly affected by the inherent variability of ion channel gating. We investigate how and to what extent fluctuations in the AP waveform explain observed PSP variability. Using both biophysical theory and stochastic simulations of central and peripheral nervous system axons from vertebrates and invertebrates, we show that channel noise in thin axons (<1 µm diameter) causes random fluctuations in AP waveforms. AP height and width, both experimentally characterised parameters of post-synaptic response amplitude, vary e.g. by up to 20 mV and 0.5 ms while a single AP propagates in C-fibre axons. We show how AP height and width variabilities increase with a ľ power-law as diameter decreases and translate these fluctuations into post-synaptic response variability using biophysical data and models of synaptic transmission. We find for example that for mammalian unmyelinated axons with 0.2 µm diameter (matching cerebellar parallel fibres) axonal noise alone can explain half of the PSP variability in cerebellar synapses. We conclude that axonal variability may have considerable impact on synaptic response variability. Thus, in many experimental frameworks investigating synaptic transmission through paired-cell recordings or extracellular stimulation of presynaptic neurons, causes of variability may have been confounded. We thereby show how bottom-up aggregation of molecular noise sources contributes to our understanding of variability observed at higher levels of biological organisation. PMID:24809823

Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A Aldo

2014-05-01

251

Synaptic transmission in neurons that express the Drosophila atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases, Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db, is necessary for the successful completion of larval and adult ecdysis  

PubMed Central

Insect ecdysis is a precisely coordinated series of behavioral and hormonal events that occur at the end of each molt. A great deal is known about the hormonal events that underlie this process, although less is known concerning the neuronal circuitry involved. Here we identify two populations of neurons that are required for larval and adult ecdyses in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. These neurons were identified by using the upstream region of two genes that code for atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases to drive tetanus toxin in the neurons that express these cyclases to block their synaptic activity. Expression of tetanus toxin in neurons that express Gyc-89Da blocked adult eclosion whereas expression of tetanus toxin in neurons that express Gyc-89Db prevented the initiation of the first larval ecdysis. Expression of tetanus toxin in the Gyc-89Da neurons also resulted in about 50% lethality just prior to pupariation, however this was likely due to suffocation in the food as lethality was prevented by preventing the larvae from burrowing deep within the food. This result is consistent with our model that the atypical soluble guanylyl cyclases can act as molecular oxygen detectors. The expression pattern of these cyclases did not overlap with any of the neurons containing peptides known to regulate ecdysis and eclosion behaviors. By using the conditional expression of tetanus toxin we were also able to demonstrate that synaptic activity in the Gyc-89Da and Gyc-89Db neurons is required during early adult development for adult eclosion. PMID:18456892

Morton, David B.; Stewart, Judith A.; Langlais, Kristofor K.; Clemens-Grisham, Rachel A.; Vermehren, Anke

2008-01-01

252

A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds  

PubMed Central

Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the afferent signal. Serotonin may thus play a major modulatory role within peripheral taste in shaping the afferent taste signals prior to their transmission across gustatory nerves. PMID:25386961

Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

2014-01-01

253

Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

2004-01-01

254

Discharges of Single Hindlimb Afferents in the Freely Moving Cat  

E-print Network

. The majority of afferents were from muscle spindle primary end- ings in hindlimb muscles. 3. Ankle extensor of active muscle contraction. The EMG response to brisk stretches of the ankle extensor muscle indicated

Prochazka, Arthur

255

Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar afferents projected throughout the cochlear nuclei, to the dorsolateral regions of the cerebellar nuclei, and to lateral regions of the superior, lateral, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei.

Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

1996-01-01

256

Afferent dysgraphia after right cerebral stroke: an autonomous syndrome?  

PubMed

Afferent dysgraphia is an acquired writing deficit characterized by deletions and duplications of letters and strokes. The commonly accepted interpretation states that afferent dysgraphia is associated with three main clinical features: production of spatial writing errors; the presence of left unilateral neglect; and no deterioration in performance when writing blindfolded. In order to test whether these symptoms necessarily co-occur with afferent dysgraphia, we studied the writing performances of a series of eight right brain-damaged patients. In sentence copying, spontaneous handwriting, and writing to dictation they showed afferent dysgraphia. However, signs of left neglect and spatial dysgraphia were evident only in some cases. Furthermore, the frequency of afferent errors increased when patients were required to write without vision. The present study demonstrates that afferent dysgraphia is an autonomous clinical entity and that it results from a selective impairment of a mechanism whose function is that of comparing the information about the number of letters and strokes specified at the level of letter motor programs and the actual number of movements already realized. PMID:11104545

Cubelli, R; Guiducci, A; Consolmagno, P

2000-12-01

257

SYNAPTIC INHIBITION IN AN ISOLATED NERVE CELL  

PubMed Central

Following the preceding studies on the mechanisms of excitation in stretch receptor cells of crayfish, this investigation analyzes inhibitory activity in the synapses formed by two neurons. The cell body of the receptor neuron is located in the periphery and sends dendrites into a fine muscle strand. The dendrites receive innervation through an accessory nerve fiber which has now been established to be inhibitory. There exists a direct peripheral inhibitory control mechanism which can modulate the activity of the stretch receptor. The receptor cell which can be studied in isolation was stimulated by stretch deformation of its dendrites or by antidromic excitation and the effect of inhibitory impulses on its activity was analyzed. Recording was done mainly with intracellular leads inserted into the cell body. 1. Stimulation of the relatively slowly conducting inhibitory nerve fiber either decreases the afferent discharge rate or stops impulses altogether in stretched receptor cells. The inhibitory action is confined to the dendrites and acts on the generator mechanism which is set up by stretch deformation. By restricting depolarization of the dendrites above a certain level, inhibition prevents the generator potential from attaining the "firing level" of the cell. 2. The same inhibitory impulse may set up a postsynaptic polarization or a depolarization, depending on the resting potential level of the cell. The membrane potential at which the inhibitory synaptic potential reverses its polarity, the equilibrium level, may vary in different preparations. The inhibitory potentials increase as the resting potential is displaced in any direction from the inhibitory equilibrium. 3. The inhibitory potentials usually rise to a peak in about 2 msec. and decay in about 30 msec. After repetitive inhibitory stimulation a delayed secondary polarization phase has frequently been seen, prolonging the inhibitory action. Repetitive inhibitory excitation may also be followed by a period of facilitation. Some examples of "direct" excitation by the depolarizing action of inhibitory impulses are described. 4. The interaction between antidromic and inhibitory impulses was studied. The results support previous conclusions (a) that during stretch the dendrites provide a persisting "drive" for the more central portions of the receptor cell, and (b) that antidromic all-or-none impulses do not penetrate into the distal portions of stretch-depolarized dendrites. The "after-potentials" of antidromic impulses are modified by inhibition. 5. Evidence is presented that inhibitory synaptic activity increases the conductance of the dendrites. This effect may occur in the absence of inhibitory potential changes. PMID:13252239

Kuffler, Stephen W.; Eyzaguirre, Carlos

1955-01-01

258

Membrane currents evoked by afferent fiber stimulation in rat piriform cortex. II. Analysis with a system model.  

PubMed

1. The detailed visualization of membrane currents over time and depth provided by current source-density (CSD) analysis was used as the basis for development of a system model that reproduces the response of piriform cortex to afferent fiber stimulation. This model has allowed the testing and substantial revision of previous hypotheses concerning the sequence of neuronal events underlying this response, has enabled net membrane currents visualized by CSD analysis to be separated into active and passive components, and has generated predictions for important axonal and synaptic parameters as well as for the behavior of piriform cortex as a system. 2. The model was developed in three steps. Activity in excitatory fiber systems was first represented with continuous distributions. The "population conductances" due to the activation of excitatory fiber systems were then computed from the distribution of action-potential arrival times and the conductance waveform for excitatory synapses. Finally, these temporally dispersed excitatory conductances and locally mediated inhibitory conductances were introduced at appropriate locations on a compartmentalized cable that simulated the passive response of the pyramidal cell population. 3. After the simulation of membrane currents at one site, all parameters in the model were fixed so that it could be used to predict the variation in the time course of membrane currents at additional recording sites; comparison with the results of CSD analysis at these sites provided the primary validation of the model. Additional validation included the simulation of membrane potentials derived by intracellular recording, including the effects of manipulating somatic potential with current injection. 4. Several conclusions have emerged from the mathematical description of activity in fiber systems. Propagation of activity in both afferent and association (corticocortical) fiber systems is "dispersive" as a result of a wide spectrum of axon conduction velocities. The characteristically different time courses of afferent and association fiber-mediated responses are largely determined by the focal, shock-evoked origin of the volley in afferent fibers as opposed to the spatially distributed disynaptic origin of activity in association fibers. Conduction velocity distributions for afferent and association fiber systems are skewed and can be approximated with lognormal distributions. 5. General solutions, which relate an arbitrary conduction velocity distribution to arrival time and spatial distributions of action potentials, were used to generate specific solutions describing the effects of dispersive propagation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7679438

Ketchum, K L; Haberly, L B

1993-01-01

259

Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were located in the extrastriola. The cellular organization and innervation patterns of the utricular maculae in birds appear to represent an organ in adaptive evolution, different from that observed for amphibians or mammals.

Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

2003-01-01

260

Ion channels in synaptic vesicles from Torpedo electric organ.  

PubMed Central

A simple method has been developed for fusing synaptic vesicles into spherical structures 20-50 micron in diameter. The method has been applied to purified cholinergic synaptic vesicles from Torpedo electric organ, and the membrane properties of these fused structures have been studied by the "cell"-attached version of the patch clamp technique. A large conductance potassium-preferring channel, termed the P channel, was consistently observed in preparations of fused synaptic vesicles. The selectivity of the channel for potassium over sodium was approximately equal to 2.8-fold. Two major conductance levels were observed during P-channel activity, and their relative proportion was dependent on the voltage applied to the membrane through the patch pipette. P channels were not seen in fused preparations of purified Torpedo lipids, nor was the frequency of their occurrence increased in preparations enriched with plasma membrane or nonvesicular membranes. We suggest, therefore, that the P channels are components of the synaptic vesicle membrane. Their function in synaptic transmission physiology is still unknown. Images PMID:2455900

Rahamimoff, R; DeRiemer, S A; Sakmann, B; Stadler, H; Yakir, N

1988-01-01

261

Tensor Tympani Motoneurons Receive Mostly Excitatory Synaptic Inputs  

PubMed Central

The tensor tympani is a middle ear muscle that contracts in two different situations: in response to sound or during voluntary movements. To gain insight into the inputs and neural regulation of the tensor tympani, we examined the ultrastructure of synaptic terminals on labeled tensor tympani motoneurons (TTMNs) using transmission electron microscopy. Our sample of six TTMNs received 79 synaptic terminals that formed 126 synpases. Two types of synapses are associated with round vesicles and form asymmetric junctions (excitatory morphology). One of these types has vesicles that are large and round (Lg Rnd) and the other has vesicles that are smaller and round (Sm Rnd) and also contains at least one dense core vesicle. A third synapse type has inhibitory morphology because it forms symmetric synapses with pleomorphic vesicles (Pleo). These synaptic terminals can be associated with TTMN spines. Two other types of synapse are found on TTMNs but they are uncommon. Synaptic terminals of all types form multiple synapses but those from a single terminal are always the same type. Terminals with Lg Rnd vesicles formed the most synpases per terminal (avg. 2.73). Together, the synaptic terminals with Lg Rnd and Sm Rnd vesicles account for 62% of the terminals on TTMNs, and they likely represent the pathways driving the contractions in response to sound or during voluntary movements. Having a high proportion of excitatory inputs, the TTMN innervation is like that of stapedius motoneurons but proportionately different from other types of motoneurons. PMID:23165747

BENSON, THANE E.; LEE, DANIEL J.; BROWN, M. CHRISTIAN

2014-01-01

262

Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation  

PubMed Central

There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

2014-01-01

263

Stance-phase force on the opposite limb dictates swing-phase afferent presynaptic inhibition during locomotion  

PubMed Central

Presynaptic inhibition is a powerful mechanism for selectively and dynamically gating sensory inputs entering the spinal cord. We investigated how hindlimb mechanics influence presynaptic inhibition during locomotion using pioneering approaches in an in vitro spinal cord–hindlimb preparation. We recorded lumbar dorsal root potentials to measure primary afferent depolarization-mediated presynaptic inhibition and compared their dependence on hindlimb endpoint forces, motor output, and joint kinematics. We found that stance-phase force on the opposite limb, particularly at toe contact, strongly influenced the magnitude and timing of afferent presynaptic inhibition in the swinging limb. Presynaptic inhibition increased in proportion to opposite limb force, as well as locomotor frequency. This form of presynaptic inhibition binds the sensorimotor states of the two limbs, adjusting sensory inflow to the swing limb based on forces generated by the stance limb. Functionally, it may serve to adjust swing-phase sensory transmission based on locomotor task, speed, and step-to-step environmental perturbations. PMID:22442562

Hayes, Heather Brant; Chang, Young-Hui

2012-01-01

264

Functional and chemical anatomy of the afferent vagal system.  

PubMed

The results of neural tracing studies suggest that vagal afferent fibers in cervical and thoracic branches innervate the esophagus, lower airways, heart, aorta, and possibly the thymus, and via abdominal branches the entire gastrointestinal tract, liver, portal vein, billiary system, pancreas, but not the spleen. In addition, vagal afferents innervate numerous thoracic and abdominal paraganglia associated with the vagus nerves. Specific terminal structures such as flower basket terminals, intraganglionic laminar endings and intramuscular arrays have been identified in the various organs and organ compartments, suggesting functional specializations. Electrophysiological recording studies have identified mechano- and chemo-receptors, as well as temperature- and osmo-sensors. In the rat and several other species, mostly polymodal units, while in the cat more specialized units have been reported. Few details of the peripheral transduction cascades and the transmitters for signal propagation in the CNS are known. Glutamate and its various receptors are likely to play an important role at the level of primary afferent signaling to the solitary nucleus. The vagal afferent system is thus in an excellent position to detect immune-related events in the periphery and generate appropriate autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses via central reflex pathways. There is also good evidence for a role of vagal afferents in nociception, as manifested by affective-emotional responses such as increased blood pressure and tachycardia, typically associated with the perception of pain, and mediated via central reflex pathways involving the amygdala and other parts of the limbic system. The massive central projections are likely to be responsible for the antiepileptic properties of afferent vagal stimulation in humans. Furthermore, these functions are in line with a general defensive character ascribed to the vagal afferent, paraventricular system in lower vertebrates. PMID:11189015

Berthoud, H R; Neuhuber, W L

2000-12-20

265

Neurogenic adaptation contributes to the afferent response to mechanical stimulation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize the effect of mechanical stimuli on mesenteric afferent nerve signaling in the isolated rat jejunum in vitro. This was done to determine the effect of mechanical stresses and strains relative to nonmechanical parameters (neurogenic adaptation). Mechanical stimulations were applied to a segment of jejunum from 15 rats using ramp distension with water at three rates of distension, a relaxation test (volume maintained constant from initial pressure of 20 or 40 mmHg), and a creep test (pressure maintained constant). Circumferential stress and strain and the spike rate increase ratio were calculated for evaluation of afferent nerve activity during the mechanical stimulations. Ramp distension evoked two distinct phases of afferent nerve signaling as a function of circumferential stress or strain. Changing the volume distension rate did not change the stress-strain relationship, but faster distension rate increased the afferent firing rate (P < 0.05). In the stress relaxation test, the spike rate declined faster and to a greater extent than the stress. In the creep test, the spike rate declined, despite a small increase in the strain. Three classes of mechanosensitive single-afferent units (low, wide dynamic range, and high threshold units) showed different response profiles against stress and strain. Low-threshold units exhibited a near linear relationship against the strain (R(2) = 0.8095), whereas high-threshold units exhibited a linear profile against the stress (R(2) = 0.9642). The afferent response is sensitive to the distension speed and to the stress and strain level during distension. However, the afferent nerve response is not a simple function of either stress or strain. Nonmechanical time-dependent adaptive responses other than those related to viscoelasticity also play a role. PMID:22345553

Yang, J; Zhao, J; Jiang, W; Nakaguchi, T; Kunwald, P; Grundy, D; Gregersen, H

2012-05-01

266

A unifying theory of synaptic long-term plasticity based on a sparse distribution of synaptic strength  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is fundamental to learning and network function. It has been studied under various induction protocols and depends on firing rates, membrane voltage, and precise timing of action potentials. These protocols show different facets of a common underlying mechanism but they are mostly modeled as distinct phenomena. Here, we show that all of these different dependencies can be explained from a single computational principle. The objective is a sparse distribution of excitatory synaptic strength, which may help to reduce metabolic costs associated with synaptic transmission. Based on this objective we derive a stochastic gradient ascent learning rule which is of differential-Hebbian type. It is formulated in biophysical quantities and can be related to current mechanistic theories of synaptic plasticity. The learning rule accounts for experimental findings from all major induction protocols and explains a classic phenomenon of metaplasticity. Furthermore, our model predicts the existence of metaplasticity for spike-timing-dependent plasticity Thus, we provide a theory of long-term synaptic plasticity that unifies different induction protocols and provides a connection between functional and mechanistic levels of description. PMID:24624080

Krieg, Daniel; Triesch, Jochen

2014-01-01

267

Inflammation Subverts Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Abnormal use-dependent synaptic plasticity is universally accepted as the main physiological correlate of memory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders. It is unclear whether synaptic plasticity deficits take place during neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE mice, we found significant alterations of synaptic plasticity rules in the hippocampus. When compared to control mice, in fact, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was favored over long-term depression (LTD) in EAE, as shown by a significant rightward shift in the frequency–synaptic response function. Notably, LTP induction was also enhanced in hippocampal slices from control mice following interleukin-1? (IL-1?) perfusion, and both EAE and IL-1? inhibited GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) without affecting glutamatergic transmission and AMPA/NMDA ratio. EAE was also associated with selective loss of GABAergic interneurons and with reduced gamma-frequency oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, we provided evidence that microglial activation in the EAE hippocampus was associated with IL-1? expression, and hippocampal slices from control mice incubated with activated microglia displayed alterations of GABAergic transmission similar to those seen in EAE brains, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1? signaling. These data may yield novel insights into the basis of cognitive deficits in EAE and possibly of MS. PMID:23355887

Mandolesi, Georgia; Piccinin, Sonia; Berretta, Nicola; Pignatelli, Marco; Feligioni, Marco; Musella, Alessandra; Gentile, Antonietta; Mori, Francesco; Bernardi, Giorgio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Centonze, Diego

2013-01-01

268

Endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids are key modulators of synaptic function. By activating cannabinoid receptors expressed in the central nervous system, these lipid messengers can regulate several neural functions and behaviors. As experimental tools advance, the repertoire of known endocannabinoid-mediated effects at the synapse, and their underlying mechanism, continues to expand. Retrograde signaling is the principal mode by which endocannabinoids mediate short- and long-term forms of plasticity at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. However, growing evidence suggests that endocannabinoids can also signal in a non-retrograde manner. In addition to mediating synaptic plasticity, the endocannabinoid system is itself subject to plastic changes. Multiple points of interaction with other neuromodulatory and signaling systems have now been identified. Synaptic endocannabinoid signaling is thus mechanistically more complex and diverse than originally thought. In this review, we focus on new advances in endocannabinoid signaling and highlight their role as potent regulators of synaptic function in the mammalian brain. PMID:23040807

Castillo, Pablo E.; Younts, Thomas J.; Chávez, Andrés E.; Hashimotodani, Yuki

2012-01-01

269

Acid sensing by visceral afferent neurons  

PubMed Central

Acidosis in the gastrointestinal tract can be both a physiological and pathological condition. While gastric acid serves digestion and protection from pathogens, pathological acidosis is associated with defective acid containment, inflammation and ischaemia. The pH in the oesophagus, stomach and intestine is surveyed by an elaborate network of acid-sensing mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Deviations from physiological values of extracellular pH (7.4) are monitored by multiple acid sensors expressed by epithelial cells and sensory neurons. Protons evoke multiple currents in primary afferent neurons, which are carried by several acid-sensitive ion channels. Among these, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) ion channels have been most thoroughly studied. ASICs survey moderate decreases in extracellular pH whereas TRPV1 is activated only by severe acidosis resulting in pH values below 6. Other molecular acid sensors comprise TRPV4, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPP2 (PKD2L1), epithelial Na+ channels, two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels, ionotropic purinoceptors (P2X), inward rectifier K+ channels, voltage-activated K+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and acid-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors. Most of these acid sensors are expressed by primary sensory neurons, although to different degrees and in various combinations. Since upregulation and overactivity of acid sensors appear to contribute to various forms of chronic inflammation and pain, acid-sensitive ion channels and receptors are also considered as targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:20456281

Holzer, Peter

2011-01-01

270

Sensory signal transduction in the vagal primary afferent neurons.  

PubMed

The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. Activation of vagal afferent fibers results in inhibition of food intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of pancreatic secretion. Afferents nerves terminating near to the mucosa are in a position to monitor the composition of the luminal contents. As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. This review addresses the role for both cholecytokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) released from enteroendocrine cells and acting as paracrine agents on the terminals of vagal afferents in responses to a number of luminal signals. CCK acted on both high- and low-affinity CCK-A receptors present on distinct vagal primary afferent neurons. Neurons of the nodose ganglia respond to intraduodenal perfusions of maltose, glucose, and hypertonic saline. These neurons were also sensitive to exogenous luminally applied 5-HT at concentrations that mimic physiologic levels. Intravenous administration of a 5-HT3 antagonist blocked these responses suggesting that nodose neuronal responses to luminal osmolarity and to the digestion products of carbohydrates are dependent on the release of endogenous 5-HT from the mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which acts on the 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferent fibers to stimulate vagal afferent neurons. Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. The nodose ganglion contains neurons that may possess only high- or low-affinity CCK-A receptors or 5-HT3 receptors. Some neurons that express high-affinity CCK-A receptors also express 5-HT3 receptors and (or) secretin receptors. Pre-exposure to luminal 5-HT may augment the subsequent response to a subthreshold dose of CCK. Synergistic interaction between CCK and secretin also occurs at the nodose ganglia; this is mediated by high affinity CCK-A receptor. This may explain the robust postprandial secretion of enzyme, bicarbonate, and fluid despite the modest increase in CCK after a meal. Some neurons that possess low-affinity CCK-A receptor colocalize with leptin receptors (OB-Rs). These neurons also respond to mechanical distention. Interaction between CCK-A receptor and OB-Rs in these neurons likely facilitates leptin mediation of short-term satiety. PMID:17979708

Li, Ying

2007-01-01

271

Feedforward Inhibition and Synaptic Scaling – Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

Feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling are important adaptive processes that control the total input a neuron can receive from its afferents. While often studied in isolation, the two have been reported to co-occur in various brain regions. The functional implications of their interactions remain unclear, however. Based on a probabilistic modeling approach, we show here that fast feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling interact synergistically during unsupervised learning. In technical terms, we model the input to a neural circuit using a normalized mixture model with Poisson noise. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that, in the presence of lateral inhibition introducing competition between different neurons, Hebbian plasticity and synaptic scaling approximate the optimal maximum likelihood solutions for this model. Our results suggest that, beyond its conventional use as a mechanism to remove undesired pattern variations, input normalization can make typical neural interaction and learning rules optimal on the stimulus subspace defined through feedforward inhibition. Furthermore, learning within this subspace is more efficient in practice, as it helps avoid locally optimal solutions. Our results suggest a close connection between feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling which may have important functional implications for general cortical processing. PMID:22457610

Lücke, Jörg

2012-01-01

272

Role for a Novel Usher Protein Complex in Hair Cell Synaptic Maturation  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell synaptic maturation are not well understood. Cadherin-23 (CDH23), protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) and the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) have been implicated in the development of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, while clarin-1 has been suggested to also play a role in synaptogenesis. Mutations in CDH23, PCDH15, VLGR1 and clarin-1 cause Usher syndrome, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show developmental expression of these Usher proteins in afferent spiral ganglion neurons and hair cell synapses. We identify a novel synaptic Usher complex comprised of clarin-1 and specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR1. To establish the in vivo relevance of this complex, we performed morphological and quantitative analysis of the neuronal fibers and their synapses in the Clrn1?/? mouse, which was generated by incomplete deletion of the gene. These mice showed a delay in neuronal/synaptic maturation by both immunostaining and electron microscopy. Analysis of the ribbon synapses in Ames waltzerav3J mice also suggests a delay in hair cell synaptogenesis. Collectively, these results show that, in addition to the well documented role for Usher proteins in stereocilia development, Usher protein complexes comprised of specific protein isoforms likely function in synaptic maturation as well. PMID:22363448

Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Rutledge, Joseph; Gratton, Michael Anne; Flannery, John; Cosgrove, Dominic

2012-01-01

273

Thermal nociceptive properties of trigeminal afferent neurons in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Although nociceptive afferents innervating the body have been heavily studied form many years, much less attention has been paid to trigeminal afferent biology. In particular, very little is known concerning trigeminal nociceptor responses to heat, and almost nothing in the rat. This study uses a highly controlled and reproducible diode laser stimulator to investigate the activation of trigeminal afferents to noxious skin heating. Results The results of this experiment demonstrate that trigeminal thermonociceptors are distinct from themonociceptors innervating the limbs. Trigeminal nociceptors have considerably slower action potential conduction velocities and lower temperature thresholds than somatic afferent neurons. On the other hand, nociceptors innervating both tissue areas separate into those that respond to short pulse, high rate skin heating and those that respond to long pulse, low rate skin heating. Conclusions This paper provides the first description in the literature of the in vivo properties of thermonociceptors in rats. These finding of two separate populations aligns with the separation between C and A-delta thermonociceptors innervating the paw, but have significant differences in terms of temperature threshold and average conduction velocities. An understanding of the temperature response properties of afferent neurons innervating the paw skin have been critical in many mechanistic discoveries, some leading to new pain therapies. A clear understanding of trigeminal nociceptors may be similarly useful in the investigation of trigeminal pain mechanisms and potential therapies. PMID:20609212

2010-01-01

274

Low-Dimensional Sensory Feature Representation by Trigeminal Primary Afferents  

PubMed Central

In any sensory system, the primary afferents constitute the first level of sensory representation and fundamentally constrain all subsequent information processing. Here, we show that the spike timing, reliability, and stimulus selectivity of primary afferents in the whisker system can be accurately described by a simple model consisting of linear stimulus filtering combined with spike feedback. We fitted the parameters of the model by recording the responses of primary afferents to filtered, white noise whisker motion in anesthetized rats. The model accurately predicted not only the response of primary afferents to white noise whisker motion (median correlation coefficient 0.92) but also to naturalistic, texture-induced whisker motion. The model accounted both for submillisecond spike-timing precision and for non-Poisson spike train structure. We found substantial diversity in the responses of the afferent population, but this diversity was accurately captured by the model: a 2D filter subspace, corresponding to different mixtures of position and velocity sensitivity, captured 94% of the variance in the stimulus selectivity. Our results suggest that the first stage of the whisker system can be well approximated as a bank of linear filters, forming an overcomplete representation of a low-dimensional feature space. PMID:23864687

Bale, Michael R.; Davies, Kyle; Freeman, Oliver J.; Ince, Robin A. A.

2013-01-01

275

Silent damage of noise on cochlear afferent innervation in guinea pigs and the impact on temporal processing.  

PubMed

Noise-exposure at levels low enough to avoid a permanent threshold shift has been found to cause a massive, delayed degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mouse cochleae. Damage to the afferent innervation was initiated by a loss of synaptic ribbons, which is largely irreversible in mice. A similar delayed loss of SGNs has been found in guinea pig cochleae, but at a reduced level, suggesting a cross-species difference in SGN sensitivity to noise. Ribbon synapse damage occurs "silently" in that it does not affect hearing thresholds as conventionally measured, and the functional consequence of this damage is not clear. In the present study, we further explored the effect of noise on cochlear afferent innervation in guinea pigs by focusing on the dynamic changes in ribbon counts over time, and resultant changes in temporal processing. It was found that (1) contrary to reports in mice, the initial loss of ribbons largely recovered within a month after the noise exposure, although a significant amount of residual damage existed; (2) while the response threshold fully recovered in a month, the temporal processing continued to be deteriorated during this period. PMID:23185359

Liu, Lijie; Wang, Hui; Shi, Lijuan; Almuklass, Awad; He, Tingting; Aiken, Steve; Bance, Manohar; Yin, Shankai; Wang, Jian

2012-01-01

276

Effects of cytochalasin treatment on short-term synaptic plasticity at developing neuromuscular junctions in frogs.  

PubMed Central

1. The role of actin microfilaments in synaptic transmission was tested by monitoring spontaneous and evoked transmitter release from developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures, using whole-cell recording of synaptic currents in the absence and presence of microfilament-disrupting agents cytochalasins B and D. 2. Treatment with cytochalasins resulted in disruption of microfilament networks in the growth cone and the presynaptic nerve terminal of spinal neurons in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures, as revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining. 3. The same cytochalasin treatment did not significantly affect the spontaneous or evoked synaptic currents during low-frequency stimulation at 0.05 Hz in these Xenopus cultures. Synaptic depression induced by high-frequency (5 Hz) stimulation, however, was reduced by this treatment. Paired-pulse facilitation for short interpulse intervals was also increased by the treatment. 4. These results indicate that disruption of microfilaments alters short-term changes in transmitter release induced by repetitive activity, without affecting normal synaptic transmission at low frequency. 5. Our results support the notion that actin microfilaments impose a barrier for mobilization of synaptic vesicles from the reserve pool, but do not affect the exocytosis of immediately available synaptic vesicles at the active zone. Images Figure 1 PMID:9011610

Wang, X H; Zheng, J Q; Poo, M M

1996-01-01

277

Enduring Medial Perforant Path Short-Term Synaptic Depression at High Pressure  

PubMed Central

The high pressure neurological syndrome develops during deep-diving (>1.1 MPa) involving impairment of cognitive functions, alteration of synaptic transmission and increased excitability in cortico-hippocampal areas. The medial perforant path (MPP), connecting entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation, displays synaptic frequency-dependent-depression (FDD) under normal conditions. Synaptic FDD is essential for specific functions of various neuronal networks. We used rat cortico-hippocampal slices and computer simulations for studying the effects of pressure and its interaction with extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) on FDD at the MPP synapses. At atmospheric pressure, high [Ca2+]o (4–6?mM) saturated single MPP field EPSP (fEPSP) and increased FDD in response to short trains at 50?Hz. High pressure (HP; 10.1 MPa) depressed single fEPSPs by 50%. Increasing [Ca2+]o to 4?mM at HP saturated synaptic response at a subnormal level (only 20% recovery of single fEPSPs), but generated a FDD similar to atmospheric pressure. Mathematical model analysis of the fractions of synaptic resources used by each fEPSP during trains (normalized to their maximum) and the total fraction utilized within a train indicate that HP depresses synaptic activity also by reducing synaptic resources. This data suggest that MPP synapses may be modulated, in addition to depression of single events, by reduction of synaptic resources and then may have the ability to conserve their dynamic properties under different conditions. PMID:21048901

Talpalar, Adolfo E.; Giugliano, Michele; Grossman, Yoram

2010-01-01

278

A Requirement for Local Protein Synthesis in Neurotrophin-Induced Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are able to produce a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Unlike other forms of plasticity, neurotrophin-induced plasticity exhibited an immediate requirement for protein synthesis. Plasticity in rat hippocampal slices in which the synaptic neuropil was isolated from the principal cell bodies also required early protein synthesis. Thus,

Hyejin Kang; Erin M. Schuman

1996-01-01

279

Laparoscopy in Afferent Loop Obstruction Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: We describe an afferent loop obstruction caused by an adhesion band in a case of distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y end-to-side jejunal anastomosis for cancer. Methods: An initial clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis was ruled out by a computed tomography scan, which revealed intestinal obstruction; it was then confirmed on laparoscopy. Definitive treatment was laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A complete review of the literature concerning afferent loop obstructions is presented. Results: The treatment was successful, with minimal postoperative pain, and the 5-day hospital stay was uncomplicated. The patient remains asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The authors advocate minimally invasive surgery as a complete diagnostic and therapeutic alternative to emergency laparotomy in cases where afferent loop syndrome is suspected, and acknowledge that prompt surgery has a higher rate of success and reduces operative morbidity and mortality. PMID:16882437

Pettinato, Giovanna; Romessis, Matheos; Ferrari Bravo, Andrea; Barozzi, Geraldine; Giovanetti, Maurizio

2006-01-01

280

Afferent Stochastic Modulation of Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor Units  

PubMed Central

When all roots to the sixth ganglion of the crayfish are cut, the caudal photoreceptor unit (PRU) fires at regular intervals. With an intact preparation, stimulation of caudal tactile hairs has predominantly inhibitory effects on the PRU: short bursts of afferent impulses, produced by momentary mechanical stimulation of tactile hairs, have (a) occasional immediate excitatory effect on the PRU, (b) prolonged inhibitory effect. The mean firing rate of the afferented and deafferented PRUs reacts similarly to a step increase in light, but the same unit fires faster after deafferentation. In the dark, deafferented units often fire paired or multiple pulses; the interval between pulses in a pair is similar to the short mode in afferented histograms. A fiber-optic probe of the caudal ganglion demonstrates the approximate location of the photosensitive element. PMID:5651771

Hermann, Howard T.; Olsen, Richard E.

1968-01-01

281

[Capsaicin-sensitive afferents in the vagus nerve].  

PubMed

Vanilloids were shown to interact with over 70% of vagal C-afferents first causing an excitation followed by desensitisation and a lasting destruction of nerve fibres. Capsaicin induces a secretion of some neuropeptides from 10-30% of vagal sensory terminals and therefore serves as a pharmacological tool for testing local "effector function" of primary afferents. Vagal afferents seem to have their own subtype of vanilloid receptors (VR), not completely identical with the VR receptors in the dorsal root ganglia. Considering potentiation of the capsaicin receptors sensitivity by some factors such as local heating, pH, free oxygen radicals, a possible role of the VRs as integrators of chemical and physical components of nociceptive stimuli, is discussed. PMID:11296704

Zolotarev, A D; Nozdrachev, A D

2001-02-01

282

THE COMPLEX ACTIONS OF SUMATRIPTAN ON RAT DURAL AFFERENTS  

PubMed Central

Aim To test the hypothesis that the clinical efficacy of triptans reflects convergent modulation of ion channels also involved in inflammatory mediator (IM)-induced sensitization of dural afferents. Methods Acutely dissociated retrogradely labeled dural afferents were studied with whole cell and perforated patch techniques in the absence and presence of sumatriptan and/or IM (prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, and histamine). Results Sumatriptan dose-dependently suppressed voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. Acute (2 min) sumatriptan application increased dural afferent excitability and occluded further IM-induced sensitization. In contrast, pre-incubation (30 min) with sumatriptan had no influence on dural afferent excitability and partially prevented IM-induced sensitization of dural afferents. The sumatriptan-induced suppression of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, acute sensitization and pre-incubation-induced block of IM-induced sensitization were blocked by the 5-HT1D antagonist, BRL 15572. Pre-incubation failed to suppress the IM-induced decrease in action potential threshold and overshoot (which results from modulation of voltage-gated Na+ currents) and activation of Cl? current, and had no influence on the Cl? reversal potential. However, pre-incubation with sumatriptan caused a dramatic hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of K+ current activation. Discussion These results indicate that while the actions of sumatriptan on dural afferents are complex, at least two distinct mechanisms underlie the antinociceptive actions of this compound. One of these mechanisms, the shift in the voltage-dependence of K+ channel activation may suggest a novel strategy for future development of anti-migraine agents. PMID:22711897

Harriott, Andrea M.; Scheff, Nicole N.; Gold, Michael S.

2013-01-01

283

Depression of synaptic efficacy at intermolt in crayfish neuromuscular junctions by 20-hydroxyecdysone, a molting hormone.  

PubMed

This report demonstrates that ecdysteroids can reduce synaptic transmission at an intermolt stage of a crustacean tonic neuromuscular junction by acting at a presynaptic site. The steroid molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), appears to act through a rapid, nongenomic mechanism that decreases the probability of synaptic vesicle release and reduces the number of release sites. Quantal analysis revealed that fewer vesicles were released for a given stimulus when 20-HE was present, and this in turn accounted for the reduced synaptic efficacy. Reduced synaptic efficacy produced smaller evoked postsynaptic currents and smaller excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) across the muscle fiber membrane. The reduction in EPSPs was observed among muscle fibers that were innervated by high- or low-output terminals. The behavior of crustaceans/crayfish during the molt cycle, when 20-HE is high, may be explained by the reduction in synaptic transmission. Crustaceans become quiescent during the premolt periods as do insects. The effects of 20-HE can be reversed with the application of the crustacean neuromodulator serotonin, which enhances synaptic transmission. PMID:9535959

Cooper, R L; Ruffner, M E

1998-04-01

284

Nociceptive primary afferents: they have a mind of their own.  

PubMed

Nociceptive primary afferents have three surprising properties: they are highly complex in their expression of neurotransmitters and receptors and most probably participate in autocrine and paracrine interactions; they are capable of exerting tonic and activity-dependent inhibitory control over incoming nociceptive input; they can generate signals in the form of dorsal root reflexes that are transmitted antidromically out to the periphery and these signals can result in neurogenic inflammation in the innervated tissue. Thus, nociceptive primary afferents are highly complicated structures, capable of modifying input before it is ever transmitted to the central nervous system and capable of altering the tissue they innervate. PMID:24879874

Carlton, Susan M

2014-08-15

285

Functional diversity on synaptic plasticity mediated by endocannabinoids  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) act as modulators of synaptic transmission through activation of a number of receptors, including, but not limited to, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). eCBs share CB1 receptors as a common target with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Although THC has been used for recreational and medicinal purposes for thousands of years, little was known about its effects at the cellular level or on neuronal circuits. Identification of CB1 receptors and the subsequent development of its specific ligands has therefore enhanced our ability to study and bring together a substantial amount of knowledge regarding how marijuana and eCBs modify interneuronal communication. To date, the eCB system, composed of cannabinoid receptors, ligands and the relevant enzymes, is recognized as the best-described retrograde signalling system in the brain. Its impact on synaptic transmission is widespread and more diverse than initially thought. The aim of this review is to succinctly present the most common forms of eCB-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission, while also illustrating the multiplicity of effects resulting from specializations of this signalling system at the circuital level. PMID:23108543

Cachope, Roger

2012-01-01

286

Modulatory role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors in synaptic and non-synaptic chemical communication in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a family of ligand-gated channels closely related to but distinct from the muscle nAChRs. Recent progress in neurochemical and pharmacological methods supports the hypothesis of presynaptically located nAChRs on axon terminals and indicates that the major effect of nAChR is the modulation rather than processing of fast synaptic transmission. Strong neurochemical evidence indicate

E. S. Vizi; B. Lendvai

1999-01-01

287

Miniature EPSPs and sensory encoding in the primary afferents of the vestibular lagena of the toadfish, Opsanus tau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synaptic activity transmitted from vestibular hair cells of the lagena to primary afferent neurons was recorded in vitro using sharp, intracellular microelectrodes. At rest, the activity was composed of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) at frequencies from 5 to 20/s and action potentials (APs) at frequencies betwen 0 and 10/s. mEPSPs recorded from a single fiber displayed a large variability. For mEPSPs not triggering APs, amplitudes exhibited an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 0.323 and rise times an average CV of 0.516. APs were only triggered by mEPSPs with larger amplitudes (estimated 4-6 mV) and/or steeper maximum rate of rise (10.9 mV/ms, +/- 3.7 SD, n=4 experiments) compared to (3.50 mV/ms, +/-0.07 SD, n=6 experiments) for nontriggering mEPSPs. The smallest mEPSPs showed a fast rise time (0.99 ms between 10% and 90% of peak amplitude) and limited variability across fibers (CV:0.18) confirming that they were not attenuated signals, but rather represented single-transmitter discharges (TDs). The mEPSP amplitude and rise-time relationship suggests that many mEPSPs represented several, rather than a single pulse of secretion of TDs. According to the estimated overall TD frequency, the coincidence of TDs contributing to the same mEPSP were not statistically independent, indicating a positive interaction between TDs that is reminiscent of the way subminiature signals group to form miniature signals at the neuromuscular junction. Depending on the duration and intensity of efferent stimulation, a complete block of AP initiation occurred either immediately or after a delay of a few seconds. Efferent stimulation did not significantly change AP threshold level, but abruptly decreased mEPSP frequency to a near-complete block that followed the block of APs. Maximum mEPSP rate of rise decreased during, and recovered progressively after, efferent stimulation. After termination of efferent stimulation, mEPSP amplitude did not recover instantly and for a few seconds the amplitude distribution of synaptic events showed fewer large-amplitude events than during the control period. This confirms that mEPSP amplitude and rate of rise properties, which are critical for triggering afferent APs, are modified by efferent activity. The depression of afferent AP firing during efferent stimulation corresponded to a decrease in mEPSP frequency and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in mEPSP amplitude and rate of rise, suggesting, a decrease in the level of interaction among TDs contibuting to a mEPSP.

Locke, R.; Vautrin, J.; Highstein, S.

1999-01-01

288

Monosynaptic convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferents onto ascending relay neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract: A high-resolution confocal and correlative electron microscopy approach  

PubMed Central

While physiological studies suggested convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferent axons onto single neurons of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNTS), anatomical evidence has been elusive. The current study uses high-magnification confocal microscopy to identify putative synaptic contacts from afferent fibers of the two nerves onto individual projection neurons. Imaged tissue is re-visualized with electron microscopy, confirming that overlapping fluorescent signals in confocal z-stacks accurately identify appositions between labeled terminal and dendrite pairs. Monte Carlo modeling reveals that the probability of overlapping fluorophores is stochastically unrelated to the density of afferent label suggesting that convergent innervation in the rNTS is selective rather than opportunistic. Putative synaptic contacts from each nerve are often compartmentalized onto dendrite segments of convergently innervated neurons. These results have important implications for orosensory processing in the rNTS, and the techniques presented here have applications in investigations of neural microcircuitry with an emphasis on innervation patterning. PMID:23640852

Corson, James A.; Erisir, Alev

2014-01-01

289

CONNEXIONS BETWEEN HAIR-PLATE AFFERENTS AND MOTONEURONES IN THE COCKROACH LEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The trochanteral hair-plate afferents in the metathoracic leg of the cock- roach, Periplaneta americana, were stimulated electrically and at the same time intracellular recordings were made from either motoneurones, inter- neurones or afferent terminals within the metathoracic ganglion. 2. Activity in the hair-plate afferents evoked short latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in femur extensor motoneurones and inhibitory postsynaptic

K. G. PEARSON; R. K. S. WONG; C. R. FOURTNERf

1976-01-01

290

ENCODING OF TOOTH LOADS BY HUMAN PERIODONTAL AFFERENTS AND THEIR ROLE IN JAW MOTOR CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microneurography has been used to analyze the functional properties of human periodontal mechanoreceptors. Signals were recorded from single afferents in the inferior alveolar nerve while controlled forces were applied to the teeth. We have found that all periodontal afferents adapt slowly to maintained loads. Most afferents are tuned broadly to direction of force application, and about half respond to forces

MATS TRULSSON; ROLAND S. JOHANSSON

1996-01-01

291

5-HT1B receptors inhibit glutamate release from primary afferent terminals in rat medullary dorsal horn neurons  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although 5-HT1B receptors are expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons, it is still not known whether these receptors can modulate nociceptive transmission from primary afferents onto medullary dorsal horn neurons. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Primary afferent-evoked EPSCs were recorded from medullary dorsal horn neurons of rat horizontal brain stem slices using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique under a voltage-clamp condition. KEY RESULTS CP93129, a selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist, reversibly and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio. In addition, CP93129 reduced the frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs without affecting the current amplitude. The CP93129-induced inhibition of EPSCs was significantly occluded by GR55562, a 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, but not LY310762, a 5-HT1D receptor antagonist. Sumatriptan, an anti-migraine drug, also decreased EPSC amplitude, and this effect was partially blocked by either GR55562 or LY310762. On the other hand, primary afferent-evoked EPSCs were mediated by the Ca2+ influx passing through both presynaptic N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. The CP93129-induced inhibition of EPSCs was significantly occluded by ?-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The present results suggest that the activation of presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors reduces glutamate release from primary afferent terminals onto medullary dorsal horn neurons, and that 5-HT1B receptors could be, at the very least, a potential target for the treatment of pain from orofacial tissues. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Connor, pp. 353–355 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01963.x PMID:22462474

Choi, I-S; Cho, J-H; An, C-H; Jung, J-K; Hur, Y-K; Choi, J-K; Jang, I-S

2012-01-01

292

Gentle mechanical skin stimulation inhibits the somatocardiac sympathetic C-reflex elicited by excitation of unmyelinated C-afferent fibers.  

PubMed

The effects of gentle mechanical skin stimulation on reflex discharges in cardiac sympathetic nerve evoked by somatic afferent stimulation were studied in anesthetized rats. Mass discharges were recorded from cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve while somatocardiac sympathetic A- and C-reflexes were elicited by single electrical stimuli to myelinated A- and unmyelinated C-afferent fibers of the tibial nerve. Continuous touch was applied to inner thigh skin with a force of 0.12 N for 10 min periods by a soft elastomer "brush" (1.1cm in diameter with 417 microcones). When touch was applied ipsilateral to the stimulated tibial nerve, the C-reflex was inhibited by up to 40% of its pre-touch amplitude, whereas the A-reflex was unaffected. Inhibition of the C-reflex started during the touch period and lasted for 15 min after cessation of touching. Contralateral touch did not inhibit the C-reflex. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone attenuated the C-reflex inhibition, but did not abolish it. The C-reflex inhibition was abolished after severing cutaneous nerves innervating inner thigh. We recorded unitary afferent activity from thigh branches of the saphenous nerve and found fibers excited by touch were low-threshold mechanoreceptive Abeta, Adelta and C fibers that have rapidly or slowly adapting properties. In all units tested, average discharge rates during touch period were less than 4 Hz. The results suggest that touch-induced excitation of low threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptive fibers inhibits nociceptive transmission conveyed by C-primary-afferents, via the release of both opioid and non-opioid inhibitory mediators. PMID:20303306

Hotta, Harumi; Schmidt, Robert F; Uchida, Sae; Watanabe, Nobuhiro

2010-09-01

293

Sympathetic modulation of activity in Adelta- and C-primary nociceptive afferents after intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats.  

PubMed

Neuropathic and inflammatory pain can be modulated by the sympathetic nervous system. In some pain models, sympathetic postganglionic efferents are involved in the modulation of nociceptive transmission in the periphery. The purpose of this study is to examine the sensitization of Adelta- and C-primary afferent nociceptors induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin (CAP) to see whether the presence of sympathetic efferents is essential for the sensitization. Single primary afferent discharges were recorded from the tibial nerve after the fiber types were identified by conduction velocity in anesthetized rats. An enhanced response of some Adelta- and most C-primary afferent fibers to mechanical stimuli was seen in sham-sympathectomized rats after CAP (1%, 15 mul) injection, but the enhanced responses of both Adelta- and C-fibers were reduced after sympathetic postganglionic efferents were removed. Peripheral pretreatment with norepinephrine by intraarterial injection could restore and prolong the CAP-induced enhancement of responses under sympathectomized conditions. In sympathetically intact rats, pretreatment with an alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist (terazosin) blocked completely the enhanced responses of C-fibers after CAP injection in sympathetically intact rats without significantly affecting the enhanced responses of Adelta-fibers. In contrast, a blockade of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors by yohimbine only slightly reduced the CAP-evoked enhancement of responses. We conclude that the presence of sympathetic efferents is essential for the CAP-induced sensitization of Adelta- and C-primary afferent fibers to mechanical stimuli and that alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors play a major role in the sympathetic modulation of C-nociceptor sensitivity in the periphery. PMID:15371497

Ren, Yong; Zou, Xiaoju; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing

2005-01-01

294

Exocytosis and synaptic vesicle function.  

PubMed

Synaptic vesicles release their vesicular contents to the extracellular space by Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. The Ca(2+)-triggered exocytotic process is regulated by synaptotagmin (Syt), a vesicular Ca(2+)-binding C2 domain protein. Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), the most studied major isoform among 16 Syt isoforms, mediates Ca(2+)-triggered synaptic vesicle exocytosis by interacting with the target membranes and SNARE/complexin complex. In synapses of the central nervous system, synaptobrevin 2, a major vesicular SNARE protein, forms a ternary SNARE complex with the plasma membrane SNARE proteins, syntaxin 1 and SNAP25. The affinities of Ca(2+)-dependent interactions between Syt1 and its targets (i.e., SNARE complexes and membranes) are well correlated with the efficacies of the corresponding exocytotic processes. Therefore, different SNARE protein isoforms and membrane lipids, which interact with Syt1 with various affinities, are capable of regulating the efficacy of Syt1-mediated exocytosis. Otoferlin, another type of vesicular C2 domain protein that binds to the membrane in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, is also involved in the Ca(2+)-triggered synaptic vesicle exocytosis in auditory hair cells. However, the functions of otoferlin in the exocytotic process are not well understood. In addition, at least five different types of synaptic vesicle proteins such as synaptic vesicle protein 2, cysteine string protein ?, rab3, synapsin, and a group of proteins containing four transmembrane regions, which includes synaptophysin, synaptogyrin, and secretory carrier membrane protein, are involved in modulating the exocytotic process by regulating the formation and trafficking of synaptic vesicles. PMID:24692137

Shin, Ok-Ho

2014-01-01

295

Diffusion dynamics of synaptic molecules during inhibitory postsynaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted molecular reorganization of the inhibitory synapse during postsynaptic plasticity, with special emphasis on the key role of protein dynamics to ensure prompt and reliable activity-dependent adjustments of synaptic strength. PMID:25294987

Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea

2014-01-01

296

The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN): local cytoarchitecture and afferent connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) provides a source of tonic drive to respiratory neurons and is one of many sites for central chemoreception. Here we evaluate in the rat the local neuronal cytoarchitecture in the RTN histologically 2–4 h after neurobiotin injection and the afferent connections to the RTN 24 h after injection. Our neurobiotin injections often overlapped the RTN and

Carlos Cream; Aihua Li; Eugene Nattie

2002-01-01

297

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory  

E-print Network

afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain sli- ces, electrical stimulation stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results

Leeds, University of

298

Changes in monkey horizontal semicircular canal afferent responses after spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extracellular responses from single horizontal semicircular canal afferents in two rhesus monkeys were studied after recovery from a 14-day biosatellite (Cosmos 2044) orbital spaceflight. On the 1st postflight day, the mean gain for 9 different horizontal canal afferents, tested using one or several different passive yaw rotation waveforms, was nearly twice that for 20 horizontal canal afferents similarly tested during preflight and postflight control studies. Adaptation of the afferent response to passive yaw rotation on the 1st postflight day was also greater. These results suggest that at least one component of the vestibular end organ (the semicircular canals) is transiently modified after exposure to 14 days of microgravity. It is unclear whether the changes are secondary to other effects of microgravity, such as calcium loss, or an adaptive response. If the response is adaptive, then this report is the first evidence that the response of the vestibular end organ may be modified (presumably by the central nervous system via efferent connections) after prolonged unusual vestibular stimulation. If this is the case, the sites of plasticity of vestibular responses may not be exclusively within central nervous system vestibular structures, as previously believed.

Correia, M. J.; Perachio, A. A.; Dickman, J. D.; Kozlovskaia, I. B.; Sirota, M. G.; Iakushin, S. B.; Beloozerova, I. N.

1992-01-01

299

Synaptic calcium regulation in hair cells of the chicken basilar papilla.  

PubMed

Cholinergic inhibition of hair cells occurs by activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. A near-membrane postsynaptic cistern has been proposed to serve as a store from which calcium is released to supplement influx through the ionotropic ACh receptor. However, the time and voltage dependence of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked potassium currents reveal a more complex relationship between calcium entry and release from stores. The present work uses voltage steps to regulate calcium influx during the application of ACh to hair cells in the chicken basilar papilla. When calcium influx was terminated at positive membrane potential, the ACh-evoked potassium current decayed exponentially over ?100 ms. However, at negative membrane potentials, this current exhibited a secondary rise in amplitude that could be eliminated by dihydropyridine block of the voltage-gated calcium channels of the hair cell. Calcium entering through voltage-gated channels may transit through the postsynaptic cistern, since ryanodine and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase blockers altered the time course and magnitude of this secondary, voltage-dependent contribution to ACh-evoked potassium current. Serial section electron microscopy showed that efferent and afferent synaptic structures are juxtaposed, supporting the possibility that voltage-gated influx at afferent ribbon synapses influences calcium homeostasis during long-lasting cholinergic inhibition. In contrast, spontaneous postsynaptic currents ("minis") resulting from stochastic efferent release of ACh were made briefer by ryanodine, supporting the hypothesis that the synaptic cistern serves primarily as a calcium barrier and sink during low-level synaptic activity. Hypolemmal cisterns such as that at the efferent synapse of the hair cell can play a dynamic role in segregating near-membrane calcium for short-term and long-term signaling. PMID:25505321

Im, Gi Jung; Moskowitz, Howard S; Lehar, Mohammed; Hiel, Hakim; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2014-12-10

300

Ht31 peptide inhibited inflammatory pain by blocking NMDA receptor-mediated nociceptive transmission in spinal dorsal horn of mice.  

PubMed

A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) assemble cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) into signaling complexes with a wide range of ion channels, including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is critical for the central sensitization of nociceptive behaviors. Although PKA has been widely described in the regulation of NMDAR-dependent nociceptive transmission and plasticity, the roles of AKAPs in these processes are largely unknown as yet. The present study interfered with AKAPs/PKA interaction by introducing stearated Ht31 peptide (St-Ht31) into spinal dorsal horn neurons, and investigated the possible changes of primary afferent-evoked, NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDAR-EPSCs). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that intracellular loading of St-Ht31 through the glass pipettes didn't affect NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses in the spinal cord slices from intact mice. When inflammatory pain was established by intraplantar injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), however, St-Ht31 significantly repressed the amplitudes of NMDAR-EPSCs by selectively removing GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR out of synapses. With the inhibition of NMDAR-mediated nociceptive transmission, St-Ht31 effectively ameliorated CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Pharmacological manipulation of microtubule-based NMDAR transport, dynamin-dependent NMDAR endocytosis or actin depolymerization abolished the inhibitory effects of St-Ht31 peptide on NMDAR-EPSCs, suggesting that disruption of AKAPs/PKA interaction by St-Ht31 might disturb multiple NMDAR trafficking steps to reduce the receptor synaptic expression and spinal sensitization. PMID:25312281

Wang, Wen-Tao; Pan, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Suo, Zhan-Wei; Yang, Xian; Hu, Xiao-Dong

2015-02-01

301

Validation of the Synaptic Depression in the Central Nervous System of the Locusta migratoriaCaused by an Organophosphate (Paraoxon) Insecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anin vitroelectrophysiological method has been developed for the assessment of synaptic depression in the cercal axons\\/giant interneurons cholinergic synaptic system of theLocusta migratoria.The evoked compound action potentials generated by the stimulation of the cercal nerve and recorded from the connectives posterior to the metathoracic ganglion in the ventral nerve cord were used to quantify the depression of the synaptic transmission.

G. Theophilidis

1997-01-01

302

Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits.  

PubMed

Sensory information arising from the upper neck is important in the reflex control of posture and eye position. It has also been linked to the autonomic control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and cervical dystonia, which involve disturbance to the neck region, can often present with abnormalities to the oromotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We investigated the potential neural pathways underlying such symptoms. Simulating neck afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP) altered the pattern of central respiratory drive and increased perfusion pressure. Tracing central targets of these sensory afferents revealed projections to the intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM). These anterogradely labelled afferents co-localised with parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 indicating that they are proprioceptive. Anterograde tracing from the InM identified projections to brain regions involved in respiratory, cardiovascular, postural and oro-facial behaviours-the neighbouring hypoglossal nucleus, facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, parabrachial nuclei, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain slices, electrical stimulation of afferent fibre tracts lateral to the cuneate nucleus monosynaptically excited InM neurones. Direct stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results provide evidence of pathways linking upper cervical sensory afferents with CNS areas involved in autonomic and oromotor control, via the InM. Disruption of these neuronal pathways could, therefore, explain the dysphagic and cardiorespiratory abnormalities which may accompany cervical dystonia and WAD. PMID:24595534

Edwards, I J; Lall, V K; Paton, J F; Yanagawa, Y; Szabo, G; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

2014-03-01

303

Spatial and temporal aspects of synaptic plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that changes in synaptic efficacy underlie learning and memory processes is now widely accepted even if definitive proof of the synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis is still lacking. When learning occurs, patterns of neural activity representing the occurrence of events cause changes in the strength of synaptic connections within the brain. Reactivation of these altered connections constitutes the

Georgios Kalantzis

2009-01-01

304

Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations. PMID:25505409

Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

305

Reduced synaptic vesicle protein degradation at lysosomes curbs TBC1D24/sky-induced neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Synaptic demise and accumulation of dysfunctional proteins are thought of as common features in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms by which synaptic proteins turn over remain elusive. In this paper, we study Drosophila melanogaster lacking active TBC1D24/Skywalker (Sky), a protein that in humans causes severe neurodegeneration, epilepsy, and DOOR (deafness, onychdystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation) syndrome, and identify endosome-to-lysosome trafficking as a mechanism for degradation of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins. In fly sky mutants, synaptic vesicles traveled excessively to endosomes. Using chimeric fluorescent timers, we show that synaptic vesicle-associated proteins were younger on average, suggesting that older proteins are more efficiently degraded. Using a genetic screen, we find that reducing endosomal-to-lysosomal trafficking, controlled by the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex, rescued the neurotransmission and neurodegeneration defects in sky mutants. Consistently, synaptic vesicle proteins were older in HOPS complex mutants, and these mutants also showed reduced neurotransmission. Our findings define a mechanism in which synaptic transmission is facilitated by efficient protein turnover at lysosomes and identify a potential strategy to suppress defects arising from TBC1D24 mutations in humans. PMID:25422373

Fernandes, Ana Clara; Uytterhoeven, Valerie; Kuenen, Sabine; Wang, Yu-Chun; Slabbaert, Jan R; Swerts, Jef; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Aerts, Stein; Verstreken, Patrik

2014-11-24

306

Synaptic vesicle-bound pyruvate kinase can support vesicular glutamate uptake  

PubMed Central

Glucose metabolism is essential for normal brain function and plays a vital role in synaptic transmission. Recent evidence suggests that ATP synthesized locally by glycolysis, particularly via glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase/3-phosphoglycerate kinase, is critical for synaptic transmission. We present evidence that ATP generated by synaptic vesicle-associated pyruvate kinase is harnessed to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Isolated synaptic vesicles incorporated [3H]glutamate in the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ADP. Pyruvate kinase activators and inhibitors stimulated and reduced PEP/ADP-dependent glutamate uptake, respectively. Membrane potential was also formed in the presence of pyruvate kinase activators. “ATP-trapping” experiments using hexokinase and glucose suggest that ATP produced by vesicle-associated pyruvate kinase is more readily used than exogenously added ATP. Other neurotransmitters such as GABA, dopamine, and serotonin were also taken up into crude synaptic vesicles in a PEP/ADP-dependent manner. The possibility that ATP locally generated by glycolysis supports vesicular accumulation of neurotransmitters is discussed. PMID:18751889

Ishida, Atsuhiko; Noda, Yasuko; Ueda, Tetsufumi

2008-01-01

307

Maintenance and termination of neocortical oscillations by dynamic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic excitability.  

PubMed

Mechanisms underlying seizure cessation remain elusive. The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe childhood epileptic disorder, is characterized by episodes of seizure with alternating epochs of spike-wave and fast run discharges. In a detailed computational model that incorporates extracellular potassium dynamics, we studied the dynamics of these state transitions between slow and fast oscillations. We show that dynamic modulation of synaptic transmission can cause termination of paroxysmal activity. An activity-dependent shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition towards more excitation caused seizure termination by favoring the slow oscillatory state, which permits recovery of baseline extracellular potassium concentration. We found that slow synaptic depression and change in chloride reversal potential can have similar effects on the seizure dynamics. Our results indicate a novel role for synaptic dynamics during epileptic neural activity patterns. PMID:20556224

Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Sejnowski, Terrence J

2005-06-01

308

Synaptic Activity and Bioenergy Homeostasis: Implications in Brain Trauma and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Powered by glucose metabolism, the brain is the most energy-demanding organ in our body. Adequate ATP production and regulation of the metabolic processes are essential for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and neuronal function. Glutamatergic synaptic activity utilizes the largest portion of bioenergy for synaptic events including neurotransmitter synthesis, vesicle recycling, and most importantly, the postsynaptic activities leading to channel activation and rebalancing of ionic gradients. Bioenergy homeostasis is coupled with synaptic function via activities of the sodium pumps, glutamate transporters, glucose transport, and mitochondria translocation. Energy insufficiency is sensed by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic regulator that stimulates the catalytic process to enhance energy production. A decline in energy supply and a disruption in bioenergy homeostasis play a critical role in multiple neuropathological conditions including ischemia, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injuries. PMID:24376435

Khatri, Natasha; Man, Heng-Ye

2013-01-01

309

Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Fetal ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a range of neurobehavioral alterations, including deficits in emotional processing. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in modulating emotional processing, in part, via dopamine (DA) regulation of GABA transmission. This BLA modulatory system is acquired during the first 2?weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) and we hypothesized that it could be altered by EtOH exposure during this period. We found that exposure of rats to moderate levels of EtOH vapor during the third trimester-equivalent [postnatal days (P) 2–12] alters DA modulation of GABAergic transmission in BLA pyramidal neurons during periadolescence. Specifically, D1R-mediated potentiation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was significantly attenuated in EtOH-exposed animals. However, this was associated with a compensatory decrease in D3R-mediated suppression of miniature IPSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that these effects were not a result of altered D1R or D3R levels. BLA samples from EtOH-exposed animals also had significantly lower levels of the DA precursor (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) but DA levels were not affected. This is likely a consequence of reduced catabolism of DA, as indicated by reduced levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the BLA samples. Anxiety-like behavior was not altered in EtOH-exposed animals. This is the first study to demonstrate that the modulatory actions of DA in the BLA are altered by developmental EtOH exposure. Although compensatory adaptations were engaged in our moderate EtOH exposure paradigm, it is possible that these are not able to restore homeostasis and correct anxiety-like behaviors under conditions of heavier EtOH exposure. Therefore, future studies should investigate the potential role of alterations in the modulatory actions of DA in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:24904907

Diaz, Marvin Rafael; Jotty, Karick; Locke, Jason L.; Jones, Sara R.; Valenzuela, Carlos Fernando

2014-01-01

310

Biphasic effect of bradykinin on rabbit afferent arterioles.  

PubMed

Bradykinin plays an important role in the regulation of renal hemodynamics. However, there have been few studies of the effect of bradykinin on isolated afferent arterioles, vascular segments that are important for the regulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Our purpose was to study (1) the effects of bradykinin on isolated perfused rabbit afferent arterioles and (2) the mechanisms of actions. Afferent arterioles dissected from rabbits were perfused in vitro at 60 mm Hg. In afferent arterioles preconstricted with phenylephrine, 10(-12) to 10(-10) mol/L bradykinin increased luminal diameter from 9.0+/-1.0 to 14.3+/-1.2 microm (P<0.003). In contrast, 10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin decreased luminal diameter to 10.8+/-1.4 and 9.7+/-1.2 microm, respectively (P<0.001). Bradykinin added to the bath had no effect on preconstricted afferent arterioles. The addition of [des-Arg9]-bradykinin (10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L), a B1 receptor agonist, to the lumen decreased diameter from 9.7+/-1.2 to 6.7+/-1.2 microm at 10(-8) mol/L (P<0.002). Icatibant (Hoe 140), a B2 receptor antagonist, blocked both the vasodilation and vasoconstriction induced by bradykinin as well as the vasoconstriction induced by [des-Arg9]-bradykinin. L-NAME had no effect on bradykinin-induced dilation or constriction. Indomethacin blocked both the dilation induced by 10(-12) to 10(-10) mol/L bradykinin and the constriction induced by 10(-9) to 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin. In fact, in the presence of indomethacin, 10(-9) and 10(-8) mol/L bradykinin increased luminal diameter from 6.2+/-0.7 to 10.7+/-0.6 microm at 10(-8) mol/L (P<0.001), which was attenuated by L-NAME. Finally, in the presence of SQ29548, a prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, bradykinin caused dilation at all concentrations tested. In conclusion, bradykinin has a biphasic effect on afferent arterioles. Both dilation and constriction may be mediated by bradykinin B2 receptors. The mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction are due to cyclooxygenase products, not nitric oxide. PMID:9719056

Yu, H; Carretero, O A; Juncos, L A; Garvin, J L

1998-08-01

311

Activity patterns govern synapse-specific AMPA receptor trafficking between deliverable and synaptic pools  

PubMed Central

In single neurons, glutamatergic synapses receiving distinct afferent inputs may contain AMPA receptors (-Rs) with unique subunit compositions. However, the cellular mechanisms by which differential receptor transport achieves this synaptic diversity remain poorly understood. In lateral geniculate neurons, we show that retinogeniculate and corticogeniculate synapses have distinct AMPA-R subunit compositions. Under basal conditions at both synapses, GluR1-containing AMPA-Rs are transported from an anatomically defined reserve pool to a deliverable pool near the postsynaptic density (PSD), but further incorporate into the PSD or functional synaptic pool only at retinogeniculate synapses. Vision-dependent activity, stimulation mimicking retinal input, or activation of CaMKII or Ras signaling regulated forward GluR1 trafficking from the deliverable pool to the synaptic pool at both synapses, whereas Rap2 signals reverse GluR1 transport at retinogeniculate synapses. These findings suggest that synapse-specific AMPA-R delivery involves constitutive and activity-regulated transport steps between morphological pools, a mechanism that may extend to the site-specific delivery of other membrane protein complexes. PMID:19376069

Kielland, Anders; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Corson, James; Zhang, Lei; Rosin, Diane L.; Heggelund, Paul; Zhu, J. Julius

2009-01-01

312

Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

2013-01-01

313

Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone  

PubMed Central

Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ) a variety of specialized proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Calcium channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modeling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometer scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organization of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how SRM can be used to obtain information on the organization of AZ proteins.

Ehmann, Nadine; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J.

2015-01-01

314

Ubiquitination, Protein Turnover, and Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For at least half a century, alteration of synaptic strength through growth at specific nerve terminals has been favored as the mechanism underlying long-term changes in behavior and synaptic plasticity. Although new proteins for synapses can either be synthesized locally or transported from the cell body, recent work on the postsynaptic element (dendritic spines) of cortical excitatory synapses indicates that transmission can also be modified by controlling the density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in the postsynaptic density (PSD). This regulation is mediated by mono-ubiquitination, which governs turnover of AMPAR subunits by determining whether the endocytosed subunits are sent to lysosomes to be degraded or recycled back to the membrane by exocytosis. Also important is activity-dependent multi-ubiquitination and degradation of proteins that make up the scaffolding complexes that confine receptors to the PSD.

James H. Schwartz (Columbia University;Center for Neurobiology and Behavior REV)

2003-07-08

315

BACE1 Is Necessary for Experience-Dependent Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia, which is thought to result from overproduction and/or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (A?) peptides. Studies over the past few decades suggest that A? is produced in an activity-dependent manner and has physiological relevance to normal brain functions. Similarly, physiological functions for ?- and ?-secretases, the two key enzymes that produce A? by sequentially processing the amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been discovered over recent years. In particular, activity-dependent production of A? has been suggested to play a role in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic function. There is accumulating evidence that activity-dependent immediate early gene Arc is an activity “sensor,” which acts upstream of A? production and triggers AMPA receptor endocytosis to homeostatically downregulate the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that Arc is critical for sensory experience-dependent homeostatic reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of visual cortex. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the major neuronal ?-secretase, BACE1, exhibit a similar phenotype: stronger basal excitatory synaptic transmission and failure to adapt to changes in visual experience. Our results indicate that BACE1 plays an essential role in sensory experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex. PMID:24963413

2014-01-01

316

BACE1 is necessary for experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in visual cortex.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia, which is thought to result from overproduction and/or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (A?) peptides. Studies over the past few decades suggest that A? is produced in an activity-dependent manner and has physiological relevance to normal brain functions. Similarly, physiological functions for ?- and ?-secretases, the two key enzymes that produce A? by sequentially processing the amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been discovered over recent years. In particular, activity-dependent production of A? has been suggested to play a role in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic function. There is accumulating evidence that activity-dependent immediate early gene Arc is an activity "sensor," which acts upstream of A? production and triggers AMPA receptor endocytosis to homeostatically downregulate the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that Arc is critical for sensory experience-dependent homeostatic reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of visual cortex. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the major neuronal ?-secretase, BACE1, exhibit a similar phenotype: stronger basal excitatory synaptic transmission and failure to adapt to changes in visual experience. Our results indicate that BACE1 plays an essential role in sensory experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex. PMID:24963413

Petrus, Emily; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

2014-01-01

317

Endogenous calcium buffering at photoreceptor synaptic terminals in salamander retina.  

PubMed

Calcium operates by several mechanisms to regulate glutamate release at rod and cone synaptic terminals. In addition to serving as the exocytotic trigger, Ca2+ accelerates replenishment of vesicles in cones and triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in rods. Ca2+ thereby amplifies sustained exocytosis, enabling photoreceptor synapses to encode constant and changing light. A complete picture of the role of Ca2+ in regulating synaptic transmission requires an understanding of the endogenous Ca2+ handling mechanisms at the synapse. We therefore used the "added buffer" approach to measure the endogenous Ca2+ binding ratio (?endo ) and extrusion rate constant (?) in synaptic terminals of photoreceptors in retinal slices from tiger salamander. We found that ?endo was similar in both cell types-?25 and 50 in rods and cones, respectively. Using measurements of the decay time constants of Ca2+ transients, we found that ? was also similar, with values of ?100 s(-1) and 160 s(-1) in rods and cones, respectively. The measurements of ?endo differ considerably from measurements in retinal bipolar cells, another ribbon-bearing class of retinal neurons, but are comparable to similar measurements at other conventional synapses. The values of ? are slower than at other synapses, suggesting that Ca2+ ions linger longer in photoreceptor terminals, supporting sustained exocytosis, CICR, and Ca2+ -dependent ribbon replenishment. The mechanisms of endogenous Ca2+ handling in photoreceptors are thus well-suited for supporting tonic neurotransmission. Similarities between rod and cone Ca2+ handling suggest that neither buffering nor extrusion underlie differences in synaptic transmission kinetics. PMID:25049035

Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

2014-11-01

318

Linking Redox Regulation of NMDAR Synaptic Function to Cognitive Decline during Aging  

PubMed Central

NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in learning and memory; however, there is a lack of evidence for a direct relationship between a well characterized decline in NMDAR function and impaired cognition during aging. The present study was designed to test the idea that a redox-mediated decrease in the NMDAR component of synaptic transmission during aging is related to a specific cognitive phenotype: impaired memory for rapidly acquired novel spatial information. Young and middle-aged male F344 rats were provided 1 d of training on the spatial version of the water maze, and retention was examined 24 h later. The performance of young rats was used as a criterion for classifying middle-aged rats as impaired and unimpaired on the task. Subsequent construction of CA3–CA1 synaptic input–output curves in hippocampal slices confirmed an age-related decrease in synaptic responses, including the NMDAR component of synaptic transmission. Examination of synaptic transmission according to behavioral classification revealed that animals classified as impaired exhibited a decrease in the total and the NMDAR component of the synaptic response relative to unimpaired animals. Furthermore, bath application of the reducing agent dithiothreitol increased the NMDAR component of the synaptic response to a greater extent in impaired animals relative to unimpaired and young rats. These results provide evidence for a link between the redox-mediated decline in NMDAR function and emergence of an age-related cognitive phenotype, impairment in the rapid acquisition and retention of novel spatial information. PMID:24089479

Kumar, Ashok

2013-01-01

319

Ischaemia-sensitive sympathetic afferents innervating the gastrointestinal tract function as nociceptors in cats.  

PubMed Central

1. Activation of sympathetic visceral afferents during mesenteric ischaemia induces visceral pain and reflexly excites the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the differential responses of ischaemically sensitive and insensitive sympathetic C fibre afferents to graded distension of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Single-unit activity of C fibre afferents innervating the stomach, duodenum and jejunum was recorded from the right thoracic sympathetic chain of anaesthetized cats. Ischaemically sensitive and insensitive C fibre afferents were identified according to their response to 5-20 min of ischaemia. The functional characteristics of the stimulus-response relationships of afferents were determined by distension of a balloon placed in the corresponding segment of gastrointestinal tract. 3. The results show that ischaemically insensitive C fibre afferents had a lower threshold in response to distension (13 +/- 5 mmHg, n = 10). The discharge frequency of these afferents was saturated within a low pressure range of distension. However, ischaemically sensitive C fibre afferents had a high threshold (86 +/- 12 mmHg, n = 10) and a larger peak response to mechanical distension in the noxious range (60-180 mmHg). There were no differences between ischaemically sensitive and insensitive C fibre afferents with regard to their testing activity or responses to bradykinin (10 micrograms I.A.). 4. This study demonstrates that the gastrointestinal system is innervated by low and high threshold sympathetic C fibre afferents, the latter having the distinct ability to encode nociceptive information such as excessive distension and ischaemia. PMID:8734994

Pan, H L; Longhurst, J C

1996-01-01

320

Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

1994-01-01

321

Encoding of tangential torque in responses of tactile afferent fibres innervating the fingerpad of the monkey  

PubMed Central

Torsional loads are ubiquitous during everyday dextrous manipulations. We examined how information about torque is provided to the sensorimotor control system by populations of tactile afferents. Torsional loads of different magnitudes were applied in clockwise and anticlockwise directions to a standard central site on the fingertip. Three different background levels of contact (grip) force were used. The median nerve was exposed in anaesthetized monkeys and single unit responses recorded from 66 slowly adapting type-I (SA-I) and 31 fast adapting type-I (FA-I) afferents innervating the distal segments of the fingertips. Most afferents were excited by torque but some were suppressed. Responses of the majority of both afferent types were scaled by torque magnitude applied in one or other direction, with the majority of FA-I afferent responses and about half of SA-I afferent responses scaled in both directions. Torque direction affected responses in both afferent types, but more so for the SA-I afferents. Latencies of the first spike in FA-I afferent responses depended on the parameters of the torque. We used a Parzen window classifier to assess the capacity of the SA-I and FA-I afferent populations to discriminate, concurrently and in real-time, the three stimulus parameters, namely background normal force, torque magnitude and direction. Despite the potentially confounding interactions between stimulus parameters, both the SA-I and the FA-I populations could extract torque magnitude accurately. The FA-I afferents signalled torque magnitude earlier than did the SA-I afferents, but torque direction was extracted more rapidly and more accurately by the SA-I afferent population. PMID:20142274

Birznieks, Ingvars; Wheat, Heather E; Redmond, Stephen J; Salo, Lauren M; Lovell, Nigel H; Goodwin, Antony W

2010-01-01

322

Characterization of primary afferent spinal innervation of mouse uterus.  

PubMed

The primary afferent innervation of the uterus is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the location and characteristics of primary afferent neurons that innervate the uterine horn of mice and correlate the different morphological types of putative primary afferent nerve endings, immunoreactive to the sensory marker, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Using retrograde tracing, injection of 5-10 ?L of 1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3,3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) into discrete single sites in each uterine horn revealed a biomodal distribution of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with peak labeling occurring between T13-L3 and a second smaller peak between L6-S1. The mean cross sectional area of labeled cells was 463 ?m(2) ± s.e.m. A significantly greater proportion of labeled neurons consisted of small cell bodies (<300 ?m(2)) in the sacral spinal cord (S2) compared with peak labeling at the lumbar (L2) region. In both sections and whole mount preparations, immunohistochemical staining for CGRP revealed substantial innervation of the uterus by CGRP-positive nerve fibers located primarily at the border between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers (N = 4). The nerve endings were classified into three distinct types: "single," "branching," or "complex," that often aligned preferentially in either the circular or longitudinal axis of the smooth muscles. Complex endings were often associated with mesenteric vessels. We have identified that the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons innervating the mouse uterus lie primarily in DRG at L2 and S1 spinal levels. Also, the greatest density of CGRP immunoreactivity lies within the myometrium, with at least three different morphological types of nerve endings identified. These findings will facilitate further investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory transduction in mouse uterus. PMID:25120416

Herweijer, Geraldine; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A H; Dodds, Kelsi N; Spencer, Nick J

2014-01-01

323

Spatial or afferent agraphia without left-sided neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 72-year-old right-handed man, M. B., who, after a right posterior parietal infarction, developed a spatial or afferent agraphia. Language function and limb praxis were normal. The patient had no left-sided neglect but a mild visuo-constructional disorder. Spelling knowledge was preserved in oral spelling and block letter writing. Writing errors were present only in cursive

Bernard Croisile; Odile Hibert

1998-01-01

324

Characterization of primary afferent spinal innervation of mouse uterus  

PubMed Central

The primary afferent innervation of the uterus is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the location and characteristics of primary afferent neurons that innervate the uterine horn of mice and correlate the different morphological types of putative primary afferent nerve endings, immunoreactive to the sensory marker, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Using retrograde tracing, injection of 5–10 ?L of 1,1?-didodecyl-3,3,3,3?-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) into discrete single sites in each uterine horn revealed a biomodal distribution of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with peak labeling occurring between T13-L3 and a second smaller peak between L6-S1. The mean cross sectional area of labeled cells was 463 ?m2 ± s.e.m. A significantly greater proportion of labeled neurons consisted of small cell bodies (<300 ?m2) in the sacral spinal cord (S2) compared with peak labeling at the lumbar (L2) region. In both sections and whole mount preparations, immunohistochemical staining for CGRP revealed substantial innervation of the uterus by CGRP-positive nerve fibers located primarily at the border between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers (N = 4). The nerve endings were classified into three distinct types: “single,” “branching,” or “complex,” that often aligned preferentially in either the circular or longitudinal axis of the smooth muscles. Complex endings were often associated with mesenteric vessels. We have identified that the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons innervating the mouse uterus lie primarily in DRG at L2 and S1 spinal levels. Also, the greatest density of CGRP immunoreactivity lies within the myometrium, with at least three different morphological types of nerve endings identified. These findings will facilitate further investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory transduction in mouse uterus. PMID:25120416

Herweijer, Geraldine; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A. H.; Dodds, Kelsi N.; Spencer, Nick J.

2014-01-01

325

Purinergic signaling in cochleovestibular hair cells and afferent neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purinergic signaling in the mammalian cochleovestibular hair cells and afferent neurons is reviewed. The scope includes P2\\u000a and P1 receptors in the inner hair cells (IHCs) of the cochlea, the type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that convey auditory\\u000a signals from IHCs, the vestibular hair cells (VHCs) in the vestibular end organs (macula in the otolith organs and crista\\u000a in

Ken Ito; Didier Dulon

2010-01-01

326

AKAP150-Anchored Calcineurin Regulates Synaptic Plasticity by Limiting Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors  

PubMed Central

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ion channels assembled from GluA1-GluA4 subunits that mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. In the hippocampus, most synaptic AMPARs are composed of GluA1/2 or GluA2/3 with the GluA2 subunit preventing Ca2+ influx. However, a small number of Ca2+-permeable GluA1 homomeric receptors reside in extrasynaptic locations where they can be rapidly recruited to synapses during synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of GluA1 S845 by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) primes extrasynaptic receptors for synaptic insertion in response to NMDA receptor (NMDAR) Ca2+ signaling during long-term potentiation (LTP), while phosphatases dephosphorylate S845 and remove synaptic and extrasynaptic GluA1 during long-term depression (LTD). PKA and the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) are targeted to GluA1 through binding to A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 150 in a complex with PSD-95, but we do not understand how the opposing activities of these enzymes are balanced to control plasticity. Here, we generated AKAP150?PIX knock-in mice to selectively disrupt CaN anchoring in vivo. We found that AKAP150?PIX mice lack LTD but express enhanced LTP at CA1 synapses. Accordingly, basal GluA1 S845 phosphorylation is elevated in AKAP150?PIX hippocampus, and LTD-induced dephosphorylation and removal of GluA1, AKAP150, and PSD-95 from synapses is impaired. In addition, basal synaptic activity of GluA2-lacking AMPARs is increased in AKAP150?PIX mice and pharmacologic antagonism of these receptors restores normal LTD and inhibits the enhanced LTP. Thus, AKAP150-anchored CaN opposes PKA phosphorylation of GluA1 to restrict synaptic incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs both basally and during LTP and LTD. PMID:23100425

Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Gorski, Jessica A.; Gibson, Emily S.; Lam, Philip; Freund, Ronald K.; Chick, Wallace S.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.

2012-01-01

327

Addiction therapy. Refining deep brain stimulation to emulate optogenetic treatment of synaptic pathology.  

PubMed

Circuit remodeling driven by pathological forms of synaptic plasticity underlies several psychiatric diseases, including addiction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to treat a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions, although its effects are transient and mediated by largely unknown mechanisms. Recently, optogenetic protocols that restore normal transmission at identified synapses in mice have provided proof of the idea that cocaine-adaptive behavior can be reversed in vivo. The most efficient protocol relies on the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, which depotentiates excitatory synaptic inputs onto dopamine D1 receptor medium-sized spiny neurons and normalizes drug-adaptive behavior. We discovered that acute low-frequency DBS, refined by selective blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, mimics optogenetic mGluR-dependent normalization of synaptic transmission. Consequently, there was a long-lasting abolishment of behavioral sensitization. PMID:25657248

Creed, Meaghan; Pascoli, Vincent Jean; Lüscher, Christian

2015-02-01

328

Subcortical afferent connections of the amygdala in the monkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cells of origin of the afferent connections of the amygdala in the rhesus and squirrel monkeys are determined according to the retrograde axonal transport of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase injected into various quadrants of the amygdala. Analysis of the distribution of enzyme-labeled cells reveals afferent amygdalar connections with the ipsilateral halves of the midline nucleus paraventricularis thalami and both the parvo- and magnocellular parts of the nucleus subparafascicularis in the dorsal thalamus, all the subdivisions of the midline nucleus centralis complex, the nucleus reuniens ventralis and the nucleus interventralis. The largest populations of enzyme-labeled cells in the hypothalamus are found to lie in the middle and posterior parts of the ipsilateral, lateral hypothalamus and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, with scattered cells in the supramammillary and dorsomedial nuclei and the posterior hypothalamic area, Tsai's ventral tegmental area, the rostral and caudal subdivisions of the nucleus linearis in the midbrain and the dorsal raphe nucleus. The most conspicuous subdiencephalic source of amygdalar afferent connections is observed to be the pars lateralis of the nucleus parabrachialis in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, with a few labeled cells differentiated from pigmented cells in the locus coeruleus.

Mehler, W. R.

1980-01-01

329

Targeting Peripheral Afferent Nerve Terminals for Cough and Dyspnea  

PubMed Central

Chronic unproductive coughing and dyspnea are symptoms that severely diminish the quality of life in a substantial proportion of the population. There are presently few if any drugs that effectively treat these symptoms. Rational drug targets for cough and dyspnea have emerged over the recent years based on developments in our understanding of the innervation of the respiratory tract. These drug targets can be subcategorized into those that target the vagal afferent nerve endings, and those that target neural activity within the CNS. This review focuses on targets presumed to be in the peripheral terminals of afferent nerves within the airways. Conceptually, the activity of peripheral afferent nerves involved with unwanted urge-to-cough or dyspnea sensations can be inhibited by limiting the intensity of the stimulus, inhibiting the amplitude of the stimulus-induced generator potential, or inhibiting the transduction between the generator potential and action potential discharge and conduction. These mechanisms reveal many therapeutic strategies for anti-tussive and anti-dyspnea drug development with peripheral sites of action. PMID:21705272

Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

330

Vagal Afferent Innervation of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

To supply a fuller morphological characterization of the vagal afferents innervating the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), specifically to label vagal terminals in the tissues forming the LES in the gastroesophageal junction, the present experiment employed injections of dextran biotin into the nodose ganglia of rats. Four types of vagal afferents innervated the LES. Clasp and sling muscle fibers were directly and prominently innervated by intramuscular arrays (IMAs). Individual IMA terminals subtended about 16° of arc of the esophageal circumference, and, collectively, the terminal fields were distributed within the muscle ring to establish a 360° annulus of mechanoreceptors in the sphincter wall. 3D morphometry of the terminals established that, compared to sling muscle IMAs, clasp muscle IMAs had more extensive arbors and larger receptive fields. In addition, at the cardia, local myenteric ganglia between smooth muscle sheets and striated muscle bundles were innervated by intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs), in a pattern similar to the innervation of the myenteric plexus throughout the stomach and esophagus. Finally, as previously described, the principle bundle of sling muscle fibers that links LES sphincter tissue to the antropyloric region of the lesser curvature was innervated by exceptionally long IMAs as well as by unique web ending specializations at the distal attachment of the bundle. Overall, the specialized varieties of densely distributed vagal afferents innervating the LES underscore the conclusion that these sensory projections are critically involved in generating LES reflexes and may be promising targets for managing esophageal dysfunctions. PMID:23583280

Powley, Terry L.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Gilbert, Jared M.; Hudson, Cherie N.; Martin, Felecia N.; Mason, Jacqueline K.; McAdams, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Robert J.

2013-01-01

331

The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area.  

PubMed

The efferent and afferent connections of the supplementary motor area (SMA) were studied in 6 squirrel monkeys using [3H]leucine and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Efferent projections, common to all leucine-injected animals, were found to the cortical areas 9,8,44,4,2,5,7,24 and 23. Subcortically , efferents were found to the putamen, caudate nucleus, claustrum, the thalamic nuclei reticularis, ventrialis anterior, ventralis lateralis, medialis dorsalis, centralis lateralis, paracentralis , centrum medianum, parafascicularis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior and lateralis posterior, the subthalamic nucleus, field H of Forel, nuel . ruber, reticular formation of midbrain, pons and medulla, the pontine gray and nucl . reticularis tegmenti pontis. Afferent connections exist with the cortical areas 9,8,6,44,4,1,2,5,7, 24 and 23, insula, fronto-parietal operculum and superior temporal sulcus. Subcortical afferent connections exist with the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, nucl . basalis Meynert, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the thalamic nuclei ventralis anterior, ventralis lateralis, medialis dorsalis, centralis lateralis, paracentralis , centrum medianum, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, lateralis posterior and pulvinaris , the posterior hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, nucl . ruber pars parvicellularis , reticular formation of midbrain and pons, locus coeruleus and nucl . centralis superior Bechterew. The projections are discussed with respect to the possible role SMA plays in the voluntary initiation of motor actions. PMID:6733468

Jürgens, U

1984-05-21

332

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles dock to the plasma membrane at synapses to facilitate rapid exocytosis. Docking was originally proposed to require the soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins; however, perturbation studies suggested that docking was independent of the SNARE proteins. We now find that the SNARE protein syntaxin is required for docking of all vesicles at synapses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The active zone protein UNC-13, which interacts with syntaxin, is also required for docking in the active zone. The docking defects in unc-13 mutants can be fully rescued by overexpressing a constitutively open form of syntaxin, but not by wild-type syntaxin. These experiments support a model for docking in which UNC-13 converts syntaxin from the closed to the open state, and open syntaxin acts directly in docking vesicles to the plasma membrane. These data provide a molecular basis for synaptic vesicle docking. PMID:17645391

Olsen, Shawn; Jorgensen, Erik M

2007-01-01

333

Synaptic plasticity under learning challenge.  

PubMed

Memory formation requires changes in neuronal networks connectivity based on modifications in strength and number of synapses. The mechanisms driving these changes have been intensively studied, but mostly under naive conditions, i.e. in animals that have not been cognitively challenged. Better characterization of synaptic requirements supporting memory formation can emerge from studies focusing on synaptic changes in memory-encoding structures while or after the animal model is cognitively challenged. Here, with this concept in mind, we review the literature describing structural, functional and molecular alterations developing in the hippocampus when animals are asked to form memories. We also briefly discuss the interest of this approach for disclosing pathological mechanisms in memory disorders, which might otherwise not be observed in naive conditions. PMID:25132316

Middei, Silvia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Marie, Hélčne

2014-11-01

334

Bistable Switches for Synaptic Plasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A persistent decrease in synaptic efficacy, called long-term depression (LTD), of the parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapse is thought to underlie some forms of learning and memory in the cerebellum. Simulation studies predicted that mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C would mutually activate each other and make a bistable positive feedback loop, thereby providing a molecular basis for LTD. This claim stimulated experimenters to successfully demonstrate the feedback loop and its pivotal role in cerebellar LTD.

Hideaki Ogasawara (Kyoto; National Institute of Information and Communications Technology REV)

2009-02-03

335

Optogenetic analysis of synaptic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce optogenetic investigation of neurotransmission (OptIoN) for time-resolved and quantitative assessment of synaptic function via behavioral and electrophysiological analyses. We photo-triggered release of acetylcholine or ?-aminobutyric acid at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions using targeted expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Channelrhodopsin-2. In intact Channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic worms, photostimulation instantly induced body elongation (for ?-aminobutyric acid) or contraction (for acetylcholine), which we analyzed

Jana F Liewald; Martin Brauner; Greg J Stephens; Magali Bouhours; Christian Schultheis; Mei Zhen; Alexander Gottschalk

2008-01-01

336

Attempt of correlative observation of morphological synaptic connectivity by combining confocal laser-scanning microscope and FIB-SEM for immunohistochemical staining technique.  

PubMed

Ten years have passed since a serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) method was developed [1]. In this innovative method, samples were automatically sectioned with an ultramicrotome placed inside a scanning electron microscope column, and the block surfaces were imaged one after another by SEM to capture back-scattered electrons. The contrast-inverted images obtained by the SBF-SEM were very similar to those acquired using conventional TEM. SFB-SEM has made easy to acquire image stacks of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the mesoscale, which is taken with the confocal laser-scanning microcopy(CF-LSM).Furthermore, serial-section SEM has been combined with the focused ion beam (FIB) milling method [2]. FIB-incorporated SEM (FIB-SEM) has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional images with a higher z-axis resolution com- pared to ultramicrotome-equipped SEM.We tried immunocytochemistry for FIB-SEM and correlated this immunoreactivity with that in CF-LSM. Dendrites of neurons in the rat neostriatum were visualized using a recombinant viral vector. Moreover, the thalamostriatal afferent terminals were immunolabeled with Cy5 fluorescence for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2). After detection of the sites of terminals apposed to the dendrites by using CF-LSM, GFP and VGluT2 immunoreactivities were further developed for EM by using immunogold/silver enhancement and immunoperoxidase/diaminobenzidine (DAB) methods, respectively.We showed that conventional immuno-cytochemical staining for TEM was applicable to FIB-SEM. Furthermore, several synaptic contacts, which were thought to exist on the basis of CF-LSM findings, were confirmed with FIB-SEM, revealing the usefulness of the combined method of CF-LSM and FIB-SEM. PMID:25359848

Sonomura, Takahiro; Furuta, Takahiro; Nakatani, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Yo; Honma, Satoru; Kaneko, Takeshi

2014-11-01

337

M1 Muscarinic Receptors Boost Synaptic Potentials and Calcium Influx in Dendritic Spines by Inhibiting Postsynaptic SK channels  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine release and activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) enhance synaptic plasticity in vitro and cognition and memory in vivo. Within the hippocampus, mAChRs enhance NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent forms of long-term potentiation. Here, we use calcium (Ca) imaging combined with 2-photon laser glutamate uncaging at apical spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons to examine post-synaptic mechanisms of muscarinic modulation of glutamatergic transmission. Uncaging-evoked excitatory post-synaptic potentials and Ca transients are increased by muscarinic stimulation; however, this is not due to direct modulation of glutamate receptors. Instead, mAChRs modulate a negative feedback loop in spines that normally suppresses synaptic signals. mAChR activation reduces the Ca sensitivity of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels that are found in the spine, resulting in increased synaptic potentials and Ca transients. These effects are mediated by M1-type muscarinic receptors and occur in a casein kinase-2 dependent manner. Thus, muscarinic modulation regulates synaptic transmission by tuning the activity of non-glutamatergic post-synaptic ion channels. PMID:21145006

Giessel, Andrew J.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

2010-01-01

338

Effect of hypergravity on the development of vestibulocerebellar afferent fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity is a critical factor in the normal development of the vestibular system, as prolonged prenatal exposures to either micro- or hypergravity will alter the pattern of projections from specific vestibular organs to specific targets in the vestibular nuclei. This study addresses the effect of gravity on the development of vestibulocerebellar projections. In adult rats the semicircular canal afferents project mainly to the cerebellar nodulus whereas the otolith maculae project mainly to the ventral uvula of the cerebellum. To determine if the distribution pattern of these afferents is altered by exposures to altered gravity, 10 pregnant rats were exposed to hypergravity (1.5g) from embryonic day 12 (before vestibular ganglion neurons contact vestibular nuclei) to embryonic day 21 (near the time when the vestibular system becomes functional). Controls were exposed to Earth's gravity but otherwise received the same treatment. At the end of the exposure the embryos were deeply anesthetized and fixed by transcardiac perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH7.4). Filter strips coated with DiI and PTIR were implanted into the saccule (gravistatic vestibular receptor) or into the posterior vertical canal (angular acceleration receptor), and allowed to diffuse for 2 weeks at 37°C. Then the brains were dissected and sectioned for fluorescent confocal imaging. Examination of the control cerebella revealed that the canal and otolith afferents have reached the nodulus and uvula, and axons extend into the internal granular, Purkinje, and molecular layers. Projections from the saccule and posterior vertical canal were partially segregated into their respective domains, the uvula and nodulus. In contrast, in hypergravity-exposed rat fetuses the saccule and posterior vertical canal projections were poorly segregated, and both organs contributed labeled fibers to all layers of the nodulus and uvula. This contrasts with the increased afferent segregation patterns observed in the vestibular nuclei after hypergravity exposures. Together these results suggest that hypergravity exposure delays the development of afferent segregation in the cerebellum, and furthermore that each vestibular target responds differently to the influence of gravity. Supported by NASA grant NAG2-1353.

Bruce, L. L.

339

Synaptic plasticity and sensory-motor improvement following fibrin sealant dorsal root reimplantation and mononuclear cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Root lesions may affect both dorsal and ventral roots. However, due to the possibility of generating further inflammation and neuropathic pain, surgical procedures do not prioritize the repair of the afferent component. The loss of such sensorial input directly disturbs the spinal circuits thus affecting the functionality of the injuried limb. The present study evaluated the motor and sensory improvement following dorsal root reimplantation with fibrin sealant (FS) plus bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC) after dorsal rhizotomy. MC were used to enhance the repair process. We also analyzed changes in the glial response and synaptic circuits within the spinal cord. Female Lewis rats (6–8 weeks old) were divided in three groups: rhizotomy (RZ group), rhizotomy repaired with FS (RZ+FS group) and rhizotomy repaired with FS and MC (RZ+FS+MC group). The behavioral tests electronic von-Frey and Walking track test were carried out. For immunohistochemistry we used markers to detect different synapse profiles as well as glial reaction. The behavioral results showed a significant decrease in sensory and motor function after lesion. The reimplantation decreased glial reaction and improved synaptic plasticity of afferent inputs. Cell therapy further enhanced the rewiring process. In addition, both reimplanted groups presented twice as much motor control compared to the non-treated group. In conclusion, the reimplantation with FS and MC is efficient and may be considered an approach to improve sensory-motor recovery following dorsal rhizotomy. PMID:25249946

Benitez, Suzana U.; Barbizan, Roberta; Spejo, Aline B.; Ferreira, Rui S.; Barraviera, Benedito; Góes, Alfredo M.; de Oliveira, Alexandre L. R.

2014-01-01

340

Estrogen and Laryngeal Synaptic Strength in Xenopus laevis: Opposite Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic transmission at the vocal synapse, the laryngeal neuromuscular junction, of Xenopus laevis has been shown to be regulated by long-term changes in circulating estrogen. In females, high levels of circulating estrogen also accompany gonadotropin-induced ovulation and oviposition and the switch from sexually unreceptive to receptive states, including changes in vocal behaviors (ticking to rapping). Here we examine the effects

Kwok Hang Wu; Martha L. Tobias; Darcy B. Kelley

2001-01-01

341

Enterolith causing acute afferent loop syndrome after Billroth II gastrectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary: Enterolith is a rare cause of afferent loop obstruction following Billroth II gastrectomy. We report a case of acute afferent loop syndrome (ALS) due to a huge enterolith, necessitating prompt surgery. The clinical pattern may mimic acute cholangitis and/or pancreatitis. Delayed diagnosis may result in severe complications such as bowel ischemia or perforation. Only 14 reported cases of enterolith causing afferent loop obstruction were found in the English literature. PMID:23837955

CARTANESE, C.; CAMPANELLA, G.; MILANO, E.; SACCŇ, M.

2013-01-01

342

GABA and valproate modulate trigeminovascular nociceptive transmission in the thalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the role of GABA receptors in thalamic relay neurons in the ventroposteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the rat activated by a trigeminovascular nociceptive stimulus in relationship to migraine, and the potential modulation of nociceptive transmission by GABA acting anti-convulsants.Methods: Trigeminovascular nociceptive afferents were identified in the VPM by electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), and cell

Anna P. Andreou; Kevin G. Shields; Peter J. Goadsby

2010-01-01

343

Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size.

A. Moopenn; H. Langenbacher; A. P. Thakoor; S. K. Khanna

1988-01-01

344

Multiple effects of ?-amyloid on single excitatory synaptic connections in the PFC  

PubMed Central

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is recognized as an AD-vulnerable region responsible for defects in cognitive functioning. Pyramidal cell (PC) connections are typically facilitating (F) or depressing (D) in PFC. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded using patch-clamp from single connections in PFC slices of rats and ferrets in the presence of ?-amyloid (A?). Synaptic transmission was significantly enhanced or reduced depending on their intrinsic type (facilitating or depressing), A? species (A? 40 or A? 42) and concentration (1–200 nM vs. 0.3–1 ? M). Nanomolar A? 40 and A? 42 had opposite effects on F-connections, resulting in fewer or increased EPSP failure rates, strengthening or weakening EPSPs and enhancing or inhibiting short-term potentiation [STP: synaptic augmentation (SA) and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)], respectively. High A? 40 concentrations induced inhibition regardless of synaptic type. D-connections were inhibited regardless of A? species or concentration. The inhibition induced with bath application was hard to recover by washout, but a complete recovery was obtained with brief local application and prompt washout. Our data suggests that A? 40 acts on the prefrontal neuronal network by modulating facilitating and depressing synapses. At higher levels, both A? 40 and A? 42 inhibit synaptic activity and cause irreversible toxicity once diffusely accumulated in the synaptic environment. PMID:24027495

Wang, Yun; Zhou, Thomas H.; Zhi, Zhina; Barakat, Amey; Hlatky, Lynn; Querfurth, Henry

2013-01-01

345

Synaptic and Behavioral Profile of Multiple Glutamatergic Inputs to the Nucleus Accumbens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Excitatory afferents to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are thought to facilitate reward seeking by encoding reward-associated cues. Selective activation of different glutamatergic inputs to the NAc can produce divergent physiological and behavioral responses, but mechanistic explanations for these pathway-specific effects are lacking. Here, we compared the innervation patterns and synaptic properties of ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and prefrontal cortex input to the NAc. Ventral hippocampal input was found to be uniquely localized to the medial NAc shell, where it was predominant and selectively potentiated following cocaine exposure. In vivo, bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this pathway attenuated and enhanced cocaine-induced locomotion. Challenging the idea that any of these inputs encode motivationally-neutral information, activation of each discrete pathway reinforced instrumental behaviors. Finally, direct optical activation of medium spiny neurons proved to be capable of supporting self-stimulation, demonstrating that behavioral reinforcement is an explicit consequence of strong excitatory drive to the NAc. PMID:23177963

Britt, Jonathan P.; Benaliouad, Faiza; McDevitt, Ross A.; Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.; Bonci, Antonello

2013-01-01

346

Firing of hippocampal neurogliaform cells induces suppression of synaptic inhibition.  

PubMed

Little is known about how neuron firing recorded in vivo retrogradely influences synaptic strength. We injected the firing of a rat hippocampal neurogliaform cell (NGFC), a widely expressed GABAergic neuron type, detected in vivo during theta rhythm, into NGFCs of rat or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-Cre-tdTomato mouse recorded in vitro. We found that the "in vivo firing pattern" produced a transient firing-induced suppression of synaptic inhibition (FSI) evoked by a presynaptic NGFC. Imaging experiments demonstrate that FSI was associated with action potential backpropagation (bAP) and a supralinear increase in dendritic Ca(2+). The application of the L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nimodipine blocked FSI. Further pharmacological experiments, such as the application of a nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-sGC) receptor antagonist, a NOS inhibitor, and NO donors, suggested that NO released from postsynaptic cells mediated FSI and likely activated presynaptic receptors to inhibit GABA release. The in vivo firing pattern modulated the size of unitary EPSPs impinging on NGFCs through FSI and not via a direct effect on excitatory synaptic transmission. Our data demonstrate: (1) retrograde signaling initiated by in vivo firing pattern, (2) interneuron bAPs detected with fast temporal resolution, and (3) a novel role for NO expressed by specific interneuron types. PMID:24453319

Li, Gengyu; Stewart, Robert; Canepari, Marco; Capogna, Marco

2014-01-22

347

Nonvolatile programmable neural network synaptic array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating-gate metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor is implemented for use as a nonvolatile analog storage element of a synaptic cell used to implement an array of processing synaptic cells. These cells are based on a four-quadrant analog multiplier requiring both X and Y differential inputs, where one Y input is UV programmable. These nonvolatile synaptic cells are disclosed fully connected in a 32 x 32 synaptic cell array using standard very large scale integration (VLSI) complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.

Tawel, Raoul (inventor)

1994-01-01

348

Regulation of synaptic development and function by the Drosophila PDZ protein Dyschronic.  

PubMed

Synaptic scaffold proteins control the localization of ion channels and receptors, and facilitate molecular associations between signaling components that modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we define novel roles for a recently described scaffold protein, Dsychronic (DYSC), at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. DYSC is the Drosophila homolog of whirlin/DFNB31, a PDZ domain protein linked to Usher syndrome, the most common form of human deaf-blindness. We show that DYSC is expressed presynaptically and is often localized adjacent to the active zone, the site of neurotransmitter release. Loss of DYSC results in marked alterations in synaptic morphology and cytoskeletal organization. Moreover, active zones are frequently enlarged and misshapen in dysc mutants. Electrophysiological analyses further demonstrate that dysc mutants exhibit substantial increases in both evoked and spontaneous synaptic transmission. We have previously shown that DYSC binds to and regulates the expression of the Slowpoke (SLO) BK potassium channel. Consistent with this, slo mutant larvae exhibit similar alterations in synapse morphology, active zone size and neurotransmission, and simultaneous loss of dysc and slo does not enhance these phenotypes, suggesting that dysc and slo act in a common genetic pathway to modulate synaptic development and output. Our data expand our understanding of the neuronal functions of DYSC and uncover non-canonical roles for the SLO potassium channel at Drosophila synapses. PMID:25359729

Jepson, James E C; Shahidullah, Mohammed; Liu, Die; le Marchand, Sylvain J; Liu, Sha; Wu, Mark N; Levitan, Irwin B; Dalva, Matthew B; Koh, Kyunghee

2014-12-01

349

TARP ?-7 selectively enhances synaptic expression of calcium-permeable AMPARs  

PubMed Central

Summary Regulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) is critical in normal synaptic function and neurological disease states. While transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) such as stargazin (?-2) modulate the properties of calcium-impermeable (CI-) AMPARs and promote their synaptic targeting, the TARP-specific rules governing CP-AMPAR synaptic trafficking remain unclear. We used RNA interference to manipulate AMPAR subunit- and TARP expression in ?-2-lacking stargazer cerebellar granule cells – the classic model of TARP deficiency. We found that TARP ?-7 selectively enhanced synaptic expression of CP-AMPARs and suppressed CI-AMPARs, identifying a pivotal role of ?-7 in regulating the prevalence of CP-AMPARs. In the absence of associated TARPs, although their properties were altered, both CP- and CI-AMPARs were able to localize at synapses and mediate transmission. Finally, our results establish that TARPed synaptic receptors in granule cells require both ?-2 and ?-7, and reveal an unexpected basis for the loss of AMPAR-mediated transmission in stargazer mice. PMID:23872597

Studniarczyk, Dorota; Coombs, Ian; Cull-Candy, Stuart G.; Farrant, Mark

2013-01-01

350

Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity in spinal motor networks.  

PubMed

Throughout life, neuronal network properties are modulated according to both external and internal stimuli. These adaptive capabilities of the central nervous system (CNS) have been generically termed "plasticity". One prominent form of CNS plasticity is the capability of synapses to change their strength. Synaptic strength is not a constant value but depends at each moment on the synapse's past activity. These changes in transmission efficacy are called activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) and result in an increase (potentiation) or a decrease (depression) in synaptic strength. The ability of synapses to express one type of ADSP can change as a function of previous plasticity and previous activation of synapses. This plasticity of synaptic plasticity has been termed metaplasticity. ADSP and metaplasticity are now regarded as essential mechanisms for normal information processing in neuronal networks. Rhythmic activities such as locomotion are generated by rhythmically active central neuronal networks called central pattern generators (CPGs) that possess the intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic and organized activity in the absence of sensory inputs. The CPG activity arises from a complex dynamic interaction between synaptic transmission, intrinsic membrane properties and neuromodulatory inputs. A growing body of evidence suggests that the spinal cord matches the plastic and metaplastic properties found in other parts of the CNS, both under normal conditions and after spinal cord injury. Here, findings describing ADSP and its neuromodulation in vertebrate sensorimotor networks are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the potential role of ADSP and neuromodulation in the physiology and pathophysiology of motor circuit assembly. PMID:23360279

Bertrand, Sandrine S; Cazalets, Jean-René

2013-01-01

351

Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and ?-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated. PMID:22438837

Clarke, Gwenaëlle L.; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

352

Synaptic Patterning by Morphogen Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gradients of secreted small morphogenic molecules control cell proliferation and patterning throughout animal development. Recent years have seen the discovery of surprising roles for morphogens in later developmental processes, including axon pathfinding and synaptogenesis. The latest addition is a role for the TGF-β superfamily morphogen Activin in synaptic patterning of the Drosophila visual system. In contrast to classical instructive and long-range morphogen gradients, Activin acts as a permissive and local motility restriction signal around several hundred individual photoreceptor axon terminals. Activin must therefore act in concert with other instructively attracting and repelling signals as part of a larger genetic program for brain wiring.

W. Ryan Williamson (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Physiology and Green Center Division for Systems Biology REV); P. Robin Hiesinger (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Physiology and Green Center Division for Systems Biology REV)

2008-05-06

353

Brief Communications Short-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission during  

E-print Network

., 2005), dystonia, Tourette syndrome, and other disorders (Halpern et al., 2007). Despite the therapeutic (Hashimoto et al., 2003; Kita et al., 2005) and GP (Bar-Gad et al., 2004; McCairn and Turner, 2009Cairn and Turner, 2009). The accumulating evidence highlights the importance of both firing rate and pattern

Bar-Gad, Izhar

354

Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions Geoffrey Burnstock *  

E-print Network

Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF during conduction of an impulse, although excitatory and inhibitory junction poten- tials are probably

Burnstock, Geoffrey

355

Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions Geoffrey Burnstock *  

E-print Network

Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF are varicose, transmitter being released en passage from varicosities during conduction of an impulse, although

Burnstock, Geoffrey

356

Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons. PMID:25573367

Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

2015-01-01

357

Type-Decomposition of a Synaptic Algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synaptic algebra is a generalization of the self-adjoint part of a von Neumann algebra. In this article we extend to synaptic algebras the type-I/II/III decomposition of von Neumann algebras, AW?-algebras, and JW-algebras.

Foulis, David J.; Pulmannová, Sylvia

2013-08-01

358

Spontaneous vesicle recycling in the synaptic bouton  

PubMed Central

The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs) rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs) responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover. PMID:25538561

Truckenbrodt, Sven; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

2014-01-01

359

TINS, Microcircuit Series Synaptic Pathways in Neural  

E-print Network

various species and brain regions are similar in terms of the repertoire of neurotransmitters, synaptic and inhibitory neurons interconnected with dynamic synapses to embed inherited information on how to execute microcircuit is formed by a population of EINs, which can generate bursts even when inhibitory synaptic

De Schutter, Erik

360

Dynamic afferent synapses to decision-making networks improve performance in tasks requiring stimulus associations and discriminations.  

PubMed

Animals must often make opposing responses to similar complex stimuli. Multiple sensory inputs from such stimuli combine to produce stimulus-specific patterns of neural activity. It is the differences between these activity patterns, even when small, that provide the basis for any differences in behavioral response. In the present study, we investigate three tasks with differing degrees of overlap in the inputs, each with just two response possibilities. We simulate behavioral output via winner-takes-all activity in one of two pools of neurons forming a biologically based decision-making layer. The decision-making layer receives inputs either in a direct stimulus-dependent manner or via an intervening recurrent network of neurons that form the associative layer, whose activity helps distinguish the stimuli of each task. We show that synaptic facilitation of synapses to the decision-making layer improves performance in these tasks, robustly increasing accuracy and speed of responses across multiple configurations of network inputs. Conversely, we find that synaptic depression worsens performance. In a linearly nonseparable task with exclusive-or logic, the benefit of synaptic facilitation lies in its superlinear transmission: effective synaptic strength increases with presynaptic firing rate, which enhances the already present superlinearity of presynaptic firing rate as a function of stimulus-dependent input. In linearly separable single-stimulus discrimination tasks, we find that facilitating synapses are always beneficial because synaptic facilitation always enhances any differences between inputs. Thus we predict that for optimal decision-making accuracy and speed, synapses from sensory or associative areas to decision-making or premotor areas should be facilitating. PMID:22457467

Bourjaily, Mark A; Miller, Paul

2012-07-01

361

Synaptic Vesicle Pools: An Update  

PubMed Central

During the last few decades synaptic vesicles have been assigned to a variety of functional and morphological classes or “pools”. We have argued in the past (Rizzoli and Betz, 2005) that synaptic activity in several preparations is accounted for by the function of three vesicle pools: the readily releasable pool (docked at active zones and ready to go upon stimulation), the recycling pool (scattered throughout the nerve terminals and recycling upon moderate stimulation), and finally the reserve pool (occupying most of the vesicle clusters and only recycling upon strong stimulation). We discuss here the advancements in the vesicle pool field which took place in the ensuing years, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity. Several new findings have enhanced the three-pool model, with, for example, the disparity between recycling and reserve vesicles being underlined by the observation that the former are mobile, while the latter are “fixed”. Finally, a number of altogether new concepts have also evolved such as the current controversy on the identity of the spontaneously recycling vesicle pool. PMID:21423521

Denker, Annette; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

2010-01-01

362

The Arc of synaptic memory  

PubMed Central

The immediate early gene Arc is emerging as a versatile, finely tuned system capable of coupling changes in neuronal activity patterns to synaptic plasticity, thereby optimizing information storage in the nervous system. Here, we attempt to overview the Arc system spanning from transcriptional regulation of the Arc gene, to dendritic transport, metabolism, and translation of Arc mRNA, to post-translational modification, localization, and degradation of Arc protein. Within this framework we discuss the function of Arc in regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics underlying consolidation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor endocytosis underlying long-term depression (LTD) and homeostatic plasticity. Behaviorally, Arc has a key role in consolidation of explicit and implicit forms of memory, with recent work implicating Arc in adaptation to stress as well as maladaptive plasticity connected to drug addiction. Arc holds considerable promise as a “master regulator” of protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, but the mechanisms that modulate and switch Arc function are only beginning to be elucidated. PMID:19690847

Alme, Maria N.; Bittins, Margarethe; Kuipers, Sjoukje D.; Nair, Rajeevkumar R.; Pai, Balagopal; Panja, Debabrata; Schubert, Manja; Soule, Jonathan; Tiron, Adrian; Wibrand, Karin

2009-01-01

363

Inhibition of Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex and Sympathetic Activity by Baroreceptor and Vagal Afferent Inputs in Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II) in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT) and baroreceptor denervated (BD) rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study was designed to determine whether it is true in intact (INT) rats with CHF and to determine the effects of cardiac and baroreceptor afferents on the CSAR and sympathetic activity in CHF. Methodology/Principal Findings Sham-operated (Sham) or coronary ligation-induced CHF rats were respectively subjected to BD+VT, VT, cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) or INT. Under anesthesia, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded, and the CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Either CSAR or the responses of RSNA, MAP and CSAR to Ang II in PVN were enhanced in CHF rats treated with BD+VT, VT or INT. Treatment with VT or BD+VT potentiated the CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats. Treatment with CSD reversed the capsaicin-induced RSNA and MAP changes and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats, and reduced the RSNA and MAP responses to Ang II only in CHF rats. Conclusions The CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in PVN are enhanced in intact CHF rats. Baroreceptor and vagal afferent activities inhibit CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in intact Sham and CHF rats. PMID:21991351

Gan, Xian-Bing; Duan, Yang-Can; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Li, Peng; Cui, Bai-Ping; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhu, Guo-Qing

2011-01-01

364

Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning-induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. PMID:23487762

Li, Yan; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Nader, Karim; Bolshakov, Vadim Y

2013-03-19

365

Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

366

Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

1988-01-01

367

Copper signaling in the mammalian nervous system: synaptic effects  

PubMed Central

Copper (Cu) is an essential metal present at high levels in the CNS. Its role as a co-factor in mitochondrial ATP production and in other essential cuproenzymes is well defined. Menkes and Wilson’s diseases are severe neurodegenerative conditions that demonstrate the importance of Cu transport into the secretory pathway. Brain levels of Cu, which is almost entirely protein bound, exceed extracellular levels by more than a hundred-fold. Cu stored in the secretory pathway is released in a Ca2+-dependent manner and can transiently reach concentrations over 100 µM at synapses. The ability of low µM levels of Cu to bind to and modulate the function of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels contributes to its effects on synaptic transmission. Cu also binds to amyloid precursor protein and prion protein; both proteins are found at synapses and brain Cu homeostasis is disrupted in mice lacking either protein. Especially intriguing is the ability of Cu to affect AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a monitor of cellular energy status. Despite this, few investigators have examined the direct effects of Cu on synaptic transmission and plasticity. Although the variability of results demonstrates complex influences of Cu that are highly method-sensitive, these studies nevertheless strongly support important roles for endogenous Cu and new roles for Cu-binding proteins in synaptic function/plasticity and behavior. Further study of the many roles of Cu in nervous system function will reveal targets for intervention in other diseases in which Cu homeostasis is disrupted. PMID:23115049

Gaier, ED; Eipper, BA; Mains, RE

2014-01-01

368

Sprouting of primary afferent fibers after spinal cord transection in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

After spinal cord injury, hyper-reflexia can lead to episodic hypertension, muscle spasticity and urinary bladder dyssynergia. This condition may be caused by primary afferent fiber sprouting providing new input to partially denervated spinal interneurons, autonomic neurons and motor neurons. However, conflicting reports concerning afferent neurite sprouting after cord injury do not provide adequate information to associate sprouting with hyper-reflexia. Therefore,

N. R Krenz; L. C Weaver

1998-01-01

369

Distribution and structure of vagal afferent intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) in the rat gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) are special terminal structures of vagal afferent fibers and have been demonstrated in the myenteric plexus of esophagus and stomach. In order to quantitatively map their presence and distribution over the entire gastrointestinal tract, including the small and large intestines, vagal afferents were anterogradely labeled in vivo by microinjections of the fluorescent carbocyanine dye DiI into

H.-R. Berthoud; Laurel M. Patterson; Friederike Neumann; Winfried L. Neuhuber

1997-01-01

370

Working memory impairment in calcineurin knock-out mice is associated with alterations in synaptic vesicle cycling and disruption of high-frequency synaptic and network activity in prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Working memory is an essential component of higher cognitive function, and its impairment is a core symptom of multiple CNS disorders, including schizophrenia. Neuronal mechanisms supporting working memory under normal conditions have been described and include persistent, high-frequency activity of prefrontal cortical neurons. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of working memory dysfunction in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. To elucidate synaptic and neuronal mechanisms of working memory dysfunction, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of a mouse model of schizophrenia, the forebrain-specific calcineurin knock-out mouse. Biochemical analyses of cortical tissue from these mice revealed a pronounced hyperphosphorylation of synaptic vesicle cycling proteins known