Sample records for afferent synaptic transmission

  1. Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. The major differences between these two synapses are the neurotransmitters and the higher resting release rate and higher sensitivity of release to increased K+ concentrations of the hair cells over that of motor nerve terminals. These differences reflect the functional roles of the two synapses: the motor nerve terminal response in an all-or-nothing signal consequent from action potential invasion, while the hair cell releases transmitter in a graded fashion, proportionate to the extent of stereocilial deflection. Despite these differences between the two junctions, the similar actions of these elemental cations upon synaptic function at each implies that these ions may participate similarly in the operations of other synapses, independent of the neurotransmitter type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  2. Peptide and Lipid Modulation of Glutamatergic Afferent Synaptic Transmission in the Solitary Tract Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Michael C.; Fawley, Jessica A.; Hofmann, Mackenzie E.

    2013-01-01

    The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST) with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g., hypothalamus) neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1), vasopressin (V1a), oxytocin, opioid (MOR), ghrelin (GHSR1), and cholecystokinin differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus. PMID:23335875

  3. Octopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission between an identified sensory afferent and flight motoneuron in the locust.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Beulah; Judge, Sarah; Pitman, Robert M

    2003-07-14

    The role of the biogenic amine octopamine in modulating cholinergic synaptic transmission between the locust forewing stretch receptor neuron (fSR) and the first basalar motoneuron (BA1) was investigated. The amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and dopamine were also studied. Bath application of octopamine, 5-HT, and dopamine at concentrations of 10(-4) M reversibly decreased the amplitude of monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked in BA1 by electrically stimulating the fSR axon. These effects occurred without any detectable change in either input resistance or membrane potential of BA1. The amines also reversibly decreased the amplitude of responses to acetylcholine (ACh) pressure-applied to the soma of BA1. The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (10(-6) M) had no significant effect on the octopamine-induced decrease in ACh responses. These observations suggest that these amines potentially could physiologically depress cholinergic transmission between fSR and BA1, at least in part, by altering nicotinic rather than muscarinic cholinergic receptor function. Although the octopaminergic agonists naphazoline and tolazoline both mimicked the actions of octopamine, the receptor responsible for octopamine-mediated modulation could not be characterized since amine receptor antagonists tested on the preparation had complex actions. Confocal immunocytochemistry revealed intense octopamine immunoreactivity in the anterior lateral association center, thus confirming the presence of octopamine in neuropil regions containing fSR/BA1 synapses and therefore supporting a role for this amine in the modulation of synaptic transmission between the fSR and BA1. 5-HT-immunoreactivity, conversely, was concentrated within the ventral association centers; very little staining was observed in the dorsal neuropil regions in which fSR/BA1 synapses are located. PMID:12761824

  4. External QX-314 inhibits evoked cranial primary afferent synaptic transmission independent of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Fawley, Jessica A; Andresen, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    The cell-impermeant lidocaine derivative QX-314 blocks sodium channels via intracellular mechanisms. In somatosensory nociceptive neurons, open transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors provide a transmembrane passageway for QX-314 to produce long-lasting analgesia. Many cranial primary afferents express TRPV1 at synapses on neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). Here, we investigated whether QX-314 interrupts neurotransmission from primary afferents in rat brain-stem slices. Shocks to the solitary tract (ST) activated highly synchronous evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (ST-EPSCs). Application of 300 ?M QX-314 increased the ST-EPSC latency from TRPV1+ ST afferents, but, surprisingly, it had similar actions at TRPV1- ST afferents. Continued exposure to QX-314 blocked evoked ST-EPSCs at both afferent types. Neither the time to onset of latency changes nor the time to ST-EPSC failure differed between responses for TRPV1+ and TRPV1- inputs. Likewise, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine failed to prevent the actions of QX-314. Whereas QX-314 blocked ST-evoked release, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs remained unaltered. In neurons exposed to QX-314, intracellular current injection evoked action potentials suggesting a presynaptic site of action. QX-314 acted similarly at Vc neurons to increase latency and block EPSCs evoked from trigeminal tract afferents. Our results demonstrate that QX-314 blocked nerve conduction in cranial primary afferents without interrupting the glutamate release mechanism or generation of postsynaptic action potentials. The TRPV1 independence suggests that QX-314 either acted extracellularly or more likely entered these axons through an undetermined pathway common to all cranial primary afferents. PMID:25185814

  5. Evidence for NMDA receptor in the afferent synaptic transmission of the vestibular system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Soto; Amira Flores; C EROSTEGUI; Rosario Vega

    1994-01-01

    This study aimed to define the pharmacology and physiological role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the synapse between the hair cells and primary afferent neurons in the vestibular system. The spontaneous and mechanically evoked spike discharges of vestibular nerve fibers were extracellularly recorded in isolated inner ear from the axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum). Pressure ejection of NMDA (10-6 to 10-3

  6. Modulation of synaptic transmission from segmental afferents by spontaneous activity of dorsal horn spinal neurones in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez, E; Rojas-Piloni, J G; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2000-01-01

    We examined, in the anaesthetised cat, the influence of the neuronal ensembles producing spontaneous negative cord dorsum potentials (nCDPs) on segmental pathways mediating primary afferent depolarisation (PAD) of cutaneous and group I muscle afferents and on Ia monosynaptic activation of spinal motoneurones. The intraspinal distribution of the field potentials associated with the spontaneous nCDPs indicated that the neuronal ensembles involved in the generation of these potentials were located in the dorsal horn of lumbar segments, in the same region of termination of low-threshold cutaneous afferents. During the occurrence of spontaneous nCDPs, transmission from low-threshold cutaneous afferents to second order neurones in laminae III-VI, as well as transmission along pathways mediating PAD of cutaneous and Ib afferents, was facilitated. PAD of Ia afferents was instead inhibited. Monosynaptic reflexes of flexors and extensors were facilitated during the spontaneous nCDPs. The magnitude of the facilitation was proportional to the amplitude of the ‘conditioning’ spontaneous nCDPs. This led to a high positive correlation between amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous nCDPs and fluctuations of monosynaptic reflexes. Stimulation of low-threshold cutaneous afferents transiently reduced the probability of occurrence of spontaneous nCDPs as well as the fluctuations of monosynaptic reflexes. It is concluded that the spontaneous nCDPs were produced by the activation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that shared the same functional pathways and involved the same set of neurones as those responding monosynaptically to stimulation of large cutaneous afferents. The spontaneous activity of these neurones was probably the main cause of the fluctuations of the monosynaptic reflexes observed under anaesthesia and could provide a dynamic linkage between segmental sensory and motor pathways. PMID:11101653

  7. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Hugues; Hugel, Sylvain; Barthas, Florent; Bohren, Yohann; Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy

    2014-10-01

    Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. PMID:25104469

  8. Synaptic input from identified muscle afferents to neurones of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, D J; Walmsley, B

    1984-01-01

    Single identified group I a and I b muscle afferent fibres were injected with horseradish peroxidase in the lumbar dorsal columns of anaesthetized cats. The morphological details of the axon collaterals and terminal boutons of these muscle afferents within Clarke's column were subsequently reconstructed. The rostro-caudal extent of synaptic terminals from a single afferent fibre within Clarke's column was found to be restricted to less than 1 mm. In the same experiments, dorsal spinocerebellar tract (d.s.c.t.) neurones were retrogradely labelled by injection of horseradish peroxidase into the cerebellum. Synaptic contacts between labelled group Ia and Ib afferent fibres and the soma and proximal dendrites of d.s.c.t. neurones were found. The synaptic contacts from both Ia and Ib fibres varied greatly in size, from 1 X 1 micron up to 'giant' synapses of 20 X 3 micron. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) were evoked in d.s.c.t. neurones by impulses in single group I muscle afferent fibres. The fluctuations in peak amplitude of each e.p.s.p. were determined from e.p.s.p. and noise recordings, using a numerical deconvolution procedure. In general, these single-fibre e.p.s.p.s fluctuated between discrete amplitudes separated by an incremental amplitude which was approximately constant. This incremental amplitude did not depend on the average peak amplitude of the particular e.p.s.p. examined. Our anatomical observations of 'giant' boutons arising from Ia and Ib afferent fibres contacting d.s.c.t. neurones raises the possibility of multiple transmitter release sites within an individual synaptic bouton. It is proposed that synaptic transmission between group I muscle afferents and d.s.c.t. neurones occurs with discrete all-or-nothing e.p.s.p.s associated with transmitter release sites. Images Fig. 1 PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:6747859

  9. Cholinergic transmission from mechanosensory afferents to an identified nonspiking interneuron in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii girard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Takashima; M. Niwa; H. Nakamura; M. Takahata

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacological properties of excitatory synaptic transmission from mechanosensory afferents to an identifiable nonspiking interneuron of crayfish were studied by drug perfusion experiments using acetylcholine (ACh) agonists and antagonists. Application of carbachol, a general agonist of ACh, caused sustained depolarization of the interneuron and a decrease in the peak amplitude of its excitatory synaptic response to sensory stimulation on the soma

  10. Tonic and phasic differential GABAergic inhibition of synaptic actions of joint afferents in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rudomin; E. Hernández; J. Lomelí

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the functional organization of the spinal neuronal networks activated by myelinated afferent fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN) of the anesthetized cat. Particular attention was given to the tonic and phasic GABAa inhibitory modulation of these networks. Changes in the synaptic effectiveness of the joint afferents were inferred from changes in

  11. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  12. Presynaptic control of transmission through group II muscle afferents in the midlumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord is independent of corticospinal control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Aggelopoulos; S. Chakrabarty; S. A. Edgley

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of information from the terminals group II muscle afferents is subject to potent presynaptic modulation by both\\u000a segmental group II and cutaneous afferents and by descending monoaminergic systems. Currently it is unknown whether descending\\u000a corticospinal fibres affect this transmission. Here we have examined whether corticospinal tract activation modulates the\\u000a size of monosynaptic focal synaptic potentials (FSPs) evoked by group

  13. GPCR Mediated Regulation of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Betke, Katherine M.; Wells, Christopher A.; Hamm, Heidi E.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic transmission is a finely regulated mechanism of neuronal communication. The release of neurotransmitter at the synapse is not only the reflection of membrane depolarization events, but rather, is the summation of interactions between ion channels, G protein coupled receptors, second messengers, and the exocytotic machinery itself which exposes the components within a synaptic vesicle to the synaptic cleft. The focus of this review is to explore the role of G protein signaling as it relates to neurotransmission, as well as to discuss the recently determined inhibitory mechanism of G?? dimers acting directly on the exocytotic machinery proteins to inhibit neurotransmitter release. PMID:22307060

  14. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  15. Analysis of effective synaptic currents generated by homonymous Ia afferent fibers in motoneurons of the cat.

    PubMed

    Heckman, C J; Binder, M D

    1988-12-01

    1. We have developed a technique to measure the total amount of current from a synaptic input system that reaches the soma of a motoneuron under steady-state conditions. We refer to this quantity as the effective synaptic current (IN) because only that fraction of the synaptic current that actually reaches the soma and initial segment of the cell affects its recruitment threshold and firing frequency. 2. The advantage of this technique for analysis of synaptic inputs in comparison to the standard measurements of synaptic potentials is apparent from Ohm's law. Steady-state synaptic potentials recorded at the soma of a cell are the product of IN and input resistance (RN), which is determined by intrinsic cellular properties such as cell size and membrane resistivity. Measuring IN avoids the confounding effect of RN on the amplitudes of synaptic potentials and thus provides a more direct assessment of the magnitude of a synaptic input. 3. Steady-state synaptic inputs were generated in cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) motoneurons by using tendon vibration to activate homonymous Ia afferents. We found that the magnitude of the Ia effective synaptic current (Ia IN) was not the same in all MG cells. Instead, Ia IN covaried with RN (r = 0.64; P less than 0.001), being about twice as large on average in motoneurons with high RN values as in those with low RN values. Ia IN was also correlated with motoneuron rheobase, afterhyperpolarization duration, and axonal conduction velocity. 4. A comparison of transient Ia EPSPs with steady-state Ia EPSPs (Ia EPSPSS) evoked in the same cells suggested that the effective synaptic current that produces the transient Ia EPSP was also greater in motoneurons with high RN values than in those with low RN values. 5. The factors responsible for the Ia IN-RN covariance are uncertain. However, our finding greater values of Ia IN in high RN motoneurons is consistent with other evidence suggesting that Ia boutons on these motoneurons have a higher probability for neurotransmitter release than those on low RN motoneurons (19). 6. The neural mechanisms underlying orderly recruitment are discussed. The effect of the Ia input is to produce an approximately twofold expansion of the differences in motoneuron recruitment thresholds that are generated by intrinsic cellular properties. It is suggested that the higher efficacy of Ia input in low-threshold motoneurons confers particular importance on this input system in the control of vernier movements (7). PMID:3236057

  16. Detection of weak synaptic interactions between single Ia afferent and motor-unit spike trains in the decerebrate cat.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, B A; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. Spike trains from identified single Ia afferents from soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were recorded (while 'in continuity' with the spinal cord) simultaneously with single-motor-unit EMG spike trains from the same muscles in decerebrate cats. 2. A total of 143 Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs were examined for the presence of correlated activity between the Ia afferent and motor-unit and between the motor-unit and Ia afferent. Four types of correlation were identified on the basis of the cross-intensity function estimated for individual Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs. These correlations were attributed to the absence or presence of a central Ia afferent-motoneurone interaction or a peripheral motor-unit-muscle spindle interaction. 3. In addition to the cross-correlation-based second-order cross-intensity function, third-order cumulants were defined and used further to investigate Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions. A third-order cumulant density-based approach to signal processing offers improved signal-to-noise ratios, compared with the traditional product density approach, for parameters characterizing certain kinds of linear processes as well as a description of non-linear interactions. Two classes of third-order relations were described. One class was associated with a strong central connection and the other with a weak central connection. 4. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs with significant second-order central correlations were able to detect a period of decreased motoneuronal excitability. In addition, temporal summation prior to spike initiation could be identified in cases where the afferent discharge was suitably high. 5. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs in which no significant second-order central correlation existed identified the presence of weak synaptic interactions. It is argued that these interactions result from the summation from the recorded Ia afferent discharge and other spontaneous synaptic inputs to the motoneurone. 6. The results of the second-order cross-intensity analysis of Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions, combined with those from the third-order cumulant density analysis, showed that 77% of the recorded afferents had a detectable influence on motor-unit behaviour. 7. The results of this study suggest that the third-order cumulant, based on the analysis of spike trains, will provide a useful tool for detecting synaptic interactions not found by the use of the second-order cross-correlation histogram alone, and may also be used to estimate the time course of post-spike depression in motoneurones, as well as other non-linear regions of motoneurone membrane trajectory. PMID:8120812

  17. What is transmitted in "synaptic transmission"?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Erik Montagna (Institute of Chemistry)

    2010-06-01

    Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next" is equivalent to (and often expressed explicitly as) "the action potential passes from one neuron to the next." More than half of four groups of students who were asked to comment on an excerpt from a recent physiology textbook that openly stated the misconception had no clear objection to the text presented. We propose that the first culprit in generating this misconception is the term "synaptic transmission," which promotes the notion of transferring something or passing something along (implicitly unchanged). To avoid establishing this misconception, the first simple suggestion is to use words like "synaptic integration" rather than "synaptic transmission" right from the start. More generally, it would be important to focus on the function of synaptic events rather than on rote listing of all the numerous steps that are known to occur, which are so complex as to saturate the mind of the student.

  18. Synaptic GluN2A and GluN2B Containing NMDA Receptors within the Superficial Dorsal Horn Activated following Primary Afferent Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    MacDermott, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptors are important elements in pain signaling in the spinal cord dorsal horn. They are heterotetramers, typically composed of two GluN1 and two of four GluN2 subunits: GluN2A-2D. Mice lacking some of the GluN2 subunits show deficits in pain transmission yet functional synaptic localization of these receptor subtypes in the dorsal horn has not been fully resolved. In this study, we have investigated the composition of synaptic NMDA receptors expressed in monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways from peripheral sensory fibers to lamina I neurons in rats. We focused on substance P receptor-expressing (NK1R+) projection neurons, critical for expression of hyperalgesia and allodynia. EAB-318 and (R)-CPP, GluN2A/B antagonists, blocked both monosynaptic and polysynaptic NMDA EPSCs initiated by primary afferent activation by ?90%. Physiological measurements exploiting the voltage dependence of monosynaptic EPSCs similarly indicated dominant expression of GluN2A/B types of synaptic NMDA receptors. In addition, at synapses between C fibers and NK1R+ neurons, NMDA receptor activation initiated a secondary, depolarizing current. Ifenprodil, a GluN2B antagonist, caused modest suppression of monosynaptic NMDA EPSC amplitudes, but had a widely variable, sometimes powerful, effect on polysynaptic responses following primary afferent stimulation when inhibitory inputs were blocked to mimic neuropathic pain. We conclude that GluN2B subunits are moderately expressed at primary afferent synapses on lamina I NK1R+ neurons, but play more important roles for polysynaptic NMDA EPSCs driven by primary afferents following disinhibition, supporting the view that the analgesic effect of the GluN2B antagonist on neuropathic pain is at least in part, within the spinal cord. PMID:25122884

  19. Synaptic depression in the CA1 region of freely behaving mice is highly dependent on afferent stimulation parameters

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jinzhong J.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Persistent synaptic plasticity has been subjected to intense study in the decades since it was first described. Occurring in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), it shares many cellular and molecular properties with hippocampus-dependent forms of persistent memory. Recent reports of both LTP and LTD occurring endogenously under specific learning conditions provide further support that these forms of synaptic plasticity may comprise the cellular correlates of memory. Most studies of synaptic plasticity are performed using in vitro or in vivo preparations where patterned electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is implemented to induce changes in synaptic strength. This strategy has proven very effective in inducing LTP, even under in vivo conditions. LTD in vivo has proven more elusive: although LTD occurs endogenously under specific learning conditions in both rats and mice, its induction has not been successfully demonstrated with afferent electrical stimulation alone. In this study we screened a large spectrum of protocols that are known to induce LTD either in hippocampal slices or in the intact rat hippocampus, to clarify if LTD can be induced by sole afferent stimulation in the mouse CA1 region in vivo. Low frequency stimulation at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 10 Hz given in the range of 100 through 1800 pulses produced, at best, short-term depression (STD) that lasted for up to 60 min. Varying the administration pattern of the stimuli (e.g., 900 pulses given twice at 5 min intervals), or changing the stimulation intensity did not improve the persistency of synaptic depression. LTD that lasts for at least 24 h occurs under learning conditions in mice. We conclude that a coincidence of factors, such as afferent activity together with neuromodulatory inputs, play a decisive role in the enablement of LTD under more naturalistic (e.g., learning) conditions. PMID:23355815

  20. Potentiation of electrical and chemical synaptic transmission mediated by endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Cachope, Roger; Mackie, Ken; Triller, Antoine; O’Brien, John; Pereda, Alberto E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocannabinoids are well established as inhibitors of chemical synaptic transmission via presynaptic activation of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R). Contrasting this notion, we show that dendritic release of endocannabinoids mediates potentiation of synaptic transmission at mixed (electrical and chemical) synaptic contacts on the goldfish Mauthner cell. Remarkably, the observed enhancement was not restricted to the glutamatergic component of the synaptic response but also included a parallel increase in electrical transmission. This novel effect involved the activation of CB1 receptors and was indirectly mediated via the release of dopamine from nearby varicosities, which in turn led to potentiation of the synaptic response via a cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated postsynaptic mechanism. Thus, endocannabinoid release can potentiate synaptic transmission and its functional roles include the regulation of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses. Similar interactions between endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems may be widespread and potentially relevant for the motor and rewarding effects of cannabis derivatives. PMID:18093525

  1. Synaptic actions of peripheral nerve impulses upon Deiters neurones via the climbing fibre afferents.

    PubMed

    Allen, G I; Sabah, N H; Toyama, K

    1972-10-01

    1. The cerebellar integration of sensory inputs to Deiters neurones was studied in cats under Nembutal anaesthesia.2. Stimulation of peripheral nerves produced in the Deiters neurones a sequence of an initial excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) and a later inhibitory post-synaptic potential (i.p.s.p.), or a relatively small e.p.s.p.3. The Deiters neurones were classified as forelimb (FL)- or hind limb (HL)-type cells according to the location of the most effective peripheral nerve. In the FL cells stimulation of the forelimb nerves produced the e.p.s.p.-i.p.s.p. sequence (dominant response), while stimulation of the hind limb nerves was ineffective or produced the small e.p.s.p. (non-dominant response). In contrast, in the HL cells the non-dominant response was evoked from the forelimb nerves, and the dominant response from the hind limb nerves.4. The stimulus intensity-response relation indicates that Group I and II muscle afferents and low and high threshold cutaneous afferents contribute to the dominant and non-dominant responses.5. Antidromic identification of these Deiters neurones revealed that 90% of the HL cells and 85% of the FL cells project to the lumbo-sacral and cervico-thoracic segments of the spinal cord, respectively, while 10% of the HL cells and 15% of the FL cells innervate the cervico-thoracic and lumbo-sacral segments, respectively.6. The mean latency of the e.p.s.p. evoked from the forelimb nerves was 14 msec in the FL cells and 13 msec in the HL cells, and the latency of the e.p.s.p. evoked from the hind limb nerves was 17 msec in the FL cells and 18 msec in the HL cells. The later i.p.s.p. regularly followed the onset of the e.p.s.p. with a delay of 3-5 msec.7. The dominant and non-dominant responses in both types of cells exhibited the following three characteristic features: (i) a strong depression after conditioning stimulation of the inferior olive, (ii) an increase of the inferior olivary excitability during the responses, and (iii) a striking frequency depression with stimulation at relatively low frequency (5-10/sec).8. Consequently it was concluded that all of the responses were produced through the climbing fibres originating from the inferior olive, the i.p.s.p.s due to inhibition from Purkyne cells activated by the climbing fibres and the e.p.s.p.s due to excitation from the collaterals of the climbing fibres. PMID:4563727

  2. The analysis of nonlinear synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    In order to characterize synaptic transmission at a unitary facilitating synapse in the lobster cardiac ganglion, a new nonlinear systems analysis technique for discrete-input systems was developed and applied. From the output of the postsynaptic cell in response to randomly occurring presynaptic nerve impulses, a set of kernels, analogous to Wiener kernels, was computed. The kernels up to third order served to characterize, with reasonable accuracy, the input- output properties of the synapse. A mathematical model of the synapse was also tested with a random impulse train and model predictions were compared with experimental synaptic output. Although the model proved to be even more accurate overall than the kernel characterization, there were slight but consistent errors in the model's performance. These were also reflected as differences between model and experimental kernels. It is concluded that a random train analysis provides a comprehensive and objective comparison between model and experiment and automatically provides an arbitrarily accurate characterization of a system's input-output behavior, even in complicated cases where other approaches are impractical. PMID:197201

  3. The cytoplasmic domain of rat synaptotagmin I enhances synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shao-Ying; Syed, Ali; Aupérin, Thierry C; Tong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Synaptotagmin, an integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, functions as a calcium sensor in the temporal control of neurotransmitter release. Although synaptotagmin facilitates lipid membrane fusion in biochemical experiments, overexpression of synaptotagmin inhibits neurotransmission. A facilitatory effect of synaptotagmin on synaptic transmission was never observed. To determine whether synaptotagmin may accelerate synaptic transmission in vivo, we injected the cytoplasmic domain of rat synaptotagmin I (CD-syt) into crayfish motor axons and tested the effect of CD-syt on synaptic response. We confirmed that CD-syt accelerates neuromuscular transmission. The injected preparation had larger synaptic potentials with shorter rise time. Experiments with varying calcium concentrations showed that CD-syt increased the maximum synaptic response of the neuromuscular synapses. Further tests on short-term plasticity of neuromuscular synapses revealed that CD-syt increases the release probability of the release-ready vesicles. PMID:24676802

  4. Double-dissociation of the catecholaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Michal; Georges, François; Sharma, Robyn; Mason, Xenos; Berthet, Amandine; Bézard, Erwan; Dumont, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a cluster of nuclei within the extended amygdala, a forebrain macrostructure with extensive projection to motor nuclei of the hindbrain. The subnuclei of the BST coordinate autonomic, neuroendocrine, and somato-motor functions and receive robust neuromodulatory monoaminergic afferents, including 5-HT-, noradrenaline (NA)-, and dopamine (DA)-containing terminals. In contrast to 5-HT and NA, little is known about how DA modulates neuronal activity or synaptic transmission in the BST. DA-containing afferents to the BST originate in the ventral tegmental area, the periaqueducal gray, and the retrorubral field. They form a fairly diffuse input to the dorsolateral BST with dense terminal fields in the oval (ovBST) and juxtacapsular (jxBST) nuclei. The efferent-afferent connectivity of the BST suggests that it may play a key role in motivated behaviors, consistent with recent evidence that the dorsolateral BST is a target for drugs of abuse. This study describes the effects of DA on synaptic transmission in the ovBST. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were performed on ovBST neurons in brain slices from adult rats in the presence or absence of exogenous DA and receptor-targeted agonists and antagonists. The results showed that DA selectively and exclusively reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ovBST in a dose-dependent and D2-like dopamine receptor-dependent manner. DA also modulated excitatory synaptic transmission in a dose-dependent dependent manner. However, this effect was mediated by ?2-noradrenergic receptors. Thus these data reveal a double dissociation in catecholaminergic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ovBST and may shed light on the mechanisms involved in neuropathological behaviors such as stress-induced relapse to consumption of drugs of abuse. PMID:21047935

  5. Influence of testosterone on synaptic transmission in the rat medial vestibular nuclei: estrogenic and androgenic effects.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Frondaroli, A; Di Mauro, M; Pettorossi, V E

    2010-12-15

    In brainstem slices of young male rat, we investigated the influence of the neuroactive steroid testosterone (T) on the synaptic responses by analyzing the field potential evoked in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) by vestibular afferent stimulation. T induced three distinct and independent long-term synaptic changes: fast long-lasting potentiation (fLP), slow long-lasting potentiation (sLP) and long-lasting depression (LD). The fLP was mediated by 17?-estradiol (E(2)) since it was abolished by blocking the estrogen receptors (ERs) or the enzyme converting T to E(2). Conversely, sLP and LD were mediated by 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) since they were prevented by blocking the androgen receptors (ARs) or the enzyme converting T to DHT. Therefore, the synaptic effects of T were mediated by its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. The pathways leading to estrogenic and androgenic conversion of T might be co-localized since, the occurrence of fLP under block of androgenic pathway, and that of sLP and LD under estrogenic block, were higher than those observed without blocks. In case of co-localization, the effect on synaptic transmission should depend on the prevailing enzymatic activity. We conclude that circulating and neuronal T can remarkably influence synaptic responses of the vestibular neurons in different and opposite ways, depending on its conversion to estrogenic or androgenic metabolites. PMID:20884332

  6. Differential presynaptic control of the synaptic effectiveness of cutaneous afferents evidenced by effects produced by acute nerve section.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Chávez, D

    2013-05-15

    In the anaesthetized cat, the acute section of the saphenous (Saph) and/or the superficial peroneal (SP) nerves was found to produce a long-lasting increase of the field potentials generated in the dorsal horn by stimulation of the medial branch of the sural (mSU) nerve. This facilitation was associated with changes in the level of the tonic primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the mSU intraspinal terminals. The mSU afferent fibres projecting into Rexed's laminae III-IV were subjected to a tonic PAD that was reduced by the acute section of the SP and/or the Saph nerves. The mSU afferents projecting deeper into the dorsal horn (Rexed's laminae V-VI) were instead subjected to a tonic PAD that was increased after Saph and SP acute nerve section. A differential control of the synaptic effectiveness of the low-threshold cutaneous afferents according to their sites of termination within the dorsal horn is envisaged as a mechanism that allows selective processing of sensory information in response to tactile and nociceptive stimulation or during the execution of different motor tasks. PMID:23478136

  7. Depression of transmission from group II muscle afferents by electrical stimulation of the cuneiform nucleus in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Noga; E. Jankowska; B. Skoog

    1995-01-01

    The effects of short trains of electrical stimuli applied within the cuneiform nucleus and the subcuneiform region were examined on transmission from group I and group II muscle afferents to first-order spinal neurons. Variations in the effectiveness of transmission from these afferents were assessed from changes in the sizes of the monosynaptic component of extracellular field potentials evoked following stimulation

  8. Synaptic transmission block by presynaptic injection of oligomeric amyloid beta.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Herman; Yu, Eunah; Pigino, Gustavo; Hernandez, Alejandro I; Kim, Natalia; Moreira, Jorge E; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2009-04-01

    Early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology is characterized by synaptic changes induced by degradation products of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The exact mechanisms of such modulation are unknown. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of intraaxonal oligomeric (o)Abeta42, but not oAbeta40 or extracellular oAbeta42, acutely inhibited synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse. Further characterization of this phenotype demonstrated that presynaptic calcium currents were unaffected. However, electron microscopy experiments revealed diminished docked synaptic vesicles in oAbeta42-microinjected terminals, without affecting clathrin-coated vesicles. The molecular events of this modulation involved casein kinase 2 and the synaptic vesicle rapid endocytosis pathway. These findings open the possibility of a new therapeutic target aimed at ameliorating synaptic dysfunction in AD. PMID:19304802

  9. Functional GluR6 kainate receptors in the striatum: indirect downregulation of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Chergui, K; Bouron, A; Normand, E; Mulle, C

    2000-03-15

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, but their function in synaptic transmission has not been established. In the present study, we show that the GluR6 subunit of KARs is expressed in both substance P- and enkephalin-containing GABAergic projection neurons of the mouse striatum. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices, we demonstrate the presence of functional KARs in the dorsal striatum activated by low concentrations of the AMPA/KAR agonist domoate in wild-type but not GluR6-deficient mice. Despite the abundance of KARs, we found no evidence for synaptic activation of these receptors after single or repetitive stimulation of glutamatergic afferents. Domoate induces a transient increase in the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs of small amplitude and a sustained depression of large IPSCs evoked by minimal electrical stimulation within the striatum in wild-type mice but not in GluR6-deficient mice. This depressant effect is inhibited in presence of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261. These data strongly suggest that, in striatal neurons, KARs depress GABAergic synaptic transmission indirectly via release of adenosine acting on A(2A) receptors. PMID:10704492

  10. The unsilent majority–TRPV1 drives “spontaneous” transmission of unmyelinated primary afferents within cardiorespiratory NTS

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Fawley, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Cranial primary afferent sensory neurons figure importantly in homeostatic control of visceral organ systems. Of the two broad classes of visceral afferents, the role of unmyelinated or C-type class remains poorly understood. This review contrasts key aspects of peripheral discharge properties of C-fiber afferents and their glutamate transmission mechanisms within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). During normal prevailing conditions, most information arrives at the NTS through myelinated A-type nerves. However, most of visceral afferent axons (75–90%) in NTS are unmyelinated, C-type axons. Centrally, C-type solitary tract (ST) afferent terminals have presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. Capsaicin activation of TRPV1 blocks phasic or synchronous release of glutamate but facilitates release of glutamate from a separate pool of vesicles. This TRPV1-operated pool of vesicles is active at normal temperatures and is responsible for actively driving a 10-fold higher release of glutamate at TRPV1 compared with TRPV1? terminals even in the absence of afferent action potentials. This novel TRPV1 mechanism is responsible for an additional asynchronous release of glutamate that is not present in myelinated terminals. The NTS is rich with presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors, and the implications of TRPV1-operated glutamate offer unique targets for signaling in C-type sensory afferent terminals from neuropeptides, inflammatory mediators, lipid metabolites, cytokines, and cannabinoids. From a homeostatic view, this combination could have broad implications for integration in chronic pathological disturbances in which the numeric dominance of C-type endings and TRPV1 would broadly disturb multisystem control mechanisms. PMID:23076872

  11. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  12. Measuring action potential-evoked transmission at individual synaptic contacts

    PubMed Central

    Nauen, David W; Bi, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the neuronal culture experimental system, the total synaptic connection between two neurons can consist of large numbers of synaptic sites, each behaving probabilistically. Studies of synaptic function with paired recordings typically consider the summed response across all of these sites and from this infer the average response. Understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity could be improved by examination of activity at as few synaptic sites as possible. To this end, we develop a system for recording responses from individual contacts. It relies on a precisely regulated pneumatic/hydrostatic pressure system to create a microenvironment within which individual synapses are active, and an acoustic signature method to monitor the stability of this microenvironment noninvasively. With this method we are able to record action potential-evoked postsynaptic currents consistent with individual quanta. The approach does not distort synaptic current waveforms and permits stable recording for several hours. The method is applied to address mechanisms of short-term plasticity, the variability of latency at individual synaptic sites and, in a preliminary experiment, the independence of nearby synapses on the same axon. PMID:22626987

  13. Scaffold remodeling in space and time controls synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Moutin, Enora

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins that are associated with glutamate receptors in dendritic spines govern the location and function of receptors to control synaptic transmission. Unraveling the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein-protein interactions within components of the scaffolding complex will bring to light the function of these interactions. Combining bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) imaging to electrophysiological recordings, we have recently shown that GKAP, a core protein of the scaffolding complex, interacts with DLC2, a protein associated with molecular motors. Synaptic activity-induced GKAP-DLC2 interaction in spines stabilizes the scaffolding complex and enhances the NMDA currents. Interestingly, this work placed emphasis on the bioarchitectural dependence of protein-protein interaction dynamics. Depending on physiological conditions, the modulation in space and time of protein-protein interaction is acutely regulated, engendering a subtle control of synaptic transmission in the state of the individual synapse. PMID:22754626

  14. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  15. The role of ?-secretase in hippocampal synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuqing; Behnisch, Thomas

    2013-10-25

    ?-Secretase plays an important role in the generation of amyloid beta and the activation of Notch receptors. In the hope that the reduction of amyloid production can help to battle Alzheimer's disease (AD) secretases were suggested to represent a potential therapeutic targets. However, the role of ?-secretase in cellular mechanisms of memory formation under physiological conditions remained to be clarified. To this end, ?-secretase was inhibited by bath-application of DAPT or Compound E and the effects on activity-dependent hippocampal synaptic plasticity and basal synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices from Wistar rats were examined. Bath application of DAPT or Compound E over the whole recording period of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) caused a reduction of synaptic potentiation within 1h after 3×1s 100Hz/10min stimulation (HFS) of Schaffer-collateral CA1 synapses. Notably, DAPT and Compound E inhibited effectively long-term potentiation (LTP) of fEPSPs when it was applied after HFS, but not if applied only during the tetanization paradigm. Compounds did not affect basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and NMDA mediated fEPSPs. Our data thus imply that ?-secretase plays a role in LTP and most notably for the persistence of activity dependent synaptic plasticity, presumably through the reduction of endogenous amyloid beta and/or Notch receptor activation. Targeting of ?-secretase to prevent the onset of AD might by itself alter memory formation. PMID:24016412

  16. Rescue of tau-induced synaptic transmission pathology by paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Hadas; Shemesh, Or A.; Spira, Micha E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies have revealed that the onset of cognitive decline correlates better with synaptic dysfunctions than with hallmark pathologies such as extracellular amyloid-? plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau or neuronal loss. Recent experiments have also demonstrated that anti-cancer microtubule (MT)-stabilizing drugs can rescue tau-induced behavioral decline and hallmark neuron pathologies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying tau-induced synaptic dysfunction as well as those involved in the rescue of cognitive decline by MTs-stabilizing drugs remain unclear. Here we began to study these mechanisms using the glutaminergic sensory-motoneuron synapse derived from Aplysia ganglia, electrophysiological methods, the expression of mutant-human tau (mt-htau) either pre or postsynaptically and the antimitotic drug paclitaxel. Expression of mt-htau in the presynaptic neurons led to reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude generated by rested synapses within 3 days of mt-htau expression, and to deeper levels of homosynaptic depression. mt-htau-induced synaptic weakening correlated with reduced releasable presynaptic vesicle pools as revealed by the induction of asynchronous neurotransmitter release by hypertonic sucrose solution. Paclitaxel totally rescued tau-induced synaptic weakening by maintaining the availability of the presynaptic vesicle stores. Postsynaptic expression of mt-htau did not impair the above described synaptic-transmission parameters for up to 5 days. Along with earlier confocal microscope observations from our laboratory, these findings suggest that tau-induced synaptic dysfunction is the outcome of impaired axoplasmic transport and the ensuing reduction in the releasable presynaptic vesicle stores rather than the direct effects of mt-htau or paclitaxel on the synaptic release mechanisms. PMID:24574970

  17. Presynaptic strontium dynamics and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Xu-Friedman, M A; Regehr, W G

    1999-01-01

    Strontium can replace calcium in triggering neurotransmitter release, although peak release is reduced and the duration of release is prolonged. Strontium has therefore become useful in probing release, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Here we study the action of strontium at the granule cell to Purkinje cell synapse in mouse cerebellar slices. Presynaptic residual strontium levels were monitored with fluorescent indicators, which all responded to strontium (fura-2, calcium orange, fura-2FF, magnesium green, and mag-fura-5). When calcium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of strontium in the external bath, strontium and calcium both entered presynaptic terminals. Contaminating calcium was eliminated by including EGTA in the extracellular bath, or by loading parallel fibers with EGTA, enabling the actions of strontium to be studied in isolation. After a single stimulus, strontium reached higher peak free levels than did calcium (approximately 1.7 times greater), and decayed more slowly (half-decay time 189 ms for strontium and 32 ms for calcium). These differences in calcium and strontium dynamics are likely a consequence of greater strontium permeability through calcium channels, lower affinity of the endogenous buffer for strontium, and less efficient extrusion of strontium. Measurements of presynaptic divalent levels help to explain properties of release evoked by strontium. Parallel fiber synaptic currents triggered by strontium are smaller in amplitude and longer in duration than those triggered by calcium. In both calcium and strontium, release consists of two components, one more steeply dependent on divalent levels than the other. Strontium drives both components less effectively than does calcium, suggesting that the affinities of the sensors involved in both phases of release are lower for strontium than for calcium. Thus, the larger and slower strontium transients account for the prominent slow component of release triggered by strontium. PMID:10096899

  18. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying [Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li Qinglin [Key laboratory of XinAn Medicine, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Behnisch, Thomas, E-mail: behnish@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated fEPSPs after i.p. MPTP-injection.

  19. Regulation of synaptic transmission by mitochondrial ion channels.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Elizabeth

    2004-08-01

    Mitochondria are abundant within neuronal presynaptic terminals, where they provide energy for sustained neurotransmitter secretion. Injection of Bcl-xL protein into squid giant presynaptic terminal potentiates neurotransmitter release, while a naturally occurring, proteolytic fragment of BCL-xL causes rundown of synaptic function. The cleaved form of BCL-xL generates large, multiconductance ion channel activity in synaptic mitochondrial outer membranes. A rapid onset of synaptic rundown can also be produced by depriving the synapse of oxygen, and hypoxia also induces large channel activity in mitochondrial outer membranes. Channel activity induced by cleaved BCL-xL or by hypoxia is attenuated by NADH, an inhibitor of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of mitochondrial outer membranes. Finally, the large conductances elicited by hypoxia are prevented by the addition of a protease inhibitor that prevents cleavage of BCL-xL. The opposing activities of BCL-xL and its proteolytic fragment may regulate the release of ATP from mitochondria during synaptic transmission. PMID:15377872

  20. How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dallérac, Glenn; Chever, Oana; Rouach, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy. PMID:24101894

  1. Alcohol effects on synaptic transmission in periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia; McCall, Nora M.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) signaling in regulating the rewarding properties of drugs, including alcohol, has been widely studied. The majority of these studies, however, have focused on the DA neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to the nucleus accumbens. DA neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) have been shown to regulate reward but little is known about the functional properties of these neurons, or how they are modified by drugs of abuse. This lack of knowledge is likely due to the highly heterogeneous cell composition of the vPAG, with both ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurons present in addition to DA neurons. In this study, we performed whole-cell recordings in a TH–eGFP transgenic mouse line to evaluate the properties of vPAG-DA neurons. Following this initial characterization, we examined how both acute and chronic alcohol exposure modify synaptic transmission onto vPAG-DA neurons. We found minimal effects of acute alcohol exposure on GABA transmission, but a robust enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vPAG-DA. Consistent with this effect on excitatory transmission, we also found that alcohol caused an increase in firing rate. These data were in contrast to the effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure, which had no significant impact on either inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission on the vPAG-DA neurons. These data add to a growing body of literature that points to alcohol having both region-dependent and cell-type dependent effects on function. PMID:23597415

  2. From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

  3. Biphasic cholinergic synaptic transmission controls action potential activity in thalamic reticular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-Gang; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; Wu, Chia-Shan; Renger, John J.; Uebele, Victor N.; Lu, Hui-Chen; Beierlein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the brain stem form extensive projections to a number of thalamic nuclei. Activation of cholinergic afferents during distinct behavioral states can regulate neuronal firing, transmitter release at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, and synchrony in thalamic networks, thereby controlling the flow of sensory information. These effects are thought to be mediated by slow and persistent increases in extracellular ACh levels, resulting in the modulation of populations of thalamic neurons over large temporal and spatial scales. However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic signaling in the thalamus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate highly reliable cholinergic transmission in the mouse thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure essential for sensory processing, arousal, and attention. We find that ACh release evoked by low-frequency stimulation leads to biphasic excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) postsynaptic responses, mediated by the activation of postsynaptic ?4?2 nicotinic (nAChRs) and M2 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs), respectively. In addition, ACh can bind to mAChRs expressed near cholinergic release sites, resulting in autoinhibition of release. We show that the activation of postsynaptic nAChRs by transmitter release from only a small number of individual axons is sufficient to trigger action potentials in TRN neurons. Furthermore, short trains of cholinergic synaptic inputs can powerfully entrain ongoing TRN neuronal activity. Our study demonstrates fast and precise synaptic E-I signaling mediated by ACh, suggesting novel computational mechanisms for the cholinergic control of neuronal activity in thalamic circuits. PMID:23365242

  4. Methamphetamine Reduces LTP and Increases Baseline Synaptic Transmission in the CA1 Region of Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Swant, Jarod; Chirwa, Sanika; Stanwood, Gregg; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain—which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy) in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 µM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist) did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction. PMID:20614033

  5. Requirement for the synaptic protein interaction site for reconstitution of synaptic transmission by P\\/Q-type calcium channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumiko Mochida; Ruth E. Westenbroek; Charles T. Yokoyama; Huijun Zhong; Scott J. Myers; Todd Scheuer; Kanako Itoh; William A. Catterall

    2003-01-01

    Cav2.1 channels, which conduct P\\/Q-type Ca2+ currents, were expressed in superior cervical ganglion neurons in cell culture, and neurotransmission initiated by these exogenously expressed Ca2+ channels was measured. Deletions in the synaptic protein interaction (synprint) site in the intracellular loop between domains II and III of Cav2.1 channels reduced their effectiveness in synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, this effect was correlated with

  6. Demonstrating the Temperature Sensitivity of Synaptic Transmission in a Drosophila Mutant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacob L. Krans, Patricia K. Rivlin, and Ronald R. Hoy (Cornell University; )

    2005-09-27

    This article describes an exercise that illustrates the temperature sensitivity of synaptic transmission. The temperature dependence of synaptic transmission is demonstrated by cooling the larval Drosophila melanogaster preparation and recording excitatory junction potentials. Vesicle recycling is explored by utilizing a mutation of the shibire gene.

  7. Dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission in cortex and striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tritsch, Nicolas X.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2015-01-01

    Among the many neuromodulators used by the mammalian brain to regulate circuit function and plasticity, dopamine (DA) stands out as one of the most behaviorally powerful. For example, release of DA within nucleus accumbens signals reward and rapidly modifies brain function to drive repetition of motor action in search of further reward. The control that DA exerts over behavior is also clear in humans, as mimicry of dopaminergic reward signals underlies addiction to drugs of abuse, whereas death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons causes Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, perturbations of DA are implicated in the pathogenesis, or exploited in the treatment of many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and Tourette’s syndrome. Although the precise mechanisms employed by DA to exert its control over behavior are not fully understood, DA is known to regulate many electrical and biochemical aspects of neuronal function including excitability, synaptic transmission, integration and plasticity, protein trafficking and gene transcription. In this review, we discuss the actions of DA on ionic and synaptic signaling in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and striatum, brain areas in which dopaminergic dysfunction is thought to be central to the above-mentioned diseases. We focus on actions of DA on the pre- and postsynaptic terminals and restrict our discussion to studies in which the site of action or the molecular target of DA is clearly identified. PMID:23040805

  8. Estriol preserves synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Ziehn, Marina O.; Avedisian, Andrea A.; Dervin, Shannon M.; O’Dell, Thomas J.; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in over half of multiple sclerosis patients, with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory commonly impaired. Data from in vivo MRI and post-mortem studies in MS indicate that the hippocampus is targeted. However the relationship between structural pathology and dysfunction of the hippocampus in MS remains unclear. Hippocampal neuropathology also occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model of MS. While estrogen treatment of EAE has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in the spinal cord, it is unknown if estrogen treatment may prevent hippocampal pathology and dysfunction. In the current study we examined excitatory synaptic transmission during EAE and focused on pathological changes in synaptic protein complexes known to orchestrate functional synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. We then determined if estriol, a candidate hormone treatment, was capable of preventing functional changes in synaptic transmission and corresponding hippocampal synaptic pathology. Electrophysiological studies revealed altered excitatory synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation during EAE. Neuropathological experiments demonstrated that there were decreased levels of pre-and postsynaptic proteins in the hippocampus, diffuse loss of myelin staining and atrophy of the pyramidal layers of hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Estriol treatment prevented decreases in excitatory synaptic transmission and lessened the effect of EAE on paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, estriol treatment prevented several neuropathological alterations that occurred in the hippocampus during EAE. Cross-modality correlations revealed that deficits in excitatory synaptic transmission were significantly correlated with reductions in trans-synaptic protein binding partners known to modulate excitatory synaptic transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a functional correlate to hippocampal neuropathology in any MS model. Furthermore, a treatment was identified which prevented both deficits in synaptic function and hippocampal neuropathology. PMID:22525427

  9. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Damien; Diabira, Diabe; Porcher, Christophe; Bader, Francesca; Ferrand, Nadine; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M.; Wayman, Gary A.; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA) of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC) frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK). Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin's neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission. PMID:25177272

  10. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Damien; Diabira, Diabe; Porcher, Christophe; Bader, Francesca; Ferrand, Nadine; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M; Wayman, Gary A; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA) of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC) frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK). Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin's neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission. PMID:25177272

  11. Miniature synaptic transmission and BDNF modulate dendritic spine growth and form in rat CA1 neurones

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William J; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    The refinement and plasticity of neuronal connections require synaptic activity and neurotrophin signalling; their specific contributions and interplay are, however, poorly understood. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increased spine density in apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic slice cultures prepared from postnatal rat hippocampal slices. This effect was observed also in the absence of action potentials, and even when miniature synaptic transmission was inhibited with botulinum neurotoxin C (BoNT/C). There were, however, marked differences in the morphology of individual spines induced by BDNF across these different levels of spontaneous ongoing synaptic activity. During both normal synaptic transmission, and when action potentials were blocked with TTX, BDNF increased the proportion of stubby, type-I spines. However, when SNARE-dependent vesicular release was inhibited with BoNT/C, BDNF increased the proportion of thin, type-III spines. Our results indicate that BDNF increases spine density irrespective of the levels of synaptic transmission. In addition, miniature synaptic transmission provides sufficient activity for the functional translation of BDNF-triggered spinogenesis into clearly defined morphological spine types, favouring those spines potentially responsible for coordinated Ca2+ transients thought to mediate synaptic plasticity. We propose that BDNF/TrkB signalling represents a mechanism of expression of both morphological and physiological homeostatic plasticity in the hippocampus, leading to a more efficient synaptic information transfer across widespread levels of synaptic activity. PMID:14500767

  12. Electrophysiological characterization of laminar synaptic inputs to the olfactory tubercle of the rat studied in vitro: modulation of glutamatergic transmission by cholinergic agents is pathway-specific.

    PubMed

    Owen, G S; Halliwell, J V

    2001-05-01

    We have exploited the complementary arrangement of afferents in a coronal slice (300-400 microm) of the rat olfactory tubercle (OT) maintained in vitro to investigate transmission in two separate synaptic pathways. We recorded extracellular responses within the OT dense cell layer in slices and stimulated either the outermost layer to activate primary olfactory fibres or deeper to activate secondary input. Superficial stimulation produced a synaptic potential with superimposed population spike. This interpretation was based on blockade by calcium removal from the bathing medium and the use of the glutamate antagonist DNQX (10 microM); the spike was found to be selectively suppressed by tetrodotoxin applied near the cells. The spike, but not the synaptic wave, was depressed by 12 mM Ca2+ and enhanced by 1 mM Ba2+ in the bathing medium. Deep stimulation to activate association and intrinsic fibres elicited a nerve volley followed by a later response, also blocked by Ca2+ removal or 10 microM DNQX. It was unaffected by high Ca2+ or Ba2+, hence resulting from synaptic and not action current flow. Removal of Mg2+ from the bathing medium revealed an NMDA component of synaptic transmission at both loci that was selectively blocked by D-AP-5. The deep synaptic response, only, was depressed by carbachol IC50 7 microM or muscarine IC50 13 microM. This depression was also induced by AChE inhibitors eserine or tacrine and was antagonized by 1 microM atropine or 5-10 microM clozapine. These results characterize transmission in the OT and demonstrate a role for muscarinic modulation of deeper synapses in the OT that is influenced by psychotherapeutic drugs. PMID:11359528

  13. Synaptic transmission reversibly conditioned by single-gene mutation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Ikeda; SEIJI OZAWA; SUSUMU HAGIWARA

    1976-01-01

    ONE way to advance current physiological and biochemical understanding of the mechanism of synaptic transmission at the molecular level is to alter synaptic function by means of single gene mutations. Among the various behavioural mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, those which express a mutant phenotype only in certain conditions and otherwise behave normally are of particular interest. If the mutant phenotype

  14. Synaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in spinal ventral horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Mine, N; Taniguchi, W; Nishio, N; Izumi, N; Miyazaki, N; Yamada, H; Nakatsuka, T; Yoshida, M

    2015-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are distributed widely in the central nervous system and play important roles in higher brain functions, including learning, memory, and recognition. However, functions of the cholinergic system in spinal motoneurons remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the actions of presynaptic and postsynaptic nAChRs in spinal ventral horn neurons by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on lumbar slices from male rats. The application of nicotine or acetylcholine generated slow inward currents and increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Slow inward currents by acetylcholine or nicotine were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or glutamate receptor antagonists. In the presence of TTX, the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also increased by acetylcholine or nicotine. A selective ?4?2 nicotinic receptor antagonist, dihydro-?-erythroidine hydrobromide (Dh?E), significantly decreased nicotine-induced inward currents without affecting the enhancement of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. In addition, a selective ?7 nicotinic receptor antagonist, methyllycaconitine, did not affect either nicotine-induced inward currents or the enhancement of sEPSCs and mEPSCs. These results suggest that ?4?2 AChRs are localized at postsynaptic sites in the spinal ventral horn, non-?4?2 and non-?7 nAChRs are located presynaptically, and nAChRs enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal ventral horn. PMID:25613686

  15. Endocannabinoids blunt the augmentation of synaptic transmission by serotonin 2A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS)

    PubMed Central

    Austgen, James R.; Kline, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor modulate cardiovascular and autonomic function in part through actions in the nTS, the primary termination and integration point for cardiorespiratory afferents in the brainstem. In other brain regions, 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2R) modify synaptic transmission directly, as well as through 5-HT2AR-induced endocannabinoid release. This study examined the role of 5-HT2AR as well as their interaction with endocannabinoids on neurotransmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS). Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in monosynaptic nTS neurons were recorded in the horizontal brainstem slice during activation and blockade of 5-HT2ARs. 5-HT2AR activation augmented solitary tract (TS) evoked EPSC amplitude whereas 5-HT2AR blockade depressed TS-EPSC amplitude at low and high TS stimulation rates. The 5-HT2AR-induced increase in neurotransmission was reduced by endocannabinoid receptor block and increased endogenous endocannabinoids in the synaptic cleft during high frequency, but not low, TS stimulation. Endocannabinoids did not tonically modify EPSCs. These data suggest 5-HT acting through the 5-HT2AR is an excitatory neuromodulator in the nTS and its effects are modulated by the endocannabinoid system. PMID:24041777

  16. Regulators of synaptic transmission: roles in the pathogenesis and treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Casillas-Espinosa, Pablo M; Powell, Kim L; O'Brien, Terence J

    2012-12-01

    Synaptic transmission is the communication between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron, and the subsequent processing of the signal. These processes are complex and highly regulated, reflecting their importance in normal brain functioning and homeostasis. Sustaining synaptic transmission depends on the continuing cycle of synaptic vesicle formation, release, and endocytosis, which requires proteins such as dynamin, syndapin, synapsin, and synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Synaptic transmission is regulated by diverse mechanisms, including presynaptic modulators of synaptic vesicle formation and release, postsynaptic receptors and signaling, and modulators of neurotransmission. Neurotransmitters released presynaptically can bind to their postsynaptic receptors, the inhibitory ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors or the excitatory glutamate receptors. Once released, glutamate activates a variety of postsynaptic receptors including ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, and metabotropic receptors. The activation of the receptors triggers downstream signaling cascades generating a vast array of effects, which can be modulated by a numerous auxiliary regulatory subunits. Moreover, different neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), somatostatin, ghrelin, and galanin, act as regulators of diverse synaptic functions and along with the classic neurotransmitters. Abnormalities in the regulation of synaptic transmission play a critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous brain diseases, including epilepsy. This review focuses on the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy: the presynaptic modulators of synaptic vesicle formation and release, postsynaptic receptors, and modulators of neurotransmission, including the mechanism by which drugs can modulate the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures. PMID:23216578

  17. Calcium channel structural determinants of synaptic transmission between identified invertebrate neurons.

    PubMed

    Spafford, J David; Munno, David W; Van Nierop, Pim; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Jarvis, Scott E; Gallin, Warren J; Smit, August B; Zamponi, Gerald W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-02-01

    We report here that unlike what was suggested for many vertebrate neurons, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea stagnalis occurs independent of a physical interaction between presynaptic calcium channels and a functional complement of SNARE proteins. Instead, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea requires the expression of a C-terminal splice variant of the Lymnaea homolog to mammalian N- and P/Q-type calcium channels. We show that the alternately spliced region physically interacts with the scaffolding proteins Mint1 and CASK, and that synaptic transmission is abolished following RNA interference knockdown of CASK or after the injection of peptide sequences designed to disrupt the calcium channel-Mint1 interactions. Our data suggest that Mint1 and CASK may serve to localize the non-L-type channels at the active zone and that synaptic transmission in invertebrate neurons utilizes a mechanism for optimizing calcium entry, which occurs independently of a physical association between calcium channels and SNARE proteins. PMID:12458203

  18. Demonstrating the Temperature Sensitivity of Synaptic Transmission in a Drosophila Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Jacob L.; Rivlin, Patricia K.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2005-01-01

    We describe exercises that illustrate the temperature sensitivity of synaptic transmission. The temperature dependence of synaptic transmission is demonstrated by cooling the larval Drosophila melanogaster preparation and recording excitatory junction potentials. Vesicle recycling is explored by utilizing a mutation of the shibire gene. This shibire mutant shows a robust reduction in synaptic vesicle recycling when temperature exceeds a known threshold (?29° C). Students gain proficiency with the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction preparation while investigating principles of vesicle release, vesicle recycling, synaptic facilitation and synaptic depression. We show that the viability of the larval preparation is prolonged in vitro with moderate cooling, which is particularly important when introducing the preparation as a novel exercise. PMID:23493164

  19. Extracellular ATP Hydrolysis Inhibits Synaptic Transmission by Increasing pH Buffering in the Synaptic Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Vroman, Rozan; Klaassen, Lauw J.; Howlett, Marcus H.C.; Cenedese, Valentina; Klooster, Jan; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Kamermans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism. Here we show that horizontal cells feed back to photoreceptors via an unexpected synthesis of the two. The first one is a very fast ephaptic mechanism that has no synaptic delay, making it one of the fastest inhibitory synapses known. The second one is a relatively slow (??200 ms), highly intriguing mechanism. It depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons form a pH buffer with a pKa of 7.2, which keeps the pH in the synaptic cleft relatively acidic. This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize, the pannexin 1 channels decrease their conductance, the ATP release decreases, and the formation of the pH buffer reduces. The resulting alkalization in the synaptic cleft consequently increases cone glutamate release. Surprisingly, the hydrolysis of ATP instead of ATP itself mediates the synaptic modulation. Our results not only solve longstanding issues regarding horizontal cell to photoreceptor feedback, they also demonstrate a new form of synaptic modulation. Because pannexin 1 channels and ecto-ATPases are strongly expressed in the nervous system and pannexin 1 function is implicated in synaptic plasticity, we anticipate that this novel form of synaptic modulation may be a widespread phenomenon. PMID:24844296

  20. Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarova, Natalia L.; Levy, David N.; Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-07-01

    Cell-to-cell viral transmission via virological synapses has been argued to reduce susceptibility of the virus population to anti-viral drugs through multiple infection of cells, contributing to low-level viral persistence during therapy. Using a mathematical framework, we examine the role of synaptic transmission in treatment susceptibility. A key factor is the relative probability of individual virions to infect a cell during free-virus and synaptic transmission, a currently unknown quantity. If this infection probability is higher for free-virus transmission, then treatment susceptibility is lowest if one virus is transferred per synapse, and multiple infection of cells increases susceptibility. In the opposite case, treatment susceptibility is minimized for an intermediate number of virions transferred per synapse. Hence, multiple infection via synapses does not simply lower treatment susceptibility. Without further experimental investigations, one cannot conclude that synaptic transmission provides an additional mechanism for the virus to persist at low levels during anti-viral therapy.

  1. Differential Roles of Postsynaptic Density-93 Isoforms in Regulating Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Juliane M.; Favaro, Plinio D.; Liu, Mingna; Kitli?ska, Agata; Huang, Xiaojie; Raabe, Monika; Akad, Derya S.; Liu, Yanling; Urlaub, Henning; Dong, Yan; Xu, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    In the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses, the discs large (DLG)-membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of scaffolding proteins coordinates a multiplicity of signaling pathways to maintain and regulate synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93) is the most variable paralog in this family; it exists in six different N-terminal isoforms. Probably because of the structural and functional variability of these isoforms, the synaptic role of PSD-93 remains controversial. To accurately characterize the synaptic role of PSD-93, we quantified the expression of all six isoforms in the mouse hippocampus and examined them individually in hippocampal synapses. Using molecular manipulations, including overexpression, gene knockdown, PSD-93 knock-out mice combined with biochemical assays, and slice electrophysiology both in rat and mice, we demonstrate that PSD-93 is required at different developmental synaptic states to maintain the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. This strength is differentially regulated by the six isoforms of PSD-93, including regulations of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-active and inactive synapses, and activity-dependent modulations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that alternative combinations of N-terminal PSD-93 isoforms and DLG-MAGUK paralogs can fine-tune signaling scaffolds to adjust synaptic needs to regulate synaptic transmission. PMID:24068818

  2. Elevated interleukin-8 enhances prefrontal synaptic transmission in mice with persistent inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is known for its roles in inflammation and plays critical roles in the development of pain. Its expression increases in the brain after peripheral inflammation. Prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission, however, little is known about the expression of IL-8 and its role in the enhanced ACC synaptic transmission in animals with persistent inflammatory pain. Findings In the present study, we examined IL-8 expression in the ACC, somatosensory cortex (SSC), and the dorsal horn of lumbar spinal cord following hind-paw administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in mice and its effects on the ACC synaptic transmission. Quantification of IL-8 at protein level (by ELISA) revealed enhanced expression in the ACC and spinal cord during the chronic phases of CFA-induced peripheral inflammation. In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that IL-8 significantly enhanced synaptic transmission through increased probability of neurotransmitter release in the ACC slice. ACC local infusion of repertaxin, a non-competitive allosteric blocker of IL-8 receptors, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that up-regulation of IL-8 in the ACC partly attributable to the enhanced prefrontal synaptic transmission in the mice with persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:22325008

  3. Decreased pain threshold and enhanced synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of experimental hypothyroidism mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones are essential for the maturation and functions of the central nervous system. Pain sensitivity is related to the thyroid status. However, information on how thyroid hormones affect pain processing and synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is limited. Nociceptive threshold and synaptic transmission in the ACC were detected in the experimental hypothyroidism (HT) mice. Results HT was induced by methimazole and potassium perchlorate in distilled drinking water for 4 weeks. The threshold of pain perception to hot insults, but not mechanical ones, decreased in hypothyroid mice. After treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) for 2 weeks, thermal pain threshold recovered. Electrophysiological recordings revealed enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced GABAergic synaptic transmission in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 significantly rescued this synaptic transmission imbalance. In the same model, HT caused the up-regulation of the GluR1 subunit of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but it down-regulated ?-aminobutyric acid A receptors in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 notably recovered the levels of above proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that HT promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal, and that supplementation with T3 or T4 rescues the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the ACC. PMID:24943008

  4. Synaptic Mitochondria in Synaptic Transmission and Organization of Vesicle Pools in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Melissa; Lauwers, Elsa; Verstreken, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Cell types rich in mitochondria, including neurons, display a high energy demand and a need for calcium buffering. The importance of mitochondria for proper neuronal function is stressed by the occurrence of neurological defects in patients suffering from a great variety of diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial genes. Genetic and pharmacological evidence also reveal a role of these organelles in various aspects of neuronal physiology and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Yet the mechanisms by which mitochondria can affect neurotransmission largely remain to be elucidated. In this review we focus on experimental data that suggest a critical function of synaptic mitochondria in the function and organization of synaptic vesicle pools, and in neurotransmitter release during intense neuronal activity. We discuss how calcium handling, ATP production and other mitochondrial mechanisms may influence synaptic vesicle pool organization and synaptic function. Given the link between synaptic mitochondrial function and neuronal communication, efforts toward better understanding mitochondrial biology may lead to novel therapeutic approaches of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and psychiatric disorders that are at least in part caused by mitochondrial deficits. PMID:21423525

  5. Enhancement of synaptic transmission by cyclic AMP modulation of presynaptic Ih channels.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, V; Zucker, R S

    2000-02-01

    Presynaptic activation of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent generation of cAMP represent an important mechanism in the modulation of synaptic transmission. In many cases, short- to medium-term modulation of synaptic strength by cAMP is due to activation of protein kinase A and subsequent covalent modification of presynaptic ion channels or synaptic proteins. Here we show that presynaptic cAMP generation via serotonin receptor activation directly modulated hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (Ih channels) in axons. This modulation of Ih produced an increase in synaptic strength that could not be explained solely by depolarization of the presynaptic membrane. These studies identify a mechanism by which cAMP and Ih regulate synaptic plasticity. PMID:10649568

  6. miR-153 Regulates SNAP-25, Synaptic Transmission, and Neuronal Development

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    miR-153 Regulates SNAP-25, Synaptic Transmission, and Neuronal Development Chunyao Wei1, Vanderbilt University and Medical School, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America Abstract SNAP-25 transmission. Here, we report a novel microRNA mechanism of SNAP-25 regulation controlling motor neuron

  7. Static and dynamic properties of synaptic transmission at the cyto- neural junction of frog labyrinth posterior canal

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The properties of synaptic transmission have been studied at the cyto- neural junction of the frog labyrinth posterior canal by examining excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) activity recorded intraaxonally from the afferent nerve after abolishing spike firing by tetrodotoxin. The waveform, amplitude, and rate of occurrence of the EPSPs have been evaluated by means of a procedure of fluctuation analysis devised to continuously monitor these parameters, at rest as well as during stimulation of the semicircular canal by sinusoidal rotation at 0.1 Hz, with peak accelerations ranging from 8 to 87 deg.s- 2. Responses to excitatory and inhibitory accelerations were quantified in terms of maximum and minimum EPSP rates, respectively, as well as total numbers of EPSPs occurring during the excitatory and inhibitory half cycles. Excitatory responses were systematically larger than inhibitory ones (asymmetry). Excitatory responses were linearly related either to peak acceleration or to its logarithm, and the same occurred for inhibitory responses. In all units examined, the asymmetry of the response yielded nonlinear two-sided input-output intensity functions. Silencing of EPSPs during inhibition (rectification) was never observed. Comparison of activity during the first cycle of rotation with the average response over several cycles indicated that variable degrees of adaptation (up to 48%) characterize the excitatory response, whereas no consistent adaptation was observed in the inhibitory response. All fibers appeared to give responses nearly in phase with angular velocity, at 0.1 Hz, although the peak rates generally anticipated by a few degrees the peak angular velocity. From the data presented it appears that asymmetry, adaptation, and at least part of the phase lead in afferent nerve response are of presynaptic origin, whereas rectification and possible further phase lead arise at the encoder. To confirm these conclusions a simultaneous though limited study of spike firing and EPSP activity has been attempted in a few fibers. PMID:2552000

  8. Odor-evoked oxygen consumption by action potential and synaptic transmission in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lecoq, Jérôme; Tiret, Pascale; Najac, Marion; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Greer, Charles A.; Charpak, Serge

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between metabolism of neuronal activity, microvascular organization and blood flow dynamics is critical for interpreting functional brain imaging. Here we used the rat dorsal olfactory bulb as a model to determine in vivo the correlation between action potential propagation, synaptic transmission, oxygen consumption and capillary density during odor stimulation. We find that capillary lumen occupies about 3 % of the glomerular volume, where synaptic transmission occurs, and only 0.1 % of the overlying nerve layer. In glomeruli, odor triggers a local early decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure that results principally from dendritic activation rather than from firing of axon terminals, transmitter release or astrocyte activation. In the nerve layer, action potential propagation does not generate local changes in tissue oxygen partial pressure. We conclude that capillary density is tightly correlated with the oxidative metabolism of synaptic transmission, and suggest that action potential propagation operates mainly anaerobically. PMID:19193889

  9. Structural determinants underlying the high efficacy of synaptic transmission and plasticity at synaptic boutons in layer 4 of the adult rat 'barrel cortex'

    PubMed

    Rollenhagen, Astrid; Klook, Kerstin; Sätzler, Kurt; Qi, Guanxiao; Anstötz, Max; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Lübke, Joachim H R

    2014-08-01

    Excitatory layer 4 (L4) neurons in the 'barrel field' of the rat somatosensory cortex represent an important component in thalamocortical information processing. However, no detailed information exists concerning the quantitative geometry of synaptic boutons terminating on these neurons. Thus, L4 synaptic boutons were investigated using serial ultrathin sections and subsequent quantitative 3D reconstructions. In particular, parameters representing structural correlates of synaptic transmission and plasticity such as the number, size and distribution of pre- and postsynaptic densities forming the active zone (AZ) and of the three functionally defined pools of synaptic vesicles were analyzed. L4 synaptic boutons varied substantially in shape and size; the majority had a single, but large AZ with opposing pre- and postsynaptic densities that matched perfectly in size and position. More than a third of the examined boutons showed perforations of the postsynaptic density. Synaptic boutons contained on average a total pool of 561 ± 108 vesicles, with ~5 % constituting the putative readily releasable, ~23 % the recycling, and the remainder the reserve pool. These pools are comparably larger than other characterized central synapses. Synaptic complexes were surrounded by a dense network of fine astrocytic processes that reached as far as the synaptic cleft, thus regulating the temporal and spatial glutamate concentration, and thereby shaping the unitary EPSP amplitude. In summary, the geometry and size of AZs, the comparably large readily releasable and recycling pools, together with the tight astrocytic ensheathment, may explain and contribute to the high release probability, efficacy and modulation of synaptic transmission at excitatory L4 synaptic boutons. Moreover, the structural variability as indicated by the geometry of L4 synaptic boutons, the presence of mitochondria and the size and shape of the AZs strongly suggest that synaptic reliability, strength and plasticity is governed and modulated individually at excitatory L4 synaptic boutons. PMID:25084745

  10. Synaptic reorganization in the substantia gelatinosa after peripheral nerve neuroma formation: aberrant innervation of lamina II neurons by Abeta afferents.

    PubMed

    Kohama, I; Ishikawa, K; Kocsis, J D

    2000-02-15

    Intracellular recording and extracellular field potential (FP) recordings were obtained from spinal cord dorsal horn neurons (laminae I-IV) in a rat transverse slice preparation with attached dorsal roots. To study changes in synaptic inputs after neuroma formation, the sciatic nerve was sectioned and ligated 3 weeks before in vitro electrophysiological analysis. Horseradish peroxidase labeling of dorsal root axons indicated that Abeta fibers sprouted into laminae I-II from deeper laminae after sciatic nerve section. FP recordings from dorsal horns of normal spinal cord slices revealed long-latency synaptic responses in lamina II and short-latency responses in lamina III. The latencies of synaptic FPs recorded in lamina II of the dorsal horn after sciatic nerve section were reduced. The majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded with intracellular microelectrodes from lamina II neurons in control slices were elicited by high-threshold nerve stimulation, whereas the majority of monosynaptic EPSPs recorded in lamina III were elicited by low-threshold nerve stimulation. After sciatic nerve section, 31 of 57 (54%) EPSPs recorded in lamina II were elicited by low-threshold stimulation. The majority of low-threshold EPSPs in lamina II neurons after axotomy displayed properties similar to low-threshold EPSPs in lamina III of control slices. These results indicate that reoccupation of lamina II synapses by sprouting Abeta fibers normally terminating in lamina III occurs after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. Furthermore, these observations indicate that the lamina II neurons receive inappropriate sensory information from low-threshold mechanoreceptor after sciatic nerve neuroma formation. PMID:10662843

  11. Thalamic synaptic transmission of sensory information modulated by synergistic interaction of adenosine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Chou, Pei-Yu

    2014-03-01

    The thalamic synapses relay peripheral sensory information to the cortex, and constitute an important part of the thalamocortical network that generates oscillatory activities responsible for different vigilance (sleep and wakefulness) states. However, the modulation of thalamic synaptic transmission by potential sleep regulators, especially by combination of regulators in physiological scenarios, is not fully characterized. We found that somnogen adenosine itself acts similar to wake-promoting serotonin, both decreasing synaptic strength as well as short-term depression, at the retinothalamic synapse. We then combined the two modulators considering the coexistence of them in the hypnagogic (sleep-onset) state. Adenosine plus serotonin results in robust synergistic inhibition of synaptic strength and dramatic transformation of short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These synaptic effects are not achievable with a single modulator, and are consistent with a high signal-to-noise ratio but a low level of signal transmission through the thalamus appropriate for slow-wave sleep. This study for the first time demonstrates that the sleep-regulatory modulators may work differently when present in combination than present singly in terms of shaping information flow in the thalamocortical network. The major synaptic characters such as the strength and short-term plasticity can be profoundly altered by combination of modulators based on physiological considerations. PMID:24147740

  12. Impairment of cortical GABAergic synaptic transmission in an environmental rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anwesha; García-Oscos, Francisco; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Galindo, Luis C; Hall, Shawn; Kilgard, Michael P; Atzori, Marco

    2013-07-01

    The biological mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are largely unknown in spite of extensive research. ASD is characterized by altered function of multiple brain areas including the temporal cortex and by an increased synaptic excitation:inhibition ratio. While numerous studies searched for evidence of increased excitation in ASD, fewer have investigated the possibility of reduced inhibition. We characterized the cortical ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the rat temporal cortex of an ASD model [offspring of mothers prenatally injected with valproic acid (VPA)], by monitoring inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) with patch-clamp. We found that numerous features of inhibition were severely altered in VPA animals compared to controls. Among them were the frequency of miniature IPSCs, the rise time and decay time of electrically-evoked IPSCs, the slope and saturation of their input/output curves, as well as their modulation by adrenergic and muscarinic agonists and by the synaptic GABAA receptor allosteric modulator zolpidem (but not by the extra-synaptic modulator gaboxadol). Our data suggest that both pre- and post-synaptic, but not extra-synaptic, inhibitory transmission is impaired in the offspring of VPA-injected mothers. We speculate that impairment in the GABAergic system critically contributes to an increase in the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition, which in genetically predisposed individuals may alter cortical circuits responsible for emotional, communication and social impairments at the core of ASD. PMID:23228615

  13. Properties of synaptic transmission and the global stability of delayed activity states.

    PubMed

    Koulakov, A A

    2001-02-01

    The influence of synaptic channel properties on the stability of delayed activity maintained by recurrent neural networks is studied. The duration of excitatory post-synaptic current (EPSC) is shown to be essential for the global stability of the delayed response. The NMDA receptor channel is a much more reliable mediator of the reverberating activity than the AMPA receptor, due to a longer EPSC. This allows one to interpret the deterioration of the working memory observed in NMDA channel blockade experiments. The key mechanism leading to the decay of the delayed activity originates in the unreliability of synaptic transmission. The optimum fluctuation of the synaptic currents leading to the decay is identified. The decay time is calculated analytically and the result is confirmed computationally. PMID:11254082

  14. Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    De Pittŕ, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the signaling network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic signaling is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium signaling and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic transmission. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the signaling pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326

  15. Difference in Time Course of Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Group II Versus Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    E-print Network

    Hasselmo, Michael

    Difference in Time Course of Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Group II Versus Group III ABSTRACT: We investigated the time course of modulation of synaptic transmission by group II and group III families, grouped according to their molecular structure and pharmacological profile (Conn and Pin, 1997

  16. Optical quantal analysis of synaptic transmission in wild-type and rab3-mutant Drosophila motor axons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Einat S Peled; Ehud Y Isacoff

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic transmission from a neuron to its target cells occurs via neurotransmitter release from dozens to thousands of presynaptic release sites whose strength and plasticity can vary considerably. We report an in vivo imaging method that monitors real-time synaptic transmission simultaneously at many release sites with quantal resolution. We applied this method to the model glutamatergic system of the Drosophila

  17. Carbenoxolone inhibition of voltage-gated Ca channels and synaptic transmission in the retina.

    PubMed

    Vessey, John P; Lalonde, Melanie R; Mizan, Hossein A; Welch, Nicole C; Kelly, Melanie E M; Barnes, Steven

    2004-08-01

    We show that carbenoxolone, a drug used to block hemichannels in the retina to test the ephaptic model of horizontal cell inhibitory feedback, has strong inhibitory effects on voltage-gated Ca channels. Carbenoxolone (100 microM) reduced photoreceptor-to-horizontal cell synaptic transmission by 92%. Applied to patch-clamped, isolated cone photoreceptors, carbenoxolone inhibited Ca channels with an EC(50) of 48 microM. At 100 microM, it reduced cone Ca channel current by 37%, reduced depolarization-evoked [Ca(2+)] signals in fluo-4 loaded retinal slices by 57% and inhibited Ca channels in Müller cells by 52%. A synaptic transfer model suggests that the degree of block of Ca channels accounts for the reduction in synaptic transmission. These results suggest broad inhibitory actions for carbenoxolone in the retina that must be considered when interpreting its effects on inhibitory feedback. PMID:15028741

  18. A possible docking and fusion particle for synaptic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giampietro Schiavo; Michael J. S. Gmachl; Gudrun Stenbeck; Thomas H. Söllner; James E. Rothman

    1995-01-01

    SEVERAL proteins have been implicated in the rapid (millisecond) calcium-controlled release of transmitters at nerve endings1,2, including soluble NV-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF3-5) and soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP3,6), the synaptic SNAP receptor (SNARE)3,7 and the calcium-binding protein synaptotagmin2, which may function as a calcium sensor in exocytosis8. A second SNAP isoform (beta-SNAP), which is 83% identical to alpha-SNAP, is highly

  19. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Eva Meier; Perrier, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice. Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs (excitatory monosynaptic postsynaptic currents). We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine prevented it. Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory presynaptic A1 receptors. PMID:24926236

  20. Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion Yair Manor of the lobster Panulirus interruptus is a graded func- tion of membrane potential, with a threshold of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. The pyloric network of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of P

  1. High-throughput study of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction enabled by optogenetics and microfluidics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey N. Stirman; Martin Brauner; Alexander Gottschalk; Hang Lu

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, optogenetic techniques have become widely used to help elucidate a variety of neuroscience problems. The unique optical control of neurons within a variety of organisms provided by optogenetics allows researchers to probe neural circuits and investigate neuronal function in a highly specific and controllable fashion. Recently, optogenetic techniques have been introduced to investigate synaptic transmission

  2. MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711. While severe hypothyroidis...

  3. Comparative efficiency of volume and synaptic transmission in the coerulean system: relevance to neurologic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P; Smith, C U

    1993-03-01

    Over the past few years evidence has accumulated which confirms earlier beliefs that punctate synaptic transmission (wiring transmission) is not the only means by which "informational substances" affect cerebral neurons. This paper considers the relative efficiency of "volume" and "wiring" transmission in controlling large populations of neurons taking as a specific example the mammalian coerulean system. Making reasonable quantitative assumptions it is shown that volume transmission is a more efficient means of controlling "mass" functions than a wiring mode. Implications for the reorganisation of function following brain damage are noted. PMID:8385363

  4. In Vivo Measurement of Cell-Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity and Synaptic Transmission in Layer 2/3 Mouse Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Aurélie; Petersen, Carl C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intracellular recordings of membrane potential in vitro have defined fundamental properties of synaptic communication. Much less is known about the properties of synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in vivo. Here, we combined single-cell optogenetics with whole-cell recordings to investigate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vivo from single identified excitatory neurons onto two genetically defined subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic neurons in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex. We found that parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic neurons received unitary glutamatergic synaptic input with higher probability than somatostatin-expressing (Sst) GABAergic neurons. Unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials onto PV neurons were also faster and more reliable than inputs onto Sst neurons. Excitatory synapses targeting Sst neurons displayed strong short-term facilitation, while those targeting PV neurons showed little short-term dynamics. Our results largely agree with in vitro measurements. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of assessing functional cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity in vivo, allowing future investigations into context-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:25543458

  5. In vivo measurement of cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Pala, Aurélie; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular recordings of membrane potential in vitro have defined fundamental properties of synaptic communication. Much less is known about the properties of synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in vivo. Here, we combined single-cell optogenetics with whole-cell recordings to investigate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vivo from single identified excitatory neurons onto two genetically defined subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic neurons in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex. We found that parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic neurons received unitary glutamatergic synaptic input with higher probability than somatostatin-expressing (Sst) GABAergic neurons. Unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials onto PV neurons were also faster and more reliable than inputs onto Sst neurons. Excitatory synapses targeting Sst neurons displayed strong short-term facilitation, while those targeting PV neurons showed little short-term dynamics. Our results largely agree with in vitro measurements. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of assessing functional cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity in vivo, allowing future investigations into context-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:25543458

  6. ATP mediates excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E. M.; Gerzanich, V.; Vanner, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP, 0.1-100 microM), produced inward currents in patch-clamped coeliac neurones from guinea-pig when studied in either the whole cell configuration or in excised (outside-out) patches. The P2-purinoceptor antagonists suramin (80-230 microM) or reactive blue 2 (2-20 microM) depressed the ATP-induced currents but not those produced by acetylcholine. Excitatory post-synaptic currents (e.p.s.cs) were observed in cultured neurones. E.p.s.cs had similar current-voltage relationships to currents evoked by ATP in excised patches and were reduced by suramin or reactive blue 2 to a similar extent as ATP currents. The results suggest that ATP is the excitatory neurotransmitter in cultures of these neurones. PMID:1327385

  7. Therapeutic testosterone administration preserves excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Ziehn, Marina O.; Avedisian, Andrea A.; Dervin, Shannon M.; Umeda, Elizabeth A.; O’Dell, Thomas J.; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience cognitive deficits, and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment has been reported in over 30% of these patients. While post-mortem pathology studies and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrate that the hippocampus is targeted in MS, the neuropathology underlying hippocampal dysfunction remains unknown. Furthermore, there are no treatments available to date to effectively prevent neurodegeneration and associated cognitive dysfunction in MS. We have recently demonstrated that the hippocampus is also targeted in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used animal model of MS. The objective of this study was to assess whether a candidate treatment (testosterone) could prevent hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and underlying pathology when administered in either a preventative or a therapeutic (post-disease induction) manner. Electrophysiological studies revealed impairments in basal excitatory synaptic transmission that involved both AMPA receptor-mediated changes in synaptic currents, and faster decay rates of NMDA receptor-mediated currents in mice with EAE. Neuropathology revealed atrophy of the pyramidal and dendritic layers of hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), decreased pre (Synapsin-1) and post (postsynaptic density 95; PSD-95) synaptic staining, diffuse demyelination, and microglial activation. Testosterone treatment administered either before or after disease induction restores excitatory synaptic transmission as well as pre- and postsynaptic protein levels within the hippocampus. Furthermore, cross-modality correlations demonstrate that fluctuations in excitatory postsynaptic potentials are significantly correlated to changes in postsynaptic protein levels and suggest that PSD-95 is a neuropathological substrate to impaired synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during EAE. This is the first report demonstrating that testosterone is a viable therapeutic treatment option that can restore both hippocampal function and disease-associated pathology that occur during autoimmune disease. PMID:22956822

  8. Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D.; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa++ amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5–10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

  9. Growth hormone modulates hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in old rats

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Doris P.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.; Linville, Constance; Sonntag, William E.; Weiner, Jeff L.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.; Adams, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA-R) receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have been documented in aged animals and may contribute to changes in hippocampal-dependent memory. Growth Hormone (GH) regulates AMPA-R and NMDA-R-dependent excitatory transmission and decreases with age. Chronic GH treatment mitigates age-related cognitive decline. An in vitro CA1 hippocampal slice preparation was used to compare hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity in old animals treated for 6–8 months with either saline or GH. Our findings indicate that GH treatment restores NMDA-R dependent basal synaptic transmission in old rats to young adult levels and enhances both AMPA-R-dependent basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation. These alterations in synaptic function occurred in the absence of changes in presynaptic function, as measured by paired-pulse ratios, the total protein levels of AMPA-R and NMDA-R subunits or in plasma or hippocampal levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. These data suggest a direct role for GH in altering age-related changes in excitatory transmission and provide a possible cellular mechanism through which GH changes the course of cognitive decline. PMID:22015312

  10. Selective inhibition of local excitatory synaptic transmission by serotonin through an unconventional receptor in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mlinar, Boris; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Corradetti, Renato

    2001-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic transmission by serotonin (5-HT) was studied using whole-cell voltage-clamp and sharp-electrode current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurones in transverse rat hippocampal slices in vitro. With GABAA receptors blocked, polysynaptic transmission evoked by stratum radiatum stimulation was inhibited by submicromolar concentrations of 5-HT, while monosynaptic excitatory transmission and CA1 pyramidal neurone excitability were unaffected. The effect persisted following pharmacological blockade of 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptors, which directly affect CA1 pyramidal neurone excitability. Concentration-response relationships for 5-HT were determined in individual neurones; the EC50 values for block of polysynaptic excitation and inhibition by 5-HT were ?230 and ?160 nm, respectively. The 5-HT receptor type responsible for the observed effect does not fall easily into the present classification of 5-HT receptors. 5-HT inhibition of polysynaptic EPSCs persisted following complete block of GABAergic transmission and in CA1 minislices, ruling out indirect effects through interneurones and non-CA1 pyramidal neurones, respectively. Monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by stimulation of CA1 afferent pathways appeared to be unaffected by 5-HT. Monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by stimulation of the alveus, which contains CA1 pyramidal neurone axons, were partially inhibited by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT inhibited synaptic transmission by acting at local recurrent collaterals of CA1 pyramidal neurones. This may represent an important physiological action of 5-HT in the hippocampus, since it occurs over a lower concentration range than the 5-HT effects reported so far. PMID:11432998

  11. Kismet Positively Regulates Glutamate Receptor Localization and Synaptic Transmission at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rupa; Vegesna, Srikar; Safi, Ramia; Bao, Hong; Zhang, Bing; Marenda, Daniel R.; Liebl, Faith L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a glutamatergic synapse that is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian glutamatergic synapses. These synapses can, as a result of changes in activity, alter the strength of their connections via processes that require chromatin remodeling and changes in gene expression. The chromodomain helicase DNA binding (CHD) protein, Kismet (Kis), is expressed in both motor neuron nuclei and postsynaptic muscle nuclei of the Drosophila larvae. Here, we show that Kis is important for motor neuron synaptic morphology, the localization and clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors, larval motor behavior, and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that Kis is part of the machinery that modulates the development and function of the NMJ. Kis is the homolog to human CHD7, which is mutated in CHARGE syndrome. Thus, our data suggest novel avenues of investigation for synaptic defects associated with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:25412171

  12. [Neuromuscular synaptic transmission at different stages of postnatal development in rats].

    PubMed

    Khuzakhmetova, B F; Samigullin, D V; Nurullin, L F; Nikol'ski?, E E; Bukhareva, É A

    2012-12-01

    On the nerve-muscle preparation of rats diaphragm muscle on different stages of postnatal development, the comparison of morphological features and functions of synaptic apparatus, including induced secretion time parameters was carried out. It was found that, along with the reduced, compared to the adult animals, area of nerve endings in the newborn the speed of the motor nerve excitation was slower, intensity of spontaneous and induced secretion of quantum fluctuations was reduced and real synaptic delays in the end plate were intense. Severe degree of acetylcholine quanta asynchronous secretion with longer open state of the ion channel in newborns synapses can compensate reduction in reliability of synaptic transmission due to a decrease of the quantal content of the postsynaptic response. PMID:23461198

  13. Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E; Llinás, Rodolfo R; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2008-10-14

    Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca(2+) current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca(2+)-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse. PMID:18840683

  14. Calcium-induced calcium release in rod photoreceptor terminals boosts synaptic transmission during maintained depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bryson, Eric J.; Ciccone, Cory A.; Rabl, Katalin; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) to synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptor terminals. Whole-cell recording and confocal calcium imaging experiments were conducted on rods with intact synaptic terminals in a retinal slice preparation from salamander. Low concentrations of ryanodine stimulated calcium increases in rod terminals, consistent with the presence of ryanodine receptors. Application of strong depolarizing steps (?70 to ?10 mV) exceeding 200 ms or longer in duration evoked a wave of calcium that spread across the synaptic terminals of voltage-clamped rods. This secondary calcium increase was blocked by high concentrations of ryanodine, indicating it was due to CICR. Ryanodine (50 ?M) had no significant effect on rod calcium current (Ica) although it slightly diminished rod light-evoked voltage responses. Bath application of 50 ?M ryanodine strongly inhibited light-evoked currents in horizontal cells. Whether applied extracellularly or delivered into the rod cell through the patch pipette, ryanodine (50 ?M) also inhibited excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in horizontal cells by depolarizing steps applied to rods. Ryanodine caused a preferential reduction in the later portions of EPSCs evoked by depolarizing steps of 200 ms or longer. These results indicate that CICR enhances calcium increases in rod terminals evoked by sustained depolarization, which in turn acts to boost synaptic exocytosis from rods. PMID:16819987

  15. Calcium-induced calcium release in rod photoreceptor terminals boosts synaptic transmission during maintained depolarization.

    PubMed

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bryson, Eric J; Ciccone, Cory A; Rabl, Katalin; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2006-06-01

    We examined the contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) to synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptor terminals. Whole-cell recording and confocal calcium imaging experiments were conducted on rods with intact synaptic terminals in a retinal slice preparation from salamander. Low concentrations of ryanodine stimulated calcium increases in rod terminals, consistent with the presence of ryanodine receptors. Application of strong depolarizing steps (-70 to -10 mV) exceeding 200 ms or longer in duration evoked a wave of calcium that spread across the synaptic terminals of voltage-clamped rods. This secondary calcium increase was blocked by high concentrations of ryanodine, indicating it was due to CICR. Ryanodine (50 microm) had no significant effect on rod calcium current (I(ca)) although it slightly diminished rod light-evoked voltage responses. Bath application of 50 microm ryanodine strongly inhibited light-evoked currents in horizontal cells. Whether applied extracellularly or delivered into the rod cell through the patch pipette, ryanodine (50 microm) also inhibited excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in horizontal cells by depolarizing steps applied to rods. Ryanodine caused a preferential reduction in the later portions of EPSCs evoked by depolarizing steps of 200 ms or longer. These results indicate that CICR enhances calcium increases in rod terminals evoked by sustained depolarization, which in turn acts to boost synaptic exocytosis from rods. PMID:16819987

  16. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the hypothesis that the two feedback pathways monitor different state variables determining the production of muscle force: neural input and length and its changes. Specifically, the dynamic properties of both subsystems may combine favourably to decrease the risk of instability (tremor) in the motoneuron-muscle spindle loop. PMID:8190265

  17. The MT2 receptor stimulates axonogenesis and enhances synaptic transmission by activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Wei, N; Man, H-Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, L-Q; Wang, J-Z

    2015-04-01

    The MT2 receptor is a principal type of G protein-coupled receptor that mainly mediates the effects of melatonin. Deficits of melatonin/MT2 signaling have been found in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, suggesting that preservation of the MT2 receptor may be beneficial to these neurological disorders. However, direct evidence linking the MT2 receptor to cognition-related synaptic plasticity remains to be established. Here, we report that the MT2 receptor, but not the MT1 receptor, is essential for axonogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We find that axon formation is retarded in MT2 receptor knockout mice, MT2-shRNA electroporated brain slices or primary neurons treated with an MT2 receptor selective antagonist. Activation of the MT2 receptor promotes axonogenesis that is associated with an enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in central neurons. The signaling components downstream of the MT2 receptor consist of the Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 cascade. The MT2 receptor C-terminal motif binds to Akt directly. Either inhibition of the MT2 receptor or disruption of MT2 receptor-Akt binding reduces axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that the MT2 receptor activates Akt/GSK-3?/CRMP-2 signaling and is necessary and sufficient to mediate functional axonogenesis and synaptic formation in central neurons. PMID:25501601

  18. Statistical models of synaptic transmission evaluated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, C; Redman, S

    1994-01-01

    Amplitude fluctuations of evoked synaptic responses can be used to extract information on the probabilities of release at the active sites, and on the amplitudes of the synaptic responses generated by transmission at each active site. The parameters that describe this process must be obtained from an incomplete data set represented by the probability density of the evoked synaptic response. In this paper, the equations required to calculate these parameters using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the maximum likelihood criterion have been derived for a variety of statistical models of synaptic transmission. These models are ones where the probabilities associated with the different discrete amplitudes in the evoked responses are a) unconstrained, b) binomial, and c) compound binomial. The discrete amplitudes may be separated by equal (quantal) or unequal amounts, with or without quantal variance. Alternative models have been considered where the variance associated with the discrete amplitudes is sufficiently large such that no quantal amplitudes can be detected. These models involve the sum of a normal distribution (to represent failures) and a unimodal distribution (to represent the evoked responses). The implementation of the algorithm is described in each case, and its accuracy and convergence have been demonstrated. PMID:7948679

  19. Spinal shock: possible role of receptor plasticity and non synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P; Illis, L S

    1993-02-01

    Spinal shock remains an enigma. To date there has been no convincing explanation of the recovery of reflexes following their complete abolition. Volume transmission includes both the activation of extrasynaptic receptors, and activity induced by substances diffusing into synaptic clefts via the extracellular fluid. A brief review of non synaptic transmission is given, and a review of spinal shock. We suggest that the recovery of reflexes in spinal shock may be related to the up regulation of receptors, resulting in increased sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances released at the surviving synapses, or elsewhere, and transported in the extracellular fluid. Further understanding of spinal shock would give both practical help for the patient and have academic implications for the scientific basis of neurological rehabilitation. PMID:8383312

  20. Snx14 Regulates Neuronal Excitability, Promotes Synaptic Transmission, and Is Imprinted in the Brain of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsien-Sung; Yoon, Bong-June; Brooks, Sherian; Bakal, Robert; Berrios, Janet; Larsen, Rylan S.; Wallace, Michael L.; Han, Ji Eun; Chung, Eui Hwan; Zylka, Mark J.; Philpot, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting describes an epigenetic process through which genes can be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. The monoallelic expression of imprinted genes renders them particularly susceptible to disease causing mutations. A large proportion of imprinted genes are expressed in the brain, but little is known about their functions. Indeed, it has proven difficult to identify cell type-specific imprinted genes due to the heterogeneity of cell types within the brain. Here we used laser capture microdissection of visual cortical neurons and found evidence that sorting nexin 14 (Snx14) is a neuronally imprinted gene in mice. SNX14 protein levels are high in the brain and progressively increase during neuronal development and maturation. Snx14 knockdown reduces intrinsic excitability and severely impairs both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. These data reveal a role for monoallelic Snx14 expression in maintaining normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. PMID:24859318

  1. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Katherine I; Hong, Elizabeth J; Wilson, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies that they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, but can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient, but grows slowly, and simulations reveal that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

  2. Functional GluR6 Kainate Receptors in the Striatum: Indirect Downregulation of Synaptic Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karima Chergui; Alexandre Bouron; Elisabeth Normand; Christophe Mulle

    2000-01-01

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, but their function in synaptic transmission has not been established. In the present study, we show that the GluR6 subunit of KARs is expressed in both substance P- and enkephalin-containing GABAergic projection neurons of the mouse striatum. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices, we demonstrate the presence of functional

  3. Effect of Nitrous Oxide on Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Hippocampal Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Mennerick; Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic; Slobodan M. Todorovic; Weixing Shen; John W. Olney; Charles F. Zorumski

    1998-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas) has been a widely used anesthetic\\/analgesic since the 19th century, although its cellu- lar mechanism of action is not understood. Here we character- ize the effects of N2O on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons, a preparation in which anesthetic effects on monosynaptic com- munication can be examined in a

  4. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodion V. Kondratenko; Vladimir I. Derevyagin; Vladimir G. Skrebitsky

    2010-01-01

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1?M) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating

  5. Adult Onset-hypothyroidism has Minimal Effects on Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus of Rats Independent of Hypothermia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during development and in adulthood. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory is sensitive to TH insufficiency. Synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is impaired following...

  6. Laser-evoked synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons channelrhodopsin-2 delivered by adeno-associated virus

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jennifer

    We present a method for studying synaptic transmission in mass cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons based on patch clamp recording combined with laser stimulation of neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Our ...

  7. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in RA projection neurons of adult zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songhua; Meng, Wei; Liu, Shaoyi; Liao, Congshu; Huang, Qingyao; Li, Dongfeng

    2014-10-17

    Zebra finches are ideal animals to investigate sex difference in songbirds. Only males can sing. The brain nuclei controlling song learning and production in males are considerably larger than in females. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus, playing a key role in controlling singing. RA receives denser synapse inputs in males than in females. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA projection neurons (PNs) have not been reported. In the present study, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording, spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) of RA PNs in the intact males and females were recorded. The average frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were higher than females. The half-width and decay time of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were longer than females. In order to verify whether these sex differences related to sex steroids, males were castrated. The average frequency of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in castrated males was lower than intact males and was similar to in females; the amplitude was not changed after castrating. These results demonstrate the sexually dimorphic of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA PNs, the RA PNs in males receive more excitatory synaptic transmission and these sex differences were partly affected by sex hormones. These findings contribute to further illuminate the neural mechanisms under the sexually dimorphism in song production of adult zebra finches. PMID:25220700

  8. Pten deficiency in brain causes defects in synaptic structure, transmission and plasticity, and myelination abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Melissa M.; Bayazitov, Ildar T.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway modulates growth, proliferation and cell survival in diverse tissue types and plays specialized roles in the nervous system including influences on neuronal polarity, dendritic branching and synaptic plasticity. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) is the central negative regulator of the PI3K pathway. Germline PTEN mutations result in cancer predisposition, macrocephaly and benign hamartomas in many tissues, including Lhermitte-Duclos disease, a cerebellar growth disorder. Neurological abnormalities including autism, seizures and ataxia have been observed in association with inherited PTEN mutation with variable penetrance. It remains unclear how loss of PTEN activity contributes to neurological dysfunction. To explore the effects of Pten deficiency on neuronal structure and function, we analyzed several ultra-structural features of Pten-deficient neurons in Pten conditional knockout mice. Using Golgi stain to visualize full neuronal morphology, we observed that increased size of nuclei and somata in Pten-deficient neurons was accompanied by enlarged caliber of neuronal projections and increased dendritic spine density. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed enlarged abnormal synaptic structures in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Severe myelination defects included thickening and unraveling of the myelin sheath surrounding hypertrophic axons in the corpus callosum. Defects in myelination of axons of normal caliber were observed in the cerebellum, suggesting intrinsic abnormalities in Pten-deficient oligodendrocytes. We did not observe these abnormalities in wild-type or conditional Pten heterozygous mice. Moreover, conditional deletion of Pten drastically weakened synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. These data suggest that Pten is involved in mechanisms that control development of neuronal and synaptic structures and subsequently synaptic function. PMID:18082964

  9. Evidence for the tonic inhibition of spinal pain by nicotinic cholinergic transmission through primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Misaki; Xie, Weijiao; Inoue, Makoto; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background We have proposed that nerve injury-specific loss of spinal tonic cholinergic inhibition may play a role in the analgesic effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists on neuropathic pain. However, the tonic cholinergic inhibition of pain remains to be well characterized. Results Here, we show that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) signals were localized not only in outer dorsal horn fibers (lamina I–III) and motor neurons in the spinal cord, but also in the vast majority of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). When mice were treated with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) against ChAT, which decreased ChAT signals in the dorsal horn and DRG, but not in motor neurons, they showed a significant decrease in nociceptive thresholds in paw pressure and thermal paw withdrawal tests. Furthermore, in a novel electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW) test, the thresholds for stimulation through C-, A?- and A?-fibers were all decreased by AS-ODN-pretreatments. The administration of nicotine (10 nmol i.t.) induced a recovery of the nociceptive thresholds, decreased by the AS-ODN, in the mechanical, thermal and EPW tests. However, nicotine had no effects in control mice or treated with a mismatch scramble (MS)-ODN in all of these nociception tests. Conclusion These findings suggest that primary afferent cholinergic neurons produce tonic inhibition of spinal pain through nAChR activation, and that intrathecal administration of nicotine rescues the loss of tonic cholinergic inhibition. PMID:18088441

  10. Intrinsic and Synaptic Long-Term Depression of NTS Relay of Nociceptin-Sensitive and Capsaicin-Sensitive Cardiopulmonary Afferents Hyperactivity

    E-print Network

    Feinberg-Zadek, Paula

    The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the caudal medulla is a gateway for a variety of cardiopulmonary afferents important for homeostatic regulation and defense against airway and cardiovascular insults and is a key ...

  11. Compartment-specific modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by TRPV1 channels in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Andrés E; Hernández, Vivian M; Rodenas-Ruano, Alma; Chan, C Savio; Castillo, Pablo E

    2014-12-10

    The transient receptor potential TRPV1 or vanilloid receptor is a nonselective ligand-gated channel highly expressed in primary sensory neurons where it mediates nociception. TRPV1 is also expressed in the brain where its activation depresses excitatory synaptic transmission. Whether TRPV1 also regulates inhibitory synapses in the brain is unclear. Here, using a combination of pharmacology, electrophysiology, and an in vivo knockdown strategy, we report that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or by the endocannabinoid anandamide depresses somatic, but not dendritic inhibitory transmission in both rat and mouse dentate gyrus. The effect on somatic inhibition was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice and was also eliminated by two different TRPV1 shRNAs expressed in dentate granule cells, strongly supporting a functional role for TRPV1 in modulating GABAergic synaptic function. Moreover, TRPV1-mediated depression occurs independently of GABA release, requires postsynaptic Ca(2+) rise and activation of calcineurin, and is likely due to clathrin-dependent internalization of GABA receptors. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel form of compartment-specific regulation whereby TRPV1 channels can modify synaptic function in the brain. PMID:25505315

  12. Effect of ?-synuclein on membrane permeability and synaptic transmission: a clue to neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Surguchev, Alexei; Surguchov, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    This is an Editorial highlighting the article "Extracellular ?-synuclein alters synaptic transmission in rain neurons by perforating the neuronal plasma membrane" by Pacheco and coauthors, in this issue of Journal of Neurochemistry. The authors demonstrate, using a variety of techniques, that alpha-synuclein possesses neurotoxicity toward brain neuronal plasma membranes exposed directly to extracellular alpha-synuclein oligomers. Extracellular oligomeric ?-synuclein rapidly associates to hippocampal membranes and induces pore formation in the hippocampal cells. This increases membrane conductance and calcium influx. Oligomeric ?-synuclein also induces changes in synaptic current activity in hippocampal neurons. The authors' findings support the pathogenic role of extracellular alpha-synuclein in the brain, and should provide a new strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies, neurodegenerative diseases with aberrant accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein in neurons, nerve fibers or glial cells. Read the full article 'Extracellular ?-synuclein alters synaptic transmission in brain neurons by perforating the neuronal plasma membrane' on page 731. PMID:25739983

  13. Selective activation of microglia facilitates synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anna K; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J; Malcangio, Marzia; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2015-03-18

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  14. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1? from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  15. Fast synaptic transmission mediated by P2X receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slice cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masahiro; Heuss, Christian; Gähwiler, Beat H; Gerber, Urs

    2001-01-01

    A fast ATP-mediated synaptic current was identified in CA3 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. In the presence of inhibitors for ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors, extracellular stimulation in the pyramidal cell layer evoked fast synaptic currents that reversed near 0 mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic conductance. This response was mimicked by focal application of ATP. Antagonists of ionotropic P2X receptors reduced both synaptic and ATP-induced currents. Using a pharmacological approach, the source of synaptically released ATP was determined. Synaptic ATP responses were insensitive to presynaptic blockade of GABAergic transmission between interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells with the ?-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2,MePhe4,Met(O)5-ol-enkephalin (FK33-824), but were blocked by adenosine, which inhibits glutamate release from synaptic terminals in the hippocampus. However, selective inhibition of mossy fibre glutamatergic transmission with the metabotropic glutamate receptor group II agonist (2S,2?R,3?R)-2-(2?,3?-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG IV) did not affect the response. This result points to the associational fibres as the source of the ATP-mediated synaptic response. These results suggest that ATP, coreleased with glutamate, induces a synaptic response in CA3 pyramidal cells that is observed mainly under conditions of synchronous discharge from multiple presynaptic inputs. PMID:11507162

  16. Developmental Exposure to Perchlorate Alters Synaptic Transmission in Hippocampus of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mary E.; Sui, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine uptake into the thyroid gland and reduces thyroid hormones. This action of perchlorate raises significant concern over its effects on brain development. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic function in rats after developmental exposure to perchlorate. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 30, 300, or 1,000 ppm perchlorate in drinking water from gestational day 6 until weaning. Adult male offspring were evaluated on a series of behavioral tasks and neurophysiologic measures of synaptic function in the hippocampus. Results At the highest perchlorate dose, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were reduced in pups on postnatal day 21. T4 in dams was reduced relative to controls by 16%, 28%, and 60% in the 30-, 300-, and 1,000-ppm dose groups, respectively. Reductions in T4 were associated with increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone in the high-dose group. No changes were seen in serum T3. Perchlorate did not impair motor activity, spatial learning, or fear conditioning. However, significant reductions in baseline synaptic transmission were observed in hippocampal field potentials at all dose levels. Reductions in inhibitory function were evident at 300 and 1,000 ppm, and augmentations in long-term potentiation were observed in the population spike measure at the highest dose. Conclusions Dose-dependent deficits in hippocampal synaptic function were detectable with relatively minor perturbations of the thyroid axis, indicative of an irreversible impairment in synaptic transmission in response to developmental exposure to perchlorate. PMID:18560531

  17. Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses.

    PubMed

    Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca(2+) action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the immature auditory system in the absence of sensory stimuli. During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. Both the MOC-OHC and the MOC-IHC synapses are cholinergic, fast and inhibitory and mediated by the ?9?10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) coupled to the activation of calcium-activated potassium channels that hyperpolarize the hair cells. In this review we discuss the biophysical, functional and molecular data which demonstrate that at the synapses between MOC efferent fibers and cochlear hair cells, modulation of transmitter release as well as short term synaptic plasticity mechanisms, operating both at the presynaptic terminal and at the postsynaptic hair-cell, determine the efficacy of these synapses and shape the hair cell response pattern. PMID:25520631

  18. Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca2+ action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the immature auditory system in the absence of sensory stimuli. During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. Both the MOC-OHC and the MOC-IHC synapses are cholinergic, fast and inhibitory and mediated by the ?9?10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) coupled to the activation of calcium-activated potassium channels that hyperpolarize the hair cells. In this review we discuss the biophysical, functional and molecular data which demonstrate that at the synapses between MOC efferent fibers and cochlear hair cells, modulation of transmitter release as well as short term synaptic plasticity mechanisms, operating both at the presynaptic terminal and at the postsynaptic hair-cell, determine the efficacy of these synapses and shape the hair cell response pattern. PMID:25520631

  19. Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E.

    2014-01-01

    Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties. PMID:25360082

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotube inhibits CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat's hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yang, Jiajia; Zhang, Hui; Ren, Guogang; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the neurotoxic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat's hippocampal slices using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) were accessed on the hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The alterations of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in CA3-CA1 were examined by measuring both the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR). The data showed that the amplitude of either spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) or miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) was significantly inhibited by 1 ?g/mL MWCNTs. However, it was found that there was a trend of different change on the frequency index. When 1 ?g/mL MWCNTs was applied, there were a decreased frequency of mEPSC and an increased frequency of sEPSC, which might be due to the effect of action potential. Furthermore, the amplitudes of eEPSC at CA3-CA1 synapses were remarkably decreased. And the mean amplitude of AMPAR-mediated eEPSC was significantly reduced as well. Meanwhile, a majority of PPRs data were greater than one. There were no significant differences of PPRs between control and MWCNTs states, but an increased trend of paired-pulse facilitation was found. These results suggested that MWCNT markedly inhibited hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vitro, which provided new insights into the MWCNT toxicology on CNS at cellular level. PMID:25048470

  1. Actions of BAX on mitochondrial channel activity and on synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Elizabeth A; Hardwick, J Marie; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial architecture and permeability facilitate programmed cell death. The BCL-2 family protein BAX is implicated in the formation of large "death channels" in outer mitochondrial membranes. We found that BAX-induced channels on mitochondria may have alternative functions. By patch clamping mitochondrial membranes inside the presynaptic terminal of the living squid giant synapse, we made direct measurements of channel activity produced by BAX application. Only infrequently did BAX application result in large conductance channels similar to those produced by a proapoptotic BCL-xL fragment or by application of a BH3-only peptide. Instead, the majority of outer mitochondrial channels induced by BAX had much smaller conductances than those found previously for the proapoptotic protein. Injection of BAX into the presynaptic terminal did not abolish synaptic transmission, contrary to previous findings with the proapoptotic fragment of BCL-xL. Instead, injection of BAX caused an increase in neurotransmitter release, as has also been found for the full-length antiapoptotic BCL-xL protein. We suggest that BAX can act to enhance synaptic efficacy in a normal physiological setting. Furthermore, the occasional large openings may reflect the function of "activated" BAX either to facilitate cell death or to play a physiological role in decreasing synaptic activity. PMID:16115013

  2. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  3. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Lledo, P M; Tremblay, P; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B; Nicoll, R A

    1996-01-01

    We recorded in the CA1 region from hippocampal slices of prion protein (PrP) gene knockout mice to investigate whether the loss of the normal form of prion protein (PrPC) affects neuronal excitability as well as synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. No deficit in synaptic inhibition was found using field potential recordings because (i) responses induced by stimulation in stratum radiatum consisted of a single population spike in PrP gene knockout mice similar to that recorded from control mice and (ii) the plot of field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope versus the population spike amplitude showed no difference between the two groups of mice. Intracellular recordings also failed to detect any difference in cell excitability and the reversal potential for inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Analysis of the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic current revealed no modification. Finally, we examined whether synaptic plasticity was altered and found no difference in long-term potentiation between control and PrP gene knockout mice. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the loss of the normal form of prion protein does not alter the physiology of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. PMID:8637886

  4. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 depresses central synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide; Gross, Cornelius; Limatola, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2006-09-01

    This work reports the effect of chemokine fractalkine/CX3CL1, an endogenous small peptide highly expressed in the central nervous system, on evoked synaptic responses investigated in mouse CA1 stratum radiatum using an electrophysiological approach. We report that in acute mouse hippocampal slices, superfusion of CX3CL1 resulted in a reversible depression of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) which developed within few seconds, increased for up to 10 min of application and disappeared within 30 min after the end of CX3CL1 treatment. We also show that CX3CL1-induced synaptic depression is (i) dose-dependent with IC50 and nH values of 0.7 nM and 1, respectively, (ii) not associated with a change in paired-pulse facilitation, (iii) mediated through CX3CL1 receptor (CX3CR1), being absent in CX3CR1-/- mice and inhibited in wild-type mice by a specific blocking antibody, and (iv) occluded by the induction of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). We conclude that CX3CL1 is a potent neuromodulator of the evoked excitatory synaptic transmission, sharing common mechanisms with LTD. PMID:16815480

  5. miR-153 Regulates SNAP-25, Synaptic Transmission, and Neuronal Development

    PubMed Central

    Olena, Abigail F.; Cha, Diana J.; Perdigoto, Ana L.; Marshall, Andrew F.; Carter, Bruce D.; Broadie, Kendal; Patton, James G.

    2013-01-01

    SNAP-25 is a core component of the trimeric SNARE complex mediating vesicle exocytosis during membrane addition for neuronal growth, neuropeptide/growth factor secretion, and neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission. Here, we report a novel microRNA mechanism of SNAP-25 regulation controlling motor neuron development, neurosecretion, synaptic activity, and movement in zebrafish. Loss of miR-153 causes overexpression of SNAP-25 and consequent hyperactive movement in early zebrafish embryos. Conversely, overexpression of miR-153 causes SNAP-25 down regulation resulting in near complete paralysis, mimicking the effects of treatment with Botulinum neurotoxin. miR-153-dependent changes in synaptic activity at the neuromuscular junction are consistent with the observed movement defects. Underlying the movement defects, perturbation of miR-153 function causes dramatic developmental changes in motor neuron patterning and branching. Together, our results indicate that precise control of SNAP-25 expression by miR-153 is critically important for proper neuronal patterning as well as neurotransmission. PMID:23451149

  6. Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-11-01

    At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, ? = 1/(D??s), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, ? is the vesicle diameter, ? is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons. PMID:25311636

  7. Extracellular ?-synuclein alters synaptic transmission in brain neurons by perforating the neuronal plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Carla R; Morales, Camila N; Ramírez, Alejandra E; Muńoz, Francisco J; Gallegos, Scarlet S; Caviedes, Pablo A; Aguayo, Luis G; Opazo, Carlos M

    2015-03-01

    It has been postulated that the accumulation of extracellular ?-synuclein (?-syn) might alter the neuronal membrane by formation of 'pore-like structures' that will lead to alterations in ionic homeostasis. However, this has never been demonstrated to occur in brain neuronal plasma membranes. In this study, we show that ?-syn oligomers rapidly associate with hippocampal membranes in a punctate fashion, resulting in increased membrane conductance (5 fold over control) and the influx of both calcium and a fluorescent glucose analogue. The enhancement in intracellular calcium (1.7 fold over control) caused a large increase in the frequency of synaptic transmission (2.5 fold over control), calcium transients (3 fold over control), and synaptic vesicle release. Both primary hippocampal and dissociated nigral neurons showed rapid increases in membrane conductance by ?-syn oligomers. In addition, we show here that ?-syn caused synaptotoxic failure associated with a decrease in SV2, a membrane protein of synaptic vesicles associated with neurotransmitter release. In conclusion, extracellular ?-syn oligomers facilitate the perforation of the neuronal plasma membrane, thus explaining, in part, the synaptotoxicity observed in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by its extracellular accumulation. We propose that ?-synuclein (?-syn) oligomers form pore-like structures in the plasma membrane of neurons from central nervous system (CNS). We believe that extracellular ?-syn oligomers facilitate the formation of ?-syn membrane pore-like structures, thus explaining, in part, the synaptotoxicity observed in neurodegenerative diseases characterized by its extracellular accumulation. We think that alterations in ionic homeostasis and synaptic vesicular depletion are key steps that lead to synaptotoxicity promoted by ? -syn membrane pore-like structures. PMID:25669123

  8. A genetic screen for synaptic transmission mutants mapping to the right arm of chromosome 3 in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael C; Stowers, R Steven; Leither, Jennifer; Goodman, Corey S; Pallanck, Leo J

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal function depends upon the proper formation of synaptic connections and rapid communication at these sites, primarily through the regulated exocytosis of chemical neurotransmitters. Recent biochemical and genomic studies have identified a large number of candidate molecules that may function in these processes. To complement these studies, we are pursuing a genetic approach to identify genes affecting synaptic transmission in the Drosophila visual system. Our screening approach involves a recently described genetic method allowing efficient production of mosaic flies whose eyes are entirely homozygous for a mutagenized chromosome arm. From a screen of 42,500 mutagenized flies, 32 mutations on chromosome 3R that confer synaptic transmission defects in the visual system were recovered. These mutations represent 14 complementation groups, of which at least 9 also appear to perform functional roles outside of the eye. Three of these complementation groups disrupt photoreceptor axonal projection, whereas the remaining complementation groups confer presynaptic defects in synaptic transmission without detectably altering photoreceptor structure. Mapping and complementation testing with candidate mutations revealed new alleles of the neuronal fate determinant svp and the synaptic vesicle trafficking component lap among the collection of mutants recovered in this screen. Given the tools available for investigation of synaptic function in Drosophila, these mutants represent a valuable resource for future analysis of synapse development and function. PMID:14504225

  9. Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001. PMID:24368731

  10. N-type voltage gated calcium channels mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well known for its importance in synaptic transmission in the peripheral and central nervous system. However, the role of different VGCCs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has not been studied. Here, we use a multi-electrode array recording system (MED64) to study the contribution of different types of calcium channels in glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the ACC. We found that only the N-type calcium channel blocker ?-conotoxin-GVIA (?-Ctx-GVIA) produced a great inhibition of basal synaptic transmission, especially in the superficial layer. Other calcium channel blockers that act on L-, P/Q-, R-, and T-type had no effect. We also tested the effects of several neuromodulators with or without ?-Ctx-GVIA. We found that N-type VGCC contributed partially to (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid- and (R)-Baclofen-induced synaptic inhibition. By contrast, the inhibitory effects of 2-Chloroadenosine and carbamoylcholine chloride did not differ with or without ?-Ctx-GVIA, indicating that they may act through other mechanisms. Our results provide strong evidence that N-type VGCCs mediate fast synaptic transmission in the ACC. PMID:24228737

  11. N-type voltage gated calcium channels mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, SukJae Joshua; Liu, Ming-Gang; Shi, Tian-Yao; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Zhuo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well known for its importance in synaptic transmission in the peripheral and central nervous system. However, the role of different VGCCs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has not been studied. Here, we use a multi-electrode array recording system (MED64) to study the contribution of different types of calcium channels in glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the ACC. We found that only the N-type calcium channel blocker ?-conotoxin-GVIA (?-Ctx-GVIA) produced a great inhibition of basal synaptic transmission, especially in the superficial layer. Other calcium channel blockers that act on L-, P/Q-, R-, and T-type had no effect. We also tested the effects of several neuromodulators with or without ?-Ctx-GVIA. We found that N-type VGCC contributed partially to (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid- and (R)-Baclofen-induced synaptic inhibition. By contrast, the inhibitory effects of 2-Chloroadenosine and carbamoylcholine chloride did not differ with or without ?-Ctx-GVIA, indicating that they may act through other mechanisms. Our results provide strong evidence that N-type VGCCs mediate fast synaptic transmission in the ACC. PMID:24228737

  12. A Computational Model to Investigate Astrocytic Glutamate Uptake Influence on Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Spiking

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Sushmita L.; Ghaderi, Viviane S.; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C.; Legendre, Arnaud; Ambert, Nicolas; Greget, Renaud; Bischoff, Serge; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, our view of astrocytes has switched from passive support cells to active processing elements in the brain. The current view is that astrocytes shape neuronal communication and also play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of astrocytes, the exact mechanisms underlying neuron-astrocyte communication and the physiological consequences of astrocytic-neuronal interactions remain largely unclear. In this work, we define a modeling framework that will permit to address unanswered questions regarding the role of astrocytes. Our computational model of a detailed glutamatergic synapse facilitates the analysis of neural system responses to various stimuli and conditions that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, in particular the readouts at the sub-cellular level. In this paper, we extend a detailed glutamatergic synaptic model, to include astrocytic glutamate transporters. We demonstrate how these glial transporters, responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake, modulate synaptic transmission mediated by ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors at glutamatergic synapses. Furthermore, we investigate how these local signaling effects at the synaptic level are translated into varying spatio-temporal patterns of neuron firing. Paired pulse stimulation results reveal that the effect of astrocytic glutamate uptake is more apparent when the input inter-spike interval is sufficiently long to allow the receptors to recover from desensitization. These results suggest an important functional role of astrocytes in spike timing dependent processes and demand further investigation of the molecular basis of certain neurological diseases specifically related to alterations in astrocytic glutamate uptake, such as epilepsy. PMID:23060782

  13. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Affleck, V.S.; Coote, J.H.; Pyner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine – BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold – FG or cholera toxin B subunit – CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS–PVN pathways. PMID:22698695

  14. An ex vivo preparation of mature mice spinal cord to study synaptic transmission on motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush; Velumian, Alexander A; Zhang, Liang; Fehlings, Michael G

    2007-01-15

    Mammalian spinal cord motoneurons are highly susceptible to chemical and mechanical disturbances, which imposes substantial difficulties for electrophysiological investigation in acute in vitro preparations. The aim of the present study was to establish an isolated spinal cord preparation from adult mice and to examine the synaptic activities of motoneurons in vitro. We removed the lumbo-sacral cord from the vertebral canal by hydraulic extrusion and maintained the isolated cord in vitro for extracellular recordings. Population spikes of motoneurons were evoked by electrical stimulation of dorsal roots (orthodromic) or ventral roots (antidromic) and these evoked responses could be continuously monitored for 5-6 h. The orthodromic population spikes were reversibly suppressed by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 2,3-dihyro-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo quinoxaline (NBQX, 10 microM) but they persisted in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5, 50 microM). The antidromic population spikes exhibited evident paired pulse inhibition when evoked at inter-stimulus intervals of pound 6 ms. Histological examination revealed that basic morphological features of the lumbo-sacral motoneurons were preserved after 3-4 h of in vitro maintenance. This in vitro preparation is ideally suited for the electrophysiological study of synaptic transmission on adult mouse spinal motoneurons. PMID:16887193

  15. Hierarchical neuronal modeling of cognitive functions: from synaptic transmission to the Tower of London.

    PubMed

    Changeux, J P; Dehaene, S

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of synaptic transmission, in particular of neurotransmitter receptors, offers novel information relevant to 'realistic' modeling of neural processes at the single cell and network level. Sophisticated computer analyses of 2D crystals by high resolution electron microscopy yield images of single neurotransmitter receptor molecules with tentative identifications of ligand binding sites and of conformational transitions. The dynamics of conformational changes can be accounted for by a 'multistate allosteric network' model. Allosteric receptors also possess the structural and functional properties required to serve as coincidence detectors between pre- and post-synaptic signals and, therefore, can be used as building blocks for a chemical Hebb synapse. These properties were introduced into networks of formal neurons capable of producing and detecting temporal sequences. In more elaborate models of pre-frontal cortex functions, allosteric receptors control the selection of transient 'pre-representations' and their stabilization by external or internal reward signals. We apply this scheme to Shallice's Tower of London test, and we show how a hierarchical neuronal architecture can implement executive or planning functions associated with frontal areas. PMID:9759348

  16. Hierarchical neuronal modeling of cognitive functions: from synaptic transmission to the Tower of London.

    PubMed

    Changeux, J P; Dehaene, S

    2000-03-01

    Recent progress in the molecular biology of synaptic transmission, in particular of neurotransmitter receptors, offers novel information relevant to 'realistic' modeling of neural processes at the single cell and network level. Sophisticated computer analyses of two-dimensional crystals by high resolution electron microscopy yield images of single neurotransmitter receptor molecules with tentative identifications of ligand binding sites and of conformational transitions. The dynamics of conformational changes can be accounted for by a 'multistate allosteric network' model. Allosteric receptors also possess the structural and functional properties required to serve as coincidence detectors between pre- and post-synaptic signals and, therefore, can be used as building blocks for a chemical Hebb synapse. These properties were introduced into networks of formal neurons capable of producing and detecting temporal sequences. In more elaborate models of pre-frontal cortex functions, allosteric receptors control the selection of transient 'pre-representations' and their stabilization by external or internal reward signals. We apply this scheme to Shallice's Tower of London test, and we show how a hierarchical neuronal architecture can implement executive or planning functions associated with frontal areas. (Académie des sciences/Elsevier, Paris.) PMID:10677646

  17. Purinergic P2X Receptors Presynaptically Increase Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in Dorsolateral Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Purinergic P2X receptors have been reported to present in regions of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of presynaptic P2X receptors in modulating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the dorsolateral PAG (dl-PAG), which has abundant neuronal connections. First, whole cell voltage-clamp recording was performed to obtain excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) of the dl-PAG neurons. Our data show that ?, ?-methylene ATP (a P2X receptors agonist), in the concentration of 50 µM, significantly increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs without altering the amplitude of miniature EPSCs in eight tested neurons. The effects were attenuated by PPADS, an antagonist to P2X receptors. Furthermore, ?, ?-methylene ATP increased the amplitude of evoked EPSCs, and decreased the paired-pulse ratio of eEPSCs in ten neurons. In contrast, activation of P2X had no distinct effect on IPSCs. In addition, immunofluoresent methods demonstrate that P2X labeling was co-localized with a presynaptic marker, synaptophysin, in the dl-PAG. The results of the current study provide the first evidence indicating that P2X receptors facilitate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the dl-PAG via presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:18395189

  18. Emerging Pharmacological Properties of Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission: Comparison between Mammalian and Insect Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thany, Steeve H; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélčne

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is probably the oldest signalling neurotransmitter which appeared in evolution before the nervous system. It is present in bacteria, algae, protozoa and plants. In insects and mammals it is involved in cell-to-cell communications in various neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The discovery of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as the main receptors involved in rapid cholinergic neurotransmission has helped to understand the role of ACh at synaptic level. Recently, several lines of evidence have indicated that extrasynaptically expressed nAChRs display distinct pharmacological properties from the ones expressed at synaptic level. The role of both nAChRs at insect extrasynaptic and/or synaptic levels has been underestimated due to the lack of pharmacological tools to identify different nicotinic receptor subtypes. In the present review, we summarize recent electrophysiological and pharmacological studies on the extrasynaptic and synaptic differences between insect and mammalian nAChR subtypes and we discuss on the pharmacological impact of several drugs such as neonicotinoid insecticides targeting these receptors. In fact, nAChRs are involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes such as epilepsy, pain and a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In addition, they are the target sites of neonicotinoid insecticides which are known to act as nicotinic agonists causing severe poisoning in insects and mammals. PMID:22654728

  19. Modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission by endogenous zinc in the immature rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, X; Hider, R C; Smart, T G

    1994-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings from postnatal 2- to 12-day-old (P2-12) rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurones exhibited spontaneous synaptic potentials mediated by GABAA receptors. These potentials can be separated on the basis of amplitude into two classes which are referred to as small and large. 2. The large depolarizing potentials were reversibly inhibited by the Zn2+ chelator 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94). The small inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. (IPSPs) were apparently unaffected. 3. Stimulation of the mossy fibre pathway evoked composite excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and IPSPs. Threshold stimulus-evoked synaptic potentials were mediated by GABAA receptors and were reversibly blocked by CP94. The responses evoked by suprathreshold stimulation and persisting in the presence of bicuculline or CP94 were partially inhibited by 2-amino-5-phosphonopropionic acid (AP5) and were completely blocked with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). 4. L-Histidine, which preferentially forms complexes with Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Mn2+, inhibited both naturally occurring spontaneous and evoked GABAA-mediated large synaptic potentials without affecting the neuronal resting membrane properties. Exogenously applied Zn2+ induced large spontaneous synaptic potentials and prolonged the duration of the evoked potentials. These effects were reversibly blocked by histidine. 5. The metal chelating agent diethyldithiocarbamate had little effect on the large amplitude synaptic potentials. 6. The transition metal divalent cations Fe2+ and Mn2+ did not initiate large synaptic potentials in CA3 neurones; however, Cu2+ depolarized the membrane and enhanced both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, resulting in a transient increase in the frequency of the large amplitude events. In comparison, zinc increased the frequency of the large potentials and also induced such events in neurons (P4-21) where innate potentials were absent. The postsynaptic response to ionophoretically applied GABA was either unaffected or slightly enhanced by Zn2+. 7. Under conditions favouring the activation of non-NMDA receptors, excitatory synaptic transmission was unaffected by CP94 but was depressed by Zn2+. Responses to ionophoretically applied glutamate were not inhibited by Zn2+, indicating that Zn2+ affects excitatory synaptic transmission via a presynaptic mechanism. 8. We conclude that the naturally occurring large synaptic potentials in young CA3 neurones are apparently induced by endogenous Zn2+ which can promote or synchronize the release of GABA in the immature hippocampus. PMID:7965838

  20. Levetiracetam has a time- and stimulation-dependent effect on synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Rothman, Steven M

    2009-11-01

    We recently reported that rodent hippocampal slices incubated with levetiracetam for 3h had altered responses to repetitive stimulation and reduced neurotransmitter release. However, our experiments failed to determine the actual time course of diminished transmission in individual slices followed over time. We have now been able to record from the same slices for up to 3h to determine the latency of the levetiracetam effect after the onset of exposure. Within 30 min of levetiracetam exposure, the later field potentials of a burst were reduced. Between 60 and 180 min the relative size of later field potentials remained stable. Similar time-dependent reductions were not seen in control slices or in slices exposed to the inactive levetiracetam isomer UCB L060. These new results establish a clear time dependence of the levetiracetam effect, even in vitro, and are best explained by levetiracetam acting within neurons to alter synaptic vesicle release. PMID:19651528

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits ?3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident ?1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited ?3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  2. SLEEPLESS is a bi-functional regulator of excitability and cholinergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meilin; Robinson, James E.; Joiner, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Although sleep is conserved throughout evolution, the molecular basis of its control is still largely a mystery. We previously showed that the quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene encodes a membrane-tethered protein that is required for normal sleep in Drosophila. SLEEPLESS (SSS) protein functions, at least in part, by upregulating the levels and open probability of Shaker (Sh) potassium channels to suppress neuronal excitability and enable sleep. Consistent with this proposed mechanism, loss-of-function mutations in Sh phenocopy qvr/sss null mutants. However, sleep is more genetically modifiable in Sh than in qvr/sss mutants, suggesting that sss may regulate additional molecules to influence sleep. Results Here we show that SSS also antagonizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to reduce synaptic transmission and promote sleep. Mimicking this antagonism with the nAChR inhibitor mecamylamine or by RNAi knockdown of specific nAChR subunits is sufficient to restore sleep to qvr/sss mutants. Regulation of nAChR activity by SSS occurs post-transcriptionally since the levels of nAChR mRNAs are unchanged in qvr/sss mutants. Regulation of nAChR activity by SSS may in fact be direct, since SSS forms a stable complex with and antagonizes fly nAChR function in transfected cells. Intriguingly, lynx1, a mammalian homolog of SSS, can partially restore normal sleep to qvr/sss mutants, and lynx1 can form stable complexes with Shaker-type channels and nAChRs. Conclusions Together, our data point to an evolutionarily conserved, bi-functional role for SSS and its homologs in controlling excitability and synaptic transmission in fundamental processes of the nervous system such as sleep. PMID:24613312

  3. Methamphetamine modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Jin, Yuelei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lujia; Ge, Zhi juan; Wang, Hui; Li, Jin; Zheng, Jianquan

    2014-09-25

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug. Abuse of METH produces long-term behavioral changes including behavioral, sensitization, tolerance, and dependence. It induces neurotoxic effects in several areas of the brain via enhancing dopamine (DA) level abnormally, which may cause a secondary release of glutamate (GLU). However, repeated administration of METH still increases release of GLU even when dopamine content in tissue is significantly depleted. It implies that some other mechanisms are likely to involve in METH-induced GLU release. The goal of this study was to observe METH affected glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons and to explore the mechanism of METH modulated GLU release. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that METH (0.1-50.0?M) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). However, METH decreased the frequency of sEPSCs and mEPSCs at high concentration of 100?M. The postsynaptic NMDA receptor currents and P/Q-type calcium channel were not affected by the use of METH (10,100?M). METH did not present visible effect on N-type Ca(2+) channel current at the concentration lower than 50.0?M, but it was inhibited by use of METH at a 100?M. The effect of METH on glutamatergic synaptic transmission was not revered by pretreated with DA receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that METH directly modulated presynaptic GLU release at a different concentration, while dopaminergic system was not involved in METH modulated release of GLU in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:25091639

  4. Scn1a missense mutation impairs GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro; Sofue, Nobumasa; Ishihara, Shizuka; Mashimo, Tomoji; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2010-09-10

    Mutations of the Na(v)1.1 channel subunit SCN1A have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human febrile seizures (FS). We have recently developed hyperthermia-induced seizure-susceptible (Hiss) rat, a novel rat model of FS, which carries a missense mutation (N1417H) in Scn1a[1]. Here, we conducted electrophysiological studies to clarify the influences of the Scn1a mutation on the hippocampal synaptic transmission, specifically focusing on the GABAergic system. Hippocampal slices were prepared from Hiss or F344 (control) rats and maintained in artificial cerebrospinal fluid saturated with 95% O(2) and 5% CO(2)in vitro. Single neuron activity was recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons and their responses to the test (unconditioned) or paired pulse (PP) stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers were evaluated. Hiss rats were first tested for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and confirmed to show high seizure susceptibility to the blockade of GAGA(A) receptors. The Scn1a mutation in Hiss rats did not directly affect spike generation (i.e., number of evoked spikes and firing threshold) of the CA1 pyramidal neurons elicited by the Schaffer collateral/commissural stimulation. However, GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of pyramidal neurons by the PP stimulation was significantly disrupted in Hiss rats, yielding a significant increase in the number of PP-induced firings at PP intervals of 32-256ms. The present study shows that the Scn1a missense mutation preferentially impairs GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission without directly altering the excitability of the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, which may be linked to the pathogenesis of FS. PMID:20707984

  5. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

  6. Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737 reveals a dual role for Bcl-xL in synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Hickman, John A; Hardwick, J Marie; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Jonas, Elizabeth A

    2008-03-01

    A role for BCL-xL in regulating neuronal activity is suggested by its dramatic effects on synaptic function and mitochondrial channel activity. When recombinant BCL-xL is injected into the giant presynaptic terminal of squid stellate ganglion or applied directly to mitochondrial outer membranes within the living terminal, it potentiates synaptic transmission acutely, and it produces mitochondrial channel activity. The squid, however, is a genetically intractable model, making it difficult to apply genetic tools in squid to explore the role of endogenous BCL-xL in synaptic function. Therefore the small molecule inhibitor ABT-737, a mimetic of the BH3-only protein BAD, binding to the BH3-binding domain pocket, was tested in squid, revealing a dual role for BCL-xL. ABT-737 slowed recovery of synaptic responses after repetitive synaptic activity, indicating that endogenous BCL-xL is necessary for timely recovery of rapidly firing synapses. Unexpectedly, however, ABT-737 also protected neurons from hypoxia-induced synaptic rundown and from increased permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane during hypoxia. This implies that endogenous BCL-xL or a modified form of BCL-xL, such as the N-truncated, proteolytic, pro-apoptotic cleavage product, DeltaN BCL-xL, contributes to injurious responses of the hypoxic synapse. To determine if ABT-737 is also an inhibitor of DeltaN BCL-xL, recombinant DeltaN BCL-xL protein was injected into the synapse. ABT-737 potently inhibited synaptic rundown induced by recombinant DeltaN BCL-xL. These observations support the possibility that endogenous proteolysis or a functionally equivalent modification of BCL-xL is responsible for the deleterious effects of hypoxia on synaptic activity. PMID:18160428

  7. Reciprocal regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission by nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in rat nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kiyofumi; Ebihara, Katsuko; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Medium spiny neurones (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are the principal neurones whose activities are regulated by GABAergic inputs from MSNs and fast-spiking interneurones (FSNs). Cholinergic interneurones play important roles in the regulation of activity in MSNs; however, how acetylcholine modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission from MSNs/FSNs to MSNs remains unknown. We performed paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from MSNs and FSNs in rat NAc shell slice preparations and examined cholinergic effects on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs). Carbachol (1 ?m) suppressed uIPSC amplitude by 58.3 ± 8.0% in MSN?MSN connections, accompanied by increases in paired-pulse ratio and failure rate, suggesting that acetylcholine reduces the probability of GABA release from the synaptic terminals of MSNs. Carbachol-induced uIPSC suppression was antagonised by 100 ?m atropine, and was mimicked by pilocarpine (1 ?m) and acetylcholine (1 ?m) but not nicotine (1 ?m). Application of AM251 slightly reduced carbachol-induced uIPSC suppression (30.8 ± 8.9%), suggesting an involvement of endocannabinoid signalling in muscarinic suppression of uIPSCs. In contrast, FSN?MSN connections showed that pilocarpine had little effect on the uIPSC amplitude, whereas both nicotine and acetylcholine facilitated uIPSC amplitude, with decreases in failure rate and paired-pulse ratio, suggesting that nicotine-induced uIPSC facilitation is mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. Miniature IPSC recordings support these hypotheses of presynaptic cholinergic mechanisms. These results suggest a differential role for muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in GABA release, which depends on presynaptic neuronal subtypes in the NAc shell. PMID:24018951

  8. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kaczor, Przemys?aw; Rakus, Dariusz; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal culture (NC): nominally astrocyte-free NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC). Miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs) were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of different enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of NC with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (Glns) (with MSO) strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (Gys) (BAYU6751) or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle, fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  9. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

  10. De Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Craiu, Dana; De Jonghe, Peter; Depienne, Christel; Dimova, Petia; Djémié, Tania; Gormley, Padhraig; Guerrini, Renzo; Helbig, Ingo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jähn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby; Komarek, Vladimir; Krause, Roland; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lerche, Holger; Linnankivi, Tarja; Marini, Carla; May, Patrick; Mřller, Rikke S.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pal, Deb; Palotie, Aarno; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Robbiano, Angela; Roelens, Filip; Rosenow, Felix; Selmer, Kaja; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Stephani, Ulrich; Sterbova, Katalin; Striano, Pasquale; Suls, Arvid; Talvik, Tiina; von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Zara, Federico; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick; Amron, Dina; Bautista, Jocelyn F.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Bluvstein, Judith; Boro, Alex; Cascino, Gregory; Consalvo, Damian; Crumrine, Patricia; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Epstein, Michael P.; Fiol, Miguel; Fountain, Nathan B.; French, Jacqueline; Friedman, Daniel; Geller, Eric B.; Glauser, Tracy; Glynn, Simon; Haas, Kevin; Haut, Sheryl R.; Hayward, Jean; Helmers, Sandra L.; Joshi, Sucheta; Kanner, Andres; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kuperman, Rachel; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; McGuire, Shannon M.; Motika, Paul V.; Novotny, Edward J.; Ottman, Ruth; Paolicchi, Juliann M.; Parent, Jack; Park, Kristen; Poduri, Annapurna; Sadleir, Lynette; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Sherr, Elliott; Shih, Jerry J.; Singh, Rani; Sirven, Joseph; Smith, Michael C.; Sullivan, Joe; Thio, Liu Lin; Venkat, Anu; Vining, Eileen P.G.; Von Allmen, Gretchen K.; Weisenberg, Judith L.; Widdess-Walsh, Peter; Winawer, Melodie R.; Allen, Andrew S.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Cossette, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Dlugos, Dennis; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Michael P.; Glauser, Tracy; Goldstein, David B.; Han, Yujun; Heinzen, Erin L.; Johnson, Michael R.; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Marson, Anthony G.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nieh, Sahar Esmaeeli; O’Brien, Terence J.; Ottman, Ruth; Petrou, Stephen; Petrovski, Slavé; Poduri, Annapurna; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sherr, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10?4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

  11. Synaptic transmission between single slowly adapting type I fibres and their cuneate target neurones in cat.

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, R M; Gynther, B D; Rowe, M J

    1994-01-01

    1. The synaptic linkage between single, identified slowly adapting type I (SAI) fibres and their central target neurones of the cuneate nucleus was examined in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats. Simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from individual cuneate neurones and from fine, intact fascicles of the lateral branch of the superficial radial nerve in which it was possible to identify and monitor the activity of each group II fibre. Individual SAI fibres were activated by static displacement and by vibration delivered with a fine probe (0.25-2 mm diameter) to their associated touch domes in the hairy skin of the forelimb. 2. Transmission properties across the synapse were analysed for nine SAI-cuneate pairs in which the single SAI fibre of each pair provided a suprathreshold input to the cuneate neurone. Neither spatial nor temporal summation was required for effective impulse transmission, and often more than 80% of SAI impulses led to a response in the cuneate neurone. Responses of the cuneate neurones to single SAI impulses occurred at a short, fixed latency (S.D. often < 0.1 ms), and frequently consisted of a burst of two or three impulses, at low SAI input rates in particular. 3. The tight phase-locking in the responses to vibration of single SAI fibres was preserved in the cuneate responses for frequencies up to approximately 400 Hz. However, as the impulse rates of the cuneate neurones were less than 150 impulses s-1, their impulse patterns could not directly signal the vibration periodicity at frequencies > 100-150 Hz despite 1:1 responses in their single SAI input fibres up to approximately 500 Hz. 4. The reliable transmission of touch dome-associated SAI input across the cuneate nucleus indicates that transmission failure at this first relay is unlikely to be responsible for the reported failure of touch dome-SAI inputs to contribute to tactile perception. 5. The transmission characteristics for the SAI fibres were very similar to those demonstrated previously for fibres associated with Pacinian corpuscles, which argues against any marked differential specialization in transmission characteristics for dorsal column nuclei neurones that receive input from different tactile fibre classes. PMID:8014900

  12. Long-term regulation of synaptic acetylcholine release and nicotinic transmission: the role of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, C. A.; McAfee, D. A.; McCaman, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. Using the rat superior cervical ganglion in vitro, the relative efficacy of nicotinic synaptic transmission was estimated by recording the postganglionic compound action potential and the amount of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) released. These two parameters were correlated in individual ganglia by sampling the bathing medium for the assay of ACh while simultaneously recording the postganglionic response. 2. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline potentiated both the evoked release of ACh and the postganglionic response by about 20% during preganglionic stimulation at 0.2 Hz. 3. The adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine inhibited ACh release and the postganglionic response by about 35%. 4. Tetanic preganglionic stimulation for a few seconds induced a long-term potentiation of nicotinic responses and of ACh release. Both of these potentiations were dependent upon extracellular Ca2+ during the tetani. 5. Forskolin and analogues of cyclic AMP also caused a long-lasting potentiation of both the evoked release of ACh and the postganglionic response, indicating that cyclic AMP may regulate transmission by a presynaptic mechanism. The specificity of the cyclic AMP analogues was tested using various butyryl- and bromo-purine nucleotides. 6. The effects of forskolin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP did not appear to be dependent upon extracellular Ca2+. 7. The potentiation caused by forskolin was consistently augmented by three phosphodiesterase inhibitors--AH 21-132, papaverine and SQ 20-006. However, the effect of forskolin was not consistently enhanced by theophylline, nor was it reduced by the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22-536. 8. The neurogenic long-term potentiation was augmented by two of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors that also augmented the forskolin-induced potentiation--papaverine and SQ 20-006. 9. It was concluded that cyclic AMP can enhance nicotinic transmission, and can do so by increasing the evoked release of ACh. However, it was not possible to prove that cyclic AMP mediates the long-term potentiation induced by tetanic preganglionic stimulation. PMID:2833971

  13. Non-additive modulation of synaptic transmission by serotonin, adenosine, and cholinergic modulators in the sensory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus relays sensory information to the cortex. Oscillatory activities of the thalamocortical network are modulated by monoamines, acetylcholine, and adenosine, and could be the key features characteristic of different vigilance states. Although the thalamus is almost always subject to the actions of more than just one neuromodulators, reports on the modulatory effect of coexisting neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission are unexpectedly scarce. We found that, if present alone, monoamine or adenosine decreases retinothalamic synaptic strength and short-term depression, whereas cholinergic modulators generally enhance postsynaptic response to presynaptic activity. However, coexistence of different modulators tends to produce non-additive effect, not predictable based on the action of individual modulators. Acetylcholine, acting via nicotinic receptors, can interact with either serotonin or adenosine to abolish most short-term synaptic depression. Moreover, the coexistence of adenosine and monoamine, with or without acetylcholine, results in robustly decreased synaptic strength and transforms short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These findings are consistent with a view that acetylcholine is essential for an “enriched” sensory flow through the thalamus, and the flow is trimmed down by concomitant monoamine or adenosine (presumably for the wakefulness and rapid-eye movement, or REM, sleep states, respectively). In contrast, concomitant adenosine and monoamine would lead to a markedly “deprived” (and high-pass filtered) sensory flow, and thus the dramatic decrease of monoamine may constitute the basic demarcation between non-REM and REM sleep. The collective actions of different neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission thus could be indispensable for the understanding of network responsiveness in different vigilance states. PMID:25852468

  14. Group III mGluR regulation of synaptic transmission at the SC-CA1 synapse is developmentally regulated

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Jennifer E.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Luo, Qingwei; Banko, Jessica L.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Summary Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reduce synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapse in rats by a presynaptic mechanism. Previous studies show that low concentrations of the group III-selective agonist, L-AP4, reduce synaptic transmission in slices from neonatal but not adult rats, whereas high micromolar concentrations reduce transmission in both age groups. L-AP4 activates mGluRs 4 and 8 at much lower concentrations than those required to activate mGluR7, suggesting that the group III mGluR subtype modulating transmission is a high affinity receptor in neonates and a low affinity receptor in adults. The previous lack of subtype selective ligands has made it difficult to test this hypothesis. We have measured fEPSPs in the presence of novel subtype selective agents to address this question. We show that the effects of L-AP4 can be blocked by LY341495 in both neonates and adults, verifying that these effects are mediated by mGluRs. In addition, the selective mGluR8 agonist, DCPG, has a significant effect in slices from neonatal rats but does not reduce synaptic transmission in adult slices. The mGluR4 selective allosteric potentiator, PHCCC, is unable to potentiate the L-AP4-induced effects at either age. Taken together, our data suggest that group III mGluRs regulate transmission at the SC-CA1 synapse throughout development but there is a developmental regulation of the subtypes involved so that that both mGluR8 serves this role in neonates but not adults whereas mGluR7 is involved in regulating transmission at this synapse in throughout postnatal development. PMID:18255102

  15. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission at the Caenorhabditis elegans M4 Neuromuscular Junction by an Antagonistic Relationship Between Two Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Steciuk, Mark; Cheong, Mi; Waite, Christopher; You, Young-Jai; Avery, Leon

    2014-01-01

    In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, the synapse from motor neuron M4 to pharyngeal terminal bulb (TB) muscles is silent, and the muscles are instead excited by gap junction connections from adjacent muscles. An eat-5 innexin mutant lacking this electrical connection has few TB contractions and is unable to grow well on certain foods. We showed previously that this defect can be overcome by activation of the M4 ? TB synapse. To identify genes that negatively regulate synaptic transmission, we isolated new suppressors of eat-5. To our surprise, these suppressors included null mutations in NPQR-type calcium channel subunit genes unc-2 and unc-36. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Ca2+ entry through the NPQR-type channel inhibits synaptic transmission by activating the calcium-activated K+ channel SLO-1, thus antagonizing the EGL-19 L-type calcium channel. PMID:25378475

  16. Acute lipopolysaccharide exposure facilitates epileptiform activity via enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates brain inflammation has been involved in the genesis of seizures. However, the direct effect of acute inflammation on neuronal circuits is not well known. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to stimulate brain inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we observed the contribution of inflammation induced by 10 ?g/mL LPS to the excitability of neuronal circuits in acute hippocampal slices. When slices were incubated with LPS for 30 minutes, significant increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 1? were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In electrophysiological recordings, we found that frequency of epileptiform discharges and spikes per burst increased 30 minutes after LPS application. LPS enhanced evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents but did not modify evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In addition, exposure to LPS enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by a decrease in rheobase and an increase in action potential frequency elicited by depolarizing current injection. Our observations suggest that acute inflammation induced by LPS facilitates epileptiform activity in vitro and that enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability may contribute to this facilitation. These results may provide new clues for treating seizures associated with brain inflammatory disease. PMID:25170268

  17. Aminopyridines Potentiate Synaptic and Neuromuscular Transmission by Targeting the Voltage-activated Calcium Channel ? Subunit*?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Zhen; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Aminopyridines such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) are widely used as voltage-activated K+ (Kv) channel blockers and can improve neuromuscular function in patients with spinal cord injury, myasthenia gravis, or multiple sclerosis. Here, we present novel evidence that 4-AP and several of its analogs directly stimulate high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs) in acutely dissociated neurons. 4-AP, 4-(aminomethyl)pyridine, 4-(methylamino)pyridine, and 4-di(methylamino)pyridine profoundly increased HVACC, but not T-type, currents in dissociated neurons from the rat dorsal root ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, and hippocampus. The widely used Kv channel blockers, including tetraethylammonium, ?-dendrotoxin, phrixotoxin-2, and BDS-I, did not mimic or alter the effect of 4-AP on HVACCs. In HEK293 cells expressing various combinations of N-type (Cav2.2) channel subunits, 4-AP potentiated Ca2+ currents primarily through the intracellular ?3 subunit. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on Cav3.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, blocking Kv channels did not mimic or change the potentiating effects of 4-AP on neurotransmitter release from sensory and motor nerve terminals. Thus, our findings challenge the conventional view that 4-AP facilitates synaptic and neuromuscular transmission by blocking Kv channels. Aminopyridines can directly target presynaptic HVACCs to potentiate neurotransmitter release independent of Kv channels. PMID:19850918

  18. Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala (Amyg). The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the MD thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. FPSPs evoked at the mPFC from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals’ avoidance of the reward. FPSPs collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation) when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations. PMID:25688195

  19. Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala (Amyg). The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the MD thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. FPSPs evoked at the mPFC from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals' avoidance of the reward. FPSPs collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation) when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations. PMID:25688195

  20. Rabconnectin3? promotes stable activity of the H+ pump on synaptic vesicles in hair cells.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, Zev; Trapani, Josef G; Liu, Qianyong; Nicolson, Teresa

    2012-08-01

    Acidification of synaptic vesicles relies on the vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase) and provides the electrochemical driving force for neurotransmitter exchange. The regulatory mechanisms that ensure assembly of the V-ATPase holoenzyme on synaptic vesicles are unknown. Rabconnectin3? (Rbc3?) is a potential candidate for regulation of V-ATPase activity because of its association with synaptic vesicles and its requirement for acidification of intracellular compartments. Here, we provide the first evidence for a role of Rbc3? in synaptic vesicle acidification and neurotransmission. In this study, we characterized mutant alleles of rbc3? isolated from a large-scale screen for zebrafish with auditory/vestibular defects. We show that Rbc3? is localized to basal regions of hair cells in which synaptic vesicles are present. To determine whether Rbc3? regulates V-ATPase activity, we examined the acidification of synaptic vesicles and localization of the V-ATPase in hair cells. In contrast to wild-type hair cells, we observed that synaptic vesicles had elevated pH, and a cytosolic subunit of the V-ATPase was no longer enriched in synaptic regions of mutant hair cells. As a consequence of defective acidification of synaptic vesicles, afferent neurons in rbc3? mutants had reduced firing rates and reduced accuracy of phase-locked action potentials in response to mechanical stimulation of hair cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Rbc3? modulates synaptic transmission in hair cells by promoting V-ATPase activity in synaptic vesicles. PMID:22875945

  1. Afferents contributing to the exaggerated long latency reflex response to electrical stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J P; Ashby, P; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Reflex pathways to tibialis anterior motoneurons from low threshold afferents of the common peroneal nerve were examined in 13 Parkinsonian subjects and 12 age-matched normals. Post-synaptic events occurring in single motoneurons were derived from changes in the firing probability of single voluntarily activated motor units during afferent stimulation. A period of increased firing probability of "monosynaptic" latency (about 33 ms) occurred in all subjects in both groups. A second, later, period of increased firing probability (latency about 64 ms) was seen in 2/12 normals and 8/13 Parkinsonian subjects. Neither of these responses could be produced by cutaneous stimulation. The electrical threshold of the afferents mediating the later effect was 0.82 of the threshold of alpha motoneuron axons which is similar to that of the afferents mediating the shorter latency response. Thus, large non cutaneous afferents contribute to this long latency response in man presumably through polysynaptic pathways. Transmission in these pathways is enhanced in Parkinson's disease. PMID:2853207

  2. Combined delivery of neurotrophin-3 and NMDA receptors 2D subunit strengthens synaptic transmission in contused and staggered double hemisected spinal cord of neonatal rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Arvanian; William J. Bowers; Aileen Anderson; Philip J. Horner; Howard J. Federoff; Lorne M. Mendell

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether administration of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NMDA-2D-expressing units, found previously to enhance transmission in neonatal rat spinal cord, strengthens synaptic connections in the injured neonatal cord. We employed electrophysiological methods to evaluate the strength of synaptic transmission to individual motoneurons in the contusion and staggered double hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI) models. SCI at caudal thoracic levels (T11–T12)

  3. Optogenetic analysis of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Lindsay; Tod R. Thiele; Shawn R. Lockery

    2011-01-01

    A reliable method for recording evoked synaptic events in identified neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans would greatly accelerate our understanding of its nervous system at the molecular, cellular and network levels. Here we describe a method for recording synaptic currents and potentials from identified neurons in nearly intact worms. Dissection and exposure of postsynaptic neurons is facilitated by microfabricated agar substrates,

  4. Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Cross-synaptic synchrony--correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron--is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. PMID:25180102

  5. Presynaptic cell type-dependent regulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by nitric oxide in rat insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Takei, H; Koyanagi, Y; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    2015-01-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key retrograde messenger that regulates synaptic transmission in the cerebral cortex. However, little is known about NO-induced modulatory effects and their mechanisms relative to inhibitory synaptic transmission. The present study aimed to examine the effects of NO on unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) and to postulate the synaptic location of NO action. We performed multiple whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat insular cortex and divided recorded cells into three subtypes: pyramidal cells (Pyr), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), and non-FS GABAergic interneurons. In the connections from FS to Pyr (FS?Pyr), the application of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine (SNAP, 100 ?M), an NO donor, suppressed uIPSC amplitudes in 31% of the connections, whereas 39% of the connections showed uIPSC facilitation. The remaining FS?Pyr connections showed little effect of SNAP on uIPSCs. An analysis of paired-pulse ratio (PPR) implied the involvement of presynaptic mechanisms in SNAP-induced effects on uIPSCs. Similar effects of SNAP were observed in FS?FS/non-FS connections; 33%, 54%, and 13% of the connections were facilitated, suppressed, and unchanged, respectively. In contrast, non-FS?Pyr or FS/non-FS showed constant uIPSC suppression by SNAP. PPR analysis supports the hypothesis that these SNAP-induced effects are mediated by presynaptic mechanisms in FS?FS/non-FS and non-FS?Pyr/FS/non-FS connections. The NO scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazolineoxyl-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), or the inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), abolished the SNAP-induced uIPSC modulation. These results suggest that NO regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission is dependent on presynaptic cell subtypes and that, at least in part, the effects are mediated by presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:25286388

  6. Implementing the cellular mechanisms of synaptic transmission in a neural mass model of the thalamo-cortical circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta S.

    2013-01-01

    A novel direction to existing neural mass modeling technique is proposed where the commonly used “alpha function” for representing synaptic transmission is replaced by a kinetic framework of neurotransmitter and receptor dynamics. The aim is to underpin neuro-transmission dynamics associated with abnormal brain rhythms commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders. An existing thalamocortical neural mass model is modified by using the kinetic framework for modeling synaptic transmission mediated by glutamatergic and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric-acid)-ergic receptors. The model output is compared qualitatively with existing literature on in vitro experimental studies of ferret thalamic slices, as well as on single-neuron-level model based studies of neuro-receptor and transmitter dynamics in the thalamocortical tissue. The results are consistent with these studies: the activation of ligand-gated GABA receptors is essential for generation of spindle waves in the model, while blocking this pathway leads to low-frequency synchronized oscillations such as observed in slow-wave sleep; the frequency of spindle oscillations increase with increased levels of post-synaptic membrane conductance for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid) receptors, and blocking this pathway effects a quiescent model output. In terms of computational efficiency, the simulation time is improved by a factor of 10 compared to a similar neural mass model based on alpha functions. This implies a dramatic improvement in computational resources for large-scale network simulation using this model. Thus, the model provides a platform for correlating high-level brain oscillatory activity with low-level synaptic attributes, and makes a significant contribution toward advancements in current neural mass modeling paradigm as a potential computational tool to better the understanding of brain oscillations in sickness and in health. PMID:23847522

  7. Excitability of Type II Cochlear Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2014-01-01

    Two types of sensory hair cells in the mammalian cochlea signal through anatomically distinct populations of spiral ganglion afferent neurons. The solitary inner hair cell ribbon synapse uses multivesicular release to trigger action potentials that encode acoustic timing, intensity, and frequency in each type I afferent. In contrast, cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) have a far weaker effect on their postsynaptic targets, the type II spiral ganglion afferents. OHCs typically release single vesicles with low probability so that extensive summation is required to reach the relatively high action potential initiation threshold. These stark differences in synaptic transfer call into question whether type II neurons contribute to the cognitive perception of sound. Given the sparse and weak synaptic inputs from OHCs, the electrical properties of type II afferents are crucial in determining whether synaptic responses can sum to evoke an action potential to convey information to the cochlear nucleus. In the present work, dual-electrode recordings determined that type II afferents of rats have length constants that exceed the length of the distal, spiral process, enabling spatial summation from widespread OHCs. Focal application of tetrodotoxin localized the spike initiation zone to the type II proximal, radial process, near the spiral ganglion, in agreement with the high voltage threshold measured in the spiral process. These measured membrane properties were incorporated into a compartmental model of the type II neuron to demonstrate that neurotransmitter release from at least six OHCs is required to trigger an action potential in a type II neuron. PMID:24501375

  8. Potentiation of inhibitory synaptic transmission by extracellular ATP in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anirban; Vavra, Vojtech; Svobodova, Irena; Bendova, Zdena; Vereb, Gyorgy; Zemkova, Hana

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the circadian master clock in mammals, releases ATP in a rhythm, but the role of extracellular ATP in the SCN is still unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of ATP-gated P2X receptors (P2XRs) in the SCN neurons of slices isolated from the brain of 16- to 20-day-old rats. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the SCN contains mRNA for P2X 1-7 receptors and several G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Among the P2XR subunits, the P2X2 > P2X7 > P2X4 mRNAs were the most abundant. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from SCN neurons revealed that extracellular ATP application increased the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs without changes in their amplitudes. The effect of ATP appears to be mediated by presynaptic P2X2Rs because ATP?S and 2MeS-ATP mimics, while the P2XR antagonist PPADS blocks, the observed enhancement of the frequency of GABA currents. There were significant differences between two SCN regions in that the effect of ATP was higher in the ventrolateral subdivision, which is densely innervated from outside the SCN. Little evidence was found for the presence of P2XR channels in somata of SCN neurons as P2X2R immunoreactivity colocalized with synapsin and ATP-induced current was observed in only 7% of cells. In fura-2 AM-loaded slices, BzATP as well as ADP stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) increase, indicating that the SCN cells express functional P2X7 and P2Y receptors. Our data suggest that ATP activates presynaptic P2X2Rs to regulate inhibitory synaptic transmission within the SCN and that this effect varies between regions. PMID:23637193

  9. Short-term depression of external globus pallidus-subthalamic nucleus synaptic transmission and implications for patterning subthalamic activity

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Jeremy F.; Menard, Ariane; Urbain, Nadia; Bevan, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) are closely related to motor function. Although phasic, unitary GPe-STN inputs powerfully pattern STN activity ex vivo, correlated GPe-STN activity is not normally observed in vivo. To test the hypothesis that the GPe’s influence is constrained by short-term synaptic depression, unitary GPe-STN inputs were stimulated in rat and mouse brain slices at rates and in patterns that mimicked GPe activity in vivo. Together with connectivity estimates these data were then used to simulate GPe-STN transmission. Unitary GPe-STN synaptic connections initially generated large conductances and transmitted reliably. However, the amplitude and reliability of transmission declined rapidly (? = 0.6 ± 0.5 s) to <10% of their initial values when connections were stimulated at the mean rate of GPe activity in vivo (33 Hz). Recovery from depression (? = 17.3 ± 18.9 s) was also longer than pauses in tonic GPe activity in vivo. Depression was due to limited supply of release-ready vesicles and was in sharp contrast to Calyx of Held transmission, which exhibited 100% reliability. Injection of simulated GPe-STN conductances revealed that synaptic depression caused tonic, non-synchronized GPe-STN activity to disrupt rather than abolish autonomous STN activity. Furthermore, synchronous inhibition of tonically active GPe-STN neurons or phasic activity of GPe-STN neurons reliably patterned STN activity through disinhibition and inhibition, respectively. Together these data argue that the frequency and pattern of GPe activity profoundly influences its transmission to the STN. PMID:23616523

  10. Frequency-dependent facilitation of synaptic throughput via postsynaptic NMDA receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Peters, James H; Zhu, Mingyan; Page, Stephen J; Ritter, Robert C; Appleyard, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Hindbrain NMDA receptors play important roles in reflexive and behavioural responses to vagal activation. NMDA receptors have also been shown to contribute to the synaptic responses of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), but their exact role remains unclear. In this study we used whole cell patch-clamping techniques in rat horizontal brain slice to investigate the role of NMDA receptors in the fidelity of transmission across solitary tract afferent-NTS neuron synapses. Results show that NMDA receptors contribute up to 70% of the charge transferred across the synapse at high (>5 Hz) firing rates, but have little contribution at lower firing frequencies. Results also show that NMDA receptors critically contribute to the fidelity of transmission across these synapses during high frequency (>5 Hz) afferent discharge rates. This novel role of NMDA receptors may explain in part how primary visceral afferents, including vagal afferents, can maintain fidelity of transmission across a broad range of firing frequencies. Neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) receive vagal afferent innervations that initiate gastrointestinal and cardiovascular reflexes. Glutamate is the fast excitatory neurotransmitter released in the NTS by vagal afferents, which arrive there via the solitary tract (ST). ST stimulation elicits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NTS neurons mediated by both AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (-Rs). Vagal afferents exhibit a high probability of vesicle release and exhibit robust frequency-dependent depression due to presynaptic vesicle depletion. Nonetheless, synaptic throughput is maintained even at high frequencies of afferent activation. Here we test the hypothesis that postsynaptic NMDA-Rs are essential in maintaining throughput across ST-NTS synapses. Using patch clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brainstem slices, we found that NMDA-Rs, including NR2B subtypes, carry up to 70% of the charge transferred across the synapse during high frequency stimulations (>5 Hz). In contrast, their relative contribution to the ST-EPSC is much less during low (<2 Hz) frequency stimulations. Afferent-driven activation of NMDA-Rs produces a sustained depolarization during high, but not low, frequencies of stimulation as a result of relatively slow decay kinetics. Hence, NMDA-Rs are critical for maintaining action potential generation at high firing rates. These results demonstrate a novel role for NMDA-Rs enabling a high probability of release synapse to maintain the fidelity of synaptic transmission during high frequency firing when glutamate release and AMPA-R responses are reduced. They also suggest why NMDA-Rs are critical for responses that may depend on high rates of afferent discharge. PMID:25281729

  11. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca2+ indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL–MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca2+ responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca2+ responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL–MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous ‘associative-stimulation’ of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL–MB synapses but not at the AFV–MB synapses. AL–MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL–MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL–MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL–MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

  12. Effects of chronic stress in adolescence on learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the rat prelimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Terreros, Gonzalo; Muńoz, Pablo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2014-02-01

    The prelimbic cortex and amygdala regulate the extinction of conditioned fear and anxiety, respectively. In adult rats, chronic stress affects the dendritic morphology of these brain areas, slowing extinction of learned fear and enhancing anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether rats subjected to chronic stress in adolescence show changes in learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex during adulthood. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to seven days of restraint stress on postnatal day forty-two (PND 42, adolescence). Afterward, the fear-conditioning paradigm was used to study conditioned fear extinction. Anxiety-like behavior was measured one day (PND 50) and twenty-one days (PND 70, adulthood) after stress using the elevated-plus maze and dark-light box tests, respectively. With another set of rats, excitatory synaptic transmission was analyzed with slices of the prelimbic cortex. Rats that had been stressed during adolescence and adulthood had higher anxiety-like behavior levels than did controls, while stress-induced slowing of learned fear extinction in adolescence was reversed during adulthood. As well, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials of stressed adolescent rats had significantly lower amplitudes than those of controls, although the amplitudes were higher in adulthood. Our results demonstrate that short-term stress in adolescence induces strong effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex and extinction of learned fear, where the effect of stress on anxiety is more persistent than on the extinction of learned fear. These data contribute to the understanding of stress neurobiology. PMID:24216268

  13. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL-MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca(2+) responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca(2+) responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL-MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous 'associative-stimulation' of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL-MB synapses but not at the AFV-MB synapses. AL-MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL-MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL-MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL-MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

  14. SEROTONIN IS A FACILITATORY NEUROMODULATOR OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND "REINFORCES" LONG-TERM POTENTIATION

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    of Physiological Science, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract--The modern cephalopod mollusks (coleoids basis of their behaviors. Previous work suggested that the vertical lobe (VL) of cephalopods words: learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, reward signal, mollusk, cephalopods. Octopuses possess

  15. Facilitation of Synaptic Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Viscerally Hypersensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Liu, Jin; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal circuitry. Activity-dependent plasticity in synaptic strength may serve as a key mechanism that reflects cortical plasticity. However, only a few reports have indicated the synaptic plasticity of ACC in vivo. In the present study, electrophysiological recording showed long-lasting potentiation of local field potential in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Theta burst stimulation in the MT reliably induced long-term potentiation in the MT-ACC pathway in normal rats, but was occluded in the VH state. Further, repeated tetanization of MT increased ACC neuronal activity and visceral pain responses of normal rats, mimicking VH rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that visceral hypersensitivity is associated with alterations of synaptic plasticity in the ACC. The ACC synaptic strengthening in chronic visceral pain may engage signal transduction pathways that are in common with those activated by electrical stimulation, and serves as an attractive cellular model of functional visceral pain. PMID:24108805

  16. Posttetanic depression of GABAergic synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maksim V. Storozhuk; Svetlana Y. Ivanova; Tatyana A. Pivneva; Igor V. Melnick; Galina G. Skibo; Pavel V. Belan; Platon G. Kostyuk

    2002-01-01

    The effect of tetanic stimulation (30 Hz, 4 s) on evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was studied in cell cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons with established synaptic connections. It was found that tetanic stimulation elicited post-tetanic depression (PTD) of the evoked IPSCs with a duration of more than 50 s in about 60% of the connections tested; post-tetanic potentiation

  17. Assessing the role of Ih channels in synaptic transmission and mossy fiber LTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien Chevaleyre; Pablo E. Castillo

    2002-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation channels (Ih channels) play an important role in the control of membrane excitability and rhythmic neuronal activity. The functional relevance of presynaptic Ih channels in regulating synaptic function, however, is not well established. Recently, it has been proposed [Mellor, J., Nicoll, R. A. & Schmitz, D. (2002) Science 295, 143-147] that presynaptic Ih channels are necessary for

  18. Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauw J. Klaassen; Ziyi Sun; Marvin N. Steijaert; Petra Bolte; Iris Fahrenfort; Trijntje Sjoerdsma; Jan Klooster; Yvonne Claassen; Colleen R. Shields; Huub M. M. Ten Eikelder; Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold; Georg Zoidl; Douglas G. McMahon; Maarten Kamermans

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, horizontal cells generate the inhibitory surround of bipolar cells, an essential step in contrast enhancement. For the last decades, the mechanism involved in this inhibitory synaptic pathway has been a major controversy in retinal research. One hypothesis suggests that connexin hemichannels mediate this negative feedback signal; another suggests that feedback is mediated by protons. Mutant zebrafish

  19. Facilitation of synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex in viscerally hypersensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Liu, Jin; Li, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal circuitry. Activity-dependent plasticity in synaptic strength may serve as a key mechanism that reflects cortical plasticity. However, only a few reports have indicated the synaptic plasticity of ACC in vivo. In the present study, electrophysiological recording showed long-lasting potentiation of local field potential in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Theta burst stimulation in the MT reliably induced long-term potentiation in the MT-ACC pathway in normal rats, but was occluded in the VH state. Further, repeated tetanization of MT increased ACC neuronal activity and visceral pain responses of normal rats, mimicking VH rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that visceral hypersensitivity is associated with alterations of synaptic plasticity in the ACC. The ACC synaptic strengthening in chronic visceral pain may engage signal transduction pathways that are in common with those activated by electrical stimulation, and serves as an attractive cellular model of functional visceral pain. PMID:24108805

  20. Different mechanisms of Ca2+ regulation that influence synaptic transmission: comparison between crayfish and Drosophila neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Desai-Shah, Mohati; Cooper, Robin L

    2009-12-01

    A brief historical background on synaptic transmission in relation to Ca(2+) dynamics and short-term facilitation is described. This study focuses on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in high output terminals of larval Drosophila compared to a low-output terminal of the crayfish neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Three processes; plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger [NCX], Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) are important in regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) are examined. When the NCX is compromised by reduced [Na(+)](o), no consistent effect occurred; but a NCX blocker KB-R7943 decreased the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitudes. Compromising the PMCA with pH 8.8 resulted in an increase in EPSP amplitude but treatment with a PMCA specific inhibitor carboxyeosin produced opposite results. Thapsigargin exposure to block the SERCA generally decreases EPSP amplitude. Compromising the activity of the above Ca(2+) regulating proteins had no substantial effects on short-term depression. The Kum(170TS) strain (with dysfunctional SERCA), showed a decrease in EPSP amplitudes including the first EPSP within the train. Synaptic transmission is altered by reducing the function of the above three [Ca(2+)](i) regulators; but they are not consistent among different species as expected. Results in crayfish NMJ were more consistent with expected results as compared to the Drosophila NMJ. It is predicated that different mechanisms are used for regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) in high and low output synaptic terminals. PMID:19650116

  1. Electrical synaptic transmission in developing zebrafish: properties and molecular composition of gap junctions at a central auditory synapse.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cong; Vanderpool, Kimberly G; Delfiner, Matthew; Eddy, Vanessa; Lucaci, Alexander G; Soto-Riveros, Carolina; Yasumura, Thomas; Rash, John E; Pereda, Alberto E

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to the knowledge of chemical synapses, little is known regarding the properties of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses in developing zebrafish, which provide a valuable model to study neural function at the systems level. Identifiable "mixed" (electrical and chemical) auditory synaptic contacts known as "club endings" on Mauthner cells (2 large reticulospinal neurons involved in tail-flip escape responses) allow exploration of electrical transmission in fish. Here, we show that paralleling the development of auditory responses, electrical synapses at these contacts become anatomically identifiable at day 3 postfertilization, reaching a number of ?6 between days 4 and 9. Furthermore, each terminal contains ?18 gap junctions, representing between 2,000 and 3,000 connexon channels formed by the teleost homologs of mammalian connexin 36. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that gap junctions at each of these contacts are functional and that synaptic transmission has properties that are comparable with those of adult fish. Thus a surprisingly small number of mixed synapses are responsible for the acquisition of auditory responses by the Mauthner cells, and these are likely sufficient to support escape behaviors at early developmental stages. PMID:25080573

  2. NT-3 evokes an LTP-like facilitation of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Arvanov, V L; Seebach, B S; Mendell, L M

    2000-08-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a neurotrophic factor required for survival of muscle spindle afferents during prenatal development. It also acts postsynaptically to enhance the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by these fibers in motoneurons when applied over a period of weeks to the axotomized muscle nerve in adult cats. Similar increases in the amplitude of the monosynaptic EPSP in motoneurons are observed after periodic systemic treatment of neonatal rats with NT-3. Here we show an acute action of NT-3 in enhancing the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA/kainate) receptor-mediated fast monosynaptic EPSP elicited in motoneurons by dorsal root (DR) stimulation in the in vitro hemisected neonatal rat spinal cord. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a blocks this action of NT-3 as does the calcium chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) injected into the motoneuron. The effect of NT-3 resembles long-term potentiation (LTP) in that transient bath application of NT-3 to the isolated spinal cord produces a long-lasting increase in the amplitude of the monosynaptic EPSP. An additional similarity is that activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is required to initiate this increase but not to maintain it. The NMDA receptor blocker MK-801, introduced into the motoneuron through the recording microelectrode, blocks the effect of NT-3, indicating that NMDA receptors in the motoneuron membrane are crucial. The effect of NT-3 on motoneuron NMDA receptors is demonstrated by its enhancement of the depolarizing response of the motoneuron to bath-applied NMDA in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). The potentiating effects of NT-3 do not persist beyond the first postnatal week. In addition, EPSPs with similar properties evoked in the same motoneurons by stimulation of descending fibers in the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) are not modifiable by NT-3 even in the initial postnatal week. Thus, NT-3 produces synapse-specific and age-dependent LTP-like enhancement of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the spinal cord, and this action requires the availability of functional NMDA receptors in the motoneuron. PMID:10938302

  3. The Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of the Nucleus of Solitary Tract Was Potentiated by Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ban; Zhang, Zi-Nan; Lei, Jie; Li, Yun-Qing; Du, Jian-Qing; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition. PMID:25756354

  4. The excitatory synaptic transmission of the nucleus of solitary tract was potentiated by chronic myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Tu, Ke; Wang, Jian; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Zi-Nan; Lei, Jie; Li, Yun-Qing; Du, Jian-Qing; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition. PMID:25756354

  5. Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Trinchese, Fabrizio; Fa’, Mauro; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Hong; Hidalgo, Ariel; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yamaguchi, Hisako; Yoshii, Narihiko; Mathews, Paul M.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-dependent enzymes that determine the fate of proteins through regulated proteolytic activity. Calpains have been linked to the modulation of memory and are key to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). When abnormally activated, calpains can also initiate degradation of proteins essential for neuronal survival. Here we show that calpain inhibition through E64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and the highly specific calpain inhibitor BDA-410 restored normal synaptic function both in hippocampal cultures and in hippocampal slices from the APP/PS1 mouse, an animal model of AD. Calpain inhibition also improved spatial-working memory and associative fear memory in APP/PS1 mice. These beneficial effects of the calpain inhibitors were associated with restoration of normal phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor CREB and involved redistribution of the synaptic protein synapsin I. Thus, calpain inhibition may prove useful in the alleviation of memory loss in AD. PMID:18596919

  6. Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by drugs that reduce desensitization at AMPA/kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Vyklicky, L; Patneau, D K; Mayer, M L

    1991-12-01

    Desensitization at AMPA/kainate receptors has been proposed to contribute to the decay of excitatory synaptic currents. We examined the action of aniracetam, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and concanavalin A (Con A), drugs that act via separate mechanisms to reduce desensitization evoked by L-glutamate in rat hippocampal neurons. The decay of excitatory synaptic currents, and sucrose-evoked miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) was slowed 2- to 3-fold by aniracetam. In contrast, WGA increased the EPSC decay time constant only 1.3-fold and Con A had no effect. Aniracetam increased the magnitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs 1.9-fold; variance analysis suggests a postsynaptic mechanism of action. WGA and Con A reduced EPSC amplitude via a presynaptic mechanism. Aniracetam increased the burst length of L-glutamate-activated single-channel responses. Simulations suggest that aniracetam either slows entry into a desensitized state or decreases the closing rate constant for ion channel gating. PMID:1684903

  7. Pregnenolone Sulfate Modulates Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission by Enhancing GABAA Receptor Desensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weixing Shen; Steven Mennerick; Douglas F. Covey; Charles F. Zorumski

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PS) on GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic currents and currents elicited by rapid applications of GABA onto nu- cleated outside-out patches in cultured postnatal rat hip- pocampal neurons. At 10 mM, PS significantly depressed peak responses and accelerated the decay of evoked inhibitory syn- aptic currents. In nucleated outside-out patches, PS depressed peak

  8. A role for Mints in transmitter release: Mint 1 knockout mice exhibit impaired GABAergic synaptic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Ho; Wade Morishita; Robert E. Hammer; Robert C. Malenka; Thomas C. Südhof

    2003-01-01

    Mints (also called X11-like proteins) are adaptor proteins composed of divergent N-terminal sequences that bind to synaptic proteins such as CASK (Mint 1 only) and Munc18-1 (Mints 1 and 2) and conserved C-terminal PTB- and PDZ-domains that bind to widely distributed proteins such as APP, presenilins, and Ca2+ channels (all Mints). We find that Mints 1 and 2 are similarly

  9. SNAP29: A general SNARE protein that inhibits SNARE disassembly and is implicated in synaptic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingning Su; Sumiko Mochida; Jin-Hua Tian; Rashi Mehta; Zu-Hang Sheng

    2001-01-01

    Using the yeast two-hybrid system with syntaxin-1A as bait, we isolated soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP)-29 from a human brain cDNA library. Synaptosomal fractionation and immunocytochemical staining of hippocampal neurons in culture showed that SNAP-29 is present at synapses and is predominantly associated with synaptic vesicles. The interaction of SNAP-29 with syntaxin-1 was further confirmed with immunoprecipitation analysis. Binding competition

  10. Rab11 modulates ?-synuclein-mediated defects in synaptic transmission and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Breda, Carlo; Nugent, Marie L; Estranero, Jasper G; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Outeiro, Tiago F; Steinert, Joern R; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2015-02-15

    A central pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of proteinaceous depositions known as Lewy bodies, which consist largely of the protein ?-synuclein (aSyn). Mutations, multiplications and polymorphisms in the gene encoding aSyn are associated with familial forms of PD and susceptibility to idiopathic PD. Alterations in aSyn impair neuronal vesicle formation/transport, and likely contribute to PD pathogenesis by neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. aSyn is functionally associated with several Rab family GTPases, which perform various roles in vesicle trafficking. Here, we explore the role of the endosomal recycling factor Rab11 in the pathogenesis of PD using Drosophila models of aSyn toxicity. We find that aSyn induces synaptic potentiation at the larval neuromuscular junction by increasing synaptic vesicle (SV) size, and that these alterations are reversed by Rab11 overexpression. Furthermore, Rab11 decreases aSyn aggregation and ameliorates several aSyn-dependent phenotypes in both larvae and adult fruit flies, including locomotor activity, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and shortened lifespan. This work emphasizes the importance of Rab11 in the modulation of SV size and consequent enhancement of synaptic function. Our results suggest that targeting Rab11 activity could have a therapeutic value in PD. PMID:25305083

  11. Src, a Molecular Switch Governing Gain Control of Synaptic Transmission Mediated by N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

    1999-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

  12. Voltage clamp analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in the avian nucleus magnocellularis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Trussell, L O

    1994-01-01

    1. The properties of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) have been studied in neurons of the nucleus magnocellularis (nMAG), one of the avian cochlear nuclei which receive somatic, calyceal innervation from auditory nerve fibres. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to voltage clamp visually identified neurons in brain slices. 2. EPSCs resulting from activation of single axonal inputs were on average -5.3 nA at a driving force of -25 mV. Current-voltage relationships for the peak of the EPSC were linear with a peak conductance of 211 nS. The rate of EPSC decay showed a linear increase with temperature, with a temperature coefficient (Q10) of 2.2 between 25 and 35 degrees C; in vivo (41 degrees C) the EPSC would decay in 0.2 ms. 3. The EPSC was composed of two pharmacologically and kinetically distinct components: an early phase due to non-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and a late phase resulting from NMDA receptors. Both components reversed near 0 mV. While both subtypes of glutamate receptor were activated by transmitter, NMDA receptors had a peak conductance at positive potentials which was only 11% of the peak non-NMDA receptor component. 4. EPSCs during trains of stimuli exhibited a progressive decrease in amplitude. The extent of depression increased with the frequency of stimulation and was reduced by drugs which prevent receptor desensitization, indicating that, in part, postsynaptic factors limit synaptic strength during repetitive synaptic activity. Additionally, the coefficient of variation of the EPSC amplitude increased during trains, consistent with presynaptic depression. 5. mEPSCs occurred randomly in the presence of tetrodotoxin and presumably correspond to transmitter quanta. These synaptic events rose (10-90%) within 100 microseconds and decayed with an exponential of 180 microseconds at 29-32 degrees C. Despite the somatic location of the synapse, mEPSCs varied widely in amplitude, suggesting differences in the quantal synaptic current at each synaptic site. The ratio of the average peak conductance of the EPSC and mEPSC gave an estimated quantal content of 103. Images Figure 1 PMID:7853216

  13. p21-activated Kinase 3 (PAK3) Protein Regulates Synaptic Transmission through Its Interaction with the Nck2/Grb4 Protein Adaptor*

    PubMed Central

    Thévenot, Emmanuel; Moreau, Alexandre William; Rousseau, Véronique; Combeau, Gaëlle; Domenichini, Florence; Jacquet, Claire; Goupille, Olivier; Amar, Muriel; Kreis, Patricia; Fossier, Philippe; Barnier, Jean-Vianney

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the p21-activated kinase 3 gene (pak3) are responsible for nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation. Expression of mutated PAK3 proteins in hippocampal neurons induces abnormal dendritic spine morphology and long term potentiation anomalies, whereas pak3 gene invalidation leads to cognitive impairments. How PAK3 regulates synaptic plasticity is still largely unknown. To better understand how PAK3 affects neuronal synaptic plasticity, we focused on its interaction with the Nck adaptors that play a crucial role in PAK signaling. We report here that PAK3 interacts preferentially with Nck2/Grb4 in brain extracts and in transfected cells. This interaction is independent of PAK3 kinase activity. Selective uncoupling of the Nck2 interactions in acute cortical slices using an interfering peptide leads to a rapid increase in evoked transmission to pyramidal neurons. The P12A mutation in the PAK3 protein strongly decreases the interaction with Nck2 but only slightly with Nck1. In transfected hippocampal cultures, expression of the P12A-mutated protein has no effect on spine morphogenesis or synaptic density. The PAK3-P12A mutant does not affect synaptic transmission, whereas the expression of the wild-type PAK3 protein decreases the amplitude of spontaneous miniature excitatory currents. Altogether, these data show that PAK3 down-regulates synaptic transmission through its interaction with Nck2. PMID:21949127

  14. Altered synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of transgenic mice with enhanced central nervous systems expression of interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, T. E.; Engberink, A. Olde; Hernandez, R.; Puro, A.; Huitron-Resendiz, S.; Hao, C.; De Graan, P.N.E.; Gruol, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) occur in a number of CNS disorders. However, little is known about how this condition affects CNS neuronal function. Transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 in the CNS show cognitive changes, increased propensity for hippocampal seizures and reduced number of inhibitory interneurons, suggesting that elevated levels of IL-6 can cause neuroadaptive changes that alter hippocampal function. To identify these neuroadaptive changes, we measured the levels of protein expression using Western blot analysis and synaptic function using field potential recordings in hippocampus from IL-6 transgenic mice (IL-6 tg) and their non-transgenic (non-tg) littermates. Western blot analysis showed enhanced levels of the GFAP and STAT3 in the IL-6 tg hippocampus compared with the non-tg hippocampus, but no difference for several other proteins. Field potential recordings of synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapse showed enhanced dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials and somatic population spikes in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice compared with slices from non-tg littermate controls. No differences were observed for several forms of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity between hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg and non-tg mice. These results demonstrate that elevated levels of IL-6 can alter mechanisms involved in the excitability of hippocampal neurons and synapses, an effect consistent with recent evidence indicating that elevated production of IL-6 plays an important role in conditions associated with seizure activity and in other impairments observed in CNS disorders with a neuroinflammatory component. PMID:22609298

  15. Activation of large-conductance Ca 2+-activated K + channels depresses basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area in APP (swe\\/ind) TgCRND8 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Ye; Shirin Jalini; Shanthini Mylvaganam; Peter Carlen

    2010-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels regulate synaptic transmission by contributing to the repolarization phase of the action potential that invades the presynaptic terminal. BK channels are prone to activation under pathological conditions, such as brain ischemia and epilepsy. It is unclear if activation of these channels contributes to the depression of synaptic transmission observed in the early stage of Alzheimer's

  16. Modulation of NMDA and AMPA-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by CB1 Receptors in Frontal Cortical Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yan, Haidun; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Although the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates a variety of physiological and pharmacological processes, the specific role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission and neural plasticity is not well understood. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques, evoked or spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs or sEPSCs) were recorded from visualized, layer II/III pyramidal cells in frontal cortical slices from rat brain. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist, WIN 55212-2 (WIN), reduced the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. When co-applied with the specific CB1 antagonists, AM251 or AM281, WIN did not suppress NMDA receptor mediated EPSCs. WIN also reduced the amplitude of evoked AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, an effect that was also reversed by AM251. Both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs were significantly reduced by WIN. In contrast, WIN reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude of miniature EPSCs, suggesting that the suppression of glutmatergic activity by CB1 receptors in the frontal neocortex is mediated by a pre-synaptic mechanism. Taken together, these data indicate a critical role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in frontal neocortex, and suggest a possible neuronal mechanism whereby THC regulates cortical function. PMID:20420813

  17. PTP? functions as a presynaptic receptor for the glypican-4/LRRTM4 complex and is essential for excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji Seung; Pramanik, Gopal; Um, Ji Won; Shim, Ji Seon; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Kee Hun; Chung, Gug-Young; Condomitti, Giuseppe; Kim, Ho Min; Kim, Hyun; de Wit, Joris; Park, Kang-Sik; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Ko, Jaewon

    2015-02-10

    Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases--comprising LAR, PTP?, and PTP?--are synaptic adhesion molecules that organize synapse development. Here, we identify glypican 4 (GPC-4) as a ligand for PTP?. GPC-4 showed strong (nanomolar) affinity and heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent interaction with the Ig domains of PTP?. PTP? bound only to proteolytically cleaved GPC-4 and formed additional complex with leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 4 (LRRTM4) in rat brains. Moreover, single knockdown (KD) of PTP?, but not LAR, in cultured neurons significantly reduced the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4, a postsynaptic ligand of GPC-4, in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Finally, PTP? KD dramatically decreased both the frequency and amplitude of excitatory synaptic transmission. This effect was reversed by wild-type PTP?, but not by a HS-binding-defective PTP? mutant. Our results collectively suggest that presynaptic PTP?, together with GPC-4, acts in a HS-dependent manner to maintain excitatory synapse development and function. PMID:25624497

  18. GHB depresses fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission via GABA(B) receptors in mouse neocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Mody, I

    2001-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse which induces sedation and euphoria. However, overdoses can severely depress the level of consciousness or can be fatal especially when combined with other substances. Studies have suggested that the GHB-effects are mediated via actions on thalamocortical pathways and local neocortical circuits, although the effect of GHB at the level of single neocortical neurons is not clear. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we studied the effects of GHB on neocortical neurons in brain slices from 12- to 33-day-old mice. We found that GHB depressed the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic and glutamatergic spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs and EPSCs) driven by presynaptic action potential firing, while the amplitude and frequency of Ca(2+) entry-independent miniature IPSCs were not affected. Using minimal stimulation, GHB reduced the probability of release at inhibitory synapses onto neocortical layer 2/3 pyramidal cells. Also, GHB directly hyperpolarized layer 2/3 non-pyramidal cells by up to 11 mV and inhibited action potential firing. All these effects of GHB were mediated via GABA(B)-receptors. In conclusion, GHB activates both pre- and postsynaptic GABA(B)-receptors in neocortical neurons participating in fast synaptic transmission, leading to a powerful depression of neocortical network activity. We propose that GABA(B)-receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of acute GHB intoxication. PMID:11313294

  19. Modulation of Hippocampus-Prefrontal Cortex Synaptic Transmission and Disruption of Executive Cognitive Functions by MK-801.

    PubMed

    Blot, Kevin; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Bai, Jing; Kemp, Anne; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Giros, Bruno; Tzavara, Eleni; Otani, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and MK-801 are known to impair cognitive function in rodents and humans, and serve as a useful tool to study the cellular basis for pathogenesis of schizophrenia cognitive symptoms. In the present study, we tested in rats the effect of MK-801 on ventral hippocampus (HPC)-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) synaptic transmission and the performance in 2 cognitive tasks. We found that single injection of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) induced gradual and long-lasting increases of the HPC-mPFC response, which shares the common expression mechanisms with long-term potentiation (LTP). But unlike LTP, its induction required no enhanced or synchronized synaptic inputs, suggesting aberrant characteristics. In parallel, rats injected with MK-801 showed impairments of mPFC-dependent cognitive flexibility and HPC-mPFC pathway-dependent spatial working memory. The effects of MK-801 on HPC-mPFC responses and spatial working memory decayed in parallel within 24 h. Moreover, the therapeutically important subtype 2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268, which blocked MK-801-induced potentiation, ameliorated the MK-801-induced impairment of spatial working memory. Our results show a novel form of use-independent long-lasting potentiation in HPC-mPFC pathway induced by MK-801, which is associated with impairment of HPC-mPFC projection-dependent cognitive function. PMID:24304584

  20. Loss of Predominant Shank3 Isoforms Results in Hippocampus-Dependent Impairments in Behavior and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kouser, Mehreen; Speed, Haley E.; Dewey, Colleen M.; Reimers, Jeremy M.; Widman, Allie J.; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Bangash, Muhammad; Xiao, Bo; Worley, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The Shank3 gene encodes a scaffolding protein that anchors multiple elements of the postsynaptic density at the synapse. Previous attempts to delete the Shank3 gene have not resulted in a complete loss of the predominant naturally occurring Shank3 isoforms. We have now characterized a homozygous Shank3 mutation in mice that deletes exon 21, including the Homer binding domain. In the homozygous state, deletion of exon 21 results in loss of the major naturally occurring Shank3 protein bands detected by C-terminal and N-terminal antibodies, allowing us to more definitively examine the role of Shank3 in synaptic function and behavior. This loss of Shank3 leads to an increased localization of mGluR5 to both synaptosome and postsynaptic density-enriched fractions in the hippocampus. These mice exhibit a decrease in NMDA/AMPA excitatory postsynaptic current ratio in area CA1 of the hippocampus, reduced long-term potentiation in area CA1, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. In addition, these mice also exhibit motor-coordination deficits, hypersensitivity to heat, novelty avoidance, altered locomotor response to novelty, and minimal social abnormalities. These data suggest that Shank3 isoforms are required for normal synaptic transmission/plasticity in the hippocampus, as well as hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. PMID:24259569

  1. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons and potent modulation by oxycodone in a bone cancer pain model

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanbara, Tomoe; Ono, Hiroko; Tomii, Takako; Morioka, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Minoru; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Mori, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We demonstrated previously that oxycodone has potent antinociceptive effects at supraspinal sites. In this study, we investigated changes in neuronal function and antinociceptive mechanisms of oxycodone at ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) neurons, which are a major site of opioid action, in a femur bone cancer (FBC) model with bone cancer-related pain. Experimental Approach We characterized the supraspinal antinociceptive profiles of oxycodone and morphine on mechanical hypersensitivity in the FBC model. Based on the disinhibition mechanism underlying supraspinal opioid antinociception, the effects of oxycodone and morphine on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VLPAG neurons were evaluated in slices from the FBC model. Key Results The supraspinal antinociceptive effects of oxycodone, but not morphine, were abolished by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium1 (Kir3.1) channels. In slices from the FBC model, GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons was enhanced, as indicated by a leftward shift of the input–output relationship curve of evoked IPSCs, the increased paired-pulse facilitation and the enhancement of miniature IPSC frequency. Following treatment with oxycodone and morphine, IPSCs were reduced in the FBC model, and the inhibition of presynaptic GABA release by oxycodone, but not morphine was enhanced and dependent on Kir3.1 channels. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that Kir3.1 channels are important for supraspinal antinociception and presynaptic GABA release inhibition by oxycodone in the FBC model. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons in the FBC model is an important site of supraspinal antinociception by oxycodone via Kir3.1 channel activation. PMID:25521524

  2. Loss of neuronal GSK3? reduces dendritic spine stability and attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission via ?-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ochs, S M; Dorostkar, M M; Aramuni, G; Schön, C; Filser, S; Pöschl, J; Kremer, A; Van Leuven, F; Ovsepian, S V; Herms, J

    2015-04-01

    Central nervous glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome or anxiety disorder. Many drugs employed to treat these conditions inhibit GSK3? either directly or indirectly. We studied how conditional knockout of GSK3? affected structural synaptic plasticity. Deletion of the GSK3? gene in a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons in adult mice led to reduced spine density. In vivo imaging revealed that this was caused by a loss of persistent spines, whereas stabilization of newly formed spines was reduced. In electrophysiological recordings, these structural alterations correlated with a considerable drop in the frequency and amplitude of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Expression of constitutively active ?-catenin caused reduction in spine density and electrophysiological alterations similar to GSK3? knockout, suggesting that the effects of GSK3? knockout were mediated by the accumulation of ?-catenin. In summary, changes of dendritic spines, both in quantity and in morphology, are correlates of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity; thus, these results may help explain the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs inhibiting GSK3?. PMID:24912492

  3. Loss of neuronal GSK3? reduces dendritic spine stability and attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission via ?-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, S M; Dorostkar, M M; Aramuni, G; Schön, C; Filser, S; Pöschl, J; Kremer, A; Van Leuven, F; Ovsepian, S V; Herms, J

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome or anxiety disorder. Many drugs employed to treat these conditions inhibit GSK3? either directly or indirectly. We studied how conditional knockout of GSK3? affected structural synaptic plasticity. Deletion of the GSK3? gene in a subset of cortical and hippocampal neurons in adult mice led to reduced spine density. In vivo imaging revealed that this was caused by a loss of persistent spines, whereas stabilization of newly formed spines was reduced. In electrophysiological recordings, these structural alterations correlated with a considerable drop in the frequency and amplitude of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Expression of constitutively active ?-catenin caused reduction in spine density and electrophysiological alterations similar to GSK3? knockout, suggesting that the effects of GSK3? knockout were mediated by the accumulation of ?-catenin. In summary, changes of dendritic spines, both in quantity and in morphology, are correlates of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity; thus, these results may help explain the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs inhibiting GSK3?. PMID:24912492

  4. Exposure to Cocaine Regulates Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Otaka, Mami; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R.; Liu, Lei; Neumann, Peter A.; Cui, Ranji; Huang, Yanhua; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) function to gate and prioritize emotional/motivational arousals for behavioral output. The neuronal output NAc MSNs is mainly determined by the integration of membrane excitability and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic inputs. Whereas cocaine-induced alterations at excitatory synapses and membrane excitability have been extensively examined, the overall functional output of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure still poorly defined because little is known about whether inhibitory synaptic input to these neurons is affected by cocaine. Here, our results demonstrate multidimensional alterations at inhibitory synapses in NAc neurons following cocaine self-administration in rats. Specifically, the amplitude of miniature (m) inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was decreased after 21-d withdrawal from 5-d cocaine self-administration. Upon re-exposure to cocaine after 21-day withdrawal, whereas the amplitude of mIPSCs remained down-regulated, the frequency became significantly higher. Furthermore, the reversal potential of IPSCs, which was not significantly altered during withdrawal, became more hyperpolarized upon cocaine re-exposure. Moreover, the relative weight of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to NAc MSNs was significantly decreased after 1-d cocaine withdrawal, increased after 21-d withdrawal, and returned to the basal level upon cocaine re-exposure after 21-d withdrawal. These results, taken together with previous results showing cocaine-induced adaptations at excitatory synapses and intrinsic membrane excitability of NAc MSNs, may provide a relatively thorough picture of the functional state of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure. PMID:23595733

  5. Postnatal Down-Regulation of the GABAA Receptor ?2 Subunit in Neocortical NG2 Cells Accompanies Synaptic-to-Extrasynaptic Switch in the GABAergic Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Balia, Maddalena; Vélez-Fort, Mateo; Passlick, Stefan; Schäfer, Christoph; Audinat, Etienne; Steinhäuser, Christian; Seifert, Gerald; Angulo, María Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    NG2 cells, a main pool of glial progenitors, express ?-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs), the functional and molecular properties of which are largely unknown. We recently reported that transmission between GABAergic interneurons and NG2 cells drastically changes during development of the somatosensory cortex, switching from synaptic to extrasynaptic communication. Since synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs of neurons differ in their subunit composition, we hypothesize that GABAARs of NG2 cells undergo molecular changes during cortical development accompanying the switch of transmission modes. Single-cell RT-PCR and the effects of zolpidem and ?5IA on evoked GABAergic currents reveal the predominance of functional ?1- and ?5-containing GABAARs at interneuron-NG2 cell synapses in the second postnatal week, while the ?5 expression declines later in development when responses are exclusively extrasynaptic. Importantly, pharmacological and molecular analyses demonstrate that ?2, a subunit contributing to the clustering of GABAARs at postsynaptic sites in neurons, is down-regulated in NG2 cells in a cell type-specific manner in concomitance with the decline of synaptic activity and the switch of transmission mode. In keeping with the synaptic nature of ?2 in neurons, the down-regulation of this subunit is an important molecular hallmark of the change of transmission modes between interneurons and NG2 cells during development. PMID:24217990

  6. Gabapentin may inhibit synaptic transmission in the mouse spinal cord dorsal horn through a preferential block of P\\/Q-type Ca 2+ channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Bayer; Seifollah Ahmadi; Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer

    2004-01-01

    Gabapentin is a lipophilic analog of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) with therapeutic activity against certain forms of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Despite its structural similarity to GABA, it does not bind GABAA or GABAB receptors and the mechanism, especially of its analgesic action, has remained elusive. Here, we have studied its effects on synaptic transmission mediated by the major spinal

  7. Non-pain-related CRF1 activation in the amygdala facilitates synaptic transmission and pain responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an important role in affective states and disorders. CRF is not only a “stress hormone” but also a neuromodulator outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The amygdala, a brain center for emotions, is a major site of extrahypothalamic expression of CRF and its G-protein-coupled receptors. Our previous studies showed that endogenous activation of CRF1 receptors in an arthritis pain model contributes to amygdala hyperactivity and pain-related behaviors. Here we examined the synaptic and behavioral effects of CRF in the amygdala of normal animals in the absence of tissue injury or disease. Results Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurons in the latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC) in brain slices from normal rats showed that CRF (0.1-10 nM) increased excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at the “nociceptive” parabrachio-amygdaloid (PB-CeLC) synapse and also increased neuronal output. Synaptic facilitation involved a postsynaptic action and was blocked by an antagonist for CRF1 (NBI27914, 1 ?M) but not CRF2 (astressin-2B, 1 ?M) and by an inhibitor of PKA (KT5720, 1 ?M) but not PKC (GF109203X, 1 ?M). CRF increased a latent NMDA receptor-mediated EPSC, and this effect also required CRF1 and PKA but not CRF2 and PKC. Stereotaxic administration of CRF (10 ?M, concentration in microdialysis probe) into the CeLC by microdialysis in awake rats increased audible and ultrasonic vocalizations and decreased hindlimb withdrawal thresholds. Behavioral effects of CRF were blocked by a NBI27914 (100 ?M) and KT5720 (100 ?M) but not GF109203x (100 ?M). CRF effects persisted when HPA axis function was suppressed by pretreatment with dexamethasone (50 ?g/kg, subcutaneously). Conclusions Non-pain-related activation of CRF1 receptors in the amygdala can trigger pain-responses in normal animals through a mechanism that involves PKA-dependent synaptic facilitation in CeLC neurons independent of HPA axis function. The results suggest that conditions of increased amygdala CRF levels can contribute to pain in the absence of tissue pathology or disease state. PMID:23410057

  8. Adenosine inhibits excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yoon, K W; Rothman, S M

    1991-05-01

    We examined the effects of adenosine and baclofen on inhibitory (IPSC) and excitatory (EPSC) synaptic currents in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. Adenosine dramatically reduced monosynaptic EPSCs but failed to diminish IPSCs. This selective effect on EPSCs is likely due to inhibition of excitatory transmitter release because adenosine did not directly alter any properties of postsynaptic neurons. Baclofen depressed both EPSCs and IPSCs to approximately the same extent. These experiments indicate that the presynaptic effects of adenosine and baclofen are clearly separable and that transmitter sensitivities of inhibitory and excitatory neurons can differ. These differences could be exploited in the design of antiepileptic drugs that act at adenosine receptors to limit excitatory neurotransmission without blocking tonic inhibition. PMID:1851219

  9. Vagal afferent control of opioidergic effects in rat brainstem circuits

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Zheng, Zhongling; Gettys, Thomas W; Travagli, R Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated recently that increasing the levels of cAMP allows opioids to modulate GABAergic synaptic transmission between the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Using a combination of electrophysiological, immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, we provide evidence that vagal afferent fibres dampen cAMP levels within the vagal brainstem circuits via tonic activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from identified neurons of the rat DMV. Following chronic vagal deafferentation, the opioid agonist methionine-enkephalin (ME) inhibited the amplitude of evoked IPSC (eIPSC) in 32 of 33 neurons, without exogenous enhancement of cAMP levels. The ME-induced inhibition was prevented by the group II mGluR-selective agonist APDC. Following perfusion with the group II mGluR-selective antagonist EGLU, ME inhibited eIPSC amplitude in brainstem slices of control rats. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that, following vagal deafferentation, ?-opioid receptors were colocalized on GABAergic profiles apposing DMV neurons; the number of colocalized profiles was significantly decreased by pretreatment with APDC. Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analysis showed that cAMP and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) levels in the dorsal vagal complex were increased following vagal deafferentation. Our data show that by tonically dampening the levels of cAMP within the GABAergic synaptic contacts, activated group II mGluRs prevent the modulation of this synapse by endogenous opioids. These data suggest that the plasticity, hence the response, of central circuits controlling the vagal motor outflow to visceral organs is modulated and finely tuned by vagal afferent fibres. PMID:16825311

  10. Modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by the non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic etifoxine.

    PubMed

    Schlichter, R; Rybalchenko, V; Poisbeau, P; Verleye, M; Gillardin, J

    2000-07-10

    We have investigated the effects of 2-ethylamino-6-chloro-4-methyl-4-phenyl-4H-3,1-benzoxazine hydrochloride (etifoxine) on GABA(A) receptor function. Etifoxine displaced [(35)S]TBPS (t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate) from GABA(A) receptors of rat cortical membranes with an IC(50) of 6.7+/-0.8 microM and [(3)H]PK11195 from peripheral (mitochondrial)-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) of rat heart homogenates with an IC(50) of 27.3+/-1.0 microM. Etifoxine displayed anxiolytic properties in an anticonflict test in rats, and potentiated GABA(A) receptor-mediated membrane currents elicited by submaximal (5-10 microM) but not saturating (0.5 mM) concentrations of GABA in cultured rat hypothalamic and spinal cord dorsal horn neurones. In hypothalamic cultures, etifoxine induced a dose-dependent inward current for concentrations >1 microM which reflected the post-synaptic potentiation of a small ( approximately 20 pA) tonic and bicuculline-sensitive GABA(A) receptor-gated Cl(-) current. Etifoxine also increased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents without changing their amplitude and kinetic characteristics. Both effects of etifoxine were insensitive to flumazenil (10 microM), an antagonist of central-type benzodiazepine sites present at GABA(A) receptors, but were partly inhibited by PK11195 (10 microM) an antagonist of PBRs which control the synthesis of neurosteroids. Our results indicate that etifoxine potentiates GABA(A) receptor-function by a direct allosteric effect and by an indirect mechanism involving the activation of PBRs. PMID:10854897

  11. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) protein plays a major role in A?-induced alterations of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ripoli, Cristian; Cocco, Sara; Li Puma, Domenica D; Piacentini, Roberto; Mastrodonato, Alessia; Scala, Federico; Puzzo, Daniela; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Grassi, Claudio

    2014-09-17

    Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) protein has been proposed as an early event in AD pathogenesis. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, intraneuronal A? immunoreactivity was found especially in brain regions critically involved in the cognitive deficits of AD. Although a large body of evidence demonstrates that A?42 accumulates intraneuronally ((in)A?), the action and the role of A?42 buildup on synaptic function have been poorly investigated. Here, we demonstrate that basal synaptic transmission and LTP were markedly depressed following A?42 injection into the neuron through the patch pipette. Control experiments performed with the reverse peptide (A?42-1) allowed us to exclude that the effects of (in)A? depended on changes in oncotic pressure. To further investigate (in)A? synaptotoxicity we used an A? variant harboring oxidized methionine in position 35 that does not cross the neuronal plasma membrane and is not uploaded from the extracellular space. This A?42 variant had no effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity when applied extracellularly, but induced synaptic depression and LTP inhibition after patch-pipette dialysis. Finally, the injection of an antibody raised against human A?42 (6E10) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of mouse hippocampal brain slices and autaptic microcultures did not, per se, significantly affect LTP and basal synaptic transmission, but it protected against the toxic effects of extracellular A?42. Collectively, these findings suggest that A?42-induced impairment of glutamatergic synaptic function depends on its internalization and intracellular accumulation thus paving the way to a systemic proteomic analysis of intracellular targets/partners of A?42. PMID:25232124

  12. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, but not eslicarbazepine, enhance excitatory synaptic transmission onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through an antagonist action at adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Booker, Sam A; Pires, Nuno; Cobb, Stuart; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Vida, Imre

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the anticonvulsant and seizure generation effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine (S-Lic) in wild-type mice. Electrophysiological recordings were made to discriminate potential cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying anti- and pro-epileptic actions. The anticonvulsant and pro-convulsant effects were evaluated in the MES, the 6-Hz and the Irwin tests. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the effects on fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1. The safety window for CBZ, OXC and eslicarbazepine (ED50 value against the MES test and the dose that produces grade 5 convulsions in all mice), was 6.3, 6.0 and 12.5, respectively. At high concentrations the three drugs reduced synaptic transmission. CBZ and OXC enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at low, therapeutically-relevant concentrations. These effects were associated with no change in inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) resulting in altered balance between excitation and inhibition. S-Lic had no effect on EPSC or IPSC amplitudes over the same concentration range. The CBZ mediated enhancement of EPSCs was blocked by DPCPX, a selective antagonist, and occluded by CCPA, a selective agonist of the adenosine A1 receptor. Furthermore, reduction of endogenous adenosine by application of the enzyme adenosine deaminase also abolished the CBZ- and OXC-induced increase of EPSCs, indicating that the two drugs act as antagonists at native adenosine receptors. In conclusion, CBZ and OXC possess pro-epileptic actions at clinically-relevant concentrations through the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission. S-Lic by comparison has no such effect on synaptic transmission, explaining its lack of seizure exacerbation. PMID:25656478

  13. Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandria; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Hua, Shao-Ying; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kawabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al. 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (Van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology, function and integrity of muscle structure in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:23933137

  14. A role for the Ras signalling pathway in synaptic transmission and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, R; Gnesutta, N; Minichiello, L; White, G; Roylance, A J; Herron, C E; Ramsey, M; Wolfer, D P; Cestari, V; Rossi-Arnaud, C; Grant, S G; Chapman, P F; Lipp, H P; Sturani, E; Klein, R

    1997-11-20

    Members of the Ras subfamily of small guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins are essential for controlling normal and malignant cell proliferation as well as cell differentiation. The neuronal-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm, induces Ras signalling in response to Ca2+ influx and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors in vitro, suggesting that it plays a role in neurotransmission and plasticity in vivo. Here we report that mice lacking Ras-GRF are impaired in the process of memory consolidation, as revealed by emotional conditioning tasks that require the function of the amygdala; learning and short-term memory are intact. Electrophysiological measurements in the basolateral amygdala reveal that long-term plasticity is abnormal in mutant mice. In contrast, Ras-GRF mutants do not reveal major deficits in spatial learning tasks such as the Morris water maze, a test that requires hippocampal function. Consistent with apparently normal hippocampal functions, Ras-GRF mutants show normal NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation in this structure. These results implicate Ras-GRF signalling via the Ras/MAP kinase pathway in synaptic events leading to formation of long-term memories. PMID:9384379

  15. Mossy fiber synaptic transmission: communication from the dentate gyrus to area CA3.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, David B; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Communication between the dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus proper is transmitted via axons of granule cells--the mossy fiber (MF) pathway. In this review we discuss and compare the properties of transmitter release from the MFs onto pyramidal neurons and interneurons. An examination of the anatomical connectivity from DG to CA3 reveals a surprising interplay between excitation and inhibition for this circuit. In this respect it is particularly relevant that the major targets of the MFs are interneurons and that the consequence of MF input into CA3 may be inhibitory or excitatory, conditionally dependent on the frequency of input and modulatory regulation. This is further complicated by the properties of transmitter release from the MFs where a large number of co-localized transmitters, including GABAergic inhibitory transmitter release, and the effects of presynaptic modulation finely tune transmitter release. A picture emerges that extends beyond the hypothesis that the MFs are simply "detonators" of CA3 pyramidal neurons; the properties of synaptic information flow from the DG have more subtle and complex influences on the CA3 network. PMID:17765714

  16. Transient recovery of synaptic transmission is related to rapid energy depletion during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Han; Park, Youn Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kwon, Taek Hyun; Chung, Hung Seob

    2006-05-29

    Transient recovery (TR) of evoked synaptic potential during the late stage of hypoxic hypoglycemia (HH) insult was investigated in rat hippocampal slices using extracellular recording methods. TR was observed in association with a rapid deterioration of antidromic population spikes (aPSs) following HH insult. TR was not elicited in normoglycemic hypoxia (NH), in which a gradual and delayed deterioration of aPSs was noted. TR was not modulated by either Ca(2+)- or PKC-dependent processes. When a glycolytic inhibitor was added, NH resulted in a rapid deterioration of aPSs and prompted appearance of TR. TR was also seen in slices using lactate to generate energy via oxidative phosphorylation, when hypoxic conditions were subsequently created. Other pharmacological interventions that aimed to cause rapid deterioration of aPSs without depleting energy stores failed to reproduce TR. The evidence thus suggests that the underlying mechanisms of TR appearance during HH insult are highly correlated with rapid energy depletion. PMID:16644112

  17. Cells in Laminae III and IV of the Rat Spinal Cord that Possess the Neurokinin1 Receptor and Have Dorsally Directed Dendrites Receive a Major Synaptic Input from Tachykinin-Containing Primary Afferents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Naim; Rosemary C. Spike; Christine Watt; Safa A. S. Shehab; Andrew J. Todd

    Many neurons with cell bodies in laminae III or IV of the spinal dorsal horn possess the neurokinin 1 receptor and have dorsal dendrites that arborize in the superficial dorsal horn. We have performed a confocal microscopic study to determine whether these cells receive inputs from substance P-containing primary afferents. All neurons of this type received contacts from substance P-immunoreactive

  18. Dynamic tuning of electrical and chemical synaptic transmission in a network of motion coding retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Trenholm, Stuart; McLaughlin, Amanda J; Schwab, David J; Awatramani, Gautam B

    2013-09-11

    Recently, we demonstrated that gap junction coupling in the population of superior coding ON-OFF directionally selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) genetically labeled in the Hb9::eGFP mouse retina allows the passage of lateral anticipatory signals that help track moving stimuli. Here, we examine the properties of gap junctions in the DSGC network, and address how interactions between electrical and chemical synapses and intrinsic membrane properties contribute to the dynamic tuning of lateral anticipatory signals. When DSGC subtypes coding all four cardinal directions were individually loaded with the gap junction-permeable tracer Neurobiotin, only superior coding DSGCs exhibited homologous coupling. Consistent with these anatomical findings, gap junction-dependent feedback spikelets were only observed in Hb9(+) DSGCs. Recordings from pairs of neighboring Hb9(+) DSGCs revealed that coupling was reciprocal, non-inactivating, and relatively weak, and provided a substrate for an extensive subthreshold excitatory receptive field around each cell. This subthreshold activity appeared to boost coincident light-driven chemical synaptic responses. However, during responses to moving stimuli, gap junction-mediated boosting appeared to be dynamically modulated such that upstream DSGCs primed downstream cells, but not vice versa, giving rise to highly skewed responses in individual cells. We show that the asymmetry in priming arises from a combination of spatially offset GABAergic inhibition and activity-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties of DSGCs. Thus, dynamic interactions between electrical and chemical synapses and intrinsic membrane properties allow the network of DSGCs to propagate anticipatory responses most effectively along their preferred direction without leading to runaway excitation. PMID:24027292

  19. Mechanotransduction and chemosensitivity of two major classes of bladder afferents with endings in the vicinity to the urothelium.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Brookes, Simon J H; Spencer, Nick J; Gregory, Sarah

    2009-07-15

    The guinea pig bladder is innervated by at least five distinct major classes of extrinsic sensory neurons. In this study, we have examined the mechanisms of mechanotransduction and chemosensitivity of two classes of bladder afferents that have their endings in the vicinity of the urothelium: stretch-sensitive muscle-mucosal mechanoreceptors and stretch-insensitive, mucosal high-responding afferents. The non-selective P2 purinoreceptor antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid did not affect stretch- or stroking-induced firing of these afferents but significantly reduced the excitatory action of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Blocking synaptic transmission in Ca(2+)-free solution did not affect stretch-evoked firing but slightly reduced stretch-induced tension responses. Stroking-induced firing of both classes of afferents was also not affected in Ca(2+)-free solution. Of blockers of mechano-gated channels, benzamil (100 microM), but not amiloride (100 microM), Gd(3+) (100 microM) or SKF 96365 (50 microM), inhibited stretch- and stroking-induced firing. Serotonin (100 microM) applied directly onto receptive fields predominantly activated muscle-mucosal afferents. Muscarine (100 microM) and substance P (100 microM) in 24% and 36% cases activated only mucosal high-responding units. Bradykinin (10 microM), but not prostaglandin E2 (10 microM), excites predominantly mucosal units. High (80 mM) K(+) solution activated both afferent classes, but responses of mucosal units were 4 times greater. In contrast to muscle-mucosal units, most mucosal high-responding units were activated by hot Krebs solution (45-46 degrees C), low pH (pH 4) and capsaicin (3 microm). TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (10 microM) was without effect on mechanotransduction by mucosal high-responding afferents. The results show that mechanotransduction of these two types of afferents are not dependant upon Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic release of mediators, or ATP, and it is likely that benzamil-sensitive stretch-activated ion channels on their endings are involved in direct mechanotransduction. The chemosensitivity to agonists and noxious stimuli differs significantly between these two major classes of bladder afferents that reflects their different physiological and pathophysiological roles in the bladder. PMID:19470774

  20. A role of intracellular Na+ in the regulation of synaptic transmission and turnover of the vesicular pool in cultured hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Bouron, A; Reuter, H

    1996-11-01

    Propagation of action potentials in axons and dendrites increases intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) and Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). While the importance of [Ca2+]i in synaptic transmission is well established, a possible functional role of [Na+]i is unclear. In cultured hippocampal cells, [Na+]i was increased by veratridine. We have then measured spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and, by means of fluorescent dyes, changes in [Na+]i, in [Ca2+]i, and in the turnover of the vesicular pool of individual boutons. An elevation of [Na+]i and a concomitant rise in [Ca2+]i, led to a large increase in sEPSC frequency and in the turnover of the presynaptic vesicular pool. Extracellular Ca2+ was essential for these effects of elevated [Na+]i on synaptic transmission. They probably occur via Na+/Ca2+ exchange. PMID:8938128

  1. Cholinergic suppression of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal region CA3 exhibits laminar selectivity: Implication for hippocampal network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kremin, Terry; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    ACh may help set the dynamics within neural systems to facilitate the learning of new information. Neural models have shown that if new information is encoded at the same time as retrieval of existing information already stored, the memories will interfere with each other. Structures such as the hippocampus have a distinct laminar organization of inputs that allows this hypothesis to be tested. In region CA1 of the rat hippocampus, the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) suppresses transmission in stratum radiatum (SR), at synapses of the Schaffer collateral projection from CA3, while having lesser effects in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM), the perforant path projection from entorhinal cortex (Hasselmo and Schnell, 1994). The current research extends support of this selectivity by demonstrating laminar effects in region CA3. CCh caused significantly greater suppression in SR than in SLM at low concentrations, while the difference in suppression was not significant at higher concentrations. Differences in paired-pulse facilitation suggest pre-synaptic inhibition substantially contributes to the suppression and is highly concentration and stratum dependent. This selective suppression of the recurrent excitation would be appropriate to set CA3 dynamics to prevent runaway modification of the synapses of excitatory recurrent collaterals by reducing the influence of previously stored associations and allowing incoming information from the perforant path to have a predominant influence on neural activity. PMID:17964734

  2. Prenatal Stress Enhances Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in the Frontal Cortex of Adult Offspring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Joanna; Bobula, Bartosz; Glombik, Katarzyna; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal stress procedure were investigated in 3 months old male rats. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, including increased immobility, decreased mobility and decreased climbing. In ex vivo frontal cortex slices originating from prenatally stressed animals, the amplitude of extracellular field potentials (FPs) recorded in cortical layer II/III was larger, and the mean amplitude ratio of pharmacologically-isolated NMDA to the AMPA/kainate component of the field potential—smaller than in control preparations. Prenatal stress also resulted in a reduced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the mean frequency, but not the mean amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that stress during pregnancy may lead not only to behavioral disturbances, but also impairs the glutamatergic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex of the adult offspring. PMID:25749097

  3. The chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 regulates synaptic transmission in the adult mouse dentate gyrus stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Banisadr, Ghazal; Bhattacharyya, Bula; Belmadani, Abdelhak; Izen, Sarah C; Ren, Dongjun; Tran, Phuong B; Miller, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 is an ancient member of the chemokine family whose functions in the brain are completely unknown. We examined the distribution of CXCL14 in the nervous system during development and in the adult. Generally speaking CXCL14 was not expressed in the nervous system prior to birth, but it was expressed in the developing whisker follicles (E14.5) and subsequently in the hair follicles and skin. Postnatally, CXCL14 was also highly expressed in many regions of the brain, including the cortex, basal ganglia, septum and hippocampus. CXCL14 was also highly expressed in the dorsal root ganglia. We observed that in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) CXCL14 was expressed by GABAergic interneurons. We demonstrated that CXCL14 inhibited GABAergic transmission to nestin-EGFP expressing neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult DG. CXCL14 inhibited both the tonic and phasic effects of synaptically released GABA. In contrast CXCL12 enhanced the effects of GABA at these same synapses. CXCL14 increased [Ca2+]i in neural stem cells cultured from the postnatal brain indicating that they expressed the CXCL14 receptor. These observations are consistent with the view that CXCL12 and CXCL14 may normally act as positive and negative regulators of the effects of GABA in the adult DG stem cell niche. PMID:21955359

  4. A Role of Intracellular Na + in the Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Turnover of the Vesicular Pool in Cultured Hippocampal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Bouron; Harald Reuter

    1996-01-01

    Propagation of action potentials in axons and dendrites increases intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) and Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). While the importance of [Ca2+]i in synaptic transmission is well established, a possible functional role of [Na+]i is unclear. In cultured hippocampal cells, [Na+]i was increased by veratridine. We have then measured spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and, by means of fluorescent dyes, changes

  5. Activation of 5-HT receptors inhibits GABAergic transmission by pre-and post-synaptic mechanisms in layer II/III of the juvenile rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    García-Oscos, Francisco; Torres-Ramírez, Oswaldo; Dinh, Lu; Galindo-Charles, Luis; Pérez Padilla, Elsy Arlene; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Atzori, Marco; Salgado, Humberto

    2015-03-01

    The specific mechanisms by which serotonin (5-HT) modulates synaptic transmission in the auditory cortex are still unknown. In this work, we used whole-cell recordings from layer II/III of pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices to characterize the influence of 5-HT on inhibitory synaptic activity in the auditory cortex after pharmacological blockade of excitatory glutamatergic transmission. We found that bath application of 5-HT (5 µM) reduced the frequency and amplitude of both spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), reduced the amplitude of evoked IPSCs, and enhanced facilitation of paired pulse ratio (PPR), suggesting presynaptic inhibition. To determine which the serotonin receptors were involved in this effect, we studied the influence of specific 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission. The inhibiting influence of 5-HT in the GABAergic synaptic activity was mimicked by using the selective agonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, 8(OH)-DPAT (10 µM) and DOI (10 µM), respectively; and it was prevented by their respective antagonists NAN-190 (1 µM) and ritanserin (1 ?M). Furthermore, the application of the selective agonist of 5-HT1A receptors, 8-(OH)-DPAT (10 µM), produced PPR facilitation, while DOI application (5-HT2A agonist) did not change the PPR. Moreover, the 5-HT2A agonist reduced the amplitude of the IPSCs evoked by application of the selective GABA agonist, muscimol. These results suggest a presynaptic and postsynaptic reduction of GABAergic transmission mediated by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonergic receptors, respectively. PMID:25482075

  6. Modulation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission: The role of presynaptic calcium and potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sylvain; Zbili, Mickaël; Debanne, Dominique

    2014-11-25

    Action potentials are usually considered as the smallest unit of neuronal information conveyed by presynaptic neurons to their postsynaptic target. Thus, neuronal signaling in brain circuits is all-or-none or digital. However, recent studies indicate that subthreshold analog variation in presynaptic membrane potential modulates spike-evoked transmission. The informational content of each presynaptic action potential is therefore greater than initially expected. This property constitutes a form of fast activity-dependent modulation of functional coupling. Therefore, it could have important consequences on information processing in neural networks in parallel with more classical forms of presynaptic short-term facilitation based on repetitive stimulation, modulation of presynaptic calcium or modifications of the release machinery. We discuss here how analog voltage shift in the presynaptic neuron may regulate spike-evoked release of neurotransmitter through the modulation of voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in the axon and presynaptic terminal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25461842

  7. miR-132/212 Knockout Mice Reveal Roles for These miRNAs in Regulating Cortical Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Rajen B.; McKenzie, Colin; Macdonald, Andrew; Hutvagner, Gyorgy; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Frenguelli, Bruno G.; Pankratov, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    miR-132 and miR-212 are two closely related miRNAs encoded in the same intron of a small non-coding gene, which have been suggested to play roles in both immune and neuronal function. We describe here the generation and initial characterisation of a miR-132/212 double knockout mouse. These mice were viable and fertile with no overt adverse phenotype. Analysis of innate immune responses, including TLR-induced cytokine production and IFN? induction in response to viral infection of primary fibroblasts did not reveal any phenotype in the knockouts. In contrast, the loss of miR-132 and miR-212, while not overtly affecting neuronal morphology, did affect synaptic function. In both hippocampal and neocortical slices miR-132/212 knockout reduced basal synaptic transmission, without affecting paired-pulse facilitation. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic stimulation was not affected by miR-132/212 deletion, whilst theta burst LTP was enhanced. In contrast, neocortical theta burst-induced LTP was inhibited by loss of miR-132/212. Together these results indicate that miR-132 and/or miR-212 play a significant role in synaptic function, possibly by regulating the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors under basal conditions and during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. PMID:23658634

  8. miR-132/212 knockout mice reveal roles for these miRNAs in regulating cortical synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Remenyi, Judit; van den Bosch, Mirjam W M; Palygin, Oleg; Mistry, Rajen B; McKenzie, Colin; Macdonald, Andrew; Hutvagner, Gyorgy; Arthur, J Simon C; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Pankratov, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    miR-132 and miR-212 are two closely related miRNAs encoded in the same intron of a small non-coding gene, which have been suggested to play roles in both immune and neuronal function. We describe here the generation and initial characterisation of a miR-132/212 double knockout mouse. These mice were viable and fertile with no overt adverse phenotype. Analysis of innate immune responses, including TLR-induced cytokine production and IFN? induction in response to viral infection of primary fibroblasts did not reveal any phenotype in the knockouts. In contrast, the loss of miR-132 and miR-212, while not overtly affecting neuronal morphology, did affect synaptic function. In both hippocampal and neocortical slices miR-132/212 knockout reduced basal synaptic transmission, without affecting paired-pulse facilitation. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic stimulation was not affected by miR-132/212 deletion, whilst theta burst LTP was enhanced. In contrast, neocortical theta burst-induced LTP was inhibited by loss of miR-132/212. Together these results indicate that miR-132 and/or miR-212 play a significant role in synaptic function, possibly by regulating the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors under basal conditions and during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. PMID:23658634

  9. Developmental profiles of glutamate receptors and synaptic transmission at a single synapse in the mouse auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Indu; Wang, Lu-Yang

    2002-01-01

    Using whole-cell recordings from presynaptic terminals and postsynaptic principal neurons in the mouse medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), we have characterized properties of the calyx of Held synapse during the first three postnatal weeks. We observed that evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDAR) increased until postnatal day 11/12 (P11/12) after which they declined to very low or undetectable levels at P16. Meanwhile, EPSCs mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPAR) showed an approximate three-fold increase in amplitude. These changes were paralleled by NMDAR and AMPAR currents evoked by exogenous NMDA and kainate to MNTB neurons except that whole-cell kainate currents remained constant after P7/8 while AMPAR-EPSCs continued to increase. We found that the decay time constant ? for NMDAR-EPSCs and AMPAR-EPSCs declined by about 30 % and 70 %, respectively. Analyses of NMDAR-EPSCs with subunit-specific pharmacological agents including ifenprodil, N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), zinc and Mg2+ revealed subtle developmental changes in subunit composition. As maturation progressed, this synapse displayed a reduction in the number of presynaptic spike failures and the extent of synaptic depression in response to trains of stimuli (50–300 Hz) while the recovery rate from depression accelerated. These results demonstrate profound changes in the size and kinetics of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and in the spike-firing capability of presynaptic terminals at the calyx of Held-MNTB synapse during early development. We suggest that these concurrent presynaptic and postsynaptic adaptations represent important steps for synapse consolidation and refinement and ultimately for the development of fast high-fidelity transmission at this synapse. PMID:11986375

  10. Central dysmyelination reduces the temporal fidelity of synaptic transmission and the reliability of postsynaptic firing during high-frequency stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Eun; Turkington, Karl; Kushmerick, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auditory brain stem circuits rely on fast, precise, and reliable neurotransmission to process auditory information. To determine the fundamental role of myelination in auditory brain stem function, we examined the evoked auditory brain stem response (ABR) from the Long Evans shaker (LES) rat, which lacks myelin due to a genetic deletion of myelin basic protein. In control rats, the ABR evoked by a click consisted of five well-defined waves (denoted waves I–V). In LES rats, waves I, IV, and V were present, but waves II and III were undetectable, indicating disrupted function in the earliest stages of central nervous system auditory processing. In addition, the developmental shortening of the interval between waves I and IV that normally occurs in control rats was arrested and resulted in a significant increase in the central conduction time in LES rats. In brain stem slices, action potential transmission between the calyx of Held terminals and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) neurons was delayed and less reliable in LES rats, although the resting potential, threshold, input resistance, and length of the axon initial segment of the postsynaptic MNTB neurons were normal. The amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and the degree of synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation were not different between LES rats and controls, but LES rats exhibited a marked slow component to the EPSC decay and a much higher rate of presynaptic failures. Together, these results indicate that loss of myelin disrupts brain stem auditory processing, increasing central conduction time and reducing the reliability of neurotransmission. PMID:23843435

  11. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Authors: Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in ‘children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2?3,3?4,4?5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2?3,5?6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope >200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX+PCB170 (1–100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached >250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX+100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca2+-dependence of [3H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca2+ appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs. PMID:19289137

  12. Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas P; Filoteo, Adelaida G; Knopfel, Thomas; Empson, Ruth M

    2007-01-01

    Plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms (PMCAs) are expressed in a wide variety of tissues where cell-specific expression provides ample opportunity for functional diversity amongst these transporters. The PMCAs use energy derived from ATP to extrude submicromolar concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) out of the cell. Their high affinity for Ca2+ and the speed with which they remove [Ca2+]i depends upon splicing at their carboxy (C)-terminal site. Here we provide biochemical and functional evidence that a brain-specific, C-terminal truncated and therefore fast variant of PMCA2, PMCA2a, has a role at hippocampal CA3 synapses. PMCA2a was enriched in forebrain synaptosomes, and in hippocampal CA3 it colocalized with the presynaptic marker proteins synaptophysin and the vesicular glutamate transporter 1, but not with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. PMCA2a also did not colocalize with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65, a marker of GABA-ergic terminals, although it did localize to a small extent with parvalbumin-positive presumed inhibitory terminals. Pharmacological inhibition of PMCA increased the frequency but not the amplitude of mEPSCs with little effect on mIPSCs or paired-pulse depression of evoked IPSCs. However, inhibition of PMCA activity did enhance the amplitude and slowed the recovery of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of evoked EPSCs. These results indicated that fast PMCA2a-mediated clearance of [Ca2+]i from presynaptic excitatory terminals regulated excitatory synaptic transmission within hippocampal CA3. PMID:17170045

  13. Age-dependent actions of dopamine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous developmental changes in the nervous system occur during the first several weeks of the rodent lifespan. Therefore, many characteristics of neuronal function described at the cellular level from in vitro slice experiments conducted during this early time period may not generalize to adult ages. We investigated the effect of dopamine (DA) on inhibitory synaptic transmission in superficial layers of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in prepubertal [postnatal age (P; days) 12–20], periadolescent (P30–48), and adult (P70–100) mice. The PFC is associated with higher-level cognitive functions, such as working memory, and is associated with initiation, planning, and execution of actions, as well as motivation and cognition. It is innervated by DA-releasing fibers that arise from the ventral tegmental area. In slices from prepubertal mice, DA produced a biphasic modulation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Activation of D2-like receptors leads to an early suppression of the evoked IPSC, which was followed by a longer-lasting facilitation of the IPSC mediated by D1-like DA receptors. In periadolescent mice, the D2 receptor-mediated early suppression was significantly smaller compared with the prepubertal animals and absent in adult animals. Furthermore, we found significant differences in the DA-mediated lasting enhancement of the inhibitory response among the developmental groups. Our findings suggest that behavioral paradigms that elicit dopaminergic release in the PFC differentially modulate inhibition of excitatory pyramidal neuron output in prepuberty compared with periadolescence and adulthood in the superficial layers (II/III) of the cortex. PMID:23221420

  14. Presynaptic N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels mediating synaptic transmission at the calyx of Held of mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Taro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shin, Hee-Sup; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2005-01-01

    At the nerve terminal, both N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels mediate synaptic transmission, with their relative contribution varying between synapses and with postnatal age. To clarify functional significance of different presynaptic Ca2+ channel subtypes, we recorded N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents directly from calyces of Held nerve terminals in ?1A-subunit-deficient mice and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. The most prominent feature of P/Q-type Ca2+ currents was activity-dependent facilitation, which was absent for N-type Ca2+ currents. EPSCs mediated by P/Q-type Ca2+ currents showed less depression during high-frequency stimulation compared with those mediated by N-type Ca2+ currents. In addition, the maximal inhibition by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen was greater for EPSCs mediated by N-type channels than for those mediated by P/Q-type channels. These results suggest that the developmental switch of presynaptic Ca2+ channels from N- to P/Q-type may serve to increase synaptic efficacy at high frequencies of activity, securing high-fidelity synaptic transmission. PMID:16037093

  15. Interplay of cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms tailors synaptic connectivity of converging axons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Okawa, Haruhisa; Santina, Luca Della; Schwartz, Gregory W.; Rieke, Fred; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neurons receive input from diverse afferents but form stereotypic connections with axons of each type to execute their precise functions. Developmental mechanisms that specify the connectivity of individual axons across populations of converging afferents are not well-understood. Here, we untangled the contributions of activity-dependent and independent interactions that regulate connections of two input types providing major and minor input onto a neuron. Individual transmission-deficient retinal bipolar cells (BCs) reduced synapses with retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but active BCs of the same type sharing the dendrite surprisingly did not compensate for this loss. Genetic ablation of some BC neighbors resulted in increased synaptogenesis by the remaining axons in a transmission-independent manner. Presence but not transmission of the major BC input also dissuades wiring with the minor input, and with synaptically-compatible but functionally-mismatched afferents. Cell-autonomous, activity-dependent and non-autonomous, activity-independent mechanisms thus together tailor connections of individual axons amongst converging inner retinal afferents. PMID:24698272

  16. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

  17. Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Benjamin G; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A; Corteen, Nicole L; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

    2013-12-11

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

  18. Metaplasticity: the plasticity of synaptic plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wickliffe C. Abraham; Mark F. Bear

    1996-01-01

    In thi paper, we review experimental evidence for a novel form of persistent synaptic plasticity we call metaplasticity. Metaplasticity is induced by synaptic or cellular activity, but it is not necessarilly expressed as a change in the efficacy of normal synaptic transmission. Instead, it is manifest as a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity such as long-term

  19. Synaptic modification of parallel fibre-Purkinje cell transmission in in vitro guinea-pig cerebellar slices.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, M

    1987-01-01

    1. Synaptic transmission from parallel fibres to Purkinje cells and its modification by paired stimulation of parallel fibres and climbing fibres were studied in in vitro slices of the cerebellum obtained from guinea-pigs. 2. Intracellular recordings were made from Purkinje cells, mainly from dendrites in the middle third of the molecular layer, but also, in a few cases, from somata. Climbing fibres were activated by stimulation of the white matter, while parallel fibres were stimulated with an electrode placed near the pial surface of the molecular layer. 3. Stimulation of the white matter elicited antidromic spikes, all-or-none climbing fibre responses, disynaptic responses through mossy fibres and parallel fibres, and trisynaptic responses through inhibitory interneurones. Climbing fibre responses were often followed by a small plateau potential, usually less than 2-3 mV in amplitude and less than 100 ms in duration, followed by a slow hyperpolarization which reached its peak in several seconds. Inhibitory inputs to Purkinje cells were blocked with picrotoxin for the experiments described below. 4. Stimulation of the superficial molecular layer with currents less than 50 microA produced graded parallel fibre-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) ranging from 4 to 8 mV in peak amplitude. 5. Conjunctive stimulation of climbing fibres and parallel fibres at 4 Hz for 25 s induced depression of parallel fibre-mediated e.p.s.p.s in Purkinje cells, both in the peak amplitudes and in the slopes. The depression was about 30% on average and lasted for more than 50 min. 6. No such depression occurred when the intensity of the white matter stimulation was set just subthreshold for the climbing fibre innervating the Purkinje cell under study. Instead, the parallel fibre-mediated e.p.s.p.s were moderately potentiated for a period ranging from 10 to 50 min. Repetitive stimulation of the climbing fibre alone did not affect parallel fibre-mediated e.p.s.p.s. 7. Immediately after the conjunctive stimulation or the repetitive stimulation of climbing fibres alone, a transient hyperpolarization which lasted for several minutes was seen. Its time course was similar to that of the hyperpolarization following a climbing fibre response. Except for this, there were no associated changes in the membrane potential, the input resistance, or the magnitudes of climbing fibre responses in any of the cases mentioned in 5 and 6 above. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2832595

  20. Colocalization of Ion Channels Involved in Frequency Selectivity and Synaptic Transmission at Presynaptic Active Zones of Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Roberts; R. A. Jacobs; A. J. Hudspeth

    1990-01-01

    Calcium ions serve as intracellular messengers in 2 activities of hair cells: in conjunction with Ca*+-activated K+ channels, they produce the electrical resonance that tunes each cell to a specific frequency of stimulation, and they trigger the release of a chemical synaptic transmitter. Our experiments indicate that both of these functions are conducted within a region that extends a few

  1. Adenosine Receptor Activation Is Responsible for Prolonged Depression Of Synaptic Transmission After Spreading Depolarization in Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Britta E.; Shuttleworth, C. William

    2012-01-01

    Spreading depolarization (SD) is a slowly propagating, coordinated depolarization of brain tissue, which is followed by a transient (5–10 min) depression of synaptic activity. The mechanisms for synaptic depression after SD are incompletely understood. We examined the relative contributions of action potential failure and adenosine receptor activation to the suppression of evoked synaptic activity in murine brain slices. Focal micro-injection of KCl was used to induce SD and synaptic potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of Schaffer collateral inputs to hippocampal area CA1. SD was accompanied by loss of both presynaptic action potentials (as assessed from fiber volleys) and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Fiber volleys recovered rapidly upon neutralization of the extracellular DC potential, whereas fEPSPs underwent a secondary suppression phase lasting several minutes. Paired-pulse ratio was elevated during the secondary suppression period, consistent with a presynaptic mechanism of synaptic depression. A transient increase in extracellular adenosine concentration was detected during the period of secondary suppression. Antagonists of adenosine A1 receptors (DPCPX or 8-CPT) greatly accelerated fEPSP recovery and abolished increases in paired-pulse ratio normally observed after SD. The duration of fEPSP suppression was correlated with both the duration of the DC shift and the area of tissue depolarized, consistent with the model that adenosine accumulates in proportion to the metabolic burden of SD. These results suggest that in brain slices, the duration of the DC shift approximately defined the period of action potential failure, but the secondary depression of evoked responses was in large part due to endogenous adenosine accumulation after SD. PMID:22864185

  2. D2 Dopamine Receptors Recruit a GABA Component for Their Attenuation of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in the Adult Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    TSENG, KUEI Y.; O’DONNELL, PATRICIO

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine modulation of neuronal excitability in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes during critical late periods of postnatal development. In particular, D2 receptors activate fast-spiking interneurons after, and not before, adolescence. To test the functional impact of this change, we investigated the effects of dopamine agonists on PFC excitatory synaptic transmission with whole-cell recordings from deep-layer pyramidal neurons in brain slices obtained from prepubertal [postnatal day (PD) 28–35] and postpubertal (PD > 51) rats. Electrical stimulation of superficial layers elicited a fast AMPA/kainate excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). In the adult PFC, the D2 agonist quinpirole decreased EPSP amplitude, an effect that lasted for at least 25 min after drug washout and was blocked by the D2 antagonist eticlopride. The late component of this effect was blocked by the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin without affecting the early inhibition. Quinpirole also decreased EPSP amplitude in deep-layer pyramidal neurons from prepubertal rats, but this response was not affected by picrotoxin. A D1 agonist, on the other hand, did not affect the pyramidal neuron EPSP. These results indicate that D2, not D1, receptors attenuate local excitatory synaptic transmission in the adult PFC, and this effect of D2 involves a recruitment of local GABAergic activity. PMID:17603809

  3. Transmission from the dominant input shapes the stereotypic ratio of photoreceptor inputs onto horizontal cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Williams, Philip R.; D’Orazi, Florence D.; Suzuki, Sachihiro C.; Fadool, James M.; Allison, W. Ted; Raymond, Pamela A.; Wong, Rachel O.

    2014-01-01

    Many neurons receive synapses in stereotypic proportions from converging but functionally distinct afferents. However, developmental mechanisms regulating synaptic convergence are not well understood. Here we describe a heterotypic mechanism by which one afferent controls synaptogenesis of another afferent, but not vice-versa. Like other CNS circuits, zebrafish retinal H3 horizontal cells undergo an initial period of remodeling, establishing synapses with UV and blue cones while eliminating red and green cone contacts. As development progresses, the horizontal cells selectively synapse with UV cones to generate a 5:1 UV-to-blue cone synapse ratio. Blue cone synaptogenesis increases in mutants lacking UV cones, and when transmitter release or visual stimulation of UV cones is perturbed. Connectivity is unaltered when blue cone transmission is suppressed. Moreover, there is no homotypic regulation of cone synaptogenesis by neurotransmission. Thus, biased connectivity in this circuit is established by an unusual activity-dependent, unidirectional control of synaptogenesis exerted by the dominant input. PMID:24832361

  4. Release of endogenous cannabinoids from ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and the modulation of synaptic processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huikun; Lupica, Carl R

    2014-07-01

    Endogenous cannabinoids play important roles in a variety of functions in the mammalian brain, including the regulation reward-related information processing. The primary mechanism through which this is achieved is the presynaptic modulation of synaptic transmission. During reward- and reinforcement-related behavior dopamine levels increase in forebrain areas and this has recently been shown to be modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, understanding how endocannabinoids are mobilized to modulate synaptic inputs impinging on midbrain dopamine neurons is crucial to a complete understanding of the roles that these molecules play in reward behavior, drug abuse and addiction. Here we summarize the literature describing short-term and long-term regulation of afferent connections on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area via endocannabinoid activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, and describe the mechanisms through which these molecules are released during reward-based behavior and exposure to abused drugs. PMID:24495779

  5. Neuraminidase Inhibition Primes Short-Term Depression and Suppresses Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Savotchenko, Alina; Romanov, Arthur; Isaev, Dmytro; Maximyuk, Oleksandr; Sydorenko, Vadym; Holmes, Gregory L.; Isaeva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NEU) is a key enzyme that cleaves negatively charged sialic acid residues from membrane proteins and lipids. Clinical and basic science studies have shown that an imbalance in NEU metabolism or changes in NEU activity due to various pathological conditions parallel with behavior and cognitive impairment. It has been suggested that the decreases of NEU activity could cause serious neurological consequences. However, there is a lack of direct evidences that modulation of endogenous NEU activity can impair neuronal function. Using combined rat entorhinal cortex/hippocampal slices and a specific inhibitor of NEU, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (NADNA), we examined the effect of downregulation of NEU activity on different forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA3-to-CA1 network. We show that NEU inhibition results in a significant decrease in long-term potentiation (LTP) and an increase in short-term depression. Synaptic depotentiation restores LTP in NADNA-pretreated slices to the control level. These data suggest that short-term NEU inhibition produces the LTP-like effect on neuronal network, which results in damping of further LTP induction. Our findings demonstrate that downregulation of NEU activity could have a major impact on synaptic plasticity and provide a new insight into the cellular mechanism underlying behavioral and cognitive impairment associated with abnormal metabolism of NEU.

  6. Synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic control of thalamic reticular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Beierlein, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal networks of the thalamus are the target of extensive cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain and the brainstem. Activation of these afferents can regulate neuronal excitability, transmitter release, and firing patterns in thalamic networks, thereby altering the flow of sensory information during distinct behavioural states. However, cholinergic regulation in the thalamus has been primarily examined by using receptor agonist and antagonist, which has precluded a detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics that govern cholinergic signalling under physiological conditions. This review summarizes recent studies on cholinergic synaptic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure intimately involved in the control of sensory processing and the generation of rhythmic activity in the thalamocortical system. This work has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) released from individual axons can rapidly and reliably activate both pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic receptors, thereby controlling TRN neuronal activity with high spatiotemporal precision. PMID:24973413

  7. Shunting versus inactivation: analysis of presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms in primary afferents of the crayfish.

    PubMed

    Cattaert, D; El Manira, A

    1999-07-15

    Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) are associated with presynaptic inhibition in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we have used both anatomical and electrophysiological techniques to analyze the relative importance of shunting mechanisms versus sodium channel inactivation in mediating the decrease of action potential amplitude, and thereby presynaptic inhibition. Experiments were performed in sensory afferents of a stretch receptor in an in vitro preparation of the crayfish. Lucifer yellow intracellular labeling of sensory axons combined with GABA immunohistochemistry revealed close appositions between GABA-immunoreactive (ir) fibers and sensory axons. Most contacts were located on the main axon at the entry zone of the ganglion, close to the first branching point within the ganglion. By comparison, the output synapses of sensory afferents to target neurons were located on distal branches. The location of synaptic inputs mediating spontaneous PADs was also determined electrophysiologically by making dual intracellular recordings from single sensory axons. Inputs generating PADs appear to occur around the first axonal branching point, in agreement with the anatomical data. In this region, small PADs (3-15 mV) produced a marked reduction of action potential amplitude, whereas depolarization of the membrane potential by current injection up to 15 mV had no effect. These results suggest that the decrease of the amplitude of action potentials by single PADs results from a shunting mechanism but does not seem to involve inactivation of sodium channels. Our results also suggest that GABAergic presynaptic inhibition may act as a global control mechanism to block transmission through certain reflex pathways. PMID:10407044

  8. Synaptic Vesicle Phosphoproteins and Regulation of Synaptic Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Greengard; Flavia Valtorta; Andrew J. Czernik; Fabio Benfenati

    1993-01-01

    Complex brain functions, such as learning and memory, are believed to involve changes in the efficiency of communication between nerve cells. Therefore, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate synaptic transmission, the process of intercellular communication, is an essential step toward understanding nervous system function. Several proteins associated with synaptic vesicles, the organelles that store neurotransmitters, are targets for

  9. 5-HT7 receptors as modulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity: physiological role and possible implications in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, Lucia; Catania, Maria Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin type 7 receptors (5-HT7) are expressed in several brain areas, regulate brain development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and therefore are involved in various brain functions such as learning and memory. A number of studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptors could be potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Several abnormalities of serotonergic system have been described in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including abnormal activity of 5-HT transporter, altered blood and brain 5-HT levels, reduced 5-HT synthesis and altered expression of 5-HT receptors in the brain. A specific role for 5-HT7 receptors in ASD has not yet been demonstrated but some evidence implicates their possible involvement. We have recently shown that 5-HT7 receptor activation rescues hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic cause of autism. Several other studies have shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior, mood disorders and epilepsy, which include core and co-morbid symptoms of ASD. These findings further suggest an involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in ASD. Here, we review the physiological roles of 5-HT7 receptors and their implications in Fragile X Syndrome and other ASD. PMID:25221471

  10. Influence of organophosphate and anticholinergic agents on Ca++ -dependent processes in synaptic transmission. Final report, 15 September 1981-14 December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.H.

    1989-06-12

    The present report reviews progress over a period of 28 months in studies concerning the effects of organophosphates and anticholinergic agents on Ca++ -dependent processes in synaptic transmission. Processes which were studied include voltage-dependent and receptor operated Ca++ channels, Na+/Ca++ exchange, Ca++/Mg++ -ATPase plasma membrane pump, and ATP-dependent Ca++ uptake into endoplasmic reticulum. Initial studies focused on the effect of muscarinic receptor agonists on voltage-dependent Ca++ channels, Ca++/Mg++ -ATPase, ATP-dependent Ca++ uptake, and Na/Ca++ exchange in rat brain synaptosomes and synaptosomal membranes. These studies characterized two phases of Ca++ influx and time courses for Ca++ entry. Acute in vitro soman treatment (50 microns for 2 min) did not alter Ca++ influx through voltage-operated channels.

  11. Time-dependent modulation of GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission by allopregnanolone in locus coeruleus neurons of Mecp2-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms starting 6–18 mo after birth, while what underlies the delayed onset is unclear. Allopregnanolone (Allop) is a metabolite of progesterone and a potent modulator of GABAA-ergic currents whose defects are seen in RTT. Allop changes its concentration during the perinatal period, which may affect central neurons via the GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission, contributing to the onset of the disease. To determine whether Mecp2 disruption affects Allop modulation, we performed studies in brain slices obtained from wild-type (WT) and Mecp2?/Y mice. Allop dose dependently suppressed locus coeruleus (LC) neuronal excitability in WT mice, while Mecp2-null neurons showed significant defects. Using optogenetic approaches, channelrhodopsin was specifically expressed in GABA-ergic neurons in which optical stimulation evoked action potentials. In LC neurons of WT mice, Allop exposure increased the amplitude of GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked by optical stimulation and prolonged the IPSC decay time. Consistently, Allop augmented both frequency and amplitude of GABAA-ergic spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and extended the decay time of sIPSCs. The Allop-induced potentiation of sIPSCs was deficient in Mecp2?/Y mice. Surprisingly, the impairment occurred at 3 wk postnatal age, while no significant difference in Allop modulation was observed in 1–2 wk between WT and Mecp2?/Y mice. These results indicate that the modulation of GABAA-ergic synaptic transmission by Allop is impaired in LC neurons of Mecp2-null mice at a time when RTT-like symptoms manifest, suggesting a potential mechanism for the delayed onset of the disease. PMID:24067915

  12. Transgene-mediated GDNF expression enhances synaptic connectivity and GABA transmission to improve functional outcome after spinal cord contusion

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Angela; Feng, YongJia; Fink, David J.; Mata, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived trophic factor (GDNF) is a peptide with pleiotropic survival and growth promoting effects on neurons. We found that intraspinal injection of a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector coding for GDNF 2 hours after blunt trauma to the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord produced sustained improvement in motor behavioral outcomes up to 5 weeks following injury. The improvement in behavior correlated with an increase in synaptophysin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the spinal cord at the level of injury. Addition of recombinant GDNF protein to primary spinal cord neurons in-vitro resulted in enhanced neurite growth and a marked increase in protein levels of GAD65 and GAD67, synapsin I and synaptophysin. GDNF-mediated increases in GAD and the synaptic markers were blocked by the MEK inhibitor UO126, but not by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These results suggest that GDNF, acting through the MEK-ERK pathway enhances axonal sprouting, synaptic connectivity, and GABAergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord, that result in improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord contusion injury. PMID:20132484

  13. General Anesthesia Causes Long-term Impairment of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Synaptic Transmission in Developing Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Feinstein, Shawn D.; Lunardi, Nadia; Joksovic, Pavle M.; Boscolo, Annalisa; Todorovic, Slobodan M.; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinically used general anesthetics, alone or in combination, are damaging to the developing mammalian brain. In addition to causing widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in vulnerable brain regions, exposure to general anesthesia at the peak of synaptogenesis causes learning and memory deficiencies later in life. Our in-vivo rodent studies have suggested that activation of the intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) apoptotic pathway is the earliest warning sign of neuronal damage, suggesting that a disturbance in mitochondrial integrity and function could be the earliest triggering events. Methods Since proper and timely mitochondrial morphogenesis is critical for brain development, we examined the long-term effects of a commonly used anesthesia combination (isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and midazolam) on the regional distribution, ultrastructural properties, and electron transport chain function of mitochondria, as well as synaptic neurotransmission, in the subiculum of rat pups. Results This anesthesia, administered at the peak of synaptogenesis, causes protracted injury to mitochondria, including significant enlargement of mitochondria (over 30%, p < 0.05), impairment of their structural integrity, about 28% increase in their complex IV activity (p < 0.05) and two-fold decrease in their regional distribution in presynaptic neuronal profiles (p < 0.05) where their presence is crucially important for the normal development and functioning of synapses. Consequently, we showed that impaired mitochondrial morphogenesis is accompanied by heightened autophagic activity, decrease in mitochondrial density (about 27%, p < 0.05) and long-lasting disturbances in inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission. The interrelation of these phenomena remains to be established. Conclusion Developing mitochondria are exquisitely vulnerable to general anesthesia and may be important early target of anesthesia-induced developmental neurodegeneration. PMID:21909020

  14. Aberrant synaptic integration in adult lamina I projection neurons following neonatal tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E; Baccei, Mark L

    2015-02-11

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  15. Hydrogen sulfide augments synaptic neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Austgen, James R; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Dantzler, Heather A; Rogers, Richard C; Kline, David D

    2011-10-01

    Within the brain stem, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) serves as a principal central site for sensory afferent integration from the cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes. Neuronal activity and synaptic transmission in the NTS are highly pliable and subject to neuromodulation. In the central nervous system, hydrogen sulfide (H?S) is a gasotransmitter generated primarily by the enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS). We sought to determine the role of H?S, and its generation by CBS, in NTS excitability. Real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry analysis identified the presence of CBS in the NTS. Patch-clamp electrophysiology in brain stem slices examined excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and membrane properties in monosynaptically driven NTS neurons. Confocal imaging of labeled afferent synaptic terminals in NTS slices monitored intracellular calcium. Exogenous H?S significantly increased the amplitude of evoked solitary tract (TS)-EPSCs, frequency of miniature (m)EPSCs, and presynaptic terminal calcium fluorescence in the NTS. H?S did not alter action potential discharge or postsynaptic properties. On the other hand, the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) significantly reduced the amplitude of TS-EPSCs and presynaptic terminal calcium fluorescence in the NTS without altering postsynaptic properties. Taken together, these data support a presynaptic role for endogenous H?S in modulation of excitatory neurotransmission in the NTS. PMID:21734104

  16. Synaptic transmission between end bulbs of Held and bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus of mice with a mutation in Otoferlin.

    PubMed

    Wright, Samantha; Hwang, Youngdeok; Oertel, Donata

    2014-12-15

    Mice that carry a mutation in a calcium binding domain of Otoferlin, the putative calcium sensor at hair cell synapses, have normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), but auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) are absent. In mutant mice mechanotransduction is normal but transmission of acoustic information to the auditory pathway is blocked even before the onset of hearing. The cross-sectional area of the auditory nerve of mutant mice is reduced by 54%, and the volume of ventral cochlear nuclei is reduced by 46% relative to hearing control mice. While the tonotopic organization was not detectably changed in mutant mice, the axons to end bulbs of Held and the end bulbs themselves were smaller. In mutant mice bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (aVCN) have the electrophysiological hallmarks of control cells. Spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) occur with similar frequencies and have similar shapes in deaf as in hearing animals, but they are 24% larger in deaf mice. Bushy cells in deaf mutant mice are contacted by ?2.6 auditory nerve fibers compared with ?2.0 in hearing control mice. Furthermore, each fiber delivers more synaptic current, on average 4.8 nA compared with 3.4 nA, in deaf versus hearing control mice. The quantal content of evoked EPSCs is not different between mutant and control mice; the increase in synaptic current delivered in mutant mice is accounted for by the increased response to the size of the quanta. Although responses to shocks presented at long intervals are larger in mutant mice, they depress more rapidly than in hearing control mice. PMID:25253474

  17. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  18. Betahistine Produces Postsynaptic Inhibition of the Excitability of the Primary Afferent Neurons in the Vestibular Endorgans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Soto; Hortencia Chávez; Paolo Valli; Claudio Benvenuti; Rosario Vega

    2001-01-01

    Soto E, Chavez H, Valli P, Benvenuti C, Vega R. Betahistine produces post-synaptic inhibition of the excitability of the primary afferent neurons in the estibular endorgans. Acta Otolaryngol 2001; Suppl 545: 19-24. Betahistine has been used to treat several vestibular disorders of both central and peripheral origin. The objective of this work was to study the action of betahistine in

  19. Neuronal MHC Class I Molecules are Involved in Excitatory Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses of Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingyue; Schlumbohm, Christina; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Flügge, Gabriele; Zhang, Weiqi; Walter, Lutz; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies suggested a role for neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of rodents. Here, we report for the first time on the expression pattern and functional properties of MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). We detected a presynaptic, mossy fiber-specific localization of MHCI proteins within the marmoset hippocampus. MHCI molecules were present in the large, VGlut1-positive, mossy fiber terminals, which provide input to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices of the common marmoset demonstrated that application of antibodies which specifically block MHCI proteins caused a significant decrease in the frequency, and a transient increase in the amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. These findings add to previous studies on neuronal MHCI molecules by describing their expression and localization in the primate hippocampus and by implicating them in plasticity-related processes at the mossy fiber–CA3 synapses. In addition, our results suggest significant interspecies differences in the localization of neuronal MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of mice and marmosets, as well as in their potential function in these species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10571-010-9510-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20232136

  20. Synaptic retinoic acid signaling and homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Lau, Anthony G.; Sarti, Federica

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining features of the nervous system is its ability to modify synaptic strength in an experience-dependent manner. Chronic elevation or reduction of network activity activates compensatory mechanisms that modulate synaptic strength in the opposite direction (i.e. reduced network activity leads to increased synaptic strength), a process called homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Among the many mechanisms that mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity, retinoic acid (RA) has emerged as a novel signaling molecule that is critically involved in homeostatic synaptic plasticity induced by blockade of synaptic activity. In neurons, silencing of synaptic transmission triggers RA synthesis. RA then acts at synapses by a non-genomic mechanism that is independent of its well-known function as a transcriptional regulator, but operates through direct activation of protein translation in neuronal dendrites. Protein synthesis is activated by RA-binding to its receptor RAR?, which functions locally in dendrites in a non-canonical manner as an RNA-binding protein that mediate RA’s effect on translation. The present review will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the novel role of RA, which led to the identification of RA as a critical synaptic signaling molecule that mediates activity-dependent regulation of protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Homeostatic Plasticity’. PMID:23270606

  1. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely contacted Type B and Type C hair cells, particularly on the outer rows of the medial striola. Afferents supplying more central striolar regions innervated fewer Type B and larger numbers of Type E and Type F hair cells. Striolar afferents with thin parent axons largely supplied Type E hair cells with bulbed kniocilia in the innermost striolar rows.

  2. High Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Leads to Presynaptic GABA(B)-Dependent Depression of Subthalamo-Nigral Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dvorzhak, Anton; Gertler, Christoph; Harnack, Daniel; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Patients with akinesia benefit from chronic high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Among the mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic success of HFS-STN might be a suppression of activity in the output region of the basal ganglia. Indeed, recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of fully adult mice revealed that HFS-STN consistently produced a reduction of compound glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents at a time when the tetrodotoxin-sensitive components of the local field potentials had already recovered after the high frequency activation. These observations suggest that HFS-STN not only alters action potential conduction on the way towards the SNr but also modifies synaptic transmission within the SNr. A classical conditioning-test paradigm was then designed to better separate the causes from the indicators of synaptic depression. A bipolar platinum-iridium macroelectrode delivered conditioning HFS trains to a larger group of fibers in the STN, while a separate high-ohmic glass micropipette in the rostral SNr provided test stimuli at minimal intensity to single fibers. The conditioning-test interval was set to 100 ms, i.e. the time required to recover the excitability of subthalamo-nigral axons after HFS-STN. The continuity of STN axons passing from the conditioning to the test sites was examined by an action potential occlusion test. About two thirds of the subthalamo-nigral afferents were occlusion-negative, i.e. they were not among the fibers directly activated by the conditioning STN stimulation. Nonetheless, occlusion-negative afferents exhibited signs of presynaptic depression that could be eliminated by blocking GABA(B) receptors with CGP55845 (1 µM). Further analysis of single fiber-activated responses supported the proposal that the heterosynaptic depression of synaptic glutamate release during and after HFS-STN is mainly caused by the tonic release of GABA from co-activated striato-nigral afferents to the SNr. This mechanism would be consistent with a gain-of-function hypothesis of DBS. PMID:24376521

  3. Neuromodulatory effect of GnRH on the synaptic transmission of the olfactory bulbar neural circuit in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takafumi; Abe, Hideki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is well known as a hypophysiotropic hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and facilitates the release of gonadotropins from the pituitary gonadotropes. On the other hand, the functions of extrahypothalamic GnRH systems still remain elusive. Here we examined whether the activity of the olfactory bulbar neural circuits is modulated by GnRH that originates mainly from the terminal nerve (TN) GnRH system in goldfish (Carassius auratus). As the morphological basis, we first observed that goldfish TNs mainly express salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNA and that sGnRH-immunoreactive fibers are distributed in both the mitral and the granule cell layers. We then examined by extracellular recordings the effect of GnRH on the electrically evoked in vitro field potentials that arise from synaptic activities from mitral to granule cells. We found that GnRH enhances the amplitude of the field potentials. Furthermore, these effects were observed in both cases when the field potentials were evoked by stimulating either the lateral or the medial olfactory tract, conveying functionally different sensory information, separately, and suggesting that GnRH may modulate the responsiveness to wide categories of odorants in the olfactory bulb. Because GnRH also changed the paired-pulse ratio, it is suggested that the increased amplitude of the field potential results from changes in the presynaptic glutamate release of mitral cells rather than the increase in the glutamate receptor sensitivity of granule cells. These results suggest that TN regulates the olfactory responsiveness of animals appropriately by releasing sGnRH peptides in the olfactory bulbar neural circuits. PMID:20962071

  4. Reciprocal synapses between inner hair cell spines and afferent dendrites in the organ of corti of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sobkowicz, Hanna M; Slapnick, Susan M; August, Benjamin K

    2003-10-01

    We provide, for the first time, ultrastructural evidence for the differentiation of reciprocal synapses between afferent dendrites of spiral ganglion neurons and inner hair cells. Cochlear synaptogenesis of inner hair cells in the mouse occurs in two phases: before and after the onset of hearing at 9-10 postnatal (PN) days. In the first phase, inner hair cells acquire afferent innervation (1-5 PN). Reciprocal synapses form around 9-10 PN on spinous processes emitted by inner hair cells into the dendritic terminals, predominantly in conjunction with ribbon afferent synapses. During the second phase, which lasts up to 14 PN, synaptogenesis is led by the olivocochlear fibers of the lateral bundle, which induce the formation of compound and spinous synapses. The afferent dendrites themselves also develop recurrent presynaptic spines or form mounds of synaptic vesicles apposed directly across inner hair cell ribbon synapses. Thus, in the adult 2-month mouse, afferent dendrites of spiral ganglion neurons are not only postsynaptic but also presynaptic to inner hair cells, providing a synaptic loop for an immediate feedback response. Reciprocal synapses, together with triadic, converging, and serial synapses, are an integral part of the afferent ribbon synapse complex. We define the neuronal circuitry of the inner hair cell and propose that these minicircuits form synaptic trains that provide the neurological basis for local cochlear encoding of the initial acoustic signals. PMID:12872294

  5. Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Juan; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Couve, Alejandro; Buńo, Washington; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of pre-postsynaptic activity is vital for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) at many central synapses. We show in synapses of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro that spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols that induce LTP at glutamatergic synapses can evoke LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents or STDP-iLTD. The STDP-iLTD requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) increase, a release of endocannabinoids (eCBs), the activation of type-1 endocananabinoid receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors that mediate a decreased probability of GABA release. In contrast, the STDP-iLTD is independent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, GABAB Rs and G protein-coupled postsynaptic receptors at pyramidal neurons. We determine that the downregulation of presynaptic Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein Kinase A pathways is essential for the induction of STDP-iLTD. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the activation of cholinergic neurons and retrograde signaling by eCBs can modulate the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission in ways that may contribute to information processing and storage in the hippocampus. PMID:23966210

  6. Calcium stores and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Collingridge, Graham L

    2002-01-01

    Chemical transmission at central synapses is known to be highly plastic; the strength of synaptic connections can be modified bi-directionally as a result of activity at individual synapses. Long-term changes in synaptic efficacy, both increases and decreases, are thought to be involved in the development of the nervous system, and in ongoing changes in response to external cues such as during learning and addiction. Other, shorter lasting changes in synaptic transmission are also likely to be important in normal functioning of the CNS. Calcium mobilisation is an important step in multiple forms of plasticity and, although entry into neurones from the extracellular space is often the initial trigger for plasticity changes, release of calcium from intracellular stores also has an important part to play in a variety of forms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:12543099

  7. Role of P2 purinergic receptors in synaptic transmission under normoxic and ischaemic conditions in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E.

    2007-01-01

    The role of ATP and its stable analogue ATP?S [adenosine-5?-o-(3-thio)triphosphate] was studied in rat hippocampal neurotransmission under normoxic conditions and during oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from the dendritic layer or population spikes (PSs) from the soma were extracellularly recorded in the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus. Exogenous application of ATP or ATP?S reduced fEPSP and PS amplitudes. In both cases the inhibitory effect was blocked by the selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) and was potentiated by different ecto-ATPase inhibitors: ARL 67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-D-?,?-dibromomethylene), BGO 136 (1-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonate) and PV4 [hexapotassium dihydrogen monotitanoundecatungstocobaltate(II) tridecahydrate, K6H2[TiW11CoO40]·13H2O]. ATP?S-mediated inhibition was reduced by the P2 antagonist suramin [8-(3-benzamido-4-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulfonate] at the somatic level and by other P2 blockers, PPADS (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulfonate) and MRS 2179 (2?-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine 3?,5?-bisphosphate), at the dendritic level. After removal of both P2 agonists, a persistent increase in evoked synaptic responses was recorded both at the dendritic and somatic levels. This effect was prevented in the presence of different P2 antagonists. A 7-min OGD induced tissue anoxic depolarization and was invariably followed by irreversible loss of fEPSP. PPADS, suramin, MRS2179 or BBG (brilliant blue G) significantly prevented the irreversible failure of neurotransmission induced by 7-min OGD. Furthermore, in the presence of these P2 antagonists, the development of anoxic depolarization was blocked or significantly delayed. Our results indicate that P2 receptors modulate CA1 synaptic transmission under normoxic conditions by eliciting both inhibitory and excitatory effects. In the same brain region, P2 receptor stimulation plays a deleterious role during a severe OGD insult. PMID:18404434

  8. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN) suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to noxious events. Moreover, these modifications of cingulate synapses appear to regulate afferent signals that may be important to the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions associated with persistent peripheral noxious stimulation. Enhanced and maintained nociceptive activities in cingulate cortex, therefore, can become adverse and it will be important to learn how to regulate such changes in thalamic firing patterns that transmit nociceptive information to ACC in early stages of chronic pain. PMID:19732417

  9. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Panatier, Aude; Gentles, Stephen J; Bourque, Charles W; Oliet, Stéphane H R

    2006-06-15

    Activity-dependent long-term synaptic changes were investigated at glutamatergic synapses in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the rat hypothalamus. In acute hypothalamic slices, high frequency stimulation (HFS) of afferent fibres caused long-term potentiation (LTP) of the amplitude of AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. LTP was also obtained in response to membrane depolarization paired with mild afferent stimulation. On the other hand, stimulating the inputs at 5 Hz for 3 min at resting membrane potential caused long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory transmission in the SON. These forms of synaptic plasticity required the activation of NMDA receptors since they were abolished in the presence of D-AP5 or ifenprodil, two selective blockers of these receptors. Analysis of paired-pulse facilitation and trial-to-trial variability indicated that LTP and LTD were not associated with changes in the probability of transmitter release, thereby suggesting that the locus of expression of these phenomena was postsynaptic. Using sharp microelectrode recordings in a hypothalamic explant preparation, we found that HFS also generates LTP at functionally defined glutamatergic synapses formed between the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis and SON neurons. Taken together, our findings indicate that glutamatergic synapses in the SON exhibit activity-dependent long-term synaptic changes similar to those prevailing in other brain areas. Such forms of plasticity could play an important role in the context of physiological responses, like dehydration or lactation, where the activity of presynaptic glutamatergic neurons is strongly increased. PMID:16613872

  10. Modulation of synaptic transmission and analysis of neuroprotective effects of valproic Acid and derivates in rat embryonic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Ragancokova, D; Song, Y; Nau, H; Dengler, R; Krampfl, K; Petri, S

    2010-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating motoneuron disorder for which no effective treatment exists. There is some evidence for neuroprotective effects of valproic acid (VPA). The beneficial effects, however, are limited due to the adverse effects of VPA. To overcome this problem, a number of VPA derivates with fewer side effects have been synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the viability of highly purified embryonic motoneurons cultured on glial feeder layers, composed of either astrocytes or Schwann cells, or in monoculture, in presence of VPA and its three derivates 3-propyl-heptanoic acid (3-PHA), PE-4-yn enantiomers (R- and S-PE-4-yn). An excitotoxic stimulus, kainate (KA), was added at day in vitro 9 (DIV9) and the neuroprotective effect of either simultaneous incubation (DIV9) or pre-incubation (DIV1) of VPA and its derivates was tested. The survival of motoneurons under simultaneous application of KA and VPA derivates was not remarkably increased. Pre-incubation with VPA and even more with the derivates before the addition of KA, however, significantly reduced their vulnerability against the KA-induced neurotoxic effect. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective capacities of VPA and its three derivates tested here drastically increase when they are added several days before KA. Most prominent neuroprotective effects were seen for the PE-4-yn enantiomers. Patch-clamp experiments revealed an antiexcitotoxic effect of the S-PE-4-yn enantiomer that reduces the frequency of postsynaptic currents and enhances the inhibitory postsynaptic transmission dependent on the co-culture condition. PMID:20422280

  11. Vagal Afferent NMDA Receptors Modulate CCK-Induced Reduction of Food Intake Through Synapsin I Phosphorylation in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Hiroko; Silvas, Michael; Page, Stephen; Ritter, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Vagal afferent nerve fibers transmit gastrointestinal satiation signals to the brain via synapses in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Despite their pivotal role in energy homeostasis, little is known about the cellular mechanisms enabling fleeting synaptic events at vagal sensory endings to sustain behavioral changes lasting minutes to hours. Previous reports suggest that the reduction of food intake by the satiation peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK), requires activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) in the NTS, with subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in NTS vagal afferent terminals. The synaptic vesicle protein synapsin I is phosphorylated by pERK1/2 at serines 62 and 67. This pERK1/2-catalyzed phosphorylation increases synaptic strength by increasing the readily releasable pool of the neurotransmitter. Conversely, dephosphorylation of serines 62 and 67 by calcineurin reduces the size of the readily releasable transmitter pool. Hence, the balance of synapsin I phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can modulate synaptic strength. We postulated that CCK-evoked activation of vagal afferent NMDARs results in pERK1/2-catalyzed phosphorylation of synapsin I in vagal afferent terminals, leading to the suppression of food intake. We found that CCK injection increased the phosphorylation of synapsin I in the NTS and that this increase is abolished after surgical or chemical ablation of vagal afferent fibers. Furthermore, fourth ventricle injection of an NMDAR antagonist or the mitogen-activated ERK kinase inhibitor blocked CCK-induced synapsin I phosphorylation, indicating that synapsin phosphorylation in vagal afferent terminals depends on NMDAR activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, hindbrain inhibition of calcineurin enhanced and prolonged synapsin I phosphorylation and potentiated reduction of food intake by CCK. Our findings are consistent with a mechanism in which NMDAR-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 modulates satiation signals via synapsin I phosphorylation in vagal afferent endings. PMID:23715865

  12. Specific Trans-Synaptic Interaction with Inhibitory Interneuronal Neurexin Underlies Differential Ability of Neuroligins to Induce Functional Inhibitory Synapses

    E-print Network

    Futai, Kensuke

    Synaptic transmission depends on the matching and alignment of presynaptically released transmitters and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Neuroligin (NL) and Neurexin (Nrxn) proteins are trans-synaptic adhesion ...

  13. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Buran, B.N.; Strenzke, N.; Neef, A.; Gundelfinger, E.D.; Moser, T.; Liberman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the pre-synaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In Bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed fewer than 3% of the hair cells’ afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range and post-onset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase-lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system. PMID:20519533

  14. Ionotropic P2X purinoreceptors mediate synaptic transmission in rat pyramidal neurones of layer II/III of somato-sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Y; Lalo, U; Krishtal, O; Verkhratsky, A

    2002-07-15

    Fast P2X receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) was identified in pyramidal neurones of layer II/III of somato-sensory cortex in acutely isolated slices obtained from the brain of 17- to 22-day-old rats. The EPSCs were elicited by electrical stimulation of vertical axons originating from layer IV-VI neurones at 0.1 Hz in the presence of bicuculline. When the glutamatergic EPSC was blocked by saturating concentrations of glutamate receptor inhibitors 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo-[f]-quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), a small EPSC component was recorded from 90 % of neurones tested. This residual EPSC was not affected by selective blockers of nicotinic (hexamethonium) or serotonin (N-(1-azabicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide hydrochloride, Y-25130) receptors, but it was reversibly inhibited by the antagonists of P2X receptors NF023 (8,8'-[carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)]bis-1,3,5-naphthalene-trisulphonic acid), NF279 (8,8'-[carbonylbis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)]bis-1,3,5-naphthalene-trisulphonic acid) and PPADS (pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid). Application of ATP (10 microM) or alpha,beta-methylene ATP (10 microM) to pyramidal neurones, acutely isolated from cortical slices, evoked inward currents (30 to 200 pA) in 65 % of cells tested. The relative calcium/caesium permeability (P(Ca)/P(Cs)) of P2X receptors was 12.3 as estimated from the reversal potential of ATP-induced current measured at different extracellular calcium concentrations. We concluded that P2X purinoreceptors are activated during synaptic transmission in neocortex. PMID:12122150

  15. Ionotropic P2X purinoreceptors mediate synaptic transmission in rat pyramidal neurones of layer II/III of somato-sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pankratov, Y; Lalo, U; Krishtal, O; Verkhratsky, A

    2002-01-01

    Fast P2X receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) was identified in pyramidal neurones of layer II/III of somato-sensory cortex in acutely isolated slices obtained from the brain of 17- to 22-day-old rats. The EPSCs were elicited by electrical stimulation of vertical axons originating from layer IV-VI neurones at 0.1 Hz in the presence of bicuculline. When the glutamatergic EPSC was blocked by saturating concentrations of glutamate receptor inhibitors 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo-[f]-quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), a small EPSC component was recorded from 90 % of neurones tested. This residual EPSC was not affected by selective blockers of nicotinic (hexamethonium) or serotonin (N-(1-azabicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide hydrochloride, Y-25130) receptors, but it was reversibly inhibited by the antagonists of P2X receptors NF023 (8,8?-[carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)]bis-1,3,5-naphthalene-trisulphonic acid), NF279 (8,8?-[carbonylbis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)]bis-1,3,5-naphthalene-trisulphonic acid) and PPADS (pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid). Application of ATP (10 ?m) or ?,?-methylene ATP (10 ?m) to pyramidal neurones, acutely isolated from cortical slices, evoked inward currents (30 to 200 pA) in 65 % of cells tested. The relative calcium/caesium permeability (PCa/PCs) of P2X receptors was 12.3 as estimated from the reversal potential of ATP-induced current measured at different extracellular calcium concentrations. We concluded that P2X purinoreceptors are activated during synaptic transmission in neocortex. PMID:12122150

  16. Homotaurine Induces Measurable Changes of Short Latency Afferent Inhibition in a Group of Mild Cognitive Impairment Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Manenti, Guglielmo; Semprini, Roberta; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment options for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are limited at providing symptomatic relief, with no effects on the underlying pathophysiology. Recently, advances in the understanding of the AD pathogenesis highlighted the role of ABeta (A?) oligomers particularly interfering with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These findings led to the development of potential anti-amyloid therapies, and among them homotaurine, a glycosaminoglycan mimetic designed to interfere with the actions of A? early in the cascade of amyloidogenic events, and by its ?-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) A receptor affinity. Recently, we showed that AD patients have impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as measured by standard theta burst stimulation protocols applied over the primary motor cortex (M1). Furthermore, AD patients have a weakened short latency afferent inhibition (SLAI), a neurophysiological measure of central cholinergic transmission, which changes reflect the cholinergic dysfunction occurring in the pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating whether homotaurine administration could modulate in vivo measured mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, namely LTP and LTD, and also SLAI in a group of mild cognitive impaired patients. We observed that homotaurine administration did not induce relevant changes of both LTP and LTD recordings, while induced changes of SLAI in our group of patients. We suggest that homotaurine effects are dependent on changes of cortical GABA transmission suggesting a potential role for this compound in ameliorating the cholinergic transmission by modulating the inhibitory cortical activity. PMID:25295005

  17. Homotaurine induces measurable changes of short latency afferent inhibition in a group of mild cognitive impairment individuals.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Manenti, Guglielmo; Semprini, Roberta; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment options for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are limited at providing symptomatic relief, with no effects on the underlying pathophysiology. Recently, advances in the understanding of the AD pathogenesis highlighted the role of ABeta (A?) oligomers particularly interfering with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These findings led to the development of potential anti-amyloid therapies, and among them homotaurine, a glycosaminoglycan mimetic designed to interfere with the actions of A? early in the cascade of amyloidogenic events, and by its ?-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) A receptor affinity. Recently, we showed that AD patients have impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as measured by standard theta burst stimulation protocols applied over the primary motor cortex (M1). Furthermore, AD patients have a weakened short latency afferent inhibition (SLAI), a neurophysiological measure of central cholinergic transmission, which changes reflect the cholinergic dysfunction occurring in the pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating whether homotaurine administration could modulate in vivo measured mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, namely LTP and LTD, and also SLAI in a group of mild cognitive impaired patients. We observed that homotaurine administration did not induce relevant changes of both LTP and LTD recordings, while induced changes of SLAI in our group of patients. We suggest that homotaurine effects are dependent on changes of cortical GABA transmission suggesting a potential role for this compound in ameliorating the cholinergic transmission by modulating the inhibitory cortical activity. PMID:25295005

  18. Impaired synaptic clustering of postsynaptic density proteins and altered signal transmission in hippocampal neurons, and disrupted learning behavior in PDZ1 and PDZ2 ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 knockin mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) are scaffold proteins in PSDs that cluster signaling molecules near NMDA receptors. PSD-MAGUKs share a common domain structure, including three PDZ (PDZ1/2/3) domains in their N-terminus. While multiple domains enable the PSD-MAGUKs to bind various ligands, the contribution of each PDZ domain to synaptic organization and function is not fully understood. Here, we focused on the PDZ1/2 domains of PSD-95 that bind NMDA-type receptors, and studied the specific roles of the ligand binding of these domains in the assembly of PSD proteins, synaptic properties of hippocampal neurons, and behavior, using ligand binding-deficient PSD-95 cDNA knockin (KI) mice. Results The KI mice showed decreased accumulation of mutant PSD-95, PSD-93 and AMPA receptor subunits in the PSD fraction of the hippocampus. In the hippocampal CA1 region of young KI mice, basal synaptic efficacy was reduced and long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced with intact long-term depression. In adult KI mice, there was no significant change in the magnitude of LTP in CA1, but robustly enhanced LTP was induced at the medial perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses, suggesting that PSD-95 has an age- and subregion-dependent role. In a battery of behavioral tests, KI mice showed markedly abnormal anxiety-like behavior, impaired spatial reference and working memory, and impaired remote memory and pattern separation in fear conditioning test. Conclusions These findings reveal that PSD-95 including its ligand binding of the PDZ1/2 domains controls the synaptic clustering of PSD-MAGUKs and AMPA receptors, which may have an essential role in regulating hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity, and hippocampus-dependent behavior. PMID:23268962

  19. Role of Afferents in the Differentiation of Bipolar Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Patrick W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

    2010-01-01

    To establish dendritic arbors that integrate properly into a neural circuit, neurons must rely on cues from the local environment. The neurons presynaptic to these arbors, the afferents, are one potential source of these cues, but the particular dendritic features they regulate remain unclear. Retinal bipolar cells can be classified by the type of photoreceptor, cone or rod, forming synaptic contacts with their dendrites, suggesting a potential role of these afferents in shaping the bipolar cell dendritic arbor. In the present investigation, the role of photoreceptors in directing the differentiation of bipolar cells has been studied using two genetically modified “coneless” and “conefull” mice. Single cone (Type 7) and rod bipolar cells were labeled with DiI to reveal the entire dendritic arbor, and subsequently analyzed for several morphological features. For both cone and rod bipolar cells, the dendritic field area, number of dendritic terminals, and stratification of terminals in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were comparable among coneless, conefull, and wildtype retinas, and the overall morphological appearance of each type of cell was largely conserved, indicating an independence from afferent specification. The presence of normal afferents was, however, found to be critical for the proper spatial distribution of dendritic terminals, exhibiting a clustered distribution for the cone bipolar cells and a dispersed distribution for the rod bipolar cells. These results demonstrate a selectivity in the afferent dependency of bipolar cell differentiation, their basic morphogenetic plan commanded cell-intrinsically, and their fine terminal connectivity directed by the afferents themselves. PMID:20130177

  20. FMRFamide-related peptide expression in the vestibular-afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván; Ortega, Aida; Almanza, Angélica; Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario

    2012-03-28

    Vestibular-afferent neurons innervate hair cells from the sensory epithelia of vestibular end-organs and their action-potential discharge dynamics are driven by linear and angular accelerations of the head. The electrical activity of the vestibular-afferent neurons depends on their intrinsic properties and on the synaptic input from hair cells and from the terminals of the efferent system. Here we report that vestibular-afferent neurons of the rat are immunoreactive to RFamide-related peptides, and that the stronger signal comes from calyx-shaped neuron dendrites, with no signal detected in hair cells or supporting cells. The whole-cell voltage clamp recording of isolated afferent neurons showed that they express robust acid-sensing ionic currents (ASICs). Extracellular multiunit recordings of the vestibular nerve in a preparation in vitro of the rat inner ear showed that the perfusion of FMRFamide (a snail ortholog of this family of neuropeptides) exerts an excitatory effect on the afferent-neurons spike-discharge rate. Because the FMRFamide cannot activate the ASIC but reduces its desensitization generating a more robust current, its effect indicates that the ASIC are tonically active in the vestibular-afferent neurons and modulated by RFamide-like peptides. PMID:22342307

  1. Variation in response dynamics of regular and irregular vestibular-nerve afferents during sinusoidal head rotations and currents in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Sung; Minor, Lloyd B; Della Santina, Charles C; Lasker, David M

    2011-05-01

    In mammals, vestibular-nerve afferents that innervate only type I hair cells (calyx-only afferents) respond nearly in phase with head acceleration for high-frequency motion, whereas afferents that innervate both type I and type II (dimorphic) or only type II (bouton-only) hair cells respond more in phase with head velocity. Afferents that exhibit irregular background discharge rates have a larger phase lead re-head velocity than those that fire more regularly. The goal of this study was to investigate the cause of the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents at high-frequency head rotations. Under the assumption that externally applied galvanic currents act directly on the nerve, we derived a transfer function describing the dynamics of a semicircular canal and its hair cells through comparison of responses to sinusoidally modulated head velocity and currents. Responses of all afferents were fit well with a transfer function with one zero (lead term). Best-fit lead terms describing responses to current for each group of afferents were similar to the lead term describing responses to head velocity for regular afferents (0.006 s + 1). This finding indicated that the pre-synaptic and synaptic inputs to regular afferents were likely to be pure velocity transducers. However, the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents could not be explained solely by the ratio of type I to II hair cells (Baird et al 1988), suggesting that the variation was caused by a combination of pre- (type of hair cell) and post-synaptic properties. PMID:21369854

  2. Cyclooxygenase2 inhibitor inhibits the hippocampal synaptic reorganization by inhibiting MAPK\\/ERK activity and modulating GABAergic transmission in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Haiju; Sun Ruopeng; Lei Gefei; Yang Lu; Liu Chunxi

    2009-01-01

    Recurring and spontaneous seizures in epilepsy result from cell signaling aberrations thought to include synaptic reorganization\\u000a and various neurotransmitter abnormalities, especially gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)\\u000a activity produces oxidative stress and results in the production of prostaglandins that have many injurious effects. COX-2\\u000a transcription is induced by synaptic activity; therefore COX-2 may play a significant role in

  3. Synaptic Tag

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor activity, learners review the parts of the synapse and their functions by playing a game. The object of the game is to get as many neurotransmitters across the synapse to the dendrite without being caught (deactivated) by the enzyme. This game models the process by which enzymes break down neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine) in the synaptic cleft.

  4. Altered synaptic transmission at olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals in mice lacking N-type calcium channel Cav2.2.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jan; Pyrski, Martina; Weissgerber, Petra; Zufall, Frank

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the role of voltage-activated calcium (Cav) channels for synaptic transmission at mouse olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals at the first synapse of the main and accessory olfactory pathways, respectively. We provided evidence for a central role of the N-type Cav channel subunit Cav2.2 in presynaptic transmitter release at these synapses. Striking Cav2.2 immunoreactivity was localised to the glomerular neuropil of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), and co-localised with presynaptic molecules such as bassoon. Voltage-clamp recordings of sensory nerve-evoked, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in mitral/tufted (M/T) and superficial tufted cells of the MOB and mitral cells of the AOB, in combination with established subtype-specific Cav channel toxins, indicated a predominant role of N-type channels in transmitter release at these synapses, whereas L-type, P/Q-type, and R-type channels had either no or only relatively minor contributions. In Cacna1b mutant mice lacking the Cav2.2 (?1B) subunit of N-type channels, olfactory nerve-evoked M/T cell EPSCs were not reduced but became blocker-resistant, thus indicating a major reorganisation and compensation of Cav channel subunits as a result of the Cav2.2 deletion at this synapse. Cav2.2-deficient mice also revealed that Cav2.2 was critically required for paired-pulse depression of olfactory nerve-evoked EPSCs in M/T cells of the MOB, and they demonstrated an essential requirement for Cav2.2 in vomeronasal nerve-evoked EPSCs of AOB mitral cells. Thus, Cacna1b loss-of-function mutations are unlikely to cause general anosmia but Cacna1b emerges as a strong candidate in the search for mutations causing altered olfactory perception, such as changes in general olfactory sensitivity and altered social responses to chemostimuli. PMID:25195871

  5. Pharmacology of airway afferent nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Undem, Bradley J; Carr, Michael J

    2001-01-01

    Afferent nerves in the airways serve to regulate breathing pattern, cough, and airway autonomic neural tone. Pharmacologic agents that influence afferent nerve activity can be subclassified into compounds that modulate activity by indirect means (e.g. bronchial smooth muscle spasmogens) and those that act directly on the nerves. Directly acting agents affect afferent nerve activity by interacting with various ion channels and receptors within the membrane of the afferent terminals. Whether by direct or indirect means, most compounds that enter the airspace will modify afferent nerve activity, and through this action alter airway physiology. PMID:11686889

  6. Ultrastructural differences among afferent synapses on cochlear hair cells: correlations with spontaneous discharge rate.

    PubMed

    Merchan-Perez, A; Liberman, M C

    1996-07-22

    The major class of cochlear afferent fibers, the type-I or radial-fiber (RF) population, has been subdivided into three functional groups according to spontaneous discharge rate (SR): those with low SR have the highest acoustic thresholds, high SR fibers have the lowest thresholds and medium SR fibers are of intermediate sensitivity (Liberman [1978] J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 63:442-455). Existing evidence from intracellular labeling studies at the light microscopic level (Liberman [1982a] Science 216:1239-1241) suggests that a single cochlear inner hair cell makes synaptic contact with representatives of all three functional groups; however, low and medium SR fibers are spatially segregated from high SR fibers around the hair cell circumference, and low and medium SR fibers are smaller in caliber than those with high SR. The present study extends to the ultrastructural level the structure-function correlations available via intracellular labeling. Analysis is based on serial section reconstruction of the synaptic contacts between 11 radial fibers of known SR and their target hair cells. Results suggest systematic differences in synaptic ultrastructure among fibers of the three SR groups: with decreasing SR, the size and complexity of the synaptic body (a presynaptic specialization characteristic of the peripheral afferent synapses in all hair cell systems and some other peripheral receptors) tend to increase, as does the associated number of synaptic vesicles. The possible functional significance of these trends is discussed in the context of other known structural and functional differences among the three SR groups. PMID:8835727

  7. Nonnociceptive afferent activity depresses nocifensive behavior and nociceptive synapses via an endocannabinoid-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sharleen

    2013-01-01

    Previously, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a nonnociceptive touch-sensitive neuron has been found to elicit endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in nociceptive synapses in the leech central nervous system (CNS) that requires activation of a presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-like receptor by postsynaptically synthesized 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). This capacity of nonnociceptive afferent activity to reduce nociceptive signaling resembles gate control of pain, albeit longer lasting in these synaptic experiments. Since eCB-LTD has been observed at a single sensory-motor synapse, this study examines the functional relevance of this mechanism, specifically whether this form of synaptic plasticity has similar effects at the behavioral level in which additional, intersegmental neural circuits are engaged. Experiments were carried out using a semi-intact preparation that permitted both synaptic recordings and monitoring of the leech whole body shortening, a defensive withdrawal reflex that was elicited via intracellular stimulation of a single nociceptive neuron (the N cell). The same LFS of a nonnociceptive afferent that induced eCB-LTD in single synapses also produced an attenuation of the shortening reflex. Similar attenuation of behavior was also observed when 2-AG was applied. LFS-induced behavioral and synaptic depression was blocked by tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and by SB366791, a TRPV1 antagonist. The effects of both THL and SB366791 were observed following either bath application of the drug or intracellular injection into the presynaptic (SB366791) or postsynaptic (THL) neuron. These findings demonstrate a novel, endocannabinoid-based mechanism by which nonnociceptive afferent activity may modulate nocifensive behaviors via action on primary afferent synapses. PMID:24027102

  8. ?(5)GABA(A) receptors mediate primary afferent fiber tonic excitability in the turtle spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; Canto-Bustos, Martha; Aguilar, Justo; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Felix, Ricardo; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2013-11-01

    ?-Amino butyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of central nervous system by activating synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. It is acknowledged that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors located in the soma, dendrites, and axons may be activated tonically by low extracellular GABA concentrations. The activation of these receptors produces a persistent conductance that can hyperpolarize or depolarize nerve cells depending on the Cl(-) equilibrium potential. In an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord we show that extrasynaptic ?5GABAA receptors mediate the tonic state of excitability of primary afferents independently of the phasic primary afferent depolarization mediated by synaptic GABAA receptors. Blockade of ?5GABAA receptors with the inverse agonist L-655,708 depressed the dorsal root reflex (DRR) without affecting the phasic increase in excitability of primary afferents. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we corroborated the presence of the mRNA and the ?5GABAA protein in the dorsal root ganglia of the turtle spinal cord. The receptors were localized in primary afferents in dorsal root, dorsal root ganglia, and peripheral nerve terminals using immunoconfocal microscopy. Considering the implications of the DRR in neurogenic inflammation, ?5GABAA receptors may serve as potential pharmacological targets for the treatment of pain. PMID:23966669

  9. Cholinergic afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the rat.

    PubMed

    Turi, Gergely F; Liposits, Zsolt; Hrabovszky, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons represent the final common pathway in the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction and their secretory activity is influenced by a variety of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators acting centrally in synaptic afferents to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The present study examined the anatomical relationship of cholinergic neuronal pathways and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the preoptic area. The immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase or vesicular acetylcholine transporter revealed a fine network of cholinergic fibers in this region. At the light microscopic level, the cholinergic axons formed appositions to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. Results of electron microscopic studies confirmed the absence of glial interpositions in many of these neuronal contacts. Classical cholinergic synapses, which belonged to the asymmetric category, were only observed rarely on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The lack of synaptic density in most contacts corroborates previous observations on the cholinergic system elsewhere in the brain. Further, it suggests a dominantly non-synaptic route also in this cholinergic neuronal communication. This study provides direct neuromorphological evidence for the involvement of the cholinergic system in the afferent neuronal regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. The sources of cholinergic afferents and the receptorial mechanisms underlying this interaction will require further clarification. PMID:17933433

  10. Synaptic transmission is impaired prior to plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing mice without altering behaviorally-correlated sharp wave–ripple complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hermann; M. Both; U. Ebert; G. Gross; H. Schoemaker; A. Draguhn; K. Wicke; V. Nimmrich

    2009-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in brains of affected patients. Several recent studies provided evidence that soluble oligomer forms of amyloid-? (A?) rather than plaques determine cognitive decline. In vitro studies using artificial A? oligomer preparations suggest that such pathophysiology is caused by a specific impairment of synaptic function. We examined whether

  11. BL4234 Synaptic transmission Organiser: Dr W.-C. Li (Prof. K.T. Sillar, Dr G.B. Miles, Dr. W.J. Heitler)

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    is not only diverse but also dynamic. It is critically important to understand the basic mechanisms practicals. Teaching: Weekly lectures (7 x 1 hour), labs (2 x 2 hours), paper presentations and discussion (6 fast electrical signals. · How synaptic strength changes with neuronal activity and during development

  12. Novel Afferent Terminal Structure in the Crista Ampullaris of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, Pamela J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1996-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we have identified a new type of afferent terminal structure in the crista ampullaris of the goldfish Carassius auratus. In addition to the bouton-type afferent terminals previously described in the ear of this species, the crista also contained enlarged afferent terminals that enveloped a portion of the basolateral hair cell membrane. The hair cell membrane was evaginated and protruded into the afferent terminal in a glove-and-finger configuration. The membranes of the two cells were regularly aligned in the protruded region of the contact and had a distinct symmetrical electron density. The electron-dense profiles of these contacts were easily identified and were present in every crista sampled. In some cases, efferent terminals synapsed onto the afferents at a point where the hair cell protruded into the terminal. The ultrastructural similarities of the goldfish crista afferents to calyx afferents found in amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals) are discussed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that structural variation in the vertebrate inner ear may have evolved much earlier in evolution than previously supposed.

  13. A Model of Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity: From Signaling Network to Channel Conductance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellani, Gastone C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.; Bersani, Ferdinando; Cooper, Leon N.; Shouval, Harel Z.

    2005-01-01

    In many regions of the brain, including the mammalian cortex, the strength of synaptic transmission can be bidirectionally regulated by cortical activity (synaptic plasticity). One line of evidence indicates that long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term synaptic depression (LTD), correlate with the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of…

  14. Central Vagal Afferent Endings Mediate Reduction of Food Intake by Melanocortin-3/4 Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Hiroko; Ritter, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Injection of the melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist melanotan-II (MTII) into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) produces rapid and sustained reduction of food intake. Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are expressed by vagal afferent endings in the NTS, but it is not known whether these endings participate in MTII-induced reduction of food intake. In experiments described here, we evaluated the contribution of central vagal afferent endings in MTII-induced reduction of food intake. Examination of rat hindbrain sections revealed that neuronal processes expressing immunoreactivity for the endogenous MC4R agonist ?-melanoctyte-stimulating hormone course parallel and wrap around anterogradely labeled vagal afferent endings in the NTS and thus are aptly positioned to activate vagal afferent MC4Rs. Furthermore, MTII and endogenous MC4R agonists increased protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of synapsin I in vagal afferent endings, an effect known to increase synaptic strength by enhancing neurotransmitter release in other neural systems. Hindbrain injection of a PKA inhibitor, KT5720, significantly attenuated MTII-induced reduction of food intake and the increase in synapsin I phosphorylation. Finally, unilateral nodose ganglion removal, resulting in degeneration of vagal afferent endings in the ipsilateral NTS, abolished MTII-induced synapsin I phosphorylation ipsilateral to nodose ganglion removal. Moreover, reduction of food intake following MTII injection into the NTS ipsilateral to nodose ganglion removal was significantly attenuated, whereas the response to MTII was not diminished when injected into the contralateral NTS. Altogether, our results suggest that reduction of food intake following hindbrain MC4R activation is mediated by central vagal afferent endings. PMID:25232103

  15. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the edge of chaos, where complex phenomena, including creativity and intelligence, may emerge'. Also in this issue R Stanley Williams and colleagues report results from simulations that demonstrate the potential for using Mott transistors as building blocks for scalable neuristor-based integrated circuits without transistors [5]. The scalability of neural chip designs is also tackled in the design reported by Narayan Srinivasa and colleagues in the US [6]. Meanwhile Carsten Timm and Massimiliano Di Ventra describe simulations of a molecular transistor in which electrons strongly coupled to a vibrational mode lead to a Franck-Condon (FC) blockade that mimics the spiking action potentials in synaptic memory behaviour [7]. The 'atomic switches' used to demonstrate synaptic behaviour by a collaboration of researchers in California and Japan also come under further scrutiny in this issue. James K Gimzewski and colleagues consider the difference between the behaviour of an atomic switch in isolation and in a network [8]. As the authors point out, 'The work presented represents steps in a unified approach of experimentation and theory of complex systems to make atomic switch networks a uniquely scalable platform for neuromorphic computing'. Researchers in Germany [9] and Sweden [10] also report on theoretical approaches to modelling networks of memristive elements and complementary resistive switches for synaptic devices. As Vincent Derycke and colleagues in France point out, 'Actual experimental demonstrations of neural network type circuits based on non-conventional/non-CMOS memory devices and displaying function learning capabilities remain very scarce'. They describe how their work using carbon nanotubes provides a rare demonstration of actual function learning with synapses based on nanoscale building blocks [11]. However, this is far from the only experimental work reported in this issue, others include: short-term memory of TiO2-based electrochemical capacitors [12]; a neuromorphic circuit composed of a nanoscale 1-kbit resistive random-access memory (RRAM

  16. Neuregulin links dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission to control hippocampal synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Neddens, Jörg; Vullhorst, Detlef; Paredes, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and its receptor ErbB4 are genetically associated with schizophrenia, a complex developmental disorder of high heritability but unknown etiology that has been proposed to result from deficits in functional connectivity and synaptic plasticity. Based on pharmacological evidence, imbalances in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission systems are believed to contribute to its pathophysiology, but genetic data supporting a causative role for either are sparse. Stimulation of NRG-1/ErbB4 signaling inhibits or reverts hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses between Schaeffer collateral afferents and CA1 pyramidal neurons (SC?CA1). We have recently demonstrated that NRG-1 regulates glutamatergic plasticity by rapidly increasing extracellular hippocampal dopamine levels and activation of D4 dopamine receptors.7 These new findings position the NRG-1/ErbB4 signaling pathway at the crossroads between dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission and offer novel ways to consolidate genetic, functional and pharmacological data toward a better understanding of the etiological processes underlying schizophrenia, and the role of NRG-1 for normal synaptic function and plasticity. The currently available data suggest that hippocampal interneurons might play a crucial role in mediating NRG-1 induced depotentiation. This interpretation is in line with other evidence pointing towards an involvement of GABAergic cells in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19641746

  17. Theta Frequency Background Tunes Transmission but Not Summation of Spiking Responses

    PubMed Central

    Parameshwaran, Dhanya; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30–135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30–135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations. PMID:23383242

  18. Topoisomerase 1 inhibition reversibly impairs synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Mabb, Angela M; Kullmann, Paul H M; Twomey, Margaret A; Miriyala, Jayalakshmi; Philpot, Benjamin D; Zylka, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Topotecan is a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor that is used to treat various forms of cancer. We recently found that topotecan reduces the expression of multiple long genes, including many neuronal genes linked to synapses and autism. However, whether topotecan alters synaptic protein levels and synapse function is currently unknown. Here we report that in primary cortical neurons, topotecan depleted synaptic proteins that are encoded by extremely long genes, including Neurexin-1, Neuroligin-1, Cntnap2, and GABA(A)?3. Topotecan also suppressed spontaneous network activity without affecting resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, or neuron health. Topotecan strongly suppressed inhibitory neurotransmission via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms and reduced excitatory neurotransmission. The effects on synaptic protein levels and inhibitory neurotransmission were fully reversible upon drug washout. Collectively, our findings suggest that TOP1 controls the levels of multiple synaptic proteins and is required for normal excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:25404338

  19. Onset Coding Is Degraded in Auditory Nerve Fibers from Mutant Mice Lacking Synaptic Ribbons

    E-print Network

    Buran, Bradley N.

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the ...

  20. Impact of synaptic depression on network activity and implications for neural coding 

    E-print Network

    York, Lawrence Christopher

    2011-11-24

    Short-term synaptic depression is the phenomena where repeated stimulation leads to a decreased transmission efficacy. In this thesis, the impact of synaptic depression on the responses and dynamics of network models of ...

  1. Calcium signaling components and their effect on synaptic morphology during neuronal development

    E-print Network

    Caylor, Raymond Clinton

    2014-05-31

    Along with regulating synaptic transmission, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) function is responsible for a myriad of cellular outputs, ranging from gene expression to shaping synaptic morphology. Despite the morphological ...

  2. Optogenetics reveal delayed afferent synaptogenesis on grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Avaliani, Natalia; Sřrensen, Andreas Toft; Ledri, Marco; Bengzon, Johan; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver; Deisseroth, Karl; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-12-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency stem cell state has opened new opportunities in cell replacement therapy and disease modeling in a number of neurological disorders. It still remains unknown, however, to what degree the grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into a functional neuronal phenotype and if they integrate into the host circuitry. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the functional properties and synaptic integration of hiPSC-derived neurons grafted in an in vitro model of hyperexcitable epileptic tissue, namely organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), and in adult rats in vivo. The hiPSCs were first differentiated into long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem (lt-NES) cells, which are known to form primarily GABAergic neurons. When differentiated in OHSCs for 6 weeks, lt-NES cell-derived neurons displayed neuronal properties such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents and action potentials (APs), as well as both spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents, indicating functional afferent synaptic inputs. The grafted cells had a distinct electrophysiological profile compared to host cells in the OHSCs with higher input resistance, lower resting membrane potential, and APs with lower amplitude and longer duration. To investigate the origin of synaptic afferents to the grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons, the host neurons were transduced with Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and optogenetically activated by blue light. Simultaneous recordings of synaptic currents in grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 6 weeks after grafting revealed limited synaptic connections from host neurons. Longer differentiation times, up to 24 weeks after grafting in vivo, revealed more mature intrinsic properties and extensive synaptic afferents from host neurons to the lt-NES cell-derived neurons, suggesting that these cells require extended time for differentiation/maturation and synaptogenesis. However, even at this later time point, the grafted cells maintained a higher input resistance. These data indicate that grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons receive ample afferent input from the host brain. Since the lt-NES cells used in this study show a strong propensity for GABAergic differentiation, the host-to-graft synaptic afferents may facilitate inhibitory neurotransmitter release, and normalize hyperexcitable neuronal networks in brain diseases, for example, such as epilepsy. PMID:25183299

  3. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Ball, R W; Peled, E S; Guerrero, G; Isacoff, E Y

    2015-04-16

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strengths between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  4. Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sugano

    1988-01-01

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear

  5. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Tim D; Ostrowski, Daniela; Hasser, Eileen M; Kline, David D

    2014-06-15

    Serotonin (5-HT), and its 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) subtype, is a powerful modulator of the cardiorespiratory system and its sensory reflexes. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) serves as the first central station for visceral afferent integration and is critical for cardiorespiratory reflex responses. However, the physiological and synaptic role of 5-HT1ARs in the nTS is relatively unknown. In the present study, we examined the distribution and modulation of 5-HT1ARs on cardiorespiratory and synaptic parameters in the nTS. 5-HT1ARs were widely distributed to cell bodies within the nTS but not synaptic terminals. In anesthetized rats, activation of 5-HT1ARs by microinjection of the 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT into the caudal nTS decreased minute phrenic neural activity via a reduction in phrenic amplitude. In brain stem slices, 8-OH-DPAT decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, and reduced overall spontaneous excitatory nTS network activity. These effects persisted in the presence of GABAA receptor blockade and were antagonized by coapplication of 5-HT1AR blocker WAY-100135. 5-HT1AR blockade alone had no effect on tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, but increased excitatory network activity. On the other hand, GABAergic nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents did not change by activation of the 5-HT1ARs, but spontaneous inhibitory nTS network activity decreased. Blocking 5-HT1ARs tended to increase nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents and inhibitory network activity. Taken together, 5-HT1ARs in the caudal nTS decrease breathing, likely via attenuation of afferent transmission, as well as overall nTS network activity. PMID:24671532

  6. Destruction of inferior olive induces rapid depression in synaptic action of cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Ito; Naoko Nisimaru; Katsuei Shibuki

    1979-01-01

    THE climbing fibre afferents (CFAs) are a structure unique to the cerebellar cortex; they originate, presumably solely, from the inferior olive (IO) and make an extensive, excitatory synaptic contact with dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje cells (P cells)1. The importance of the CFAs in cerebellar functions has been emphasised in connection with the learning process which may occur in the cerebellar

  7. Individual nucleus accumbens-projection neurons receive both basolateral amygdala and ventral subicular afferents in rats.

    PubMed

    French, S J; Totterdell, S

    2003-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is regarded as the limbic-motor interface, in view of its limbic afferent and somatomotor and autonomic efferent connections. Within the accumbens, there appear to be specific areas in which limbic afferent fibres, derived from the hippocampus and the amygdala, overlap. These afferent inputs have been suggested to converge monosynaptically on cells within the accumbens and are hypothesized to play a role in paradigms such as conditioned place preference. Convergence between inputs from basolateral amygdala and hippocampus can be demonstrated with electrophysiological recording methods, but these do not conclusively preclude polysynaptic mechanisms. We examined the synaptic input to the projection neurons of the accumbens, the medium-sized densely spiny neurons. We labelled the projection neurons with a small injection of biotinylated dextran amine into the accumbens, and the afferents from the basolateral amygdala and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus with injections of biotinylated dextran amine and Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin respectively, and revealed the anterogradely labelled fibres with different chromogens. The labelled accumbens-projection neurons were studied with correlated light and electron microscopy for identified monosynaptic inputs. With this technique we have demonstrated anatomically that monosynaptic convergence between the ventral subicular region of the hippocampus and the basolateral region of the amygdala occurs at the level of the proximal as well as distal dendrites. Finally, we suggest that these anatomical arrangements may represent the framework for the integrative role that has been assigned to the accumbens. PMID:12763065

  8. Deep mRNA Sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea Brain Transcriptome Provides Access to Gene Homologues for Neuronal Excitability, Synaptic Transmission and Peptidergic Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level. Results We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes). BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis) revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA. Conclusions Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain. PMID:25719197

  9. Synaptic profiles during neurite extension, refinement and retraction in the developing cochlea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During development, excess synapses form between the central and peripheral nervous systems that are then eliminated to achieve correct connectivity. In the peripheral auditory system, the developing type I spiral ganglion afferent fibres undergo a dramatic re-organisation, initially forming connections with both sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). The OHC connections are then selectively eliminated, leaving sparse innervation by type II afferent fibres, whilst the type I afferent synapses with IHCs are consolidated. Results We examined the molecular makeup of the synaptic contacts formed onto the IHCs and OHCs during this period of afferent fibre remodelling. We observed that presynaptic ribbons initially form at all the afferent neurite contacts, i.e. not only at the expected developing IHC-type I fibre synapses but also at OHCs where type I fibres temporarily contact. Moreover, the transient contacts forming onto OHCs possess a broad set of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, suggesting that functional synaptic connections are formed prior to the removal of type I fibre innervation. AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits were transiently observed at the base of the OHCs, with their downregulation occurring in parallel with the withdrawal of type I fibres, dispersal of presynaptic ribbons, and downregulation of the anchoring proteins Bassoon and Shank. Conversely, at developing type I afferent IHC synapses, the presence of pre- and postsynaptic scaffold proteins was maintained, with differential plasticity in AMPA receptor subunits observed and AMPA receptor subunit composition changing around hearing onset. Conclusions Overall our data show a differential balance in the patterns of synaptic proteins at developing afferent IHC versus OHC synapses that likely reflect their stable versus transient fates. PMID:23217150

  10. Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-08-01

    In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and decides with a shorter observation of data. DSNN performance in the benchmark pattern recognition problem shows 96.7% accuracy in classifying three classes of spiking activity. PMID:24867390

  11. Transmission in a locomotor-related group Ib pathway from hindlimb extensor muscles in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P. Gossard; R. M. Brownstone; I. Barajon; H. Hultborn

    1994-01-01

    It has been previously shown that phasic stimulation of group I afferents from ankle and knee extensor muscles may entrain and\\/or reset the intrinsic locomotor rhythm; these afferents are thus acting on motoneurones through the spinal rhythm generators. It was also concluded that the major part of these effects originates from Golgi tendon organ Ib afferents. Transmission in this pathway

  12. Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Striatal Neurons Leads to Up-regulation of Genes Associated with Sustained Synaptic Transmission Including Arc/Arg3.1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Fahey, Paul G.; Jong, Yuh-Jiin I.; Ramanan, Narendrakumar; O'Malley, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), is expressed on both cell surface and intracellular membranes in striatal neurons. Using pharmacological tools to differentiate membrane responses, we previously demonstrated that cell surface mGluR5 triggers rapid, transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises, resulting in c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, whereas stimulation of intracellular mGluR5 induces long, sustained Ca2+ responses leading to the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Elk-1 (Jong, Y. J., Kumar, V., and O'Malley, K. L. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 35827–35838). Using pharmacological, genetic, and bioinformatics approaches, the current findings show that both receptor populations up-regulate many immediate early genes involved in growth and differentiation. Activation of intracellular mGluR5 also up-regulates genes involved in synaptic plasticity including activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mechanistically, intracellular mGluR5-mediated Arc induction is dependent upon extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ and ERK1/2 as well as calmodulin-dependent kinases as known chelators, inhibitors, and a dominant negative Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II construct block Arc increases. Moreover, intracellular mGluR5-induced Arc expression requires the serum response transcription factor (SRF) as wild type but not SRF-deficient neurons show this response. Finally, increased Arc levels due to high K+ depolarization is significantly reduced in response to a permeable but not an impermeable mGluR5 antagonist. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of intracellular mGluR5 in the cascade of events associated with sustained synaptic transmission. PMID:22179607

  13. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  14. DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION IN MIDLINE THALAMIC REGION FACILITATES SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND SHORTTERM MEMORY IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Pavlides, Constantine; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2012-01-01

    Based on evidence suggesting that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may promote certain cognitive processes, we have been interested in developing DBS as a means of mitigating memory and learning impairments in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study we used an animal model of AD (TgCRND8 mice) to determine the effects of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) on non-amyloidogenic ?-secretase activity and DBS in short-term memory. We tested our hypothesis using hippocampal slices (in vitro studies) from TgCRND8 mice to evaluate whether HFS increases ?-secretase activity (non-amyloidogenic pathway) in the CA1 region. In a second set of experiments, we performed in vivo studies to evaluate whether DBS in midline thalamic region re-establishes hippocampal dependent short-term memory in TgCRND8 mice. The results showed that application of HFS to isolated hippocampal slices significantly increased synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region and promoted a 2-fold increase of non-amyloidogenic ?-secretase activity, in comparison to low frequency stimulated controls from TgCRND8 mice. In the in vivo studies, DBS treatment facilitated acquisition of object recognition memory in TgCRND8 mice, in comparison to their own baseline before treatment. These results provide evidence that DBS could enhance short-term memory in the CA1 region of hippocampus in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23227306

  15. Fluoxetine (prozac) and serotonin act on excitatory synaptic transmission to suppress single layer 2/3 pyramidal neuron-triggered cell assemblies in the human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Komlósi, Gergely; Molnár, Gábor; Rózsa, Márton; Oláh, Szabolcs; Barzó, Pál; Tamás, Gábor

    2012-11-14

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most widely prescribed drugs targeting the CNS with acute and chronic effects in cognitive, emotional and behavioral processes. This suggests that microcircuits of the human cerebral cortex are powerfully modulated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, however, direct measurements of serotonergic regulation on human synaptic interactions are missing. Using multiple whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in acute cortical slices derived from nonpathological human samples of the prefrontal cortex, we show that neuronal assemblies triggered by single action potentials of individual neurons in the human cortex are suppressed by therapeutic doses of fluoxetine (Prozac). This effect is boosted and can be mimicked by physiological concentrations of serotonin through 5HT-2A and 5HT-1A receptors. Monosynaptic excitatory connections from pyramidal cells to interneurons were suppressed by application of serotonin leaving the monosynaptic output of GABAergic cells unaffected. Changes in failure rate, in paired-pulse ratio, and in the coefficient of variation of the amplitude of EPSPs suggest a presynaptic action of serotonin. In conclusion, activation of neuronal assemblies, which were suggested as building blocks of high order cognitive processes, are effectively downregulated by the acute action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin at the site of pyramidal output in human microcircuits. PMID:23152619

  16. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    PubMed Central

    Shitara, H.; Shinozaki, T.; Takagishi, K.; Honda, M.; Hanakawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10–20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

  17. Nicotine and Synaptic Plasticity in Prefrontal Cortex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel S. McGehee (University of Chicago; Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care REV)

    2007-08-14

    Nicotinic receptor activation enhances working memory and attention. The prefrontal cortex is a key brain area involved in working memory, and plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission within the cortex is likely an important cellular mechanism of memory. A recent study has explored the cellular and synaptic basis of nicotine’s effects on excitability within the prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest that nicotine enhances inhibitory synaptic inputs to layer V pyramidal cells, which suppresses induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). This inhibitory effect can be overcome by stimulating the pyramidal cells in bursts, which suggests a modification in the signal-to-noise ratio for synaptic input. Thus, the impact of strong stimuli on working memory would be enhanced when combined with nicotinic receptor activity. These findings may lead to novel and more effective treatments for memory disorders.

  18. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  19. Quantification of morphological differences in boutons from different afferent populations to the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    French, Sarah Jane; Totterdell, Susan

    2004-05-01

    The nucleus accumbens (Acb) receives convergent glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex (PFC), central thalamus, basolateral amygdala and the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. The principal neurons of the nucleus accumbens are modulated by specific sets of convergent afferent inputs, the local circuit neurons also receive a substantial number of glutamatergic inputs, but the full complement of these has yet to be established. The aim of these studies was to define characteristics of the different glutamatergic afferent inputs to the nucleus accumbens that would aid their identification. To enable the characterisation of the glutamatergic inputs to nucleus accumbens neurons we first labelled the four main glutamatergic sources of afferent input to the accumbens with the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Using an unbiased systematic sampling method, the morphological characteristics of their synaptic boutons were measured and assessed at the electron microscopic level. From the criteria assessed, a comparison of the four afferent sources was made, characteristics such as bouton size and vesicle density had significantly different population means, however, the only characteristic that allowed discrimination between the four major glutamatergic afferent to the nucleus accumbens was that of vesicle size. The vesicles in boutons from amygdala were larger than the subiculum which, in turn, were larger than the prefrontal cortex, the thalamus were the smallest in size. The methods used also allow a comparison of the relative frequency of different sized postsynaptic structures targeted, the prefrontal cortex almost exclusively targeted spines whereas the thalamus and the subiculum, in addition to spines, targeted proximal and distal dendrites. PMID:15064148

  20. Synaptic Acidification Enhances GABAA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Craig J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the role of cellularly generated protons in synaptic signaling, we recorded GABA miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) from cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) while varying the extracellular pH buffering capacity. Consistent with previous reports, we found that increasing pH from 7.4 to 8.0 sped mIPSC rise time, and suppressed both amplitude of the current and total charge transferred. Conversely, acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) slowed the rise time and increased current amplitude and total charge transferred. In a manner consistent with alkalinization, increasing the buffering capacity from 3 to 24 mM HEPES at pH 7.4, resulted in faster mIPSC rise time, a 37% reduction in amplitude, and a 48% reduction in charge transferred. Supplementing the normal physiological buffers (24 mM HCO3?/5%CO2) with 10 mM HEPES similarly diminished mIPSCs in a manner consistent with alkalinization, resulting in faster rise time, a 39% reduction in amplitude and a 51% reduction in charge transferred. These findings suggest the existence of an acidifying synaptic force that is overcome by commonly used concentrations (10 mM) of HEPES buffer. Here we show that Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity appears to, in part, contribute to this synaptic acidification as inhibition of NHE by amiloride or lithium under physiological or weak buffering conditions alters mIPSCs in a manner consistent with alkalinization. These results suggest that acidification of the synaptic cleft occurs physiologically during GABAergic transmission and that NHE plays a critical role in generating the acidic nano-environment at the synapse. PMID:21106843

  1. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    PubMed Central

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action potential generation. PMID:25741235

  2. Activation of presynaptic GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors inhibits synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear-hair cell synapses.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, Carolina; Zorrilla de San Martín, Javier; Ballestero, Jimena; Gómez-Casati, María Eugenia; Torbidoni, Ana Vanesa; Fuchs, Paul A; Bettler, Bernhard; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Katz, Eleonora

    2013-09-25

    The synapse between olivocochlear (OC) neurons and cochlear mechanosensory hair cells is cholinergic, fast, and inhibitory. The inhibitory sign of this cholinergic synapse is accounted for by the activation of Ca(2+)-permeable postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors coupled to the opening of hyperpolarizing Ca(2+)-activated small-conductance type 2 (SK2)K(+) channels. Acetylcholine (ACh) release at this synapse is supported by both P/Q- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Although the OC synapse is cholinergic, an abundant OC GABA innervation is present along the mammalian cochlea. The role of this neurotransmitter at the OC efferent innervation, however, is for the most part unknown. We show that GABA fails to evoke fast postsynaptic inhibitory currents in apical developing inner and outer hair cells. However, electrical stimulation of OC efferent fibers activates presynaptic GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors [GABA(B(1a,2))Rs] that downregulate the amount of ACh released at the OC-hair cell synapse, by inhibiting P/Q-type VGCCs. We confirmed the expression of GABA(B)Rs at OC terminals contacting the hair cells by coimmunostaining for GFP and synaptophysin in transgenic mice expressing GABA(B1)-GFP fusion proteins. Moreover, coimmunostaining with antibodies against the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and synaptophysin support the idea that GABA is directly synthesized at OC terminals contacting the hair cells during development. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a physiological role for GABA in cochlear synaptic function. In addition, our data suggest that the GABA(B1a) isoform selectively inhibits release at efferent cholinergic synapses. PMID:24068816

  3. Enhanced Synaptic Inhibition Disrupts the Efferent Code of Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons in Leaner Cav2.1 Ca2+ Channel Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ovsepian, Saak V.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) encode afferent information in the rate and temporal structure of their spike trains. Both spontaneous firing in these neurons and its modulation by synaptic inputs depend on Ca2+ current carried by Cav2.1 (P/Q) type channels. Previous studies have described how loss-of-function Cav2.1 mutations affect intrinsic excitability and excitatory transmission in PCs. This study examines the effects of the leaner mutation on fast GABAergic transmission and its modulation of spontaneous firing in PCs. The leaner mutation enhances spontaneous synaptic inhibition of PCs, leading to transitory reductions in PC firing rate and increased spike rate variability. Enhanced inhibition is paralleled by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) measured under voltage clamp. These differences are abolished by tetrodotoxin, implicating effects of the mutation on spike-induced GABA release. Elevated sIPSC frequency in leaner PCs is not accompanied by increased mean firing rate in molecular layer interneurons, but IPSCs evoked in PCs by direct stimulation of these neurons exhibit larger amplitude, slower decay rate, and a higher burst probability compared to wild-type PCs. Ca2+ release from internal stores appears to be required for enhanced inhibition since differences in sIPSC frequency and amplitude in leaner and wild-type PCs are abolished by thapsigargin, an ER Ca2+ pump inhibitor. These findings represent the first account of the functional consequences of a loss-of-function P/Q channel mutation on PC firing properties through altered GABAergic transmission. Gain in synaptic inhibition shown here would compromise the fidelity of information coding in these neurons and may contribute to impaired cerebellar function resulting from loss-of function mutations in the CaV2.1 channel gene. PMID:20845003

  4. Differences in Synaptic GABA A Receptor Number Underlie Variation in GABA Mini Amplitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltan Nusser; Stuart Cull-Candy; Mark Farrant

    1997-01-01

    In many neurons, responses to individual quanta of transmitter exhibit large variations in amplitude. The origin of this variability, although central to our understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity, remains controversial. To examine the relationship between quantal amplitude and postsynaptic receptor number, we adopted a novel approach, combining patch-clamp recording of synaptic currents with quantitative immunogold localization of synaptic receptors.

  5. Vestibular afferent responses to microrotational stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1991-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode recording/labeling techniques were used to investigate vestibular afferent responses in the bullfrog, to very small amplitude (less than 5 deg p-p) sinusoidal rotations in the vertical plane over the frequency range of 0.063-4 Hz. Robust responses to peak accelerations as low as 0.031 deg/sec per sec were obtained from units subsequently traced to either the central portion of the anterior canal crista or the striolar region of the utricle. All of these microrotationally sensitive afferent neurons had irregular resting discharge rates, and the majority had transfer ratios (relative to rotational velocity) of 1-40 spikes/sec per deg/sec. Individual utricular afferent velocity transfer ratios were nearly constant over the frequency range of 0.125-4 Hz. Canal units displayed decreasing response transfer ratios as stimulus frequencies increased. These findings indicate that, although utricular striolar and central crista afferent velocity transfer ratios to microrotations were very similar, utricular striolar afferent neurons were more faithful sensors of very small amplitude rotational velocity in the vertical plane.

  6. Afferent Responses During Experimentally Induced Semicircular Canalithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common vestibular disorder that results in brief periods of vertigo and nystagmus, when the head is tipped relative to gravity. Symptoms are commonly attributed to the pathological presence of heavy calcium carbonate particles within the lumen of the semicircular canal(s)—a condition termed canalithiasis. In the present work, we induced canalithiasis in an animal model (oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau) by introducing heavy glass microbeads into the lumen of the lateral semicircular canal. Bead movement under the action of gravity and canal afferent nerve discharge were recorded in vivo. When the head was oriented nose-down, beads moved toward the nose and the lateral canal afferent discharge rate increased. Afferents that normally encoded angular velocity during oscillatory head rotations responded with tonic increases in the discharge rate during gravity-dependent bead movement. Other afferents, such as the units that rapidly adapt to a step increase in angular head velocity, responded with an initial increase in discharge rate followed by a period of adaptation. Afferent responses occurred in the complete absence of head movement and quantify the pathological inputs to the brain that arise from canalithiasis. The magnitude and time course of the responses reported here are sufficient to explain the symptoms of BPPV. PMID:17229824

  7. Endocannabinoid Signaling and Long-Term Synaptic

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    reserved 0066-4278/09/0315-0283$20.00 Key Words cannabinoid, CB1, LTD, LTP, synaptic transmission, STDP in understanding how exogenous (e.g., cannabis) and endogenous cannabinoids affect behav- ior. Because behavioral, and cannabinoid receptors Depolarization- induced suppression of inhibition/ excitation (DSI/ DSE): transient

  8. Postnatal maturation of rat Purkinje cells cultivated in the absence of two afferent systems: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Privat, A; Drian, M J

    1976-03-15

    Organized cultures of newborn rat cerebellum were established in Maximow chambers in order to study the maturation of Purkinje cells in absence of afferent systems. In the first model, standard cultures were devoid of extracerebellar afferents mossy and climbing fibers. Despite this absence, somatic spines appeared upon Purkinje cells during the first week in vitro and maturation proceeded normally except for the almost absence of spiny branchlets. Large dendritic trunks were studded with numerous spines, some of which were naked, a few bearing isolated post-synaptic densities and others occupied by boutons of parallel fibers. Stellate and basket axons made synapses upon the smooth portions of dendrites and soma. In a second model, the cultures were fed the antimitotic drug methylazoxymethanol (MAM) to prevent multiplication of granule cell precursors. Despite the absence of climbing and parallel fibers, the elongation of Purkinje dendrites was not prevented, but again the dendritic arbor consisted of large trunks studded with spines; somatic as well as dendritic spines were contacted by large boutons identified as Purkinje recurrent collaterals (PRC). It is concluded that the Purkinje cell possesses a large autonomy from afferent systems as to the growth of soma and dendrites. Conversely, the geometry of the dendrite and especially the spiny branchlets depend on the presence of both climbing and parallel fibers. One may conclude from the above experiments that specificity of synaptic contacts is maintained as long as postsynaptic sites are not devoid of their normal afferents. Heterologous synapses are formed when postsynaptic sites are present, their normal afferents absent and aberrant ones increasing by collateral sprouting. Such is probably the case in the second model of this study. PMID:1262555

  9. Synaptic and non-synaptic AMPA receptors permeable to calcium.

    PubMed

    König, N; Poluch, S; Estabel, J; Durand, M; Drian, M J; Exbrayat, J M

    2001-05-01

    For a long time, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors permeable to calcium have been considered to be either non-existent or as "atypical". There is now ample evidence that these receptors exist in numerous regions of the nervous system and in many neuronal as well as non-neuronal cell populations. This evidence has been accumulated by several methods, including electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and cobalt-loading. Functional AMPA receptors permeable to calcium are already expressed at very early stages of embryonic development, well before the onset of synaptogenesis. They are probably involved in the paracrine signaling necessary for construction of the nervous system before becoming involved in synaptic transmission. In immature cells, cyclothiazide strongly increases the steady-state level of responses not only to AMPA, but also to kainate. Ingestion, during pregnancy, of food or drug substances that can cross the placental barrier and act upon the embryonic receptors may constitute a risk for normal development. In the adult nervous system, synaptic as well as non-synaptic (paracrine) AMPA receptors permeable to calcium are probably widely expressed in both glial and neuronal cells. They may also participate in controlling some aspects related to adult neurogenesis, in particular the migration of newly formed neurons. PMID:11430460

  10. A review of synaptic mechanisms of vestibular efferent signaling in turtles: extrapolation to efferent actions in mammals.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Paivi M; Parks, Xiaorong Xu; Contini, Donatella; Holt, J Chris

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular labyrinth of nearly every vertebrate class receives a prominent efferent innervation that originates in the brainstem and ends as bouton terminals on vestibular hair cells and afferents in each end organ. Although the functional significance of this centrifugal pathway is not well understood, it is clear that efferent neurons, when electrically stimulated under experimental conditions, profoundly impact vestibular afferent discharge. Effects range from chiefly excitation in fish and mammalian vestibular afferents to a more heterogeneous mixture of inhibition and/or excitation in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. What accounts for these diverse response properties? Recent cellular and pharmacological characterization of efferent synaptic mechanisms in turtle offers some insight. In the turtle posterior crista, vestibular efferent neurons are predominantly cholinergic and the effects of efferent stimulation on vestibular afferent discharge can be ascribed to three distinct signaling pathways: (1) Hyperpolarization of type II hair cells mediated by ?9/?10-nAChRs and SK-potassium channels; (2) Depolarization of bouton and calyx afferents via ?4?2*-containing nAChRs; and (3) A slow excitation of calyx afferents attributed to muscarinic AChRs. In this review, we discuss the evidence for these pathways in turtle and speculate on their role in mammalian vestibular efferent actions where synaptic mechanisms are largely unknown. PMID:24177348

  11. Inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons by levetiracetam involves Zn˛?-dependent GABA type A receptor-mediated presynaptic modulation.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Kotani, Naoki; Kogure, Kyuya; Akaike, Norio

    2014-02-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug with a unique but as yet not fully resolved mechanism of action. Therefore, by use of a simplified rat-isolated nerve-bouton preparation, we have investigated how LEV modulates glutamatergic transmission from mossy fiber terminals to hippocampal CA3 neurons. Action potential-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were recorded using a conventional whole-cell patch-clamp recording configuration in voltage-clamp mode. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin decreased glutamatergic eEPSCs in a concentration-dependent fashion by inhibiting voltage-dependent Na? and Ca˛? channel currents. In contrast, LEV had no effect on eEPSCs or voltage-dependent Na? or Ca˛? channel currents. Activation of presynaptic GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors by muscimol induced presynaptic inhibition of eEPSCs, resulting from depolarization block. Low concentrations of Zn˛?, which had no effect on eEPSCs, voltage-dependent Na? or Ca˛? channel currents, or glutamate receptor-mediated whole cell currents, reduced the muscimol-induced presynaptic inhibition. LEV applied in the continuous presence of 1 µM muscimol and 1 µM Zn˛? reversed this Zn˛? modulation on eEPSCs. The antagonizing effect of LEV on Zn˛?-induced presynaptic GABA(A) receptor inhibition was also observed with the Zn˛? chelators Ca-EDTA and RhodZin-3. Our results clearly show that LEV removes the Zn˛?-induced suppression of GABA(A)-mediated presynaptic inhibition, resulting in a presynaptic decrease in glutamate-mediated excitatory transmission. Our results provide a novel mechanism by which LEV may inhibit neuronal activity. PMID:24259680

  12. Role of Synaptic Filtering on the Firing Response of Simple Model Neurons Ruben Moreno-Bote and Nestor Parga

    E-print Network

    Parga, NĂ©stor

    , can be quite long compared to the resting membrane time constant [1]. Long synaptic time constants statistics is considered. The membrane potential V of the model neuron obeys m _VV ĂżV mIt; (1) where) During active states of the brain neurons process their afferent currents with an effective membrane time

  13. The soma and neurites of primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig intestine respond differentially to deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, W A A; Clerc, N; Furness, J B; Gola, M

    2000-01-01

    Intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the small intestine are exposed to distortion of their processes and of their cell bodies. Recordings of mechanosensitivity have previously been made from these neurons using intracellular microelectrodes, but this form of recording has not permitted detection of generator potentials from the processes, or of responses to cell body distortion.We have developed a technique to record from enteric neurons in situ using patch electrodes. The mechanical stability of the patch recordings has allowed recording in cell-attached and whole cell configuration during imposed movement of the neurons.Pressing with a fine probe initiated generator potentials (14 ± 9 mV) from circumscribed regions of the neuron processes within the same myenteric ganglion, at distances from 100 to 500 ?m from the cell body that was patched. Generator potentials persisted when synaptic transmission was blocked with high Mg2+, low Ca2+ solution.Soma distortion, by pressing down with the whole cell recording electrode, inhibited action potential firing. Consistent with this, moderate intra-electrode pressure (10 mbar; 1 kPa) increased the opening probability of large-conductance (BK) potassium channels, recorded in cell-attached mode, but suction was not effective. In outside-out patches, suction, but not pressure, increased channel opening probability. Mechanosensitive BK channels have not been identified on other neurons.The BK channels had conductances of 195 ± 25 pS. Open probability was increased by depolarization, with a half-maximum activation at a patch potential of 20 mV and a slope factor of 10 mV. Channel activity was blocked by charybdotoxin (20 nM).Stretch that increased membrane area under the electrode by 15 % was sufficient to double open probability. Similar changes in membrane area occur when the intestine changes diameter and wall tension under physiological conditions. Thus, the intestinal intrinsic primary afferent neurons are detectors of neurite distortion and of compression of the soma, these stimuli having opposite effects on neuron excitability. PMID:10896726

  14. The effect of sleep upon the transmission of afferent activity in the somatic afferent system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Giicer

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Macaque monkeys were trained to fall asleep while sitting in a primate chair with their heads restrained. A gentle vibratory stimulus was delivered to the glabrous skin of the hand; it did not provoke awakening or change the sleep cycle of the macaque. Postcentral neuronal response to the amplitude of a sine wave mechanical stimulus and neuronal spontaneous activity were

  15. Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

    2014-07-15

    Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

  16. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Aicher, Sue A

    2014-11-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. PMID:24996127

  17. Sensitisation of gastrointestinal tract afferents

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, S

    2004-01-01

    Sensory innervation of the viscera serves a number of important functions, including regulation of visceral motility and secretory activity, and transmission of visceral sensations, including pain. There are many ways in which the sensitivity of visceral sensory neurones might be modulated, and these are discussed. Altered sensory neurone responsiveness may contribute to pathophysiological states such as irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms leading to sensory neurone sensitisation offer novel targets for the treatment of such disorders. PMID:14960552

  18. Altered GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission disrupts the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice under conditions that mimic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-05-12

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the central regulators of reproduction. GABAergic transmission plays a critical role in pubertal activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Self-administration of excessive doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) disrupts reproductive function and may have critical repercussions for pubertal onset in adolescent users. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment of adolescent male mice with the AAS 17alpha-methyltestosterone significantly decreased action potential frequency in GnRH neurons, reduced the serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased testes mass. AAS treatment did not induce significant changes in GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels or alter the amplitude or decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) or tonic currents in GnRH neurons. However, AAS treatment significantly increased action potential frequency in neighboring medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons and GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency in GnRH neurons. In addition, physical isolation of the more lateral aspects of the mPOA from the medially localized GnRH neurons abrogated the AAS-induced increase in GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency and the decrease in action potential firing in the GnRH cells. Our results indicate that AAS act predominantly on steroid-sensitive presynaptic neurons within the mPOA to impart significant increases in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory tone onto downstream GnRH neurons, resulting in diminished activity of these pivotal mediators of reproductive function. These AAS-induced changes in central GABAergic circuits of the forebrain may significantly contribute to the disruptive actions of these drugs on pubertal maturation and the development of reproductive competence in male steroid abusers. PMID:20463213

  19. Recent advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of primary afferent activation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, J

    2004-01-01

    Thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli depolarise specialised damage sensing neurons to initiate electrical signals that may ultimately result in a sensation of pain. Over the past decade many of the receptors that transduce these signals have been identified by molecular cloning. In the absence of specific blockers, null mutant mice have proved valuable in exploring the function of these specialised receptors. As well as the mechanisms of signal transduction, the setting of thresholds for excitation and the transmission of electrical signals have also been the focus of intense interest. In vitro studies of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons have thus facilitated rapid advances in our understanding of the biology of nociceptors. However, the specific properties of visceral afferents are poorly defined, and useful animal models of visceral pain are only now being developed. Visceral neuron receptor subtypes and the consequences of their activation in terms of pain perception and behaviour are thus subjects that still demand a major research effort. PMID:14960551

  20. Caudal ventrolateral medulla mediates baroreceptor afferent inputs to subfornical organ angiotensin II responsive neurons.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, John

    2013-01-23

    Although anatomical data indicates that the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) projects directly to the subfornical organ (SFO), little is known about the afferent information relayed through the CVLM to SFO. Experiments were done in the anesthetized rat to investigate whether CVLM neurons mediate baroreceptor afferent information to SFO and whether this afferent information alters the response of SFO neurons to systemic injections of angiotensin II (ANG II). Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 78 spontaneously discharging single units in SFO. Of these, 32 (41%) responded to microinjection of L-glutamate (L-Glu; 0.25M; 10nl) into CVLM (27/32 were inhibited and 5/32 were excited). All 32 units also were excited by systemic injections of ANG II (250ng/0.1ml, ia). However, only those units inhibited by CVLM (n=27) were found to be inhibited by the reflex activation of baroreceptors following systemic injections of phenylephrine (2?g/kg, iv). Activation of CVLM or arterial baroreceptors in conjunction with ANG II resulted in an attenuation of the SFO unit's response to ANG II. Finally, microinjections (100nl) of the synaptic blocker CoCl(2) or the non-specific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid into CVLM attenuated (10/13 units tested) the SFO neuron's response to activation of baroreceptors, but not the unit's response evoked by systemic ANG II. Taken together, these data suggest that baroreceptor afferent information relayed through CVLM functions to modulate of the activity of neurons within SFO to extracellular signals of body fluid balance. PMID:23142269

  1. Synapse Geometry and Receptor Dynamics Modulate Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Freche, Dominik; Pannasch, Ulrike; Rouach, Nathalie; Holcman, David

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic transmission relies on several processes, such as the location of a released vesicle, the number and type of receptors, trafficking between the postsynaptic density (PSD) and extrasynaptic compartment, as well as the synapse organization. To study the impact of these parameters on excitatory synaptic transmission, we present a computational model for the fast AMPA-receptor mediated synaptic current. We show that in addition to the vesicular release probability, due to variations in their release locations and the AMPAR distribution, the postsynaptic current amplitude has a large variance, making a synapse an intrinsic unreliable device. We use our model to examine our experimental data recorded from CA1 mice hippocampal slices to study the differences between mEPSC and evoked EPSC variance. The synaptic current but not the coefficient of variation is maximal when the active zone where vesicles are released is apposed to the PSD. Moreover, we find that for certain type of synapses, receptor trafficking can affect the magnitude of synaptic depression. Finally, we demonstrate that perisynaptic microdomains located outside the PSD impacts synaptic transmission by regulating the number of desensitized receptors and their trafficking to the PSD. We conclude that geometrical modifications, reorganization of the PSD or perisynaptic microdomains modulate synaptic strength, as the mechanisms underlying long-term plasticity. PMID:21984900

  2. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity. PMID:24560899

  3. Nothing can be coincidence: synaptic inhibition and plasticity in the cerebellar nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jason R.; Raman, Indira M.

    2009-01-01

    Many cerebellar neurons fire spontaneously, generating 10–100 action potentials per second even without synaptic input. This high basal activity correlates with information-coding mechanisms that differ from those of cells that are quiescent until excited synaptically. For example, in the deep cerebellar nuclei, Hebbian patterns of coincident synaptic excitation and postsynaptic firing fail to induce long-term increases in the strength of excitatory inputs. Instead, excitatory synaptic currents are potentiated by combinations of inhibition and excitation that resemble the activity of Purkinje and mossy fiber afferents that is predicted to occur during cerebellar associative learning tasks. Such results indicate that circuits with intrinsically active neurons have rules for information transfer and storage that distinguish them from other brain regions. PMID:19178955

  4. Synaptic plasticity and signaling in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Grazia; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a disorder that is caused in the majority of cases by mutations in the gene methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2). Children with RTT are generally characterized by normal development up to the first year and a half of age, after which they undergo a rapid regression marked by a deceleration of head growth, the onset of stereotyped hand movements, irregular breathing, and seizures. Animal models of RTT with good construct and face validity are available. Their analysis showed that homeostatic regulation of MeCP2 gene is necessary for normal CNS functioning and that multiple complex pathways involving different neuronal and glial cell types are disrupted in RTT models. However, it is increasingly clear that RTT pathogenetic mechanisms converge at synaptic level impairing synaptic transmission and plasticity. We review novel findings showing how specific synaptic mechanisms and related signaling pathways are affected in RTT models. PMID:23908158

  5. Myelination: an overlooked mechanism of synaptic plasticity?

    PubMed

    Fields, R Douglas

    2005-12-01

    Myelination of the brain continues through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood--the question is, Why? Two new articles provide intriguing evidence that myelination may be an underappreciated mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity: one study reported increased myelination associated with extensive piano playing, another indicated that rats have increased myelination of the corpus callosum when raised in environments providing increased social interaction and cognitive stimulation. These articles make it clear that activity-dependent effects on myelination cannot be considered strictly a developmental event. They raise the question of whether myelination is an overlooked mechanism of activity-dependent plasticity, extending in humans until at least age 30. It has been argued that regulating the speed of conduction across long fiber tracts would have a major influence on synaptic response, by coordinating the timing of afferent input to maximize temporal summation. The increase in synaptic amplitude could be as large as neurotransmitter-based mechanisms of plasticity, such as LTP. These new findings raise a larger question: How did the oligodendrocytes know they were practicing the piano or that their environment was socially complex? PMID:16282593

  6. Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vizi, ES; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

    2010-01-01

    Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the ‘what’ of brain function, the ‘how’ of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the ‘how’ that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic–extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron–glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

  7. P2X receptors and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Y; Lalo, U; Krishtal, O A; Verkhratsky, A

    2009-01-12

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released in many synapses in the CNS either together with other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and GABA, or on its own. Postsynaptic action of ATP is mediated through metabotropic P2Y and ionotropic P2X receptors abundantly expressed in neural cells. Activation of P2X receptors induces fast excitatory postsynaptic currents in synapses located in various brain regions, including medial habenula, hippocampus and cortex. P2X receptors display relatively high Ca2+ permeability and can mediate substantial Ca2+ influx at resting membrane potential. P2X receptors can dynamically interact with other neurotransmitter receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, GABA(A) receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. Activation of P2X receptors has multiple modulatory effects on synaptic plasticity, either inhibiting or facilitating the long-term changes of synaptic strength depending on physiological context. At the same time precise mechanisms of P2X-dependent regulation of synaptic plasticity remain elusive. Further understanding of the role of P2X receptors in regulation of synaptic transmission in the CNS requires dissection of P2X-mediated effects on pre-synaptic terminals, postsynaptic membrane and glial cells. PMID:18495357

  8. Maturation of synaptic partners: functional phenotype and synaptic organization tuned in synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Hoffpauir, Brian K; Kolson, Douglas R; Mathers, Peter H; Spirou, George A

    2010-01-01

    Maturation of principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) was assessed in the context of the developmental organization and activity of their presynaptic afferents, which grow rapidly to form calyces of Held and to establish mono-innervation between postnatal days (P)2 and 4. MNTB neurons and their inputs were studied from embryonic day (E)17, when the nucleus was first discernable, until P14 after the onset of hearing. Using a novel slice preparation containing portions of the cochlea, cochlear nucleus and MNTB, we determined that synaptic inputs form onto MNTB neurons at E17 and stimulation of the cochlear nucleus can evoke action potentials (APs) and Ca2+ signals. We analysed converging inputs onto individual MNTB neurons and found that competition among inputs was resolved quickly, as a single large input, typically larger than 4 nA, emerged from P3–P4. During calyx growth but before hearing onset, MNTB cells acquired their mature, phasic firing property and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a coincident increase in low threshold K+ channel mRNA. These events occurred in concert with an increase in somatic surface area and a 7-fold increase in the current threshold (30 to >200 pA) required to evoke action potentials, as input resistance (Rin) settled from embryonic values greater than 1 G? to approximately 200 M?. We postulate that the postsynaptic transition from hyperexcitability to decreased excitability during calyx growth could provide a mechanism to establish the mature 1:1 innervation by selecting the winning calyceal input based on synaptic strength. By comparing biophysical maturation of the postsynaptic cell to alterations in presynaptic organization, we propose that maturation of synaptic partners is coordinated by synaptic activity in a process that is likely to generalize to other neural systems. PMID:20855433

  9. Upward synaptic scaling is dependent on neurotransmission rather than spiking

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ming-fai; Newman, Jonathan P.; Potter, Steve M.; Wenner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity encompasses a set of mechanisms that are thought to stabilize firing rates in neural circuits. The most widely studied form of homeostatic plasticity is upward synaptic scaling (upscaling), characterized by a multiplicative increase in the strength of excitatory synaptic inputs to a neuron as a compensatory response to chronic reductions in firing rate. While reduced spiking is thought to trigger upscaling, an alternative possibility is that reduced glutamatergic transmission generates this plasticity directly. However, spiking and neurotransmission are tightly coupled, so it has been difficult to determine their independent roles in the scaling process. Here we combined chronic multielectrode recording, closed-loop optogenetic stimulation, and pharmacology to show that reduced glutamatergic transmission directly triggers cell-wide synaptic upscaling. This work highlights the importance of synaptic activity in initiating signalling cascades that mediate upscaling. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that upscaling functions to homeostatically stabilize firing rates. PMID:25751516

  10. Upward synaptic scaling is dependent on neurotransmission rather than spiking.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ming-Fai; Newman, Jonathan P; Potter, Steve M; Wenner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity encompasses a set of mechanisms that are thought to stabilize firing rates in neural circuits. The most widely studied form of homeostatic plasticity is upward synaptic scaling (upscaling), characterized by a multiplicative increase in the strength of excitatory synaptic inputs to a neuron as a compensatory response to chronic reductions in firing rate. While reduced spiking is thought to trigger upscaling, an alternative possibility is that reduced glutamatergic transmission generates this plasticity directly. However, spiking and neurotransmission are tightly coupled, so it has been difficult to determine their independent roles in the scaling process. Here we combined chronic multielectrode recording, closed-loop optogenetic stimulation, and pharmacology to show that reduced glutamatergic transmission directly triggers cell-wide synaptic upscaling. This work highlights the importance of synaptic activity in initiating signalling cascades that mediate upscaling. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that upscaling functions to homeostatically stabilize firing rates. PMID:25751516

  11. Development, plasticity and modulation of visceral afferents

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Julie A.; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Altier, Christophe; Cenac, Nicolas; Davis, Brian M.; Gebhart, Gerald F.; High, Karin W.; Kollarik, Marian; Randich, Alan; Undem, Brad; Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Visceral pain is the most common reason for doctor visits in the US. Like somatic pain, virtually all visceral pain sensations begin with the activation of primary sensory neurons innervating the viscera and/or the blood vessels associated with these structures. Visceral afferents also play a central role in tissue homeostasis. Recent studies show that in addition to monitoring the state of the viscera, they perform efferent functions through the release of small molecules (e.g. peptides like CGRP) that can drive inflammation, thereby contributing to the development of visceral pathologies (e.g. diabetes Razavi, R., Chan, Y., Afifiyan, F.N., Liu, X.J., Wan, X., Yantha, J., Tsui, H., Tang, L., Tsai, S., Santamaria, P., Driver, J.P., Serreze, D., Salter, M.W., Dosch, H.M., 2006. TRPV1+ sensory neurons control beta cell stress and islet inflammation in autoimmune diabetes, Cell 127 1123–1135). Visceral afferents are heterogeneous with respect to their anatomy, neurochemistry and function. They are also highly plastic in that their cellular environment continuously influences their response properties. This plasticity makes them susceptible to long-term changes that may contribute significantly to the development of persistent pain states such as those associated with irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis, and visceral cancers. This review examines recent insights into visceral afferent anatomy and neurochemistry and how neonatal insults can affect the function of these neurons in the adult. New approaches to the treatment of visceral pain, which focus on primary afferents, will also be discussed. PMID:19150371

  12. Hippocampal synaptic connectivity in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Horling, Katja; Schlegel, Gudrun; Schulz, Sarah; Vierk, Ricardo; Ullrich, Kurt; Santer, René; Rune, Gabriele M

    2015-02-15

    In humans, lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) activity results in phenylketonuria (PKU), which is associated with the development of severe mental retardation after birth. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Mutations of the Pah gene in Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice result in elevated levels of phenylalanine in serum similar to those in humans suffering from PKU. In our study, long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation, measured at CA3-CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses, were impaired in acute hippocampal slices of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice. In addition, we found reduced expression of presynaptic proteins, such as synaptophysin and the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), and enhanced expression of postsynaptic marker proteins, such as synaptopodin and spinophilin. Stereological counting of spine synapses at the ultrastructural level revealed higher synaptic density in the hippocampus, commencing at 3 weeks and persisting up to 12 weeks after birth. Consistent effects were seen in response to phenylalanine treatment in cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurones. Most importantly, in the hippocampus of Pah(enu2)/c57bl6 mice, we found a significant reduction in microglia activity. Reorganization of hippocampal circuitry after birth, namely synaptic pruning, relies on elimination of weak synapses by activated microglia in response to neuronal activity. Hence, our data strongly suggest that reduced microglial activity in response to impaired synaptic transmission affects physiological postnatal remodelling of synapses in the hippocampus and may trigger the development of mental retardation in PKU patients after birth. PMID:25296915

  13. Activity-Dependent Inhibitory Synaptic Plasticity Mediated by Chloride Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Balena; Brooke A. Acton; Melanie A. Woodin

    \\u000a Synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to change their strength in response to either specific patterns of neuronal\\u000a activity or the presence of certain chemicals. While the majority of research in this area has focused on excitatory glutamatergic\\u000a synapses, synapses mediated by the neurotransmitter GABA have been receiving increasing attention. GABAA-mediated synaptic transmission is primarily due to a flux

  14. Low levels of methyl ?-cyclodextrin disrupt GluA1-dependent synaptic potentiation but not synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Yong; Jung, Sunmin; Nah, Jihoon; Ko, Hui-Yeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Chung, Gehoon; Park, Kyungpyo; Jung, Yong-Keun; Choi, Se-Young

    2015-02-01

    Methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) is a reagent that depletes cholesterol and disrupts lipid rafts, a type of cholesterol-enriched cell membrane microdomain. Lipid rafts are essential for neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and plasticity, which are sensitive to even low doses of M?CD. However, how M?CD changes synaptic function, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) activity, remains unclear. We monitored changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity after disrupting lipid rafts with M?CD. At low concentrations (0.5 mg/mL), M?CD decreased basal synaptic transmission and miniature excitatory post-synaptic current without changing NMDA-R-mediated synaptic transmission and the paired-pulse facilitation ratio. Interestingly, low doses of M?CD failed to deplete cholesterol or affect ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R) and NMDA-R levels, while clearly reducing GluA1 levels selectively in the synaptosomal fraction. Low doses of M?CD decreased the inhibitory effects of NASPM, an inhibitor for GluA2-lacking AMPA-R. M?CD successfully decreased NMDA-R-mediated long-term potentiation but did not affect the formation of either NMDA-R-mediated or group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression. M?CD inhibited de-depression without affecting de-potentiation. These results suggest that M?CD regulates GluA1-dependent synaptic potentiation but not synaptic depression in a cholesterol-independent manner. PMID:25418874

  15. The early causal influence of cell size upon synaptic number: the mutant gigas of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Meinertzhagen, I A

    1994-07-01

    The number of synaptic contacts formed by a neuron is known to vary with its surface area. This could be because large neurons are able to establish more synaptic sites, or because those neurons that are able to establish more sites are subsequently able to enlarge. To test between these two possibilities clones of enlarged ommatidia were generated in the retina of the Drosophila mutant gigas, by mitotic recombination following gamma-irradiation in the third-instar larva. The numbers of afferent synaptic contacts formed by the photoreceptor terminals in the first optic neuropil, or lamina, were then counted in the adult. The terminals of mutant photoreceptors were also enlarged, but by varying degrees. The sizes of their profiles in single sections merged with the size distribution of terminals having a wild-type phenotype, lying outside the clone in the same lamina. A perimeter of 6.0 microns for the profiles of receptor terminal in cross section was established as a criterion for distinguishing between normal and mutant phenotypes. The mutant terminals had more presynaptic sites. Because only the gigas terminals are mutant and because they enlarged at a time long before synapse formation occurred in the lamina we may conclude that cell enlargement preceded elevated synaptic number. The increase in synaptic number roughly matched the increased membrane surface of the terminals, so as nearly to preserve a constant areal density of synaptic sites over a 5-fold range in synaptic frequency. PMID:7965385

  16. Engrailed alters the specificity of synaptic connections of Drosophila auditory neurons with the giant fiber.

    PubMed

    Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H; Marie, Bruno; Blagburn, Jonathan M

    2014-08-27

    We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON-GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

  17. Engrailed Alters the Specificity of Synaptic Connections of Drosophila Auditory Neurons with the Giant Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H.; Marie, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON–GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

  18. Synaptic long-term potentiation and depression in the rat medial vestibular nuclei depend on neural activation of estrogenic and androgenic signals.

    PubMed

    Scarduzio, Mariangela; Panichi, Roberto; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2013-01-01

    Estrogenic and androgenic steroids can be synthesised in the brain and rapidly modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity through direct interaction with membrane receptors for estrogens (ERs) and androgens (ARs). We used whole cell patch clamp recordings in brainstem slices of male rats to explore the influence of ER and AR activation and local synthesis of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the long-term synaptic changes induced in the neurons of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN). Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) caused by different patterns of high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents were assayed under the blockade of ARs and ERs or in the presence of inhibitors for enzymes synthesizing DHT (5?-reductase) and E2 (P450-aromatase) from testosterone (T). We found that LTD is mediated by interaction of locally produced androgens with ARs and LTP by interaction of locally synthesized E2 with ERs. In fact, the AR block with flutamide prevented LTD while did not affect LTP, and the blockade of ERs with ICI 182,780 abolished LTP without influencing LTD. Moreover, the block of P450-aromatase with letrozole not only prevented the LTP induction, but inverted LTP into LTD. This LTD is likely due to the local activation of androgens, since it was abolished under blockade of ARs. Conversely, LTD was still induced in the presence of finasteride the inhibitor of 5?-reductase demonstrating that T is able to activate ARs and induce LTD even when DHT is not synthesized. This study demonstrates a key and opposite role of sex neurosteroids in the long-term synaptic changes of the MVN with a specific role of T-DHT for LTD and of E2 for LTP. Moreover, it suggests that different stimulation patterns can lead to LTD or LTP by specifically activating the enzymes involved in the synthesis of androgenic or estrogenic neurosteroids. PMID:24265837

  19. Afferent innervation patterns of the saccule in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakir, M.; Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The innervation patterns of vestibular saccular afferents were quantitatively investigated in pigeons using biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. Type I hair cells were found throughout a large portion of the macula, with the highest density observed in the striola. Type II hair cells were located throughout the macula, with the highest density in the extrastriola. Three classes of afferent innervation patterns were observed, including calyx, dimorph, and bouton units, with 137 afferents being anatomically reconstructed and used for quantitative comparisons. Calyx afferents were located primarily in the striola, innervated a number of type I hair cells, and had small innervation areas. Most calyx afferent terminal fields were oriented parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and the morphological polarization reversal line. Dimorph afferents were located throughout the macula, contained fewer type I hair cells in a calyceal terminal than calyx afferents and had medium sized innervation areas. Bouton afferents were restricted to the extrastriola, with multi-branching fibers and large innervation areas. Most of the dimorph and bouton afferents had innervation fields that were oriented dorso-ventrally but were parallel to the neighboring reversal line. The organizational morphology of the saccule was found to be distinctly different from that of the avian utricle or lagena otolith organs and appears to represent a receptor organ undergoing evolutionary adaptation toward sensing linear motion in terrestrial and aerial species.

  20. APP Is Cleaved by Bace1 in Pre-Synaptic Vesicles and Establishes a Pre-Synaptic Interactome, via Its Intracellular Domain, with Molecular Complexes that Regulate Pre-Synaptic Vesicles Functions

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Dolores; Lombino, Franco; Liu, Xinran; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type I membrane protein that undergoes extensive processing by secretases, including BACE1. Although mutations in APP and genes that regulate processing of APP, such as PSENs and BRI2/ITM2B, cause dementias, the normal function of APP in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and memory formation is poorly understood. To grasp the biochemical mechanisms underlying the function of APP in the central nervous system, it is important to first define the sub-cellular localization of APP in synapses and the synaptic interactome of APP. Using biochemical and electron microscopy approaches, we have found that APP is localized in pre-synaptic vesicles, where it is processed by Bace1. By means of a proteomic approach, we have characterized the synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain. We focused on this region of APP because in vivo data underline the central funtional and pathological role of the intracellular domain of APP. Consistent with the expression of APP in pre-synaptic vesicles, the synaptic APP intracellular domain interactome is predominantly constituted by pre-synaptic, rather than post-synaptic, proteins. This pre-synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain includes proteins expressed on pre-synaptic vesicles such as the vesicular SNARE Vamp2/Vamp1 and the Ca2+ sensors Synaptotagmin-1/Synaptotagmin-2, and non-vesicular pre-synaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, endocytosis and recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles, such as target-membrane-SNAREs (Syntaxin-1b, Syntaxin-1a, Snap25 and Snap47), Munc-18, Nsf, ?/?/?-Snaps and complexin. These data are consistent with a functional role for APP, via its carboxyl-terminal domain, in exocytosis, endocytosis and/or recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles. PMID:25247712

  1. Ion Channels Set Spike Timing Regularity of Mammalian Vestibular Afferent Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Radha; Xue, Jingbing

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian vestibular nerve, some afferents have highly irregular interspike intervals and others have highly regular intervals. To investigate whether spike timing is determined by the afferents' ion channels, we studied spiking activity in their cell bodies, isolated from the vestibular ganglia of young rats. Whole cell recordings were made with the perforated-patch method. As previously reported, depolarizing current steps revealed distinct firing patterns. Transient neurons fired one or two onset spikes, independent of current level. Sustained neurons were more heterogeneous, firing either trains of spikes or a spike followed by large voltage oscillations. We show that the firing pattern categories are robust, occurring at different temperatures and ages, both in mice and in rats. A difference in average resting potential did not cause the difference in firing patterns, but contributed to differences in afterhyperpolarizations. A low-voltage-activated potassium current (ILV) was previously implicated in the transient firing pattern. We show that ILV grew from the first to second postnatal week and by the second week comprised Kv1 and Kv7 (KCNQ) components. Blocking ILV converted step-evoked firing patterns from transient to sustained. Separated from their normal synaptic inputs, the neurons did not spike spontaneously. To test whether the firing-pattern categories might correspond to afferent populations of different regularity, we injected simulated excitatory postsynaptic currents at pseudorandom intervals. Sustained neurons responded to a given pattern of input with more regular firing than did transient neurons. Pharmacological block of ILV made firing more regular. Thus ion channel differences that produce transient and sustained firing patterns in response to depolarizing current steps can also produce irregular and regular spike timing. PMID:20660422

  2. Postsynaptic Modulation of AMPA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Responses and LTP by the Type 3 Ryanodine Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misa Shimuta; Masahiro Yoshikawa; Masahiro Fukaya; Masahiko Watanabe; Hiroshi Takeshima; Toshiya Manabe

    2001-01-01

    The precise function of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in synaptic transmission is unknown, but three of their subtypes are expressed in the brain. We examined the roleof RyRs in excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampalslices, using type 3 RyR (RyR3)-deficient mice. The ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxozolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated basal synaptic responses in the CA1 region of mutant mice were smaller than those of wild-type

  3. MSK1 regulates homeostatic and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Corręa, Sonia A L; Hunter, Christopher J; Palygin, Oleg; Wauters, Sandrine C; Martin, Kirsty J; McKenzie, Colin; McKelvey, Kim; Morris, Richard G M; Pankratov, Yuriy; Arthur, J Simon C; Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2012-09-19

    The ability of neurons to modulate synaptic strength underpins synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and adaptation to sensory experience. Despite the importance of synaptic adaptation in directing, reinforcing, and revising the behavioral response to environmental influences, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic adaptation are far from clear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a prime initiator of structural and functional synaptic adaptation. However, the signaling cascade activated by BDNF to initiate these adaptive changes has not been elucidated. We have previously shown that BDNF activates mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), which regulates gene transcription via the phosphorylation of both CREB and histone H3. Using mice with a kinase-dead knock-in mutation of MSK1, we now show that MSK1 is necessary for the upregulation of synaptic strength in response to environmental enrichment in vivo. Furthermore, neurons from MSK1 kinase-dead mice failed to show scaling of synaptic transmission in response to activity deprivation in vitro, a deficit that could be rescued by reintroduction of wild-type MSK1. We also show that MSK1 forms part of a BDNF- and MAPK-dependent signaling cascade required for homeostatic synaptic scaling, which likely resides in the ability of MSK1 to regulate cell surface GluA1 expression via the induction of Arc/Arg3.1. These results demonstrate that MSK1 is an integral part of a signaling pathway that underlies the adaptive response to synaptic and environmental experience. MSK1 may thus act as a key homeostat in the activity- and experience-dependent regulation of synaptic strength. PMID:22993422

  4. Posttranslational Modifications and Receptor-Associated Proteins in AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Synaptic Plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxiong Jiang; Vishnu Suppiramaniam; Marie W. Wooten

    2007-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. It is widely believed that the long-lasting, activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength, including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, could be the molecular and cellular basis of experience-dependent plasticities, such as learning and memory. Those changes of synaptic strength are directly related to AMPAR trafficking to and

  5. The Edinger-Westphal nucleus II: Hypothalamic afferents in the rat.

    PubMed

    da Silva, André V; Torres, Kelly R; Haemmerle, Carlos A; Céspedes, Isabel C; Bittencourt, Jackson C

    2013-12-01

    Numerous functions have been attributed to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), including those related to feeding behavior, pain control, alcohol consumption and the stress response. The EW is thought to consist of two parts: one controls accommodation, choroidal blood flow and pupillary constriction, primarily comprising cholinergic cells and projecting to the ciliary ganglion; and the other would be involved in the non-ocular functions mentioned above, comprising peptide-producing neurons and projecting to the brainstem, spinal cord and prosencephalic regions. Despite the fact that the EW is well known, its connections have yet to be described in detail. The aim of this work was to produce a map of the hypothalamic sources of afferents to the EW in the rat. We injected the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the EW, and using biotinylated dextran amine, injected into afferent sources as the anterograde control. We found retrogradely labeled cells in the following regions: subfornical organ, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, zona incerta, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, medial vestibular nucleus and cerebellar interpositus nucleus. After injecting BDA into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area and posterior hypothalamic nucleus, we found anterogradely labeled fibers in close apposition to and potential synaptic contact with urocortin 1-immunoreactive cells in the EW. On the basis of our findings, we can suggest that the connections between the EW and the hypothalamic nuclei are involved in controlling stress responses and feeding behavior. PMID:23619059

  6. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Südhof, Thomas C; Rizo, Josep

    2011-12-01

    Presynaptic nerve terminals release neurotransmitters by synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Membrane fusion mediating synaptic exocytosis and other intracellular membrane traffic is affected by a universal machinery that includes SNARE (for "soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor") and SM (for "Sec1/Munc18-like") proteins. During fusion, vesicular and target SNARE proteins assemble into an ?-helical trans-SNARE complex that forces the two membranes tightly together, and SM proteins likely wrap around assembling trans-SNARE complexes to catalyze membrane fusion. After fusion, SNARE complexes are dissociated by the ATPase NSF (for "N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor"). Fusion-competent conformations of SNARE proteins are maintained by chaperone complexes composed of CSP?, Hsc70, and SGT, and by nonenzymatically acting synuclein chaperones; dysfunction of these chaperones results in neurodegeneration. The synaptic membrane-fusion machinery is controlled by synaptotagmin, and additionally regulated by a presynaptic protein matrix (the "active zone") that includes Munc13 and RIM proteins as central components. PMID:22026965

  7. Synaptic Growth: Dancing with Adducin

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Robin J.

    Manipulations of the actin-capping protein adducin in Drosophila and mammalian neurons provide new insights into the mechanisms linking structural changes to synaptic plasticity and learning. Adducin regulates synaptic ...

  8. Projection of non-peptidergic afferents to mouse tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-K; Jue, S S; Dong, X

    2012-08-01

    A large proportion of pulpal nociceptors are known to contain neuropeptides such as CGRP. However, the projection of non-peptidergic nociceptors to tooth pulp is controversial. Recently, the non- peptidergic subset of nociceptors has been implicated in mechanical pain in the skin. Since mechanical irritation of pulpal nociceptors is critical for evoking tooth pain under pathophysiological conditions, we investigated whether the non-peptidergic afferents project to tooth pulp as potential mechanotransducing afferents. For clear visualization of the non-peptidergic afferents, we took advantage of a recently generated knock-in mouse model in which an axonal tracer, farnesylated green fluorescence protein (GFP), is expressed from the locus of a sensory neuron-specific gene, Mrgprd. In the trigeminal ganglia (TG), we demonstrated that GFP is exclusively expressed in afferents binding to isolectin B4 (IB4), a neurochemical marker of non-peptidergic nociceptors, but is rarely co-localized with CGRP. Retrograde labeling of pulpal afferents demonstrated that a low proportion of pulpal afferents was co-localized with GFP. Immunohistochemical detection of the axonal tracer revealed that GFP-positive afferent terminals were densely projected into the tooth pulp. These results provide convincing evidence that non-peptidergic nociceptors are projected into the tooth pulp and suggest a potential role for these afferents in tooth pain. PMID:22668597

  9. Cell-specific retrograde signals mediate antiparallel effects of angiotensin II on osmoreceptor afferents to vasopressin and oxytocin neurons.

    PubMed

    Stachniak, Tevye J; Trudel, Eric; Bourque, Charles W

    2014-07-24

    Homeostatic control of extracellular fluid osmolality in rats requires a parallel excitation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurosecretory neurons by osmoreceptor afferents to regulate the amount of water and sodium in the urine under normal conditions. However, during decreased blood volume (hypovolemia), natriuresis is suppressed, whereas osmotically driven antidiuresis is enhanced to promote retention of isotonic fluid. Because Angiotensin II (Ang II) is released centrally to indicate hypovolemia, we hypothesized that Ang II can evoke a state-dependent switch in circuit function. Here, we show that Ang II, a neuropeptide released centrally during hypovolemia, suppresses osmoreceptor-mediated synaptic excitation of OT neurons while potentiating excitation of VP neurons. Ang II does this by inducing cell-autonomous release of nitric oxide by VP neurons and endocannabinoids by OT neurons to respectively enhance and reduce glutamate release by osmoreceptor afferents. These findings indicate that peptide modulators such as Ang II can regulate synaptic communication to achieve a state-dependent and target-specific modulation of circuit activity. PMID:25043186

  10. Direct Modulation of the Secretory Machinery Underlies PKA-Dependent Synaptic Facilitation in Hippocampal Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis-Eric Trudeau; Dennis G Emery; Philip G Haydon

    1996-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) is known to facilitate synaptic transmission. Using synapses established by hippocampal neurons in culture, we show that dialysis of PKA inhibitors in the presynaptic neuron blocks synaptic facilitation produced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, demonstrating a presynaptic locus of action. Using ruthenium red, a tool that is known to stimulate exocytosis independently of

  11. [Role of metabosensitive afferent fibers in neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Decherchi, Patrick; Dousset, Erick

    2003-05-01

    Role of metabosensitive afferent fibers in neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms. Adaptation to exercise is provided by central neuron activity adjustments which are regulated partly by activation of group I and II (mechanosensitive) and group III and IV (metabosentitive) afferent fibers. These last two groups are activated by exercise-induced changes in muscle metabolism. The role played by these afferents seems to be crucial to exercise and fatigue tolerance adaptive mechanisms. Nevertheless, many questions remain unresolved. The aim of this review is to focus on the involvement of metabosensitivity in sensorimotor loops and neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms. The existence of an adaptive cardiovascular and respiratory reflex to exercise originating from metabosensitive afferent fiber activation is well established. Furthermore, the mechanism of skeletal muscle protection against fatigue could be due to modulation of central motor command at the spinal and supraspinal levels via these afferent fibers. PMID:12778889

  12. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces. PMID:8763628

  13. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS TECHNICAL SPOTLIGHT Accurate spike sorting for multi-unit recordings Takashi Technology of Spike sorting open-source software, robust variational Bayes, wavelet transform Abstract or distant neurons and must be sorted correctly into spike trains of individual neurons. Several mathematical

  14. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  15. Synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Liberia, Teresa; Blasco-Ibáńez, José Miguel; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio; Lanciego, José Luis; Crespo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB). At present, the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons on the circuits of the OB has only been investigated in the rat. In this report, we analyze the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the OB of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Our aim is to investigate whether the cholinergic innervation of the bulbar circuits is phylogenetically conserved between macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. Our results demonstrate that the cholinergic axons form synaptic contacts on interneurons. In the glomerular layer, their main targets are the periglomerular cells, which receive axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses. In the inframitral region, their main targets are the granule cells, which receive synaptic contacts on their dendritic shafts and spines. Although the cholinergic boutons were frequently found in close vicinity of the dendrites of principal cells, we have not found synaptic contacts on them. From a comparative perspective, our data indicate that the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic circuits is highly preserved in the OB of macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals.

  16. Synaptic connections between sensory afferents and the common inhibitory motoneuron in crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cattaert; M. Bévengut; F. Clarac

    1993-01-01

    The sensory inputs to the common inhibitory motoneuron that innervates every leg muscle of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) were analyzed by performing intracellular recordings from its neurite within the neuropil of the 5th thoracic ganglion. Two types of sensory inputs involved in locomotion were studied, those from a movement coding proprioceptor (the coxobasal chordotonal organ) and those from sensory

  17. Synaptic Density in Geniculocortical Afferents Remains Constant after Monocular Deprivation in the Cat

    E-print Network

    Stryker, Michael

    and Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California the deprived arbors are approximately half their previous size. To study this form of plasticity at the level labeled by injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into lamina

  18. Phosphorylation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Primary Afferent Neurons by Noxious Stimuli and Its Involvement in Peripheral Sensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Dai; Koichi Iwata; Tetsuo Fukuoka; Eiji Kondo; Atsushi Tokunaga; Hiroki Yamanaka

    2002-01-01

    Alteration in the intracellular signal transduction pathway in primary afferent neurons may contribute to pain hypersensitiv- ity. We demonstrated that very rapid phosphorylation of extra- cellular signal-regulated protein kinases (pERK) occurred in DRG neurons that were taking part in the transmission of various noxious signals. The electrical stimulation of A fibers induced pERK primarily in neurons with myelinated fibers. c-Fiber

  19. Effect of Microgravity on Afferent Innervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Presentations and publications are: (1) an audiovisual summary web presentation on results from SLM-MIR avian experiments. A color presentation summarizing results from the SLM-MIR and STS-29 avian experiments; (2) color threshold and ratio of S 100B MAP5, NF68/200, GABA and GAD; (3) chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents; (4) microgravity in the STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos; (5) expression of S 100B in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear; (6) otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes;(7) the glycan keratin sulfate in inner ear crystals; (8) elliptical-P cells in the avian perilymphatic interface of the tegmentum vasculosum; and (9) LAMP2c and S100B upregulation in brain stem after VIIIth nerve deafferentation.

  20. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  1. Circadian variation in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Stephen J; Frisby, Claudine L; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    Food intake is coordinated to cellular metabolism by clock gene expression with a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronized by light exposure. Gastric vagal afferents play a role in regulating food intake, but it is unknown whether they exhibit circadian variation in their mechanosensitivity. We aimed to determine whether gastric vagal afferents express clock genes and whether their response to mechanical stimuli oscillates throughout the light/dark cycle. Nodose ganglia were collected from 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice every 3 h starting at lights off (1800 h) to quantify Bmal1, Per1, Per2, and Nr1d1 mRNA by qRT-PCR. Additionally in vitro single-fiber recordings of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors were taken at all time points. Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Nr1d1 mRNA is expressed in the nodose ganglia and levels oscillated over a 24 h period. In mice fed ad libitum, gastric content was 3 times higher at 0000 h and 0300 h than 1200 h. The response of tension receptors to 3 g stretch was reduced by up to 70% at 2100 h, 0000 h, and 0300 h compared with 1200 h. Gastric mucosal receptor response to stroking with a 50 mg von Frey hair was 3 times greater at 1200 h and 1500 h than the response at 0000 h. Similar findings were obtained in mice fasted for 6 h or maintained in darkness for 3 d before study. Therefore, these changes do not result from food intake or the light/dark cycle. Thus, gastric vagal mechanoreceptors display circadian rhythm, which may act to control food intake differentially at different times of the day. PMID:24305819

  2. Activation of skeletal muscle afferents evokes release of glutamate in the subretrofacial nucleus (SRF) of cats.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Potts, J T; Kramer, G L; Petty, F; Mitchell, J H

    2001-03-16

    The subretrofacial nucleus (SRF) is a region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla known to play a crucial role in sympathoexcitation. SRF neurons send direct projections to the intermediolateral cell columns of the spinal cord where they form synaptic contact with preganglionic sympathetic motor neurons. Activation of this neural pathway increases sympathetic outflow to the heart and blood vessels affecting cardiac function and vasomotor tone. Previous studies utilizing electrophysiological recording techniques and c-Fos expression have established that the activity of SRF neurons is increased during skeletal muscle contraction. However, the excitatory neurotransmitter mediating this increased activity remains in question. In the present study, static contraction of the triceps surae was induced by electrical stimulation of L7 and S1 ventral roots in anesthetized cats (n=12). Endogenous release of glutamate (Glu) from the SRF was recovered by microdialysis and measured by HPLC. Static muscle contraction for 4 min increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) 38+/-4 mmHg from a control level of 102+/-12 mmHg (P< 0.05). During muscle contraction the extracellular concentration of Glu recovered from the SRF increased from 623+/-117 to 1078+/-187 nM (P<0.05). To determine the effect of muscle contraction on Glu release in the absence of synaptic input from other reflexogenic areas, contraction was repeated following acute sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy. Following this denervation, muscle contraction increased MAP 41+/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05) and Glu concentration from 635+/-246 to 1106+/-389 nM (P < 0.05). Muscle paralysis prevented the increases in MAP and Glu concentration during ventral root stimulation. These results suggest that: (i) Glu is released in the SRF during activation of contraction-sensitive skeletal muscle afferent fibers in the cat; and (ii) synaptic input from other reflexogenic areas appears to be ineffective in modulating the release of Glu in the SRF during static muscle contraction. PMID:11251198

  3. Receptive properties of sacral primary afferent neurons supplying the colon.

    PubMed

    Jänig, W; Koltzenburg, M

    1991-05-01

    1. Conscious perception of noxious and innocuous distension of the colon as well as the reflex control of anal continence and defecation largely depend on an intact sacral primary afferent innervation. Here we have studied the functional properties of these visceral primary afferent neurons in the dorsal root S2 in 17 cats. Single fibers projecting into the pelvic nerve were identified electrically and studied with innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation of colon and anal canal. 2. A total of 59 units responding to one of these stimuli were investigated and they could be separated into two subpopulations of afferents. Thirty-six fibers were reproducibly excited by distension of the colon, but not by mechanical stimulation of the anal canal. They were thin myelinated or unmyelinated fibers with a median conduction velocity of 3.2 m/s. The remaining 23 units had receptive fields in the mucosa of the anal canal and responded readily to an innocuous proximodistal shearing stimulus, but not to distension stimuli applied to the same area. All, but two of these afferents were thin myelinated with a median conduction velocity of 7.7 m/s, which was significantly different from the conduction velocity of afferent neurons responding to distension of the colon. 3. Units responding to distension of the colon had thresholds in the innocuous range of the intracolonic pressure. Receptors that were activated only by noxious intraluminal pressure were absent. On the basis of their response to supramaximal isotonic distension, colonic afferents could be subclassified as phasic (n = 17) or tonic (n = 19) units. Phasic afferents were only transiently excited during filling or emptying of the colon, whereas tonic afferents discharged throughout the distension. The two populations had also significantly different median conduction velocities of 8.0 (n = 16) and 1.7 (n = 15) m/s, respectively. 4. Stimulation response functions were evaluated for 12 tonic afferents. All units encoded an increase of intracolonic pressure by the intensity of their discharge frequency. Increases of intracolonic pressure produced significantly higher discharge frequencies from unmyelinated than from thin myelinated afferents. 5. In three animals the percentage of unmyelinated fibers responding to mechanical stimulation of colon and anal canal was determined. Out of 213 electrically identified unmyelinated units projecting into the pelvic nerve, only 11 (5.2%) were excited. Thus, acute innocuous and noxious mechanical stimuli of the large intestine do not appear to be the adequate stimulus for the large majority of unmyelinated pelvic afferents. 6. In conclusion, distension of the colon and mechanical stimulation of the anal canal activates distinct populations of primary afferent neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1869905

  4. Developmental dynamics of functionally specific primary sensory afferent projections in the chicken embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Eide; Joel C. Glover

    1997-01-01

    The central projections of specific subpopulations of lumbar primary afferents were selectively labeled with the lipophilic tracer DiI in fixed preparations of the chicken embryo. Muscle or cutaneous afferents were selectively labeled by applying DiI to identified peripheral nerves. Medial or lateral afferent populations were selectively labeled by partially lesioning the dorsal root. Muscle and cutaneous afferent populations each contribute

  5. A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the afferent signal. Serotonin may thus play a major modulatory role within peripheral taste in shaping the afferent taste signals prior to their transmission across gustatory nerves. PMID:25386961

  6. Drosophila neuroligin3 regulates neuromuscular junction development and synaptic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guanglin; Gan, Guangming; Chen, Dandan; Sun, Mingkuan; Yi, Jukang; Lv, Huihui; Han, Junhai; Xie, Wei

    2014-11-14

    Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules thought to be important for synapse maturation and function. Mammalian studies have shown that different Nlgs have different roles in synaptic maturation and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, the roles of Drosophila neuroligin1 (DNlg1), neuroligin2, and neuroligin4 have been examined. However, the roles of neuroligin3 (dnlg3) in synaptic development and function have not been determined. In this study, we used the Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) as a model system to investigate the in vivo role of dnlg3. We showed that DNlg3 was expressed in both the CNS and NMJs where it was largely restricted to the postsynaptic site. We generated dnlg3 mutants and showed that these mutants exhibited an increased bouton number and reduced bouton size compared with the wild-type (WT) controls. Consistent with alterations in bouton properties, pre- and postsynaptic differentiations were affected in dnlg3 mutants. This included abnormal synaptic vesicle endocytosis, increased postsynaptic density length, and reduced GluRIIA recruitment. In addition to impaired synaptic development and differentiation, we found that synaptic transmission was reduced in dnlg3 mutants. Altogether, our data showed that DNlg3 was required for NMJ development, synaptic differentiation, and function. PMID:25228693

  7. Role of visceral afferent neurons in mucosal inflammation and defence

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary The maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity depends on the rapid alarm of protective mechanisms in the face of pending injury. Two populations of extrinsic primary afferent neurons, vagal and spinal, subserve this goal through different mechanisms. These sensory neurons react to gastrointestinal insults by triggering protective autonomic reflexes including the so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex. Spinal afferents, in addition, can initiate protective tissue reactions at the site of assault through release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from their peripheral endings. The protective responses triggered by sensory neurons comprise alterations in gastrointestinal blood flow, secretion and motility as well as modifications of immune function. This article focusses on significant advances that during the past couple of years have been made in identifying molecular nocisensors on afferent neurons and in dissecting the signalling mechanisms whereby afferent neurons govern inflammatory processes in the gut. PMID:18029228

  8. Discharges of Single Hindlimb Afferents in the Freely Moving Cat

    E-print Network

    Prochazka, Arthur

    . The majority of afferents were from muscle spindle primary end- ings in hindlimb muscles. 3. Ankle extensor of active muscle contraction. The EMG response to brisk stretches of the ankle extensor muscle indicated

  9. GABAA receptor ? and ? subunits shape synaptic currents via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Christine; Sah, Pankaj; Lynch, Joseph W; Keramidas, Angelo

    2014-02-28

    Synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate most of the inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. The majority of these receptors are comprised of ?1, ?2, and ?2 subunits. The amygdala, a structure involved in processing emotional stimuli, expresses ?2 and ?1 subunits at high levels. The effect of these subunits on GABAAR-mediated synaptic transmission is not known. Understanding the influence of these subunits on GABAAR-mediated synaptic currents may help in identifying the roles and locations of amygdala synapses that contain these subunits. Here, we describe the biophysical and synaptic properties of pure populations of ?1?2?2, ?2?2?2, ?1?2?1 and ?2?2?1 GABAARs. Their synaptic properties were examined in engineered synapses, whereas their kinetic properties were studied using rapid agonist application, and single channel recordings. All macropatch currents activated rapidly (<1 ms) and deactivated as a function of the ?-subunit, with ?2-containing GABAARs consistently deactivating ?10-fold more slowly. Single channel analysis revealed that the slower current decay of ?2-containing GABAARs was due to longer burst durations at low GABA concentrations, corresponding to a ?4-fold higher affinity for GABA. Synaptic currents revealed a different pattern of activation and deactivation to that of macropatch data. The inclusion of ?2 and ?1 subunits slowed both the activation and deactivation rates, suggesting that receptors containing these subunits cluster more diffusely at synapses. Switching the intracellular domains of the ?2 and ?1 subunits substantiated this inference. Because this region determines post-synaptic localization, we hypothesize that GABAARs containing ?1 and ?2 use different mechanisms for synaptic clustering. PMID:24425869

  10. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar afferents projected throughout the cochlear nuclei, to the dorsolateral regions of the cerebellar nuclei, and to lateral regions of the superior, lateral, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei.

  11. Cutaneous afferents provide information about knee joint movements in humans

    PubMed Central

    Edin, Benoni B

    2001-01-01

    Neurophysiological evidence that afferent information from skin receptors is important for proprioception has been gathered mainly in experiments relating to the human hand and finger joints. To investigate if proprioceptive information is also provided by skin mechanoreceptor afferents from skin areas related to large joints of postural importance, microneurography recordings were obtained in humans from skin afferents in the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve to study their responses to knee joint movements. Data were collected from 60 sequentially recorded afferents from slowly (n= 23) and fast (n= 6) adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors, hair follicle receptors (n= 24), field receptors (n= 1) and C mechanoreceptors (n= 6). Fascicular recordings showed that the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve supplies extensive areas of the thigh: from 5–10 cm below the inguinal ligament down to below and lateral to the knee joint; accordingly, the afferents originated in receptors located in wide areas of the human thigh. All afferents from fast and slowly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors, as well as C mechanoreceptors, responded to manually applied skin stretch. In contrast, the same stimulus elicited, at most, feeble responses in hair follicle receptors. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the responses of a subset of afferents revealed that in particular slowly adapting afferents effectively encode both static and dynamic aspects of passively imposed knee joint movements. It was concluded that receptors in the hairy skin of humans can provide high-fidelity information about knee joint movements. A previously undefined type of slowly adapting receptor (SA III) seemed particularly suited for this task whereas this does not seem to be the case for either hair follicle receptors or C mechanoreceptors. PMID:11179411

  12. Axonal Noise as a Source of Synaptic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Post-synaptic potential (PSP) variability is typically attributed to mechanisms inside synapses, yet recent advances in experimental methods and biophysical understanding have led us to reconsider the role of axons as highly reliable transmission channels. We show that in many thin axons of our brain, the action potential (AP) waveform and thus the Ca++ signal controlling vesicle release at synapses will be significantly affected by the inherent variability of ion channel gating. We investigate how and to what extent fluctuations in the AP waveform explain observed PSP variability. Using both biophysical theory and stochastic simulations of central and peripheral nervous system axons from vertebrates and invertebrates, we show that channel noise in thin axons (<1 µm diameter) causes random fluctuations in AP waveforms. AP height and width, both experimentally characterised parameters of post-synaptic response amplitude, vary e.g. by up to 20 mV and 0.5 ms while a single AP propagates in C-fibre axons. We show how AP height and width variabilities increase with a ľ power-law as diameter decreases and translate these fluctuations into post-synaptic response variability using biophysical data and models of synaptic transmission. We find for example that for mammalian unmyelinated axons with 0.2 µm diameter (matching cerebellar parallel fibres) axonal noise alone can explain half of the PSP variability in cerebellar synapses. We conclude that axonal variability may have considerable impact on synaptic response variability. Thus, in many experimental frameworks investigating synaptic transmission through paired-cell recordings or extracellular stimulation of presynaptic neurons, causes of variability may have been confounded. We thereby show how bottom-up aggregation of molecular noise sources contributes to our understanding of variability observed at higher levels of biological organisation. PMID:24809823

  13. Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors. PMID:23535140

  14. Characterization of human afferent lymph dendritic cells from seroma fluids.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Barbara; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Mesiti, Mario; Conte, Romana; Carrega, Paolo; Costa, Gregorio; Iemmo, Raffaella; Martini, Stefania; Ferrone, Soldano; Cantoni, Claudia; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) migrate from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) through the afferent lymph. Owing to limitations in investigating human lymph, DCs flowing in afferent lymph have not been properly characterized in humans until now. In this study, DCs present in seroma, an accrual of human afferent lymph occurring after lymph node surgical dissection, were isolated and analyzed in detail. Two main DC subsets were identified in seroma that corresponded to the migratory DC subsets present in lymph nodes, that is, CD14(+) and CD1a(+). The latter also included CD1a(bright) Langerhans cells. The two DC subsets appeared to share the same monocytic precursor and to be developmentally related; both of them spontaneously released high levels of TGF-? and displayed similar T cell-activating and -polarizing properties. In contrast, they differed in the expression of surface molecules, including TLRs; in their phagocytic activity; and in the expression of proteins involved in Ag processing and presentation. It is worth noting that although both subsets were detected in seroma in the postsurgical inflammatory phase, only CD1a(+) DCs migrated via afferent lymph under steady-state conditions. In conclusion, the high numbers of DCs contained in seroma fluids allowed a proper characterization of human DCs migrating via afferent lymph, revealing a continuous stream of DCs from peripheral regions toward SLOs under normal conditions. Moreover, we showed that, in inflammatory conditions, distinct subsets of DCs can migrate to SLOs via afferent lymph. PMID:24078697

  15. Long-term potentiation at excitatory synaptic inputs to the intercalated cell masses of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chung; Liang, Ying-Ching; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2014-08-01

    The intercalated cell masses (ITCs) of the amygdala are clusters of GABAergic interneurons that surround the basolateral complex of the amygdala. ITCs have been increasingly implicated in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we report that repetitive stimulation of lateral amygdala (LA) afferents with a modified theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and induces long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses onto medial paracapsular ITC (Imp) neurons. This TBS-induced LTP is; (1) induced and expressed post-synaptically, (2) involves a rise in post-synaptic Ca2+ and the activation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), (3) dependent on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation, and (4) associated with increased exocytotic delivery of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) to the post-synaptic membrane. Remarkably, auditory fear conditioning led to a persistent increase in AMPAR/NMDAR ratio of glutamatergic synaptic currents and occluded TBS-induced LTP at LA-Imp synapses. Furthermore, extinction training rescued the effect of fear conditioning on AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and LTP induction. These results show that a prominent form of LTP can be elicited at LA-Imp synapses and suggest that this synaptic plasticity may contribute to the expression of fear conditioning. PMID:24556032

  16. Tracking slow modulations in synaptic gain using dynamic causal modelling: Validation in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Margarita; Leite, Marco; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Lemieux, Louis; Friston, Karl; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a proof of principle that dynamic causal modelling can identify plausible mechanisms at the synaptic level underlying brain state changes over a timescale of seconds. As a benchmark example for validation we used intracranial electroencephalographic signals in a human subject. These data were used to infer the (effective connectivity) architecture of synaptic connections among neural populations assumed to generate seizure activity. Dynamic causal modelling allowed us to quantify empirical changes in spectral activity in terms of a trajectory in parameter space — identifying key synaptic parameters or connections that cause observed signals. Using recordings from three seizures in one patient, we considered a network of two sources (within and just outside the putative ictal zone). Bayesian model selection was used to identify the intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity. Having established the underlying architecture, we were able to track the evolution of key connectivity parameters (e.g., inhibitory connections to superficial pyramidal cells) and test specific hypotheses about the synaptic mechanisms involved in ictogenesis. Our key finding was that intrinsic synaptic changes were sufficient to explain seizure onset, where these changes showed dissociable time courses over several seconds. Crucially, these changes spoke to an increase in the sensitivity of principal cells to intrinsic inhibitory afferents and a transient loss of excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:25498428

  17. Gephyrin clusters are absent from small diameter primary afferent terminals despite the presence of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Louis-Etienne; Godin, Antoine G; Wang, Feng; St-Louis, Manon; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Wiseman, Paul W; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-06-11

    Whereas both GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a role in control of dorsal horn neuron excitability, their relative contribution to inhibition of small diameter primary afferent terminals remains controversial. To address this, we designed an approach for quantitative analyses of the distribution of GABA(A)R-subunits, GlyR ?1-subunit and their anchoring protein, gephyrin, on terminals of rat spinal sensory afferents identified by Calcitonin-Gene-Related-Peptide (CGRP) for peptidergic terminals, and by Isolectin-B4 (IB4) for nonpeptidergic terminals. The approach was designed for light microscopy, which is compatible with the mild fixation conditions necessary for immunodetection of several of these antigens. An algorithm was designed to recognize structures with dimensions similar to those of the microscope resolution. To avoid detecting false colocalization, the latter was considered significant only if the degree of pixel overlap exceeded that expected from randomly overlapping pixels given a hypergeometric distribution. We found that both CGRP(+) and IB4(+) terminals were devoid of GlyR ?1-subunit and gephyrin. The ?1 GABA(A)R was also absent from these terminals. In contrast, the GABA(A)R ?2/?3/?5 and ?3 subunits were significantly expressed in both terminal types, as were other GABA(A)R-associated-proteins (?-Dystroglycan/Neuroligin-2/Collybistin-2). Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of GABA(A)R ?3 subunits in small afferent terminals. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed the results of light microscopy immunochemical analysis. These results indicate that dorsal horn inhibitory synapses follow different rules of organization at presynaptic versus postsynaptic sites (nociceptive afferent terminals vs inhibitory synapses on dorsal horn neurons). The absence of gephyrin clusters from primary afferent terminals suggests a more diffuse mode of GABA(A)-mediated transmission at presynaptic than at postsynaptic sites. PMID:24920633

  18. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were located in the extrastriola. The cellular organization and innervation patterns of the utricular maculae in birds appear to represent an organ in adaptive evolution, different from that observed for amphibians or mammals.

  19. Astrocytic adenosine kinase regulates basal synaptic adenosine levels and seizure activity but not activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori-An V. Etherington; Graham E. Patterson; Louise Meechan; Detlev Boison; Andrew J. Irving; Nicholas Dale; Bruno G. Frenguelli

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous inhibitor of excitatory synaptic transmission with potent anticonvulsant properties in the mammalian brain. Given adenosine's important role in modulating synaptic transmission, several mechanisms exist to regulate its extracellular availability. One of these is the intracellular enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), which phosphorylates adenosine to AMP. We have investigated the role that ADK plays in regulating the presence

  20. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  1. Nucleus accumbens nitric oxide immunoreactive interneurons receive nitric oxide and ventral subicular afferents in rats.

    PubMed

    French, S J; Ritson, G P; Hidaka, S; Totterdell, S

    2005-01-01

    The nitric oxide generating neurons of the nucleus accumbens exert a powerful influence over striatal function, in addition, these nitrergic inputs are in a position to regulate the dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs on striatal projection neurons. It was the aim of this study to establish the source of the glutamatergic drive to nitric oxide synthase interneurons of the nucleus accumbens. The nucleus accumbens nitric oxide-generating neurons receive asymmetrical, excitatory, presumably glutamatergic inputs. Possible sources of these inputs could be the limbic and cortical regions known to project to this area. To identify sources of the excitatory inputs to the nitric oxide synthase-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens in the rat we first examined the ultrastructural morphology of asymmetrical synaptic specializations contacting nitric oxide synthase-immunohistochemically labeled interneurons in the nucleus accumbens. Neurons were selected from different regions of the nucleus accumbens, drawn using camera lucida, processed for electron microscopic analysis, and the boutons contacting nitric oxide synthase-labeled dendrites were photographed and correlated to the drawings. Using vesicle size as the criterion the source was predicted to be either the prefrontal cortex or the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. To examine this prediction, a further study used anterograde tracing from both the prefrontal cortex and the ventral subiculum, and nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry with correlated light and electron microscopy. Based on appositions by anterogradely labeled fibers, selected nitric oxide synthase-labeled neurons within the nucleus accumbens, were examined with electron microscopic analysis. With this technique we confirmed the prediction that subicular afferent boutons make synaptic contact with nitric oxide synthase interneurons, and demonstrated anatomically that nitric oxide synthase boutons make synaptic contact with the dendritic arbors of nitric oxide synthase interneurons. We suggest that the subicular input may excite the nitric oxide synthase neurons synaptically, while the nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide synthase interactions underlie a nitric oxide signaling network which propagates hippocampal information, and expands the hippocampus's influence on 'gating' information flow across the nucleus accumbens. PMID:16084659

  2. Activation of renal afferent pathways following furosemide treatment. II. Effect Of angiotensin blockade.

    PubMed

    Fitch, G K; Weiss, M L

    2000-04-10

    The goal here and in the accompanying paper was to evaluate the two pathways used by the kidney to provide information to the central nervous system (CNS); e.g., the indirect, hormonal route via activation of the renin-angiotensin system and the direct pathway via activation of sympathetic afferents in the caudal thoracic spinal cord. Here, three experiments were designed to evaluate the actions of angiotensin elicited by subcutaneous injection of furosemide on neural activation of the CNS. The number of neurons immunocytochemically staining for the protein product (Fos) of the c-fos gene was used as an index of neuronal activation. In the first experiment, furosemide injection was preceded by treatment with a dose of Captopril, CAP, (an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor) that blocks the peripheral but not the central formation of angiotensin II. In the second experiment, furosemide injection was preceded by treatment with a higher dose of CAP; this dosage blocks the peripheral and central formation of angiotensin II. In the third experiment, furosemide injection was preceded by treatment with Losartan, a competitive receptor antagonist of type I angiotensin II receptors at a dose that would block central and peripheral angiotensin receptors. Control animals in each experiment received injections of vehicle (sterile isotonic saline) instead of furosemide. In each experiment, rats were sacrificed 1.75 h following furosemide or saline injection by transcardial perfusion and tissues were immunocytochemically processed for demonstration of Fos antigen. Rats receiving furosemide plus the low CAP dose showed more Fos-positive cells than control rats in the subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), supraoptic nucleus (SON), magnocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and caudal thoracic/rostral lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. Rats receiving furosemide plus Losartan or furosemide plus the higher CAP dose did not show increased Fos immunoreactivity in any of the abovementioned structures relative to their respective control animals. We conclude that the receptor-mediated action of angiotensin II is in some way involved in the activation of the pathway that occurs in the SFO, OVLT, SON, and magnocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to furosemide treatment. It is possible that the furosemide-induced activation in the SON and PVN is not due to direct actions of angiotensin II on angiotensin receptors in those structures, but instead occurs synaptically as a result of inputs from the SFO and OVLT, which have themselves been activated directly by angiotensin II. In the accompanying paper, furosemide-induced activation in the NTS and caudal thoracic spinal cord is abolished by prior bilateral renal denervation, meaning that these neurons are likely part of a renal afferent pathway. Here, these structures did not elaborate Fos in animals injected with furosemide plus the high CAP dose or furosemide plus Losartan. Thus, the present results also suggest that the central blockade of the formation of angiotensin II or blockade of the actions of angiotensin II prevents in some way the activation of the renal afferent pathway mediated by the renal nerves (the direct pathway) in response to the actions of furosemide. Therefore, these results suggest that central angiotensin II is somehow involved in "priming" or increasing the sensitivity of the direct renal afferent pathway. Taken together with the accompanying paper, our results indicate that interruption of the direct pathway via renal denervation did not interfere with the elaboration of Fos in the lamina terminalis; in contrast, modification of the humoral renal afferent pathway can affect the sensitivity of the direct pathway. These results may have important implications for pathophysiological changes associated with fluid balance disorders including renal hypertension. PMID:10760499

  3. Neurogenic adaptation contributes to the afferent response to mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zhao, J; Jiang, W; Nakaguchi, T; Kunwald, P; Grundy, D; Gregersen, H

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of mechanical stimuli on mesenteric afferent nerve signaling in the isolated rat jejunum in vitro. This was done to determine the effect of mechanical stresses and strains relative to nonmechanical parameters (neurogenic adaptation). Mechanical stimulations were applied to a segment of jejunum from 15 rats using ramp distension with water at three rates of distension, a relaxation test (volume maintained constant from initial pressure of 20 or 40 mmHg), and a creep test (pressure maintained constant). Circumferential stress and strain and the spike rate increase ratio were calculated for evaluation of afferent nerve activity during the mechanical stimulations. Ramp distension evoked two distinct phases of afferent nerve signaling as a function of circumferential stress or strain. Changing the volume distension rate did not change the stress-strain relationship, but faster distension rate increased the afferent firing rate (P < 0.05). In the stress relaxation test, the spike rate declined faster and to a greater extent than the stress. In the creep test, the spike rate declined, despite a small increase in the strain. Three classes of mechanosensitive single-afferent units (low, wide dynamic range, and high threshold units) showed different response profiles against stress and strain. Low-threshold units exhibited a near linear relationship against the strain (R(2) = 0.8095), whereas high-threshold units exhibited a linear profile against the stress (R(2) = 0.9642). The afferent response is sensitive to the distension speed and to the stress and strain level during distension. However, the afferent nerve response is not a simple function of either stress or strain. Nonmechanical time-dependent adaptive responses other than those related to viscoelasticity also play a role. PMID:22345553

  4. Neural functions of calcineurin in synaptic plasticity and memory.

    PubMed

    Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2012-09-01

    Major brain functions depend on neuronal processes that favor the plasticity of neuronal circuits while at the same time maintaining their stability. The mechanisms that regulate brain plasticity are complex and engage multiple cascades of molecular components that modulate synaptic efficacy. Protein kinases (PKs) and phosphatases (PPs) are among the most important of these components that act as positive and negative regulators of neuronal signaling and plasticity, respectively. In these cascades, the PP protein phosphatase 2B or calcineurin (CaN) is of particular interest because it is the only Ca(2+)-activated PP in the brain and a major regulator of key proteins essential for synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. This review describes the primary properties of CaN and illustrates its functions and modes of action by focusing on several representative targets, in particular glutamate receptors, striatal enriched protein phosphatase (STEP), and neuromodulin (GAP43), and their functional significance for synaptic plasticity and memory. PMID:22904368

  5. Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Michael J; Klyubin, Igor; Cullen, William K; Anwyl, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is believed to be a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent research has examined the potential importance of soluble species of Abeta in synaptic dysfunction, long before fibrillary Abeta is deposited and neurodegenerative changes occur. Hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity are disrupted in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with early onset familial AD mutations, and in rats after exogenous application of synthetic Abeta both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, naturally produced soluble Abeta was shown to block the persistence of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the intact hippocampus. Sub-nanomolar concentrations of oligomeric Abeta were sufficient to inhibit late LTP, pointing to a possible reason for the sensitivity of hippocampus-dependent memory to impairment in the early preclinical stages of AD. Having identified the active species of Abeta that can play havoc with synaptic plasticity, it is hoped that new ways of targeting early AD can be developed. PMID:12740129

  6. Acid sensing by visceral afferent neurons

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Acidosis in the gastrointestinal tract can be both a physiological and pathological condition. While gastric acid serves digestion and protection from pathogens, pathological acidosis is associated with defective acid containment, inflammation and ischaemia. The pH in the oesophagus, stomach and intestine is surveyed by an elaborate network of acid-sensing mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Deviations from physiological values of extracellular pH (7.4) are monitored by multiple acid sensors expressed by epithelial cells and sensory neurons. Protons evoke multiple currents in primary afferent neurons, which are carried by several acid-sensitive ion channels. Among these, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) ion channels have been most thoroughly studied. ASICs survey moderate decreases in extracellular pH whereas TRPV1 is activated only by severe acidosis resulting in pH values below 6. Other molecular acid sensors comprise TRPV4, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPP2 (PKD2L1), epithelial Na+ channels, two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels, ionotropic purinoceptors (P2X), inward rectifier K+ channels, voltage-activated K+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and acid-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors. Most of these acid sensors are expressed by primary sensory neurons, although to different degrees and in various combinations. Since upregulation and overactivity of acid sensors appear to contribute to various forms of chronic inflammation and pain, acid-sensitive ion channels and receptors are also considered as targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:20456281

  7. Reorganization of Learning-Associated Prefrontal Synaptic Plasticity between the Recall of Recent and Remote Fear Extinction Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugues, Sandrine; Garcia, Rene

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that fear extinction is accompanied by an increase of synaptic efficacy in inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and that disrupting these changes to mPFC synaptic transmission compromises extinction processes. The aim of this study was to examine…

  8. Synaptic Disinhibition During Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in the CA1 Hippocampal Subfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Armin; Simon, Gabor; Kovacs, Gabor; Rai, Rabindra

    1994-04-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP.

  9. Concurrent Imaging of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling and Calcium Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Foss, Sarah M.; Dobryy, Yuriy L.; Park, C. Kevin; Hires, Samuel Andrew; Shaner, Nathan C.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Osborne, Leslie C.; Voglmaier, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic transmission involves the calcium dependent release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles. Genetically encoded optical probes emitting different wavelengths of fluorescent light in response to neuronal activity offer a powerful approach to understand the spatial and temporal relationship of calcium dynamics to the release of neurotransmitter in defined neuronal populations. To simultaneously image synaptic vesicle recycling and changes in cytosolic calcium, we developed a red-shifted reporter of vesicle recycling based on a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1-mOrange2 (VGLUT1-mOr2), and a presynaptically localized green calcium indicator, synaptophysin-GCaMP3 (SyGCaMP3) with a large dynamic range. The fluorescence of VGLUT1-mOr2 is quenched by the low pH of synaptic vesicles. Exocytosis upon electrical stimulation exposes the luminal mOr2 to the neutral extracellular pH and relieves fluorescence quenching. Reacidification of the vesicle upon endocytosis again reduces fluorescence intensity. Changes in fluorescence intensity thus monitor synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis, as demonstrated previously for the green VGLUT1-pHluorin. To monitor changes in calcium, we fused the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin to the recently improved calcium indicator GCaMP3. SyGCaMP3 is targeted to presynaptic varicosities, and exhibits changes in fluorescence in response to electrical stimulation consistent with changes in calcium concentration. Using real time imaging of both reporters expressed in the same synapses, we determine the time course of changes in VGLUT1 recycling in relation to changes in presynaptic calcium concentration. Inhibition of P/Q- and N-type calcium channels reduces calcium levels, as well as the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and the fraction of vesicles released. PMID:22065946

  10. Contribution of conventional and high resolution scanning electron microscopy and cryofracture technique to the study of cerebellar synaptic junctions.

    PubMed

    Castejón, O J

    1996-01-01

    The cerebelli of teleost fishes, primates and humans were processed for conventional and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the outer and inner surfaces of axo-dendritic, glomerular and axosomatic synapses. The cryofracture technique, either by slow or fast freezing, exposed the hidden neuronal surfaces of synaptic connections, selectively removing the glial ensheathment. Axo-dendritic junctions of climbing fibers and Golgi axonal ramifications were studied in gold-palladium and chromium coated samples. Chromium coating showed different mass density and topographic contrast between axonal and dendritic profiles. Conventional SEM of cryofractured glomerular synapses exhibited the outer surface view of en passant mossy fibers glomeruli, in which granule cell dendrites appear surrounding the afferent mossy fibers. The cryo-fracture method also exposed the axosomatic contacts of basket axonal collaterals upon the Purkinje cell somatic surface and the climbing fiber bulbous endings upon tertiary Purkinje dendrites. Field emission high resolution SEM of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell dendritic spines showed the inner organization of pre-synaptic endings and the three-dimensional structure of the synaptic membrane complex. The spheroidal synaptic vesicles appeared embedded in a homogeneous axoplasmic substance. Round subunits, 15-20 nm in diameter, were observed as intrinsic components of the post-synaptic membrane and associated with the post-synaptic density. High resolution SEM offers SE-I images comparable in resolution to thin section electron microscopy and freeze-etching replicas at intermediate magnifications. PMID:9813605

  11. In vitro Functional Characterization of Mouse Colorectal Afferent Endings.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gebhart, G F

    2015-01-01

    This video demonstrates in detail an in vitro single-fiber electrophysiological recording protocol using a mouse colorectum-nerve preparation. The approach allows unbiased identification and functional characterization of individual colorectal afferents. Extracellular recordings of propagated action potentials (APs) that originate from one or a few afferent (i.e., single-fiber) receptive fields (RFs) in the colorectum are made from teased nerve fiber fascicles. The colorectum is removed with either the pelvic (PN) or lumbar splanchnic (LSN) nerve attached and opened longitudinally. The tissue is placed in a recording chamber, pinned flat and perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution. Focal electrical stimulation is used to locate the colorectal afferent endings, which are further tested by three distinct mechanical stimuli (blunt probing, mucosal stroking and circumferential stretch) to functionally categorize the afferents into five mechanosensitive classes. Endings responding to none of these mechanical stimuli are categorized as mechanically-insensitive afferents (MIAs). Both mechanosensitive and MIAs can be assessed for sensitization (i.e., enhanced response, reduced threshold, and/or acquisition of mechanosensitivity) by localized exposure of RFs to chemicals (e.g., inflammatory soup (IS), capsaicin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)). We describe the equipment and colorectum-nerve recording preparation, harvest of colorectum with attached PN or LSN, identification of RFs in the colorectum, single-fiber recording from nerve fascicles, and localized application of chemicals to the RF. In addition, challenges of the preparation and application of standardized mechanical stimulation are also discussed. PMID:25651300

  12. VGluT3? primary afferents play distinct roles in mechanical and cold hypersensitivity depending on pain etiology.

    PubMed

    Draxler, Peter; Honsek, Silke Doris; Forsthuber, Liesbeth; Hadschieff, Viktoria; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Sensory nerve fibers differ not only with respect to their sensory modalities and conduction velocities, but also in their relative roles for pain hypersensitivity. It is presently largely unknown which types of sensory afferents contribute to various forms of neuropathic and inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3-positive (VGluT3(+)) primary afferents, for example, have been implicated in mechanical hypersensitivity after inflammation, but their role in neuropathic pain remains under debate. Here, we investigated a possible etiology-dependent contribution of VGluT3(+) fibers to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity in different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In addition to VGluT3(-/-) mice, we used VGluT3-channelrhodopsin 2 mice to selectively stimulate VGluT3(+) sensory afferents by blue light, and to assess light-evoked behavior in freely moving mice. We show that VGluT3(-/-) mice develop reduced mechanical hypersensitivity upon carrageenan injection. Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were reduced in VGluT3(-/-) mice in neuropathic pain evoked by the chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin, but not in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve. Further, we provide direct evidence that, despite not mediating painful stimuli in naive mice, activation of VGluT3(+) sensory fibers by light elicits pain behavior in the oxaliplatin but not the CCI model. Immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data support a role of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-mediated facilitation of synaptic strength at the level of the dorsal horn as an underlying mechanism. Together, we demonstrate that VGluT3(+) fibers contribute in an etiology-dependent manner to the development of mechano-cold hypersensitivity. PMID:25186747

  13. Importin-?11 Regulates Synaptic pMAD and Thereby Influences Synaptic Development and Function at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Higashi-Kovtun, Misao E.; Mosca, Timothy J.; Dickman, Dion K.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Importin proteins act both at the nuclear pore to promote substrate entry and in the cytosol during signal trafficking. Here, we describe mutations in the Drosophila gene importin-?11 which has not previously been analyzed genetically. Mutants of importin-?11 died as late pupae from neuronal defects and neuronal importin-?11 was present not only at nuclear pores but also in the cytosol and at synapses. Neurons lacking importin-?11 were viable and properly differentiated but exhibited discrete defects. Synaptic transmission was defective in adult photoreceptors and at larval neuromuscular junctions. Mutant photoreceptor axons formed grossly normal projections and synaptic terminals in the brain, but synaptic arbors on larval muscles were smaller while still containing appropriate synaptic components. BMP signaling was the apparent cause of the observed NMJ defects. Importin-?11 interacted genetically with the BMP pathway and at mutant synaptic boutons, a key component of this pathway, phosphorylated Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (pMAD), was reduced. Neuronal expression of an importin-?11 transgene rescued this phenotype as well as the other observed neuromuscular phenotypes. Despite the loss of synaptic pMAD, pMAD persisted in motor neuron nuclei, suggesting a specific impairment in the local function of pMAD. Restoring levels of pMAD to mutant terminals via expression of constitutively active type I BMP receptors or by reducing retrograde transport in motor neurons, also restored synaptic strength and morphology. Thus, importin-?11 function interacts with the BMP pathway to regulate a pool of pMAD that must be present at the presynapse for its proper development and function. PMID:20392948

  14. The comparison of the effects of acute and repeated morphine administration on fast synaptic transmission in magnocellular neurons of supraoptic nucleus, plasma vasopressin levels, and urine volume of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats. PMID:25276199

  15. The Comparison of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Morphine Administration on Fast Synaptic Transmission in Magnocellular Neurons of Supraoptic Nucleus, Plasma Vasopressin Levels, and Urine Volume of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats. PMID:25276199

  16. A unifying theory of synaptic long-term plasticity based on a sparse distribution of synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Daniel; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is fundamental to learning and network function. It has been studied under various induction protocols and depends on firing rates, membrane voltage, and precise timing of action potentials. These protocols show different facets of a common underlying mechanism but they are mostly modeled as distinct phenomena. Here, we show that all of these different dependencies can be explained from a single computational principle. The objective is a sparse distribution of excitatory synaptic strength, which may help to reduce metabolic costs associated with synaptic transmission. Based on this objective we derive a stochastic gradient ascent learning rule which is of differential-Hebbian type. It is formulated in biophysical quantities and can be related to current mechanistic theories of synaptic plasticity. The learning rule accounts for experimental findings from all major induction protocols and explains a classic phenomenon of metaplasticity. Furthermore, our model predicts the existence of metaplasticity for spike-timing-dependent plasticity Thus, we provide a theory of long-term synaptic plasticity that unifies different induction protocols and provides a connection between functional and mechanistic levels of description. PMID:24624080

  17. Peripheral Afferent Mechanisms Underlying Acupuncture Inhibition of Cocaine Behavioral Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong Hyo; Bae, Jong Han; Kim, Kwang Joong; Steffensen, Scott C.; Leem, Joong Woo; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2013-01-01

    Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles) or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles) Hz and was not affected by block of C/A?-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/A?-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue. PMID:24260531

  18. Ribeye is required for presynaptic CaV1.3a channel localization and afferent innervation of sensory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Lavinia; Trapani, Josef G.; Mo, Weike; Obholzer, Nikolaus; Nicolson, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Ribbon synapses of the ear, eye and pineal gland contain a unique protein component: Ribeye. Ribeye consists of a novel aggregation domain spliced to the transcription factor CtBP2 and is one of the most abundant proteins in synaptic ribbon bodies. Although the importance of Ribeye for the function and physical integrity of ribbon synapses has been shown, a specific role in synaptogenesis has not been described. Here, we have modulated Ribeye expression in zebrafish hair cells and have examined the role of Ribeye in synapse development. Knockdown of ribeye resulted in fewer stimulus-evoked action potentials from afferent neurons and loss of presynaptic CaV1.3a calcium channel clusters in hair cells. Additionally, afferent innervation of hair cells was reduced in ribeye morphants, and the reduction was correlated with depletion of Ribeye punctae. By contrast, transgenic overexpression of Ribeye resulted in CaV1.3a channels colocalized with ectopic aggregates of Ribeye protein. Overexpression of Ribeye, however, was not sufficient to create ectopic synapses. These findings reveal two distinct functions of Ribeye in ribbon synapse formation – clustering CaV1.3a channels at the presynapse and stabilizing contacts with afferent neurons – and suggest that Ribeye plays an organizing role in synaptogenesis. PMID:21350006

  19. Presynaptic Inhibition and Antidromic Spikes in Primary Afferents of the Crayfish: A Computational and Experimental Analysis

    E-print Network

    Libersat, Frederic

    Presynaptic Inhibition and Antidromic Spikes in Primary Afferents of the Crayfish: A Computational- basipodite chordotonal organ of the crayfish based on anatomical and electrophysiological data. The model: presynaptic inhibition; primary afferent depolariza- tion; antidromic discharge; crayfish; simulation

  20. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties. PMID:17716003

  1. Role for a novel Usher protein complex in hair cell synaptic maturation.

    PubMed

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T; Delimont, Duane; Rutledge, Joseph; Gratton, Michael Anne; Flannery, John; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell synaptic maturation are not well understood. Cadherin-23 (CDH23), protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) and the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) have been implicated in the development of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, while clarin-1 has been suggested to also play a role in synaptogenesis. Mutations in CDH23, PCDH15, VLGR1 and clarin-1 cause Usher syndrome, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show developmental expression of these Usher proteins in afferent spiral ganglion neurons and hair cell synapses. We identify a novel synaptic Usher complex comprised of clarin-1 and specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR1. To establish the in vivo relevance of this complex, we performed morphological and quantitative analysis of the neuronal fibers and their synapses in the Clrn1-/- mouse, which was generated by incomplete deletion of the gene. These mice showed a delay in neuronal/synaptic maturation by both immunostaining and electron microscopy. Analysis of the ribbon synapses in Ames waltzer(av3J) mice also suggests a delay in hair cell synaptogenesis. Collectively, these results show that, in addition to the well documented role for Usher proteins in stereocilia development, Usher protein complexes comprised of specific protein isoforms likely function in synaptic maturation as well. PMID:22363448

  2. Thermal impact on spiking properties in Hodgkin-Huxley neuron with synaptic stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Shenbing; Wang, Jiafu; Zeng, Ting; Cao, Aiyin

    2008-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on neuronal spiking behaviors is investigated by numerically simulating the temperature dependence of spiking threshold of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron subject to synaptic stimulus. We find that the spiking threshold exhibits a global minimum in a specific temperature range where spike initiation needs weakest synaptic strength, which form the engineering perspective indicates the occurrence of optimal use of synaptic transmission in the nervous system. We further explore the biophysical origin of this phenomenon associated with ion channel gating kinetics and also discuss its possible biological relevance in information processing in neuronal systems.

  3. Phosphorylation of Synaptic Vesicle Proteins: Modulation of the alpha SNAP Interaction with the Core Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Hirling; Richard H. Scheller

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed whether synaptic membrane trafficking proteins are substrates for casein kinase II, calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), three kinases implicated in the modulation of synaptic transmission. Each kinase phosphorylates a specific set of the vesicle proteins syntaxin 1A, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), synaptosome-associated 25-kDa protein (SNAP-25), n-sec1, alpha soluble NSF attachment protein

  4. A Requirement for Local Protein Synthesis in Neurotrophin-Induced Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyejin Kang; Erin M. Schuman

    1996-01-01

    Two neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are able to produce a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Unlike other forms of plasticity, neurotrophin-induced plasticity exhibited an immediate requirement for protein synthesis. Plasticity in rat hippocampal slices in which the synaptic neuropil was isolated from the principal cell bodies also required early protein synthesis. Thus,

  5. Miniature EPSPs and sensory encoding in the primary afferents of the vestibular lagena of the toadfish, Opsanus tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R.; Vautrin, J.; Highstein, S.

    1999-01-01

    The synaptic activity transmitted from vestibular hair cells of the lagena to primary afferent neurons was recorded in vitro using sharp, intracellular microelectrodes. At rest, the activity was composed of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) at frequencies from 5 to 20/s and action potentials (APs) at frequencies betwen 0 and 10/s. mEPSPs recorded from a single fiber displayed a large variability. For mEPSPs not triggering APs, amplitudes exhibited an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 0.323 and rise times an average CV of 0.516. APs were only triggered by mEPSPs with larger amplitudes (estimated 4-6 mV) and/or steeper maximum rate of rise (10.9 mV/ms, +/- 3.7 SD, n=4 experiments) compared to (3.50 mV/ms, +/-0.07 SD, n=6 experiments) for nontriggering mEPSPs. The smallest mEPSPs showed a fast rise time (0.99 ms between 10% and 90% of peak amplitude) and limited variability across fibers (CV:0.18) confirming that they were not attenuated signals, but rather represented single-transmitter discharges (TDs). The mEPSP amplitude and rise-time relationship suggests that many mEPSPs represented several, rather than a single pulse of secretion of TDs. According to the estimated overall TD frequency, the coincidence of TDs contributing to the same mEPSP were not statistically independent, indicating a positive interaction between TDs that is reminiscent of the way subminiature signals group to form miniature signals at the neuromuscular junction. Depending on the duration and intensity of efferent stimulation, a complete block of AP initiation occurred either immediately or after a delay of a few seconds. Efferent stimulation did not significantly change AP threshold level, but abruptly decreased mEPSP frequency to a near-complete block that followed the block of APs. Maximum mEPSP rate of rise decreased during, and recovered progressively after, efferent stimulation. After termination of efferent stimulation, mEPSP amplitude did not recover instantly and for a few seconds the amplitude distribution of synaptic events showed fewer large-amplitude events than during the control period. This confirms that mEPSP amplitude and rate of rise properties, which are critical for triggering afferent APs, are modified by efferent activity. The depression of afferent AP firing during efferent stimulation corresponded to a decrease in mEPSP frequency and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in mEPSP amplitude and rate of rise, suggesting, a decrease in the level of interaction among TDs contibuting to a mEPSP.

  6. Unmyelinated afferents in human skin and their responsiveness to low temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Campero; Hugh Bostock

    2010-01-01

    In humans, there are different types of cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents responsible for cold sensation and cold pain. Innocuous cold is primarily mediated by a population of slow A delta afferents, based on psychophysical and neurophysiological studies. Noxious cold (usually below 15°C) is mediated, at least in part, by polymodal nociceptors. There is also a population of unmyelinated afferents responsive to

  7. CONNEXIONS BETWEEN HAIR-PLATE AFFERENTS AND MOTONEURONES IN THE COCKROACH LEG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. PEARSON; R. K. S. WONG; C. R. FOURTNERf

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. The trochanteral hair-plate afferents in the metathoracic leg of the cock- roach, Periplaneta americana, were stimulated electrically and at the same time intracellular recordings were made from either motoneurones, inter- neurones or afferent terminals within the metathoracic ganglion. 2. Activity in the hair-plate afferents evoked short latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in femur extensor motoneurones and inhibitory postsynaptic

  8. LPHN3, a presynaptic adhesion-GPCR implicated in ADHD, regulates the strength of neocortical layer 2/3 synaptic input to layer 5

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Latrophilins (LPHNs) are a small family of neuronal adhesion-GPCRs originally discovered as receptors for the black widow spider toxin ?-latrotoxin. Mutations in LPHN3 have recently been identified as risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, but their physiological function has remained elusive. In this study, we tested two hypotheses regarding LPHN3 function: (1) LPHN3 regulates synaptic transmission by modulating probability of release; and (2) LPHN3 controls synapse development and the abundance of synapses. Results We manipulated LPHN3 expression in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons and examined the consequences on the L2/3 to L5 cortical microcircuit. Employing an optogenetic strategy combined with shRNA knockdown of LPHN3, we found that LPHN3 did not influence probability of release at synapses formed by L2/3 neurons onto L5 pyramidal cells. The strength of L2/3 afferent input to L5, however, was weakened by loss of LPHN3. Using Synaptophysin-GFP as an anatomical marker of presynaptic terminals, we found that the density of synapses formed by L2/3 axons in L5 was reduced when LPHN3 was lost. Finally, we investigated the structural organization of the extracellular domain of LPHN3. We used single particle negative stain electron microscopy to image the extracellular domain of LPHN3 and showed that the Olfactomedin and Lectin domains form a globular domain on an elongated stalk. Cell-based binding experiments with mutant proteins revealed that the Olfactomedin domain was required for binding to FLRT3, whereas both the Olfactomedin and Lectin domains were involved in binding to Teneurin 1. Mutant LPHN3 lacking the Olfactomedin domain was not capable of rescuing the deficit in presynaptic density following knockdown of endogenous LPHN3. Conclusions We find that LPHN3 regulates the number of synapses formed by L2/3 neurons in L5 and the strength of synaptic drive from the L2/3-L5 pathway. The Olfactomedin domain of LPHN3 is required for this effect on synapse number and binding to its postsynaptic ligand FLRT3. We propose that LPHN3 functions in synaptic development and is important in determining the connectivity rates between principal neurons in the cortex. PMID:24739570

  9. Monosynaptic convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferents onto ascending relay neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract: A high-resolution confocal and correlative electron microscopy approach

    PubMed Central

    Corson, James A.; Erisir, Alev

    2014-01-01

    While physiological studies suggested convergence of chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal afferent axons onto single neurons of the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNTS), anatomical evidence has been elusive. The current study uses high-magnification confocal microscopy to identify putative synaptic contacts from afferent fibers of the two nerves onto individual projection neurons. Imaged tissue is re-visualized with electron microscopy, confirming that overlapping fluorescent signals in confocal z-stacks accurately identify appositions between labeled terminal and dendrite pairs. Monte Carlo modeling reveals that the probability of overlapping fluorophores is stochastically unrelated to the density of afferent label suggesting that convergent innervation in the rNTS is selective rather than opportunistic. Putative synaptic contacts from each nerve are often compartmentalized onto dendrite segments of convergently innervated neurons. These results have important implications for orosensory processing in the rNTS, and the techniques presented here have applications in investigations of neural microcircuitry with an emphasis on innervation patterning. PMID:23640852

  10. Synaptic filtering of rate-coded information.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Matthias; Lindner, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we analytically examine the influence of synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) on the transfer of rate-coded information through synapses. STP endows each presynaptic input spike with an amplitude that depends on previous input spikes. We develop a method to calculate the spectral statistics of this amplitude modulated spike train (postsynaptic input) for the case of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. We derive in particular analytical approximations for cross-spectra, power spectra, and for the coherence function between the postsynaptic input and the time-dependent rate modulation for a specific model. We give simple expressions for the coherence in the limiting cases of pure facilitation and pure depression. Using our analytical results and extensive numerical simulations, we study the spectral coherence function for postsynaptic input resulting from a single synapse or from a group of synapses. For a single synapse, we find that the synaptic coherence function is largely independent of frequency indicating broadband information transmission. This effect is even more pronounced for a large number of synapses. However, additional noise gives rise to frequency-dependent information filtering. PMID:20481767

  11. Trans-Synaptic Signaling by Activity-Dependent Cleavage of Neuroligin-1

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Rui; Kunz, Portia A.; Kwon, Hyungbae; Mabb, Angela M.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Adhesive contact between pre- and postsynaptic neurons initiates synapse formation during brain development and provides a natural means of trans-synaptic signaling. Numerous adhesion molecules and their role during synapse development have been described in detail. However, once established, the mechanisms of adhesive disassembly and its function in regulating synaptic transmission have been unclear. Here, we report that synaptic activity induces acute proteolytic cleavage of neuroligin-1 (NLG1), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule at glutamatergic synapses. NLG1 cleavage is triggered by NMDA receptor activation, requires Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and is mediated by proteolytic activity of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Cleavage of NLG1 occurs at single activated spines, is regulated by neural activity in vivo, and causes rapid destabilization of its presynaptic partner neurexin-1? (NRX1?). In turn, NLG1 cleavage depresses synaptic transmission by abruptly reducing presynaptic release probability. Thus, local proteolytic control of synaptic adhesion tunes synaptic transmission during brain development and plasticity. PMID:23083741

  12. Depression of synaptic efficacy at intermolt in crayfish neuromuscular junctions by 20-hydroxyecdysone, a molting hormone.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R L; Ruffner, M E

    1998-04-01

    This report demonstrates that ecdysteroids can reduce synaptic transmission at an intermolt stage of a crustacean tonic neuromuscular junction by acting at a presynaptic site. The steroid molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), appears to act through a rapid, nongenomic mechanism that decreases the probability of synaptic vesicle release and reduces the number of release sites. Quantal analysis revealed that fewer vesicles were released for a given stimulus when 20-HE was present, and this in turn accounted for the reduced synaptic efficacy. Reduced synaptic efficacy produced smaller evoked postsynaptic currents and smaller excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) across the muscle fiber membrane. The reduction in EPSPs was observed among muscle fibers that were innervated by high- or low-output terminals. The behavior of crustaceans/crayfish during the molt cycle, when 20-HE is high, may be explained by the reduction in synaptic transmission. Crustaceans become quiescent during the premolt periods as do insects. The effects of 20-HE can be reversed with the application of the crustacean neuromodulator serotonin, which enhances synaptic transmission. PMID:9535959

  13. Effects of 5?-cholestan-3-one on the synaptic vesicle cycle at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Giniatullin, A R; Zefirov, A L; Petrov, A M

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effects of 5?-cholesten-3-one (5Ch3, 200 nM) on synaptic transmission in mouse diaphragm. 5Ch3 had no impact on the amplitude or frequency of miniature endplate currents (MEPCs, spontaneous secretion), but decreased the amplitude of EPCs (evoked secretion) triggered by single action potentials. Treatment with 5Ch3 increased the depression of EPC amplitude and slowed the unloading of the dye FM1-43 from synaptic vesicles (exocytosis rate) during high-frequency stimulation. The estimated recycling time of vesicles did not change, suggesting that the decline of synaptic efficiency was due to the reduction in the size of the population of vesicles involved in release. The effects of 5Ch3 on synaptic transmission may be related to changes in the phase properties of the membrane. We have found that 5Ch3 reduces the staining of synaptic regions with the B-subunit of cholera toxin (a marker of lipid rafts) and increases the fluorescence of 22-NBD-cholesterol, indicating a phase change within the membrane. Manipulations of membrane cholesterol (saturation or depletion) strongly reduced the influence of 5Ch3 on both FM1-43 dye unloading and staining with the B-subunit of cholera toxin. Thus, 5Ch3 reduces the number of vesicles which are actively recruited during synaptic transmission and alters membrane properties. These effects of 5Ch3 depend on membrane cholesterol. PMID:25725358

  14. Ion channel and receptor mechanisms of bladder afferent nerve sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Weifang Rong

    2010-01-01

    Sensory nerves of the urinary bladder consist of small diameter A? and C fibers running in the hypogastic and pelvic nerves. Neuroanatomical studies have revealed a complex neuronal network within the bladder wall. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo have revealed several distinct classes of afferent fibers that may signal a wide range of bladder stimulations including physiological bladder

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory

    E-print Network

    Leeds, University of

    afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain sli- ces, electrical stimulation stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results

  16. Modulation of the spinal excitability by muscle metabosensitive afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Jérôme; Dousset, Erick; Decherchi, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of chemical activation of muscle metabosensitive afferent fibers from groups III and IV on Hoffmann (H-) reflex modulation in the vastus medialis muscle. The experiment was conducted in rats and was divided into two experiments. The first experiment consisted of recording the metabosensitive afferent activity from femoral nerve in rats in response to KCl intraarterial injections in nontreated adults and adults treated neonatally with capsaicin. Thus, the dose-response curve was determined. The second experiment consisted of eliciting the H- and M-waves before and after KCl injection in nontreated adult animals and those treated neonatally with capsaicin. Thus, the H(max)/M(max) ratio was measured. Results indicated that, 1) in nontreated animals, afferent fibers peak discharge was found after 10 mM KCl injection; 2) no significant increase in afferent discharge rate was found in capsaicin-treated animal after KCl injections, confirming that capsaicin is an excitotoxic agent that had destroyed the thin metabosensitive nerve fibers; 3) in nontreated animals, H(max)/M(max) ratio was significantly attenuated after a 10 mM KCl injection activating metabosensitive afferent fibers; and 4) in capsaicin-treated animals, no significant change in H(max)/M(max) ratio was observed after the KCl injection. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the spinal reflex response was influenced by metabosensitive muscle fibers and provide direct evidence that activation of these fibers could partially explain the reported decrease in H-reflex when metabolites are released in muscle. PMID:20544822

  17. Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I J; Lall, V K; Paton, J F; Yanagawa, Y; Szabo, G; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

    2014-03-01

    Sensory information arising from the upper neck is important in the reflex control of posture and eye position. It has also been linked to the autonomic control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and cervical dystonia, which involve disturbance to the neck region, can often present with abnormalities to the oromotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We investigated the potential neural pathways underlying such symptoms. Simulating neck afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP) altered the pattern of central respiratory drive and increased perfusion pressure. Tracing central targets of these sensory afferents revealed projections to the intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM). These anterogradely labelled afferents co-localised with parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 indicating that they are proprioceptive. Anterograde tracing from the InM identified projections to brain regions involved in respiratory, cardiovascular, postural and oro-facial behaviours-the neighbouring hypoglossal nucleus, facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, parabrachial nuclei, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain slices, electrical stimulation of afferent fibre tracts lateral to the cuneate nucleus monosynaptically excited InM neurones. Direct stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results provide evidence of pathways linking upper cervical sensory afferents with CNS areas involved in autonomic and oromotor control, via the InM. Disruption of these neuronal pathways could, therefore, explain the dysphagic and cardiorespiratory abnormalities which may accompany cervical dystonia and WAD. PMID:24595534

  18. Pre-Synaptic Release Deficits in a DYT1 Dystonia Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Sweatt, J. David; Li, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1 dystonia) is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in one allele of DYT1 (TOR1A), coding for torsinA. The most common mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (?GAG), which causes a deletion of a glutamic acid residue (?E) in the C-terminal region of torsinA. Although recent studies using cultured cells suggest that torsinA contributes to protein processing in the secretory pathway, endocytosis, and the stability of synaptic proteins, the nature of how this mutation affects synaptic transmission remains unclear. We previously reported that theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice is not altered in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice. Here, we examined short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission in the hippocampal slices. Field recordings in the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals (SC) pathway revealed significantly enhanced paired pulse ratios (PPRs) in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting an impaired synaptic vesicle release. Whole-cell recordings from the CA1 neurons showed that Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice exhibited normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSC), suggesting that action-potential independent spontaneous pre-synaptic release was normal. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the frequency, but not amplitude or kinetics, of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSC) in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting that the action-potential dependent pre-synaptic release was impaired. Moreover, hippocampal torsinA was significantly reduced in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice. Although the hippocampal slice model may not represent the neurons directly associated with dystonic symptoms, impaired release of neurotransmitters caused by partial dysfunction of torsinA in other brain regions may contribute to the pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia. PMID:23967309

  19. Balance and stability of synaptic structures during synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Scheuss, Volker

    2014-04-16

    Subsynaptic structures such as bouton, active zone, postsynaptic density (PSD) and dendritic spine, are highly correlated in their dimensions and also correlate with synapse strength. Why this is so and how such correlations are maintained during synaptic plasticity remains poorly understood. We induced spine enlargement by two-photon glutamate uncaging and examined the relationship between spine, PSD, and bouton size by two-photon time-lapse imaging and electron microscopy. In enlarged spines the PSD-associated protein Homer1c increased rapidly, whereas the PSD protein PSD-95 increased with a delay and only in cases of persistent spine enlargement. In the case of nonpersistent spine enlargement, the PSD proteins remained unchanged or returned to their original level. The ultrastructure at persistently enlarged spines displayed matching dimensions of spine, PSD, and bouton, indicating their correlated enlargement. This supports a model in which balancing of synaptic structures is a hallmark for the stabilization of structural modifications during synaptic plasticity. PMID:24742464

  20. The GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 modulate glutamatergic transmission via activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the rat globus pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Tao; Paré, Jean-Francois; Smith, Yoland

    2012-01-01

    Intrapallidal application of GAT-1 or GAT-3 transporter blockers (SKF 89976A or SNAP 5114) reduces the activity of pallidal neurons in monkey. This effect could be mediated through activation of presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors in glutamatergic terminals by GABA spillover following GABA transporters (GATs) blockade. To test this hypothesis, we applied the whole-cell recording technique to study the effects of SKF 89976A and SNAP 5114 on evoked excitatory post synaptic currents (eEPSCs) in presence of gabazine, a GABAA receptor antagonist, in rat GP slice preparations. Under the condition of postsynaptic GABAB receptor blockade by intracellular application of OX314, bath application of SKF 89976A (10 ?M) or SNAP 5114 (10 ?M) decreased the amplitude of eEPSCs, without significant effect on its holding current and whole cell input resistance. The inhibitory effect of GATs blockade on eEPSCs was blocked by CGP 58845, a GABAB receptor antagonist. The paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of evoked EPSCs was increased, while the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was reduced in presence of either GAT blockers, demonstrating a presynaptic effect. These results suggest that synaptically released GABA can inhibit glutamatergic transmission through activation of presynaptic GABAB heteroreceptors following GAT-1 or GAT-3 blockade. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that pre-synaptic GABAB heteroreceptors in putative glutamatergic subthalamic afferents to GP are sensitive to increases in extracellular GABA induced by GATs inactivation, thereby suggesting that GATs blockade represents a potential mechanism by which overactive subthalamopallidal activity may be reduced in parkinsonism. PMID:22616751

  1. 5HT 3 and Histamine H 1 Receptors Mediate Afferent Nerve Sensitivity to Intestinal Anaphylaxis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: The mechanisms underlying brain stem activation during antigen challenge have not been resolved. Our aim was to characterize afferent nerve responses to intestinal anaphylaxis and determine the mediators involved in afferent activation. Methods: Mesenteric afferent discharge was recorded electrophysiologically after intestinal anaphylaxis in anesthetized rats previously sensitized to chicken egg albumin (EA). Results: Mesenteric afferent nerve discharge

  2. Rapid Induction of Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis by transSynaptic EphrinB-EphB Receptor Activation of the Rho-GEF Kalirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Penzes; Alexander Beeser; Jonathan Chernoff; Martin R. Schiller; Betty A. Eipper; Richard E. Mains; Richard L. Huganir

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenesis of dendritic spines, the major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, is important in synaptic development and plasticity. We have identified an ephrinB-EphB receptor trans-synaptic signaling pathway which regulates the morphogenesis and maturation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. Activation of the EphB receptor induces translocation of the Rho-GEF kalirin to synapses and activation of Rac1

  3. Diffusion dynamics of synaptic molecules during inhibitory postsynaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted molecular reorganization of the inhibitory synapse during postsynaptic plasticity, with special emphasis on the key role of protein dynamics to ensure prompt and reliable activity-dependent adjustments of synaptic strength. PMID:25294987

  4. Receptor trafficking and the regulation of synaptic plasticity by SUMO.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia; Ashikaga, Emi; Rubin, Philip P; Heimann, Michaela J; Hildick, Keri L; Bishop, Paul; Girach, Fatima; Josa-Prado, Fernando; Tang, Leo T H; Carmichael, Ruth E; Henley, Jeremy M; Wilkinson, Kevin A

    2013-12-01

    Timely and efficient information transfer at synapses is fundamental to brain function. Synapses are highly dynamic structures that exhibit long-lasting activity-dependent alterations to their structure and transmission efficiency, a phenomenon termed synaptic plasticity. These changes, which occur through alterations in presynaptic release or in the trafficking of postsynaptic receptor proteins, underpin the formation and stabilisation of neural circuits during brain development, and encode, process and store information essential for learning, memory and cognition. In recent years, it has emerged that the ubiquitin-like posttranslational modification SUMOylation is an important mediator of several aspects of neuronal and synaptic function. Through orchestrating synapse formation, presynaptic release and the trafficking of postsynaptic receptor proteins during forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression and homeostatic scaling, SUMOylation is being increasingly appreciated to play a central role in neurotransmission. In this review, we outline key discoveries in this relatively new field, provide an update on recent progress regarding the targets and consequences of protein SUMOylation in synaptic function and plasticity, and highlight key outstanding questions regarding the roles of protein SUMOylation in the brain. PMID:23934328

  5. Motor modulation of afferent somatosensory circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SooHyun; Carvell, George E; Simons, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    A prominent feature of thalamocortical circuitry in sensory systems is the extensive and highly organized feedback projection from the cortex to the thalamic neurons that provide stimulus-specific input to the cortex. In lightly sedated rats, we found that focal enhancement of motor cortex activity facilitated sensory-evoked responses of topographically aligned neurons in primary somatosensory cortex, including antidromically identified corticothalamic cells; similar effects were observed in ventral posterior medial thalamus (VPm). In behaving rats, thalamic responses were normally smaller during whisking but larger when signal transmission in brainstem trigeminal nuclei was bypassed or altered. During voluntary movement, sensory activity may be globally suppressed in the brainstem, whereas signaling by cortically facilitated VPm neurons is simultaneously enhanced relative to other VPm neurons receiving no such facilitation. PMID:19011625

  6. Visual input controls the functional activity of goldfish Mauthner neuron through the reciprocal synaptic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moshkov, Dmitry A; Shtanchaev, Rashid S; Mikheeva, Irina B; Bezgina, Elena N; Kokanova, Nadezhda A; Mikhailova, Gulnara Z; Tiras, Nadezhda R; Pavlik, Lyubov' L

    2013-03-01

    Goldfish are known to exhibit motor asymmetry due to functional asymmetry of their Mauthner neurons that induce the turns to the right or left during free swimming. It has been previously found that if the less active neuron is subjected to prolonged aimed visual stimulation via its ventral dendrite, the motor asymmetry of goldfish is inverted, testifying that this neuron becomes functionally dominant, while the size of the ventral dendrite under these conditions is reduced 2-3 times compared to its counterpart in mirror neuron. Earlier it has been also revealed that training optokinetic stimulation induces adaptation, a substantial resistance of both fish motor asymmetry and morphofunctional state of Mauthner neurons against prolonged optokinetic stimulation. The aim of this work was to study the cellular mechanisms of the effect of an unusual visual afferent input on goldfish motor asymmetry and Mauthner neuron function in norm and under adaptation. It was shown that serotonin applied onto Mauthner neurons greatly reduces their activity whereas its antagonist ondansetron increases it. Against the background of visual stimulation, serotonin strengthens functional asymmetry between neurons whereas ondansetron smoothes it. Taken together these data suggest the involvement of serotonergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the regulation of Mauthner neurons by vision. Ultrastructural study of the ventral dendrites after prolonged optokinetic stimulation has revealed depletions of numeral axo-axonal synapses with specific morphology, identified by means of immunogold label as serotonergic ones. These latter in turn are situated mainly on shaft boutons, which according to specific ultrastructural features are assigned to axo-dendritic inhibitory synapses. Thus, the excitatory serotonergic synapses seem to affect Mauthner neuron indirectly through inhibitory synapses. Further, it was morphometrically established that adaptation is accompanied by the significant decrease of active zones dimensions in both serotonergic and inhibitory synapses. Finally, it was determined in model experiments that the interaction of globular actin with glycine, a main inhibitory neurotransmitter supposedly directly and chronically affecting the ventral dendrite, results in actin filaments formation. It is assumed that glycine-induced cytosolic actin polymerization is a cause of reduction in the ventral dendrite size under stimulation. Thus, it was established that a rather small group of synapses situated on an individual dendrite of the neuron determines the execution of the important form of animal behavior. PMID:23621454

  7. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO?, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits. PMID:24177330

  8. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D.; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO3, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits.

  9. Mechanism of synaptic vesicle retrieval in epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Emma Louise

    2009-01-01

    Excessive release of neurotransmitter is a characteristic of epileptogenic cells. A number of lines of evidence implicate defects in the synaptic vesicle cycle as a cause of this excessive release. Synaptic vesicles are ...

  10. Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin Rafael; Jotty, Karick; Locke, Jason L; Jones, Sara R; Valenzuela, Carlos Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Fetal ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a range of neurobehavioral alterations, including deficits in emotional processing. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in modulating emotional processing, in part, via dopamine (DA) regulation of GABA transmission. This BLA modulatory system is acquired during the first 2?weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) and we hypothesized that it could be altered by EtOH exposure during this period. We found that exposure of rats to moderate levels of EtOH vapor during the third trimester-equivalent [postnatal days (P) 2-12] alters DA modulation of GABAergic transmission in BLA pyramidal neurons during periadolescence. Specifically, D1R-mediated potentiation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was significantly attenuated in EtOH-exposed animals. However, this was associated with a compensatory decrease in D3R-mediated suppression of miniature IPSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that these effects were not a result of altered D1R or D3R levels. BLA samples from EtOH-exposed animals also had significantly lower levels of the DA precursor (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) but DA levels were not affected. This is likely a consequence of reduced catabolism of DA, as indicated by reduced levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the BLA samples. Anxiety-like behavior was not altered in EtOH-exposed animals. This is the first study to demonstrate that the modulatory actions of DA in the BLA are altered by developmental EtOH exposure. Although compensatory adaptations were engaged in our moderate EtOH exposure paradigm, it is possible that these are not able to restore homeostasis and correct anxiety-like behaviors under conditions of heavier EtOH exposure. Therefore, future studies should investigate the potential role of alterations in the modulatory actions of DA in the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:24904907

  11. GIT1 and ?PIX are essential for GABA(A) receptor synaptic stability and inhibitory neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katharine R; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Wei, Jing; Li, Xiangning; Pathania, Manavendra; Vaccaro, Victoria; Yan, Zhen; Kittler, Josef T

    2014-10-01

    Effective inhibitory synaptic transmission requires efficient stabilization of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) at synapses, which is essential for maintaining the correct excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain. However, the signaling mechanisms that locally regulate synaptic GABA(A)R membrane dynamics remain poorly understood. Using a combination of molecular, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we delineate a GIT1/?PIX/Rac1/PAK signaling pathway that modulates F-actin and is important for maintaining surface GABA(A)R levels, inhibitory synapse integrity, and synapse strength. We show that GIT1 and ?PIX are required for synaptic GABA(A)R surface stability through the activity of the GTPase Rac1 and downstream effector PAK. Manipulating this pathway using RNAi, dominant-negative and pharmacological approaches leads to a disruption of GABA(A)R clustering and decrease in the strength of synaptic inhibition. Thus, the GIT1/?PIX/Rac1/PAK pathway plays a crucial role in regulating GABA(A)R synaptic stability and hence inhibitory synaptic transmission with important implications for inhibitory plasticity and information processing in the brain. PMID:25284783

  12. Synaptic plasticity, neural circuits, and the emerging role of altered short-term information processing in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Gregg W.; Gogos, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity alters the strength of information flow between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons and thus modifies the likelihood that action potentials in a presynaptic neuron will lead to an action potential in a postsynaptic neuron. As such, synaptic plasticity and pathological changes in synaptic plasticity impact the synaptic computation which controls the information flow through the neural microcircuits responsible for the complex information processing necessary to drive adaptive behaviors. As current theories of neuropsychiatric disease suggest that distinct dysfunctions in neural circuit performance may critically underlie the unique symptoms of these diseases, pathological alterations in synaptic plasticity mechanisms may be fundamental to the disease process. Here we consider mechanisms of both short-term and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission and their possible roles in information processing by neural microcircuits in both health and disease. As paradigms of neuropsychiatric diseases with strongly implicated risk genes, we discuss the findings in schizophrenia and autism and consider the alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function observed in both human studies and genetic mouse models of these diseases. Together these studies have begun to point toward a likely dominant role of short-term synaptic plasticity alterations in schizophrenia while dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be due to a combination of both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity alterations. PMID:25505409

  13. Coupled Activity-dependent Trafficking of Synaptic SK2 Channels and AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mike T.; Lujan, Rafael; Watanabe, Masahiko; Frerking, Matthew; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ type 2 (SK2) channels are expressed in the postsynaptic density of CA1 neurons where they are activated by synaptically evoked Ca2+ influx to limit the size of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and spine Ca2+ transients. At Schaffer collateral synapses, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) increases the ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission and decreases the synaptic SK2 channel contribution through activity- protein kinase A-dependent channel endocytosis. Using a combination of electrophysiology and immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) in mice, the relationship between the dynamics of spine SK2 channels and AMPARs was investigated. Unlike AMPARs, synaptic SK2 channels under basal conditions do not rapidly recycle. Furthermore SK2 channels occupy a distinct population of endosomes separate from AMPARs. However, blocking vesicular exocytosis or blocking the delivery of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs during the induction of LTP block SK2 channel endocytosis. By ~2 hours after the induction of LTP, synaptic SK2 channel expression and function are restored. Thus, LTP-dependent endocytosis of SK2 is coupled to LTP-dependent AMPA exocoytosis, and the ~2 hour window after the induction of LTP during which synaptic SK2 activity is absent may be important for consolidating the later phases of LTP. PMID:20810893

  14. Recordings of cultured neurons and synaptic activity using patch-clamp chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martina, Marzia; Luk, Collin; Py, Christophe; Martinez, Dolores; Comas, Tanya; Monette, Robert; Denhoff, Mike; Syed, Naweed; Mealing, Geoffrey A. R.

    2011-06-01

    Planar patch-clamp chip technology has been developed to enhance the assessment of novel compounds for therapeutic efficacy and safety. However, this technology has been limited to recording ion channels expressed in isolated suspended cells, making the study of ion channel function in synaptic transmission impractical. Recently, we developed single- and dual-recording site planar patch-clamp chips and demonstrated their capacity to record ion channel activity from neurons established in culture. Such capacity provides the opportunity to record from synaptically connected neurons cultured on-chip. In this study we reconstructed, on-chip, a simple synaptic circuit between cultured pre-synaptic visceral dorsal 4 neurons and post-synaptic left pedal dorsal 1 neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. Here we report the first planar patch-clamp chip recordings of synaptic phenomena from these paired neurons and pharmacologically demonstrate the cholinergic nature of this synapse. We also report simultaneous dual-site recordings from paired neurons, and demonstrate dedicated cytoplasmic perfusion of individual neurons via on-chip subterranean microfluidics. This is the first application of planar patch-clamp technology to examine synaptic communication.