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1

Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. The major differences between these two synapses are the neurotransmitters and the higher resting release rate and higher sensitivity of release to increased K+ concentrations of the hair cells over that of motor nerve terminals. These differences reflect the functional roles of the two synapses: the motor nerve terminal response in an all-or-nothing signal consequent from action potential invasion, while the hair cell releases transmitter in a graded fashion, proportionate to the extent of stereocilial deflection. Despite these differences between the two junctions, the similar actions of these elemental cations upon synaptic function at each implies that these ions may participate similarly in the operations of other synapses, independent of the neurotransmitter type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Cochran, S. L.

1995-01-01

2

Peptide and Lipid Modulation of Glutamatergic Afferent Synaptic Transmission in the Solitary Tract Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST) with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g., hypothalamus) neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1), vasopressin (V1a), oxytocin, opioid (MOR), ghrelin (GHSR1), and cholecystokinin differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and the cannabinoid receptor that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus. PMID:23335875

Andresen, Michael C.; Fawley, Jessica A.; Hofmann, Mackenzie E.

2013-01-01

3

Afferent Regulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Developing Auditory Midbrain  

E-print Network

within 1 d of deafferentation. As a conse- quence, there was a large reduction of IPSC amplitude facilitation. However, paired pulse fa- cilitation was nearly eliminated after deafferentation. Thus, nor- mal of deafferentation on inhibitory afferents in the auditory midbrain. Use-dependent alterations of inhibitory synapses

4

Modulation of synaptic transmission from primary afferents to spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons by group III mGluRs in GAD65-EGFP transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involved in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. However, the cellular mechanism underlying the modulation of synaptic transmission from nociceptive primary afferents to dorsal horn neurons by group III mGluRs has yet to be explored. In this study, we used transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65 promoter to identify specific subpopulations of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. By GABA immunolabeling, we confirmed the majority of GAD65-EGFP-expressing neurons were GABAergic. Because GAD65-EGFP-expressing neurons have not been examined in detail before, we first investigated the physiological properties of GAD65-EGFP- and non-EGFP-expressing neurons in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal dorsal horn. Membrane properties, such as the resting membrane potential, membrane capacitance, action potential threshold, and action potential height, differed significantly between these two groups of neurons. Most EGFP-expressing neurons displayed a tonic firing pattern (73% of recorded neurons) and received monosynaptic A? and/or C primary afferent inputs (85% of recorded neurons). In contrast, we observed a delayed firing pattern in 53% of non-EGFP-expressing neurons. After identifying the physiological properties of EGFP-expressing neurons, we tested the effects of group III mGluRs on synaptic transmission pharmacologically. A group III mGluR agonist, L-AP4, attenuated A? fiber-evoked synaptic transmission but did not affect C fiber-evoked synaptic transmission to EGFP-expressing neurons. Similar primary afferent-specific inhibition by L-AP4 was also observed in non-EGFP-expressing neurons. Moreover, A? fiber-evoked synaptic transmission was suppressed by a selective mGluR7 agonist, AMN082. These results suggest that modulation of the synaptic transmission from primary afferents to SG neurons by group III mGluR agonist is specific to the type of nociceptive primary afferents but not to the type of target neurons. PMID:21177998

Cui, Lian; Kim, Yoo Rim; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seok Chan; Shin, Hee-Sup; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Kim, Jun; Kim, Sang Jeong

2011-03-01

5

Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia.  

PubMed

Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. PMID:25104469

Petitjean, Hugues; Hugel, Sylvain; Barthas, Florent; Bohren, Yohann; Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy

2014-10-01

6

Inflammation reduces the contribution of N-type calcium channels to primary afferent synaptic transmission onto NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons in the rat dorsal horn  

PubMed Central

N-type calcium channels contribute to the release of glutamate from primary afferent terminals synapsing onto nocisponsive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but little is known of functional adaptations to these channels in persistent pain states. Subtype-selective conotoxins and other drugs were used to determine the role of different calcium channel types in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Electrically evoked primary afferent synapses onto lumber dorsal horn neurons were examined three days after induction of inflammation with intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant. The maximal inhibitory effect of the N-type calcium channel blockers, ?-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA, were attenuated in NK1 receptor-positive lamina I neurons after inflammation, but the potency of CVID was unchanged. This was associated with reduced inhibition of the frequency of asynchronous-evoked synaptic events by CVID studied in the presence of extracellular strontium, suggesting reduced N-type channel contribution to primary afferent synapses after inflammation. After application of CVID, the relative contributions of P/Q and L channels to primary afferent transmission and the residual current were unchanged by inflammation, suggesting the adaptation was specific to N-type channels. Blocking T-type channels did not affect synaptic amplitude under control or inflamed conditions. Reduction of N-type channel contribution to primary afferent transmission was selective for NK1 receptor-positive neurons identified by post hoc immunohistochemistry and did not occur at synapses in laminae IIo or IIi, or inhibitory synapses. These results suggest that inflammation selectively downregulates N-type channels in the terminals of primary afferents synapsing onto (presumed) nociceptive lamina I NK1 receptor-positive neurons. PMID:17303639

Rycroft, Beth K; Vikman, Kristina S; Christie, MacDonald J

2007-01-01

7

The correlated blanching of synaptic bodies and reduction in afferent firing rates caused by transmitter-depleting agents in the frog semicircular canal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synaptic bodies (SBs) associated with rings of synaptic vesicles and well-defined, pre- and post-synaptic membrane structures are indicators of maturity in most hair cell-afferent nerve junctions. The role of the SBs remains elusive despite several experiments showing that they may be involved in storage of neurotransmitter. Our results demonstrate that SBs of the adult posterior semicircular canal (SCC) cristae hair cells become less electron dense following incubation of the SCC with the transmitter-depleting drug tetrabenazine (TBZ). Objective quantification and comparison of the densities of the SBs in untreated and TBZ-treated frog SCC demonstrated that TBZ significantly decreased the electron density of SBs. This reduction in electron density was accompanied by a reduction in firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. A second transmitter-depleting drug, guanethidine, previously shown to reduce the electron density of hair cell SBs, also reduced the firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. In contrast, the electron density of dense granules (DG), similar in size and shape to synaptic bodies (SB) in hair cells, did not change after incubation in TBZ, thus indicating that granules and SBs are not similar in regard to their electron density. The role of SBs in synaptic transmission and the transmitter, if any, stored in the SBs remain unknown. Nonetheless, the association of the lessening of electron density with a reduction in afferent firing rate provides impetus for the further investigation of the SB's role in neurotransmission.

Guth, P.; Norris, C.; Fermin, C. D.; Pantoja, M.

1993-01-01

8

Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subunit 2 ion channels modulate synaptic transmission from nociceptive primary afferents containing substance P to secondary sensory neurons in laminae I-IIo of the rodent spinal dorsal horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subunit 2 (HCN2) is expressed by terminals of peptidergic nociceptive primary afferents in laminae I-IIo of the rat spinal dorsal horn. In this study, we investigated the possible neurotransmitters and postsynaptic targets of these HCN2-expressing primary afferent terminals in the superficial spinal dorsal horn by using immunocytochemical methods. We

Ildikó Papp; Krisztina Holló; Ferenc Erdélyi; Gábor Szabó; Miklós Antal

2006-01-01

9

Stability of thalamocortical synaptic transmission across awake brain states  

PubMed Central

Sensory cortical neurons are highly sensitive to brain state, with many neurons showing changes in spatial and/or temporal response properties and some neurons becoming virtually unresponsive when subjects are not alert. While some of these changes are undoubtedly due to state-related filtering at the thalamic level, another likely source of such effects is the thalamocortical (TC) synapse, where activation of nicotinic receptors on TC terminals have been shown to enhance synaptic transmission in vitro. However, monosynaptic TC synaptic transmission has not been directly examined during different states of alertness. Here, in awake rabbits that shifted between alert and non-alert EEG states, we examined the monosynaptic TC responses and short-term synaptic dynamics generated by spontaneous impulses of single visual and somatosensory TC neurons. We did this using spike-triggered current source density analysis, an approach that enables assessment of monosynaptic extracellular currents generated in different cortical layers by impulses of single TC afferents. Spontaneous firing rates of TC neurons were higher, and burst rates were much lower in the alert state. However, we found no state-related changes in the amplitude of monosynaptic TC responses when TC spikes with similar preceding interspike interval were compared. Moreover, the relationship between the preceding interspike interval of the TC spike and postsynaptic response amplitude was not influenced by state. These data indicate that TC synaptic transmission and dynamics are highly conserved across different states of alertness and that observed state-related changes in receptive field properties that occur at the cortical level result from other mechanisms. PMID:19474312

Stoelzel, Carl R.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A.

2009-01-01

10

Astroglial metabolic networks sustain hippocampal synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons. PMID:19056987

Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

2008-12-01

11

Synaptic Transfer from Outer Hair Cells to Type II Afferent Fibers in the Rat Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Type II cochlear afferents receive glutamatergic synaptic excitation from outer hair cells (OHCs) in the rat cochlea. However, it remains uncertain whether this connection is capable of providing auditory information to the brain. The functional efficacy of this connection depends in part on the number of presynaptic OHCs, their probability of transmitter release, and the effective electrical distance for spatial summation in the Type II fiber. The present work addresses these questions using whole-cell recordings from the spiral process of type II afferents that run below OHCs in the apical turn of young (5–9 days postnatal) rat cochlea. A ‘high potassium puffer’ was used to elicit calcium action potentials from individual OHCs and thereby show that the average probability of transmitter release was 0.26 (range 0.02 to 0.73). Electron microscopy showed relatively few vesicles tethered to ribbons in equivalent OHCs. A ‘receptive field’ map for individual type II fibers was constructed by successively puffing onto OHCs along the cochlear spiral, up to 180 µm from the recording pipette. These revealed a conservative estimate of 7 presynaptic OHCs per type II fiber (range 1–11). EPSCs evoked from presynaptic OHCs separated by more than 100 µm did not differ in amplitude or waveform, implying that the type II fiber’s length constant exceeded the length of the synaptic input zone. Taken together these data suggest that type II fibers could communicate centrally by maximal activation of their entire pool of presynaptic OHCs. PMID:22787038

Weisz, Catherine J.C.; Lehar, Mohamed; Hiel, Hakim; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2012-01-01

12

What is transmitted in "synaptic transmission"?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next" is equivalent to (and often expressed explicitly as) "the action potential passes from one neuron to the next." More than half of four groups of students who were asked to comment on an excerpt from a recent physiology textbook that openly stated the misconception had no clear objection to the text presented. We propose that the first culprit in generating this misconception is the term "synaptic transmission," which promotes the notion of transferring something or passing something along (implicitly unchanged). To avoid establishing this misconception, the first simple suggestion is to use words like "synaptic integration" rather than "synaptic transmission" right from the start. More generally, it would be important to focus on the function of synaptic events rather than on rote listing of all the numerous steps that are known to occur, which are so complex as to saturate the mind of the student.

Erik Montagna (Institute of Chemistry); Adriana M. S. de Azevedo (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of SĂÂŁo Paulo); Camilla Romano (FacoltĂ  di Medicina e Chirurgia); Ronald Ranvaud (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of SĂÂŁo Paulo)

2010-06-01

13

Synaptic transmission in the striatum: from plasticity to neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Striatal neurones receive myriad of synaptic inputs originating from different sources. Massive afferents from all areas of the cortex and the thalamus represent the most important source of excitatory amino acids, whereas the nigrostriatal pathway and intrinsic circuits provide the striatum with dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA, nitric oxide and adenosine. All these neurotransmitter systems interact each other and with voltage-dependent conductances

P Calabresi; D Centonze; P Gubellini; G. A Marfia; A Pisani; G Sancessario; G Bernardi

2000-01-01

14

The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and kynurenate on primary afferent synaptic potentials evoked in cat spinal cord neurones in vivo.  

PubMed Central

1. A technique was developed for perfusing the central canal of the cat spinal cord over a defined region to alter the extracellular environment and examine the effects of various ions and pharmacological agents on synaptic transmission in vivo. 2. Monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by hindlimb muscle nerve stimulation were recorded intracellularly from dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) neurones in Clarke's column, in close proximity to the central canal. 3. The effects of central canal perfusion of solutions containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and kynurenate on the monosynaptic afferent EPSP were examined. 4. Perfusion of the central canal with solutions containing a high Mg2+ concentration completely and reversibly blocked the monosynaptic EPSP, while perfusion with solutions containing a high Ca2+ concentration produced up to a fourfold increase in the peak amplitude of the EPSP. This large increase in the EPSP indicates that the pool of quanta available for release is considerably greater than estimated from previous quantal analysis studies at this synaptic connection. 5. Perfusion of the central canal with kynurenate, an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors, resulted in a complete block of the monosynaptic EPSP in DSCT neurones. This provides direct evidence that an excitatory amino acid, such as glutamate, is released from primary muscle afferent terminals in Clarke's column of the cat spinal cord in vivo. PMID:1668754

Walmsley, B; Nicol, M J

1991-01-01

15

Multiple clusters of release sites formed by individual thalamic afferents onto cortical interneurons ensure reliable transmission  

PubMed Central

Summary Thalamic afferents supply the cortex with sensory information by contacting both excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Interestingly, thalamic contacts with interneurons constitute such a powerful synapse that even one afferent can fire interneurons, thereby driving feedforward inhibition. However, the spatial representation of this potent synapse on interneuron dendrites is poorly understood. Using Ca imaging and electron microscopy we show that an individual thalamic afferent forms multiple contacts with the interneuronal proximal dendritic arbor, preferentially near branch points. More contacts are correlated with larger amplitude synaptic responses. Each contact, consisting of a single bouton, can release up to 7 vesicles simultaneously, resulting in graded and reliable Ca transients. Computational modeling indicates that the release of multiple vesicles at each contact minimally reduces the efficiency of the thalamic afferent in exciting the interneuron. This strategy preserves the spatial representation of thalamocortical inputs across the dendritic arbor over a wide range of release conditions. PMID:21745647

Bagnall, Martha W.; Hull, Court; Bushong, Eric A.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Scanziani, Massimo

2012-01-01

16

Glial Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Retina  

E-print Network

Glial Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Retina ERIC A. NEWMAN* Department of Neuroscience and neuronal excitability in the mammalian retina is mediated by several mechanisms. Stimulation of glial cells to information process- ing in the retina. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. INTRODUCTION Glial modulation of synaptic

Newman, Eric A.

17

Synapse- and subtype-specific modulation of synaptic transmission by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventrobasal thalamus.  

PubMed

The rodent thalamic ventrobasal complex (VB) which is a subdivision of somatosensory thalamus receives two excitatory inputs through the medial lemniscal synapse, which is a sensory afferent synapse, and the corticothalamic synapse from layer VI of the somatosensory cortex. In addition, the VB also receives cholinergic inputs from the brain stem, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed in the VB. Little is known, however, how acetylcholine (ACh) modulates synaptic transmission at the medial lemniscal and corticothalamic synapses in the VB. Furthermore, it remains unclear which subtype of nAChRs contributes to VB synaptic transmission. We report here that the activation of nAChRs presynaptically depressed corticothalamic synaptic transmission, whereas it did not affect medial lemniscal synaptic transmission in juvenile mice. This presynaptic modulation was mediated by the activation of nAChRs that contained ?4 and ?2 subunit, but not by ?7 nAChRs. Moreover, galanthamine, an allosteric modulator of ?4?2?5 nAChR, enhanced the ACh-induced depression of corticothalamic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), indicating that ?4?2?5 nAChRs at corticothalamic axon terminals specifically contribute to the depression of corticothalamic synaptic transmission. PMID:21145925

Nagumo, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Imoto, Keiji; Miyata, Mariko

2011-03-01

18

Synaptic transmission at retinal ribbon synapses  

PubMed Central

The molecular organization of ribbon synapses in photoreceptors and ON bipolar cells is reviewed in relation to the process of neurotransmitter release. The interactions between ribbon synapse-associated proteins, synaptic vesicle fusion machinery and the voltage-gated calcium channels that gate transmitter release at ribbon synapses are discussed in relation to the process of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We describe structural and mechanistic specializations that permit the ON bipolar cell to release transmitter at a much higher rate than the photoreceptor does, under in vivo conditions. We also consider the modulation of exocytosis at photoreceptor synapses, with an emphasis on the regulation of calcium channels. PMID:16027025

Heidelberger, Ruth; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Witkovsky, Paul

2006-01-01

19

Drosophila Neuroligin 2 is Required Presynaptically and Postsynaptically for proper Synaptic Differentiation and Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Trans-synaptic adhesion between Neurexins and Neuroligins is thought to be required for proper synapse organization and modulation, and mutations in several human NEUROLIGINS have shown association with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of Drosophila neuroligin 2 (dnlg2) mutants. Loss of dnlg2 results in reduced bouton numbers, aberrant pre- and post-synaptic development at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and impaired synaptic transmission. In dnlg2 mutants, the evoked responses are decreased in amplitude, whereas the total active zone numbers at the NMJ are comparable to wild type, suggesting a decrease in the release probability. Ultrastructurally, the presynaptic active zone number per bouton area and the postsynaptic density area are both increased in dnlg2 mutants, whereas the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) is reduced in volume. We show that both pre- and post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 is required to restore synaptic growth and function in dnlg2 mutants. Post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 in dnlg2 mutants and wild type leads to reduced bouton growth whereas pre- and post-synaptic overexpression in wild type animals results in synaptic overgrowth. Since Neuroligins have been shown to bind to Neurexins, we created double mutants. These mutants are viable and display phenotypes that closely resemble those of dnlg2 and dnrx single mutants. Our results provide compelling evidence that Dnlg2 functions both pre- and post-synaptically together with Neurexin to determine the proper number of boutons as well as the number of active zones and size of synaptic densities during the development of NMJs. PMID:23136438

Chen, Yu-Chi; Lin, Yong Qi; Banerjee, Swati; Venken, Koen; Li, Jingjun; Ismat, Afshan; Chen, Kuchuan; Duraine, Lita; Bellen, Hugo J.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

2012-01-01

20

Synaptic transmission and plasticity in the amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies in both rats and humans indicate the importance of the amygdala in the acquisition and expression of learned\\u000a fear. The identification of the amygdala as an essential neural substrate for fear conditioning has permitted neurophysiological\\u000a examinations of synaptic processes in the amygdala that may mediate fear conditioning. One candidate cellular mechanism for\\u000a fear conditioning is long-term potentiation (LTP),

Stephen Maren

1996-01-01

21

Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

2008-01-01

22

Slob, a Slowpoke channel–binding protein, modulates synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

Modulation of ion channels by regulatory proteins within the same macromolecular complex is a well-accepted concept, but the physiological consequences of such modulation are not fully understood. Slowpoke (Slo), a potassium channel critical for action potential repolarization and transmitter release, is regulated by Slo channel–binding protein (Slob), a Drosophila melanogaster Slo (dSlo) binding partner. Slob modulates the voltage dependence of dSlo channel activation in vitro and exerts similar effects on the dSlo channel in Drosophila central nervous system neurons in vivo. In addition, Slob modulates action potential duration in these neurons. Here, we investigate further the functional consequences of the modulation of the dSlo channel by Slob in vivo, by examining larval neuromuscular synaptic transmission in flies in which Slob levels have been altered. In Slob-null flies generated through P-element mutagenesis, as well as in Slob knockdown flies generated by RNA interference (RNAi), we find an enhancement of synaptic transmission but no change in the properties of the postsynaptic muscle cell. Using targeted transgenic rescue and targeted expression of Slob-RNAi, we find that Slob expression in neurons (but not in the postsynaptic muscle cell) is critical for its effects on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, inhibition of dSlo channel activity abolishes these effects of Slob. These results suggest that presynaptic Slob, by regulating dSlo channel function, participates in the modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:21282401

Zhang, Jiaming

2011-01-01

23

MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity  

SciTech Connect

Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated fEPSPs after i.p. MPTP-injection.

Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying [Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li Qinglin [Key laboratory of XinAn Medicine, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038 (China); Behnisch, Thomas, E-mail: behnish@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2011-08-01

24

Presynaptic clathrin levels are a limiting factor for synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

To maintain communication, neurons must recycle their synaptic vesicles with high efficiency. This process places a huge burden on the clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery, but the consequences of this are poorly understood. We found that the amount of clathrin in a presynaptic terminal is not fixed. During stimulation, clathrin moves out of synapses as a function of stimulus strength and neurotransmitter release probability, which, together with membrane coat formation, transiently reduces the available pool of free clathrin triskelia. Correlative functional and morphological experiments in cholinergic autapses established by superior cervical ganglion neurons in culture show that presynaptic terminal function is compromised if clathrin levels fall by 20% after clathrin heavy chain knock down using RNAi. Synaptic transmission is depressed due to a reduction of cytoplasmic and readily releasable pools of vesicles. However, synaptic depression reverts after dialysis of exogenous clathrin, thus compensating RNAi-induced depletion. Lowering clathrin levels also reduces quantal size, which occurs concomitantly with a decrease in the size of synaptic vesicles. Large dense-core vesicles are unaffected by clathrin knock down. Together, our results show that clathrin levels are a dynamic property of presynaptic terminals that can influence short-term plasticity in a stimulus-dependent manner. PMID:24948816

López-Murcia, Francisco J; Royle, Stephen J; Llobet, Artur

2014-06-18

25

How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology  

PubMed Central

A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy. PMID:24101894

Dallerac, Glenn; Chever, Oana; Rouach, Nathalie

2013-01-01

26

Drosophila neuroligin 2 is required presynaptically and postsynaptically for proper synaptic differentiation and synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Trans-synaptic adhesion between Neurexins (Nrxs) and Neuroligins (Nlgs) is thought to be required for proper synapse organization and modulation, and mutations in several human Nlgs have shown association with autism spectrum disorders. Here we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of Drosophila neuroligin 2 (dnlg2) mutants. Loss of dnlg2 results in reduced bouton numbers, aberrant presynaptic and postsynaptic development at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and impaired synaptic transmission. In dnlg2 mutants, the evoked responses are decreased in amplitude, whereas the total active zone (AZ) numbers at the NMJ are comparable to wild type, suggesting a decrease in the release probability. Ultrastructurally, the presynaptic AZ number per bouton area and the postsynaptic density area are both increased in dnlg2 mutants, whereas the subsynaptic reticulum is reduced in volume. We show that both presynaptic and postsynaptic expression of Dnlg2 is required to restore synaptic growth and function in dnlg2 mutants. Postsynaptic expression of Dnlg2 in dnlg2 mutants and wild type leads to reduced bouton growth whereas presynaptic and postsynaptic overexpression in wild-type animals results in synaptic overgrowth. Since Nlgs have been shown to bind to Nrxs, we created double mutants. These mutants are viable and display phenotypes that closely resemble those of dnlg2 and dnrx single mutants. Our results provide compelling evidence that Dnlg2 functions both presynaptically and postsynaptically together with Neurexin to determine the proper number of boutons as well as the number of AZs and size of synaptic densities during the development of NMJs. PMID:23136438

Chen, Yu-Chi; Lin, Yong Qi; Banerjee, Swati; Venken, Koen; Li, Jingjun; Ismat, Afshan; Chen, Kuchuan; Duraine, Lita; Bellen, Hugo J; Bhat, Manzoor A

2012-11-01

27

Cyclic AMP and afferent activity govern bidirectional synaptic plasticity in striatopallidal neurons.  

PubMed

Recent experimental evidence suggests that the low dopamine conditions in Parkinson's disease (PD) cause motor impairment through aberrant motor learning. Those data, along with computational models, suggest that this aberrant learning results from maladaptive corticostriatal plasticity and learned motor inhibition. Dopaminergic modulation of both corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) is proposed to be critical for these processes; however, the regulatory mechanisms underlying bidirectional corticostriatal plasticity are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated a key role for cAMP signaling in corticostriatal LTD. In this study, mouse brain slices were used to perform a parametric experiment that tested the impact of varying both intracellular cAMP levels and the strength of excitatory inputs on corticostriatal plasticity. Using slice electrophysiology in the dorsolateral striatum, we demonstrate that both LTP and LTD can be sequentially induced in the same D2-expressing neuron and that LTP was strongest with high intracellular cAMP and LFS, whereas LTD required low intracellular cAMP and high-frequency stimulation. Our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for regulating bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity and may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for blocking or reversing the aberrant synaptic plasticity that likely contributes to motor deficits in PD. PMID:24806695

Augustin, Shana M; Beeler, Jeff A; McGehee, Daniel S; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2014-05-01

28

Physiological role for casein kinase 1 in glutamatergic synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Casein kinase 1 (CK1) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase, present in virtually all cell types, in which it phosphorylates a wide variety of substrates. So far, no role has been found for this ubiquitous protein kinase in the physiology of nerve cells. In the present study, we show that CK1 regulates fast synaptic transmission mediated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Through the use of CK1 inhibitors, we present evidence that activation of CK1 decreases NMDA receptor activity in the striatum via a mechanism that involves activation by this kinase of protein phosphatase 1 and/or 2A and resultant increased dephosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Indeed, inhibition of CK1 increases NMDA-mediated EPSCs in medium spiny striatal neurons. This effect is associated with an increased phosphorylation of the NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor and is occluded by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The mGluR1, but not mGluR5, subclass of metabotropic glutamate receptors uses CK1 to inhibit NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These results provide the first evidence for a role of CK1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain. PMID:16014721

Chergui, Karima; Svenningsson, Per; Greengard, Paul

2005-07-13

29

From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

2012-01-01

30

[My research life: from synaptic transmission to behavior].  

PubMed

I have studied signal transmission at synapses and the effects of drugs on it at the molecular and cellular levels. Specific areas of research interest are outlined here. 1) Electrophysiological experiments in cats and rabbits suggested that a new type of analgesic, the phenothiazine derivative levomepromazine, exerts analgesic effects by depressing emotional responses accompanying the sensation of pain. 2) It was hypothesized that motoneurons had long-term effects on muscle cell membrane properties, in addition to controlling moment-to-moment activities. The substance to recover the post-denervation changes in muscle properties in culture was partially purified from mouse nerve extract, which suggested that trophic influences were exerted by substances released from motoneurons. 3) Muscles innervated by adrenergic fibers had sites responsive to acetylcholine as well as to adrenaline in early life in chicks, but only the adrenaline-responsive sites remained during development. Acetylcholine receptor clusters on Xenopus muscles were concentrated at the cholinergic neuromuscular junctions by the movement of receptors from outside the junctions during development. The passive diffusion-trap mechanism explained the accumulation of synaptic receptors at synapses. 4) We found two endocytic pathways and pools of synaptic vesicles contributing to low- and high-frequency synaptic transmission at Drosophila nerve terminals. We then identified two Ca2+ channels designated for the low- and high-frequency endocytosis of synaptic vesicles, straightjacket Ca2+ channels in the active zone and La3+-sensitive Ca2+ channels in the inactive zone at the terminals, respectively. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model for studying the social brain, and the heat avoidance response of the flies was found to be socially enhanced. Future studies are expected to reveal mechanisms underlying social brain functions at the gene level. PMID:25088317

Kuromi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

31

Neurosteroid modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and excitatory synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Ionotropic glutamate receptors function can be affected by neurosteroids, both positively and negatively. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor responses to exogenously applied glutamate are potentiated or inhibited (depending on the receptor subunit composition) by pregnenolone sulphate (PS) and inhibited by pregnanolone sulphate (3alpha5betaS). While PS effect is most pronounced when its application precedes that of glutamate, 3alpha5betaS only binds to receptors already activated. Synaptically activated NMDA receptors are inhibited by 3alpha5betaS, though to a lesser extent than those tonically activated by exogenous glutamate. PS, on the other hand, shows virtually no effect on any of the models of synaptically activated NMDA receptors. The site of neurosteroid action at the receptor molecule has not yet been identified, however, the experiments indicate that there are at least two distinct extracellularly located binding sites for PS mediating its potentiating and inhibitory effects respectively. Experiments with chimeric receptors revealed the importance of the extracellular loop connecting the third and the fourth transmembrane domain of the receptor NR2 subunit for the neurosteroid action. alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors are inhibited by both PS and 3alpha5betaS. These neurosteroids also affect AMPA receptors-mediated synaptic transmission, however, in a rather indirect way, through presynaptically located targets of action. PMID:18481915

Sedlácek, M; Korínek, M; Petrovic, M; Cais, O; Adamusová, E; Chodounská, H; Vyklický, L

2008-01-01

32

pH modulation of glial glutamate transporters regulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract  

PubMed Central

The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the major site for termination of visceral sensory afferents contributing to homeostatic regulation of, for example, arterial pressure, gastric motility, and breathing. Whereas much is known about how different neuronal populations influence these functions, information about the role of glia remains scant. In this article, we propose that glia may contribute to NTS functions by modulating excitatory neurotransmission. We found that acidification (pH 7.0) depolarizes NTS glia by inhibiting K+-selective membrane currents. NTS glia also showed functional expression of voltage-sensitive glutamate transporters, suggesting that extracellular acidification regulates synaptic transmission by compromising glial glutamate uptake. To test this hypothesis, we evoked glutamatergic slow excitatory potentials (SEPs) in NTS neurons with repetitive stimulation (20 pulses at 10 Hz) of the solitary tract. This SEP depends on accumulation of glutamate following repetitive stimulation, since it was potentiated by blocking glutamate uptake with dl-threo-?-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) or a glia-specific glutamate transport blocker, dihydrokainate (DHK). Importantly, extracellular acidification (pH 7.0) also potentiated the SEP. This effect appeared to be mediated through a depolarization-induced inhibition of glial transporter activity, because it was occluded by TBOA and DHK. In agreement, pH 7.0 did not directly alter d-aspartate-induced responses in NTS glia or properties of presynaptic glutamate release. Thus acidification-dependent regulation of glial function affects synaptic transmission within the NTS. These results suggest that glia play a modulatory role in the NTS by integrating local tissue signals (such as pH) with synaptic inputs from peripheral afferents. PMID:23615553

McCrimmon, Donald R.; Martina, Marco

2013-01-01

33

Demonstrating the Temperature Sensitivity of Synaptic Transmission in a Drosophila Mutant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an exercise that illustrates the temperature sensitivity of synaptic transmission. The temperature dependence of synaptic transmission is demonstrated by cooling the larval Drosophila melanogaster preparation and recording excitatory junction potentials. Vesicle recycling is explored by utilizing a mutation of the shibire gene.

Jacob L. Krans, Patricia K. Rivlin, and Ronald R. Hoy (Cornell University;)

2005-09-27

34

Adenosine-mediated inhibition of striatal GABAergic synaptic transmission during in vitro ischaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several reports have shown that energy deprivation, as a result of hypoxia, hypoglycaemia or ischaemia, depresses excitatory synaptic transmission in virtually all brain areas. How this pathological condition affects inhibitory synaptic transmission is still unclear. In the present in vitro study, we coupled whole-cell patch clamp recordings from striatal neurones with focal stimulation of GABAergic nerve terminals in order

Diego Centonze; Emilia Saulle; Antonio Pisani; Giorgio Bernardi; Paolo Calabresi

2001-01-01

35

Estriol preserves synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits occur in over half of multiple sclerosis patients, with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory commonly impaired. Data from in vivo MRI and post-mortem studies in MS indicate that the hippocampus is targeted. However, the relationship between structural pathology and dysfunction of the hippocampus in MS remains unclear. Hippocampal neuropathology also occurs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model of MS. Although estrogen treatment of EAE has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in the spinal cord, it is unknown if estrogen treatment may prevent hippocampal pathology and dysfunction. In the current study we examined excitatory synaptic transmission during EAE and focused on pathological changes in synaptic protein complexes known to orchestrate functional synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. We then determined if estriol, a candidate hormone treatment, was capable of preventing functional changes in synaptic transmission and corresponding hippocampal synaptic pathology. Electrophysiological studies revealed altered excitatory synaptic transmission and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) during EAE. Neuropathological experiments demonstrated that there were decreased levels of pre- and post-synaptic proteins in the hippocampus, diffuse loss of myelin staining and atrophy of the pyramidal layers of hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Estriol treatment prevented decreases in excitatory synaptic transmission and lessened the effect of EAE on PPF. In addition, estriol treatment prevented several neuropathological alterations that occurred in the hippocampus during EAE. Cross-modality correlations revealed that deficits in excitatory synaptic transmission were significantly correlated with reductions in trans-synaptic protein binding partners known to modulate excitatory synaptic transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a functional correlate to hippocampal neuropathology in any MS model. Furthermore, a treatment was identified that prevented both deficits in synaptic function and hippocampal neuropathology. PMID:22525427

Ziehn, Marina O; Avedisian, Andrea A; Dervin, Shannon M; O'Dell, Thomas J; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

2012-08-01

36

Prostaglandin E2 depresses solitary tract-mediated synaptic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarius.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a prototypical inflammatory mediator that excites and sensitizes cell bodies [Kwong K, Lee LY (2002) PGE(2) sensitizes cultured pulmonary vagal sensory neurons to chemical and electrical stimuli. J Appl Physiol 93:1419-1428; Kwong K, Lee LY (2005) Prostaglandin E(2) potentiates a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium current in rat capsaicin-sensitive vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. J Physiol 56:437-450] and peripheral nerve terminals [Ho CY, Gu Q, Hong JL, Lee LY (2000) Prostaglandin E (2) enhances chemical and mechanical sensitivities of pulmonary C fibers in the rat. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:528-533] of primary vagal sensory neurons. Nearly all central nerve terminals of vagal afferents are in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where they operate with a high probability of release [Doyle MW, Andresen MC (2001) Reliability of monosynaptic sensory transmission in brain stem neurons in vitro. J Neurophysiol 85:2213-2223]. We studied the effect of PGE(2) on synaptic transmission between tractus solitarius afferent nerve terminals and the second-order NTS neurons in brain stem slices of Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole-cell patch recording in voltage clamp mode was used to study evoked excitatory postsynaptic glutamatergic currents (evEPSCs) from NTS neurons elicited by electrical stimulation of the solitary tract (ST). In 34 neurons, bath-applied PGE(2) (200 nM) decreased the evEPSC amplitude by 49+/-5%. In 22 neurons, however, PGE(2) had no effect. We also tested 15 NTS neurons for capsaicin sensitivity. Seven neurons generated evEPSCs that were equally unaffected by PGE(2) and capsaicin. Conversely, evEPSCs of the other eight neurons, which were PGE(2)-responsive, were abolished by 200 nM capsaicin. Furthermore, the PGE(2-)induced depression of evEPSCs was associated with an increase in the paired pulse ratio and a decrease in both the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and TTX-independent spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). These results suggest that PGE(2) acts both presynaptically on nerve terminals and postsynaptically on NTS neurons to reduce glutamatergic responses. PMID:17367942

Laaris, N; Weinreich, D

2007-05-11

37

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures  

E-print Network

Selective impairment of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the flurothyl model of neonatal seizures, Marseille, France Keywords: CA3 pyramidal cells, early seizures, GABA, glutamate, hippocampus Abstract Neonatal seizures can result in long-term adverse consequences including alteration of seizure

Cossart, Rosa

38

Rapidly deactivating AMPA receptors determine excitatory synaptic transmission to interneurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius from rat.  

PubMed

Excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated in interneurons of the parvocellular nucleus tractus solitarius (pNTS) by performing patch-clamp experiments in thin slice preparations from rat brain stem. Stimulation of single afferent fibers evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by glutamate receptors of the DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate types. AMPA-receptor-mediated EPSCs displayed decay time constants of 3.5 +/- 1.2 (SD) ms (13 cells), which were slow compared with EPSC decay time constants in neurons of the cerebellum or hippocampus. Slow EPSC decay was not explained by dendritic filtering, because the passive membrane properties of pNTS interneurons provided favorable voltage-clamp conditions. Also, the slowness of EPSC decay did not result from slow deactivation of AMPA receptors (0.7 +/- 0.2 ms, 5 cells), which was investigated during rapid application of agonist to outside-out patches. Comparison of AMPA receptor kinetics with EPSC decay time constants suggested that the slow time course of EPSCs resulted from the prolonged presence of glutamate in the synaptic cleft. PMID:9242263

Titz, S; Keller, B U

1997-07-01

39

Afferent modulation of dopamine neuron firing differentially regulates tonic and phasic dopamine transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesolimbic dopamine system is centrally involved in reward and goal-directed behavior, and it has been implicated in multiple psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which dopamine participates in these activities requires comprehension of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report dissociable regulation of dopamine neuron discharge by two separate afferent systems in rats; inhibition of pallidal afferents selectively

Anthony R West; Brian Ash; Holly Moore; Stan B Floresco; Anthony A Grace

2003-01-01

40

Beta 1-integrins are required for hippocampal AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and working memory.  

PubMed

Integrins comprise a large family of cell adhesion receptors that mediate diverse biological events through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that several integrins are localized to synapses with suggested roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. We generated a postnatal forebrain and excitatory neuron-specific knock-out of beta1-integrin in the mouse. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that these mutants have impaired synaptic transmission through AMPA receptors and diminished NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Despite the impairment in hippocampal synaptic transmission, the mutants displayed normal hippocampal-dependent spatial and contextual memory but were impaired in a hippocampal-dependent, nonmatching-to-place working memory task. These phenotypes parallel those observed in animals carrying knock-outs of the GluR1 (glutamate receptor subunit 1) subunit of the AMPA receptor. These observations suggest a new function of beta1-integrins as regulators of synaptic glutamate receptor function and working memory. PMID:16399691

Chan, Chi-Shing; Weeber, Edwin J; Zong, Lin; Fuchs, Elaine; Sweatt, J David; Davis, Ronald L

2006-01-01

41

?1-Integrins Are Required for Hippocampal AMPA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission, Synaptic Plasticity, and Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Integrins comprise a large family of cell adhesion receptors that mediate diverse biological events through cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that several integrins are localized to synapses with suggested roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. We generated a postnatal forebrain and excitatory neuron-specific knock-out of ?1-integrin in the mouse. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that these mutants have impaired synaptic transmission through AMPA receptors and diminished NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Despite the impairment in hippocampal synaptic transmission, the mutants displayed normal hippocampal-dependent spatial and contextual memory but were impaired in a hippocampal-dependent, nonmatching-to-place working memory task. These phenotypes parallel those observed in animals carrying knock-outs of the GluR1 (glutamate receptor subunit 1) subunit of the AMPA receptor. These observations suggest a new function of ?1-integrins as regulators of synaptic glutamate receptor function and working memory. PMID:16399691

Chan, Chi-Shing; Weeber, Edwin J.; Zong, Lin; Fuchs, Elaine; Sweatt, J. David; Davis, Ronald L.

2008-01-01

42

From synaptic transmission to cognition: an intermediary role for dendritic spines.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including neoformation, disappearance, redistribution and changes in geometric shape. The fine line between normal and abnormal excitatory neurotransmission is mediated by the concerted action of glutamate-mediated stimulation and calcium ion entry into spines. Moreover, within the range of normal excitatory activity, dendritic spines undergo specific plastic changes to regulate different forms of afferent information that are often related to distinct modes of cognition-related electrophysiological stimulation, such as long-term potentiation or long-term depression. PMID:22516877

González-Burgos, Ignacio

2012-10-01

43

Non-synaptic transmission at autonomic neuroeffector junctions Geoffrey Burnstock *  

E-print Network

in the central nervous system (see Vizi, this issue). Evidence in support of non-synaptic neuromuscular transmis differs in several important respects from the better known skeletal neuro- muscular junction

Burnstock, Geoffrey

44

A role for zinc in cerebellar synaptic transmission?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence that the transition metal zinc plays an important role in mammalian neural development, physiology\\u000a and pathology. The most compelling evidence for a synaptic role for zinc comes from hippocampal studies: zinc is concentrated\\u000a in the synaptic vesicles of some glutamatergic neurons, zinc can be released during neural activity and zinc can modulate\\u000a postsynaptic GABA and glutamate

Mark J. Wall

2005-01-01

45

Synaptic Mitochondria in Synaptic Transmission and Organization of Vesicle Pools in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Cell types rich in mitochondria, including neurons, display a high energy demand and a need for calcium buffering. The importance of mitochondria for proper neuronal function is stressed by the occurrence of neurological defects in patients suffering from a great variety of diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial genes. Genetic and pharmacological evidence also reveal a role of these organelles in various aspects of neuronal physiology and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Yet the mechanisms by which mitochondria can affect neurotransmission largely remain to be elucidated. In this review we focus on experimental data that suggest a critical function of synaptic mitochondria in the function and organization of synaptic vesicle pools, and in neurotransmitter release during intense neuronal activity. We discuss how calcium handling, ATP production and other mitochondrial mechanisms may influence synaptic vesicle pool organization and synaptic function. Given the link between synaptic mitochondrial function and neuronal communication, efforts toward better understanding mitochondrial biology may lead to novel therapeutic approaches of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and psychiatric disorders that are at least in part caused by mitochondrial deficits. PMID:21423525

Vos, Melissa; Lauwers, Elsa; Verstreken, Patrik

2010-01-01

46

Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-to-cell viral transmission via virological synapses has been argued to reduce susceptibility of the virus population to anti-viral drugs through multiple infection of cells, contributing to low-level viral persistence during therapy. Using a mathematical framework, we examine the role of synaptic transmission in treatment susceptibility. A key factor is the relative probability of individual virions to infect a cell during free-virus and synaptic transmission, a currently unknown quantity. If this infection probability is higher for free-virus transmission, then treatment susceptibility is lowest if one virus is transferred per synapse, and multiple infection of cells increases susceptibility. In the opposite case, treatment susceptibility is minimized for an intermediate number of virions transferred per synapse. Hence, multiple infection via synapses does not simply lower treatment susceptibility. Without further experimental investigations, one cannot conclude that synaptic transmission provides an additional mechanism for the virus to persist at low levels during anti-viral therapy.

Komarova, Natalia L.; Levy, David N.; Wodarz, Dominik

2013-07-01

47

Differential roles of postsynaptic density-93 isoforms in regulating synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

In the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses, the discs large (DLG)-membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of scaffolding proteins coordinates a multiplicity of signaling pathways to maintain and regulate synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic density-93 (PSD-93) is the most variable paralog in this family; it exists in six different N-terminal isoforms. Probably because of the structural and functional variability of these isoforms, the synaptic role of PSD-93 remains controversial. To accurately characterize the synaptic role of PSD-93, we quantified the expression of all six isoforms in the mouse hippocampus and examined them individually in hippocampal synapses. Using molecular manipulations, including overexpression, gene knockdown, PSD-93 knock-out mice combined with biochemical assays, and slice electrophysiology both in rat and mice, we demonstrate that PSD-93 is required at different developmental synaptic states to maintain the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. This strength is differentially regulated by the six isoforms of PSD-93, including regulations of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-active and inactive synapses, and activity-dependent modulations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that alternative combinations of N-terminal PSD-93 isoforms and DLG-MAGUK paralogs can fine-tune signaling scaffolds to adjust synaptic needs to regulate synaptic transmission. PMID:24068818

Krüger, Juliane M; Favaro, Plinio D; Liu, Mingna; Kitlinska, Agata; Huang, Xiaojie; Raabe, Monika; Akad, Derya S; Liu, Yanling; Urlaub, Henning; Dong, Yan; Xu, Weifeng; Schlüter, Oliver M

2013-09-25

48

A study of synaptic connection between low threshold afferent fibres in common peroneal nerve and motoneurones in human tibialis anterior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have induced H-reflex responses in human tibialis anterior motor units and analysed the results using the classical technique,\\u000a peristimulus time histogram (PSTH), and a new technique, peristimulus frequencygram (PSF). The PSF has recently been shown\\u000a to be more reliable than the PSTH for indicating the synaptic connections on motoneurones, and therefore we wished to examine\\u000a the differences between the

Orawan Prasartwuth; Erdal Binbo?a; Kemal S. Türker

2008-01-01

49

Roles of SNARE proteins and synaptotagmin I in synaptic transmission: studies at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse.  

PubMed

The roles of SNARE proteins, i.e. neuronal Synaptobrevin (n-Syb), SNAP-25 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx 1A), and Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) in synaptic transmission have been studied in situ using mutant embryos or larvae that lack these molecules or have alterations in them. Because of the ease of genetic manipulation, the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse is widely used for these studies. The functional properties of synaptic transmission have been studied in mutant embryos using the patch-clamp technique, and in larvae by recording with microelectrodes. A major vesicular membrane protein, n-Syb, is indispensable for nerve-evoked synaptic transmission. Spontaneous synaptic currents (minis), however, are present even in embryos totally lacking n-Syb (N-SYB). Furthermore, Ca(2+)-independent enhancement of mini frequency induced by hypertonic sucrose solutions (hypertonicity response) is totally absent in N-SYB. Embryos that have defects in SNAP-25 (SNAP-25) have similar but milder phenotypes than N-SYB. The phenotype in synaptic transmission was most severe in the synapse lacking Syx 1A. Neither nerve-evoked synaptic currents nor minis occur in embryos lacking Syx 1A (SYX 1A). No hypertonicity response was observed in them. Syt I binds Ca(2+) in vitro and probably serves as a Ca(2+) sensor for nerve-evoked synaptic transmission, since nerve-evoked synaptic currents were greatly reduced in embryos lacking Syt I (SYT I). Also, Syt I has a role in vesicle recycling. Interestingly, the Ca(2+)-independent hypertonicity response is also greatly reduced in SYT I. Minis persist in mutant embryos lacking any of these proteins (n-Syb, SNAP-25 and Syt I), except Syx, suggesting that minis have a distinct fusion mechanism from that for fast and synchronized release. It appears that these SNARE proteins and Syt I are coordinated for fast vesicle fusion. Minis, on the other hand, do not require SNARE complex nor Syt I, but Syx is absolutely required for vesicle fusion. The SNARE complex and Syt I are indispensable for the hypertonicity response. None of these molecules seem to serve for selective docking of synaptic vesicles to the release site. For further studies on synaptic transmission, the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse will continue to be a useful model. PMID:12624525

Kidokoro, Yoshi

2003-01-01

50

Kinetics of Synaptic Transmission at Ribbon Synapses of Rods and Cones  

PubMed Central

The ribbon synapse is a specialized structure that allows photoreceptors to sustain the continuous release of vesicles for hours upon hours and years upon years but also respond rapidly to momentary changes in illumination. Light responses of cones are faster than those of rods and, mirroring this difference, synaptic transmission from cones is also faster than transmission from rods. This review evaluates the various factors that regulate synaptic kinetics and contribute to kinetic differences between rod and cone synapses. Presynaptically, the release of glutamate-laden synaptic vesicles is regulated by properties of the synaptic proteins involved in exocytosis, influx of calcium through calcium channels, calcium release from intracellular stores, diffusion of calcium to the release site, calcium buffering, and extrusion of calcium from the cytoplasm. The rate of vesicle replenishment also limits the ability of the synapse to follow changes in release. Post-synaptic factors include properties of glutamate receptors, dynamics of glutamate diffusion through the cleft, and glutamate uptake by glutamate transporters. Thus, multiple synaptic mechanisms help to shape the responses of second-order horizontal and bipolar cells. PMID:17955196

Thoreson, Wallace B.

2008-01-01

51

Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity  

PubMed Central

The complexity of the signaling network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic signaling is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium signaling and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic transmission. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the signaling pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326

De Pitta, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

2012-01-01

52

Synaptic potentials evoked in cat dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurones by impulses in single group I muscle afferents.  

PubMed Central

1. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by impulses in single group I muscle afferents were recorded intracellularly in dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) neurones in the spinal cords of anaesthetized cats. 2. In the same experiments, electrotonic membrane properties of DSCT neurones were measured using the voltage response of each cell to a brief intracellular current pulse. 3. Single group I fibre EPSPs were found to exhibit a large range of amplitudes, from 210 microV to 3.4 mV. All of these EPSPs exhibited uniformly rapid rise times, in contrast to the wide range of time courses exhibited by group I a EPSPs recorded in motoneurones. 4. Electrotonic analysis of DSCT neurones indicated that the time constants of these cells ranged from 5.9 to 18.2 ms, with an average value of 10.9 ms. 5. Current pulse responses of the majority (approximately three-quarters) of DSCT neurones were well described by a simple cable model. Equivalent dendritic cable lengths were calculated for DSCT neurones and found to have an average value of 1.0 space constants, which is considerably less than that calculated for motoneurones. 6. Application of the simple cable model of DSCT neurones demonstrated that the rapid rise-times of single group I EPSPs can be explained by a substantial somatic input to these cells. However, in addition to this strong somatic component, there may also be a contribution from dendritic synapses which prolong the initial decay phase of these EPSPs. The final decay of single fibre EPSPs in DSCT neurones is explained simply by the passive membrane time constant of these cells. PMID:2640466

Walmsley, B

1989-01-01

53

Effect of presynaptic membrane potential on electrical vs. chemical synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

The growing realization that electrical coupling is present in the mammalian brain has sparked renewed interest in determining its functional significance and contrasting it with chemical transmission. One question of interest is whether the two types of transmission can be selectively regulated, e.g., if a cell makes both types of connections can electrical transmission occur in the absence of chemical transmission? We explore this issue in an experimentally advantageous preparation. B21, the neuron we study, is an Aplysia sensory neuron involved in feeding that makes electrical and chemical connections with other identified cells. Previously we demonstrated that chemical synaptic transmission is membrane potential dependent. It occurs when B21 is centrally depolarized prior to and during peripheral activation, but does not occur if B21 is peripherally activated at its resting membrane potential. In this article we study effects of membrane potential on electrical transmission. We demonstrate that maximal potentiation occurs in different voltage ranges for the two types of transmission, with potentiation of electrical transmission occurring at more hyperpolarized potentials (i.e., requiring less central depolarization). Furthermore, we describe a physiologically relevant type of stimulus that induces both spiking and an envelope of depolarization in the somatic region of B21. This depolarization does not induce functional chemical synaptic transmission but is comparable to the depolarization needed to maximally potentiate electrical transmission. In this study we therefore characterize a situation in which electrical and chemical transmission can be selectively controlled by membrane potential. PMID:21593394

Evans, Colin G.; Ludwar, Bjoern Ch.; Kang, Timothy

2011-01-01

54

Neuronal synchronization without calcium-dependent synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed Central

A critical question in understanding the mammalian brain is how populations of neurons become synchronized. This is particularly important for the neurons and neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamus, which are activated synchronously to control endocrine glands and the autonomic nervous system. It is widely accepted that communication between neurons of the adult mammalian brain is mediated primarily by Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic transmission. Here we report that synchronous neuronal activity can occur in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus without active Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic transmission. Simultaneous extracellular recordings of neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which contains the mammalian biological clock, confirmed a circadian rhythm of synchronized activity in hypothalamic slices. Ca(2+)-free medium, which blocks chemical synaptic transmission and increases membrane excitability, produced periodic and synchronized bursts of action potentials in a large population of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons with diverse firing patterns. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, non-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonists had no effect on burst synchrony. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed that the Ca(2+)-free solution blocked evoked postsynaptic potentials and that the mixture of antagonists blocked the remaining spontaneous postsynaptic potentials. Therefore, mechanisms other than Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic transmission can synchronize neurons in the mammalian hypothalamus and may be important wherever neuronal networks are synchronized. PMID:8097315

Bouskila, Y; Dudek, F E

1993-01-01

55

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711. While severe hypothyroidis...

56

AMN082, an allosteric mGluR7 agonist that inhibits afferent glutamatergic transmission in rat basolateral amygdala.  

PubMed

Glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The possible contribution of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors has been poorly investigated, due to the lack of selective pharmacological tools. However, a selective agonist of mGLUR7, AMN082 has been identified recently, and shown to act through an allosteric mechanism in recombinant cells expressing the receptor. Thus, using AMN082, we examined the role of mGLUR7 in modulating synaptic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region known to be important for the genesis of anxious states. We found that bath application of AMN082 (1-10microM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission evoked at 2Hz, but had no effect on transmission evoked at 0.05Hz. However, at this lower frequency, AMN082 (10microM) significantly increased the synaptic inhibition produced by a group III mGLUR agonist, L-AP4 (100microM). This effect was blocked by pre-application of CPPG (500microM), a group III mGLUR-preferring antagonist, consistent with the involvement of mGLUR7. Thus, we have shown that AMN082 can modulate high frequency synaptic transmission in the BLA, in vitro, and appears to act on the receptor via an allosteric mechanism. These results suggest that mGLUR7 has a unique role in regulating neuronal activity in the BLA and may be a target for novel drugs for the treatment of anxiety. PMID:18533198

Ugolini, Annarosa; Large, Charles H; Corsi, Mauro

2008-09-01

57

Nicotine Uses Neuron-Glia Communication to Enhance Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Memory  

PubMed Central

Nicotine enhances synaptic transmission and facilitates long-term memory. Now it is known that bi-directional glia-neuron interactions play important roles in the physiology of the brain. However, the involvement of glial cells in the effects of nicotine has not been considered until now. In particular, the gliotransmitter D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors, enables different types of synaptic plasticity and memory in the hippocampus. Here, we report that hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity induced by nicotine was annulled by an enzyme that degrades endogenous D-serine, or by an NMDA receptor antagonist that acts at the D-serine binding site. Accordingly, both effects of nicotine: the enhancement of synaptic transmission and facilitation of long-term memory were eliminated by impairing glial cells with fluoroacetate, and were restored with exogenous D-serine. Together, these results show that glial D-serine is essential for the long-term effects of nicotine on synaptic plasticity and memory, and they highlight the roles of glial cells as key participants in brain functions. PMID:23185511

Lopez-Hidalgo, Monica; Salgado-Puga, Karla; Alvarado-Martinez, Reynaldo; Medina, Andrea Cristina; Prado-Alcala, Roberto A.; Garcia-Colunga, Jesus

2012-01-01

58

Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline  

PubMed Central

Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa++ amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5–10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D.; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.

2014-01-01

59

Hair Cell Afferent Synapses  

PubMed Central

This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the afferent synapse at high resolution. Further, genes have been identified with forms of deafness known as auditory neuropathy, and their role in afferent signaling explored in mouse models. With these advances, our view of the hair cell afferent synapse has continued to be refined, and surprising properties have been revealed that emphasize the unique role of this structure in neural function. PMID:18824101

Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Grant, Lisa; Fuchs, Paul

2008-01-01

60

Presynaptic inhibitory effects of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on nociceptive excitatory synaptic transmission in spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons of adult mice.  

PubMed

Fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to exert analgesic effects in humans and laboratory animals. However, its effects on spinal nociceptive synaptic transmission have not been fully characterized. Here, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices with attached dorsal roots from adult mice, and the effects of fluvoxamine on monosynaptic A-fiber- and C-fiber-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked in response to electrical stimulation of a dorsal root were studied. Fluvoxamine (10 - 100 ?M) concentration-dependently suppressed both monosynaptic A-fiber- and C-fiber-mediated EPSCs, which were attenuated by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. In the presence of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron, fluvoxamine hardly suppressed A-fiber-mediated EPSCs, whereas its inhibitory effect on C-fiber-mediated EPSCs was not affected. Although fluvoxamine increased the paired-pulse ratio of A-fiber-mediated EPSCs, it increased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs (sEPSCs and mEPSCs). Since sEPSCs and mEPSCs appeared to arise largely from spinal interneurons, we then recorded strontium-evoked asynchronous events occurring after A-fiber stimulation, whose frequency was reduced by fluvoxamine. These results suggest that fluvoxamine reduces excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferent fibers via presynaptic mechanisms involving 5-HT1A and/or 5-HT3 receptors, which may contribute to its analgesic effects. PMID:25252797

Tomoyose, Orie; Kodama, Daisuke; Ono, Hideki; Tanabe, Mitsuo

2014-10-21

61

Effect of VGLUT inhibitors on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are known to be important in the uptake of glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal; thereby playing a role in synaptic function. VGLUT dysfunction has also been suggested in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. A number of compounds have been identified as VGLUT inhibitors; however, little is known as to how these compounds affect synaptic transmission. We therefore investigated the effects of structurally unrelated VGLUT inhibitors on synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the in vitro slice preparation of mouse hippocampus, AMPA receptor-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were evoked in response to Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway stimulation. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors Rose Bengal (RB), Congo Red (CR) or Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CB) resulted in a concentration-related reduction of fEPSP amplitudes. RB (30?M) or CB (300?M) also depressed NMDA receptor-mediated responses in the CA1 region. The naturally occurring kynurenine Xanthurenic Acid (XA) is reported to be a VGLUT inhibitor. We found XA attenuated both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. The potency order of the VGLUT inhibitors was consistent with literature Ki values for VGLUT inhibition. Impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission is believed to contribute to schizophrenia, and VGLUTs have also been implicated in this disease. We therefore investigated the effect of VGLUT inhibition in the prefrontal cortex. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors RB or CB resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in the amplitude of glutamate receptor-mediated fEPSPs recorded in layer V/VI in response to stimulation in the forceps minor. We conclude that VGLUT inhibitors can modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the PFC and hippocampus. This could be important in the pathophysiology of nervous system disorders and might represent a target for developing novel pharmacological therapies. PMID:24121008

Neale, S A; Copeland, C S; Salt, T E

2014-07-01

62

[Neuromuscular synaptic transmission at different stages of postnatal development in rats].  

PubMed

On the nerve-muscle preparation of rats diaphragm muscle on different stages of postnatal development, the comparison of morphological features and functions of synaptic apparatus, including induced secretion time parameters was carried out. It was found that, along with the reduced, compared to the adult animals, area of nerve endings in the newborn the speed of the motor nerve excitation was slower, intensity of spontaneous and induced secretion of quantum fluctuations was reduced and real synaptic delays in the end plate were intense. Severe degree of acetylcholine quanta asynchronous secretion with longer open state of the ion channel in newborns synapses can compensate reduction in reliability of synaptic transmission due to a decrease of the quantal content of the postsynaptic response. PMID:23461198

Khuzakhmetova, B F; Samigullin, D V; Nurullin, L F; Nikol'ski?, E E; Bukhareva, É A

2012-12-01

63

Kismet Positively Regulates Glutamate Receptor Localization and Synaptic Transmission at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a glutamatergic synapse that is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian glutamatergic synapses. These synapses can, as a result of changes in activity, alter the strength of their connections via processes that require chromatin remodeling and changes in gene expression. The chromodomain helicase DNA binding (CHD) protein, Kismet (Kis), is expressed in both motor neuron nuclei and postsynaptic muscle nuclei of the Drosophila larvae. Here, we show that Kis is important for motor neuron synaptic morphology, the localization and clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors, larval motor behavior, and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that Kis is part of the machinery that modulates the development and function of the NMJ. Kis is the homolog to human CHD7, which is mutated in CHARGE syndrome. Thus, our data suggest novel avenues of investigation for synaptic defects associated with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:25412171

Ghosh, Rupa; Vegesna, Srikar; Safi, Ramia; Bao, Hong; Zhang, Bing; Marenda, Daniel R.; Liebl, Faith L. W.

2014-01-01

64

The effects of protein kinase C activity on synaptic transmission in two areas of rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

The effects of three protein kinase C (PKC) agonists (phorbol ester, ingenol and indolactam-V) and two PKC antagonists (D-erythro-sphingosine and chelerythrine) on input-output (I-O) relations in the Schaffer collateral pathway to CA1 (SC-CA1) and mossy fiber pathway to CA3 (MF-CA3) were determined in rat hippocampus brain slices. In the SC-CA1 pathway, phorbol esters and indolactam-V had only small effects on field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) in slices from 60-day animals, although ingenol, an activator of novel PKC isozymes, caused a significant decrease of the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials amplitude in 60-day animals, but not in 30-day animals. In contrast, in the MF-CA3 pathway, PKC agonists induced a significant increase in the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. PKC antagonists depressed the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials in the SC-CA1 pathway, but had no significant effect in the MF-CA3 pathway. In the MF-CA3 pathway, paired-pulse facilitation was abolished by PKC agonists and unaffected by antagonists. In SC-CA1, it was depressed by agonists to levels below control, whereas it was significantly increased by chelerythine. We conclude that PKC plays important but different roles in both regions. In the SC-CA1 pathway, PKC is almost maximally active under control circumstances, and PKC antagonists significantly reduce synaptic responses. In contrast, in the MF-CA3 pathway, there is no apparent activation under resting circumstances, but significant potentiation of synaptic transmission is induced when PKC is activated. There are developmental changes in the pattern of PKC isozymes, and both pre- and post-synaptic actions are important. PMID:14568326

Hussain, Rifat J; Carpenter, David O

2003-11-14

65

Modulation of SK channel trafficking by beta adrenoceptors enhances excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the amygdala.  

PubMed

Emotionally arousing events are particularly well remembered. This effect is known to result from the release of stress hormones and activation of beta adrenoceptors in the amygdala. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are not understood. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels are present at glutamatergic synapses where they limit synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we show that beta adrenoceptor activation regulates synaptic SK channels in lateral amygdala pyramidal neurons, through activation of protein kinase A. We show that SK channels are constitutively recycled from the postsynaptic membrane and that activation of beta adrenoceptors removes SK channels from excitatory synapses. This results in enhanced synaptic transmission and plasticity. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which beta adrenoceptors control synaptic transmission and plasticity, through regulation of SK channel trafficking, and suggest that modulation of synaptic SK channels may contribute to beta adrenoceptor-mediated potentiation of emotional memories. PMID:18945888

Faber, E S Louise; Delaney, Andrew J; Power, John M; Sedlak, Petra L; Crane, James W; Sah, Pankaj

2008-10-22

66

Selective inhibition of local excitatory synaptic transmission by serotonin through an unconventional receptor in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The modulation of synaptic transmission by serotonin (5-HT) was studied using whole-cell voltage-clamp and sharp-electrode current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurones in transverse rat hippocampal slices in vitro. With GABAA receptors blocked, polysynaptic transmission evoked by stratum radiatum stimulation was inhibited by submicromolar concentrations of 5-HT, while monosynaptic excitatory transmission and CA1 pyramidal neurone excitability were unaffected. The effect persisted following pharmacological blockade of 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptors, which directly affect CA1 pyramidal neurone excitability. Concentration-response relationships for 5-HT were determined in individual neurones; the EC50 values for block of polysynaptic excitation and inhibition by 5-HT were ?230 and ?160 nm, respectively. The 5-HT receptor type responsible for the observed effect does not fall easily into the present classification of 5-HT receptors. 5-HT inhibition of polysynaptic EPSCs persisted following complete block of GABAergic transmission and in CA1 minislices, ruling out indirect effects through interneurones and non-CA1 pyramidal neurones, respectively. Monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by stimulation of CA1 afferent pathways appeared to be unaffected by 5-HT. Monosynaptic EPSCs evoked by stimulation of the alveus, which contains CA1 pyramidal neurone axons, were partially inhibited by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT inhibited synaptic transmission by acting at local recurrent collaterals of CA1 pyramidal neurones. This may represent an important physiological action of 5-HT in the hippocampus, since it occurs over a lower concentration range than the 5-HT effects reported so far. PMID:11432998

Mlinar, Boris; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Corradetti, Renato

2001-01-01

67

A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impairments in social behaviors that are sometimes coupled to specialized cognitive abilities. A small percentage of ASD patients carry mutations in genes encoding neuroligins, which are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules. We introduced one of these mutations into mice: the Arg451-->Cys451 (R451C) substitution in neuroligin-3. R451C mutant mice showed impaired social interactions but enhanced spatial learning abilities. Unexpectedly, these behavioral changes were accompanied by an increase in inhibitory synaptic transmission with no apparent effect on excitatory synapses. Deletion of neuroligin-3, in contrast, did not cause such changes, indicating that the R451C substitution represents a gain-of-function mutation. These data suggest that increased inhibitory synaptic transmission may contribute to human ASDs and that the R451C knockin mice may be a useful model for studying autism-related behaviors. PMID:17823315

Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Blundell, Jacqueline; Etherton, Mark R; Hammer, Robert E; Liu, Xinran; Powell, Craig M; Südhof, Thomas C

2007-10-01

68

PICK1 is required for the control of synaptic transmission by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7  

PubMed Central

Both postsynaptic density and presynaptic active zone are structural matrix containing scaffolding proteins that are involved in the organization of the synapse. Little is known about the functional role of these proteins in the signaling of presynaptic receptors. Here we show that the interaction of the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtype, mGlu7a, with the postsynaptic density-95 disc-large zona occludens 1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein, PICK1, is required for specific inhibition of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, we show that activation of the presynaptic mGlu7a receptor inhibits synaptic transmission and this effect also requires the presence of PICK1. These results indicate that the scaffolding protein, PICK1, plays an essential role in the control of synaptic transmission by the mGlu7a receptor complex. PMID:12065412

Perroy, J.; El Far, O.; Bertaso, F.; Pin, J.P.; Betz, H.; Bockaert, J.; Fagni, L.

2002-01-01

69

Presynaptic D 2 dopaminergic receptors mediate inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat neostriatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dopamine (DA) on excitatory synaptic transmission was studied in rat neostriatal neurons using intracellular- and whole-cell voltage clamp-recording methods. Depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by cortical stimulation. Superfusion of DA (0.01–10 ?M) reversibly decreases EPSP in a concentration-dependent manner and with a estimated IC5 of 0.3 ?M. In addition, the inhibitory effect induced by DA

Kuei-Sen Hsu; Chiung-Chun Huang; Cheng-Hsun Yang; Po-Wu Gean

1995-01-01

70

Role of synaptic integration of dopaminergic and cholinergic transmissions in basal ganglia function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies concern the mechanisms of synaptic transmission and integration in the basal ganglia network, using immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting. We generated transgenic mice that expressed the human interleukin-2 receptor (hIL-2R)\\/GFP fusion protein under the control of the mGluR2 promoter. The immunotoxin that was composed of the monoclonal hIL-2R antibody fused to bacterial toxin was injected into the striatum. Immunotoxin injection

Shigetada Nakanishi; Satoshi Kaneko; Takatoshi Hikida; Dai Watanabe; Ira Pastan

2003-01-01

71

The ALS gene FUS regulates synaptic transmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

Mutations in the RNA binding protein Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are estimated to account for 5-10% of all inherited cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the function of FUS in motor neurons is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the early functional consequences of overexpressing wild-type or ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins in Drosophila motor neurons, and compare them to phenotypes arising from loss of the Drosophila homolog of FUS, Cabeza (Caz). We find that lethality and locomotor phenotypes correlate with levels of FUS transgene expression, indicating that toxicity in developing motor neurons is largely independent of ALS-linked mutations. At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), overexpression of either wild-type or mutant FUS results in decreased number of presynaptic active zones and altered postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunit composition, coinciding with a reduction in synaptic transmission as a result of both reduced quantal size and quantal content. Interestingly, expression of human FUS downregulates endogenous Caz levels, demonstrating that FUS autoregulation occurs in motor neurons in vivo. However, loss of Caz from motor neurons increases synaptic transmission as a result of increased quantal size, suggesting that the loss of Caz in animals expressing FUS does not contribute to motor deficits. These data demonstrate that FUS/Caz regulates NMJ development and plays an evolutionarily conserved role in modulating the strength of synaptic transmission in motor neurons. PMID:24569165

Machamer, James B; Collins, Sarah E; Lloyd, Thomas E

2014-07-15

72

Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in RA projection neurons of adult zebra finches.  

PubMed

Zebra finches are ideal animals to investigate sex difference in songbirds. Only males can sing. The brain nuclei controlling song learning and production in males are considerably larger than in females. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus, playing a key role in controlling singing. RA receives denser synapse inputs in males than in females. Sex differences of excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA projection neurons (PNs) have not been reported. In the present study, using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording, spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) of RA PNs in the intact males and females were recorded. The average frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were higher than females. The half-width and decay time of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in the intact males were longer than females. In order to verify whether these sex differences related to sex steroids, males were castrated. The average frequency of sEPSCs/mEPSCs in castrated males was lower than intact males and was similar to in females; the amplitude was not changed after castrating. These results demonstrate the sexually dimorphic of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the RA PNs, the RA PNs in males receive more excitatory synaptic transmission and these sex differences were partly affected by sex hormones. These findings contribute to further illuminate the neural mechanisms under the sexually dimorphism in song production of adult zebra finches. PMID:25220700

Wang, Songhua; Meng, Wei; Liu, Shaoyi; Liao, Congshu; Huang, Qingyao; Li, Dongfeng

2014-10-17

73

Laser-evoked synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons channelrhodopsin-2 delivered by adeno-associated virus  

E-print Network

We present a method for studying synaptic transmission in mass cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons based on patch clamp recording combined with laser stimulation of neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Our ...

Wang, Jennifer

74

Potentiation of synaptic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro by (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine ((S)-DHPG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) by 1S,3R-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylate (1S,3R-ACPD), has previously been shown to induce a relatively fast (maximum at 10 min) and slow (90 min) onset long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Here we report the first evidence for a relatively fast onset LTP of synaptic transmission in the immature male rat (50–100

Deirdre M O'Leary; John J O'Connor

1997-01-01

75

Inhibition of synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity in central neurones by fluspirilene  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that fluspirilene, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist which is a long-acting neuroleptic useful in the maintenance therapy of schizophrenic patients, also displays Ca2+ channel blocking activity. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of fluspirilene on synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity induced in slices of hippocampus and amygdala.Fluspirilene reversibly suppressed the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-e.p.s.p) in a concentration-dependent manner in the area CAl of the hippocampus without affecting the size and shape of fibre volley. Fluspirilene also inhibited the intracellularly recorded e.p.s.p. in amygdala neurones without affecting the resting membrane potential or neuronal input resistance.Fluspirilene increased the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation suggesting a presynaptic mode of action.Epileptiform activity induced in the disinhibited slices was suppessed by fluspirilene in a concentration-dependent manner. This antiepileptic effect was occluded in slices pretreated with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA).It is concluded that fluspirilene-induced synaptic inhibition is probably due to a reduction in presynaptic Ca2+ currents. In clinical trials, the low incidence of seizures provoked by fluspirilene might be related to its intrinsic ability to inhibit synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity. PMID:9134224

Wang, Su-Jane; Lu, Kwok-Tung; Gean, Po-Wu

1997-01-01

76

Evidence that synaptic transmission between giant interneurons and identified thoracic interneurons in the cockroach is cholinergic.  

PubMed

In the cockroach, a population of thoracic interneurons (TIs) receives direct inputs from a population of ventral giant interneurons (vGIs). Synaptic potentials in type-A TIs (TIAs) follow vGI action potentials with constant, short latencies at frequencies up to 200 Hz. These connections are important in the integration of directional wind information involved in determining an oriented escape response. The physiological and biochemical properties of these connections that underlie this decision-making process were examined. Injection of hyperpolarizing or depolarizing current into the postsynaptic TIAs resulted in alterations in the amplitude of the post-synaptic potential (PSP) appropriate for a chemical connection. In addition, bathing cells in zero-calcium, high-magnesium saline resulted in a gradual decrement of the PSP, and ultimately blocked synaptic transmission, reversibly. Single-cell choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) assays of vGI somata were performed. These assays indicated that the vGIs can synthesize acetylcholine. Furthermore, the pharmacological specificity of transmission at the vGI to TIA connections was similar to that previously reported for nicotinic, cholinergic synapses in insects, suggesting that the transmitter released by vGIs at these synapses is acetylcholine. PMID:1331316

Casagrand, J L; Ritzmann, R E

1992-08-01

77

Intrinsic and Synaptic Long-Term Depression of NTS Relay of Nociceptin-Sensitive and Capsaicin-Sensitive Cardiopulmonary Afferents Hyperactivity  

E-print Network

The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the caudal medulla is a gateway for a variety of cardiopulmonary afferents important for homeostatic regulation and defense against airway and cardiovascular insults and is a key ...

Feinberg-Zadek, Paula

78

Endogenous PGE2 regulates membrane excitability and synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.  

PubMed

The significance of cyclooxygenases (COXs), the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (PGs) in the brain, is unclear, although they have been implicated in inflammatory responses and in some neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence that COX-2, which is expressed in postsynaptic dendritic spines, regulates PGE2 signaling in activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity at hippocampal perforant path-dentate granule cell synapses, suggests an important role of the COX-2-generated PGE2 in synaptic signaling. However, little is known of how endogenous PGE2 regulates neuronal signaling. Here we showed that endogenous PGE2 selectively regulates fundamental membrane and synaptic properties in the hippocampus. Somatic and dendritic membrane excitability was significantly reduced when endogenous PGE2 was eliminated with a selective COX-2 inhibitor in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices. Exogenous application of PGE2 produced significant increases in frequency of firing, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) amplitude, and temporal summation in slices treated with the COX-2 inhibitor. The PGE2-induced increase in membrane excitability seemed to result from its inhibition of the potassium currents, which in turn, boosted dendritic Ca2+ influx during dendritic-depolarizing current injections. In addition, the PGE2-induced enhancement of EPSPs was blocked by eliminating both PKA and PKC activities. These findings indicate that endogenous PGE2 dynamically regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity and that the PGE2-induced synaptic modulation is mediated via cAMP-PKA and PKC pathways in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:15653788

Chen, Chu; Bazan, Nicolas G

2005-02-01

79

Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification  

PubMed Central

Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties. PMID:25360082

Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E.

2014-01-01

80

Circadian Rhythm in Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that most suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons express the neurotransmitter GABA and are likely to use this neurotransmitter to regulate excitability within the SCN. To evaluate the possibility that inhibitory synaptic transmission varies with a circadian rhythm within the mouse SCN, we used whole cell patch-clamp recording in an acute brain slice preparation to record GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). We found that the sIPSC frequency in the dorsal SCN (dSCN) exhibited a TTX-sensitive daily rhythm that peaked during the late day and early night in mice held in a light:dark cycle. We next evaluated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was responsible for the observed rhythm in IPSC frequency. Pretreatment of SCN slices with VPAC1/VPAC2- or VPAC2-specific receptor antagonists prevented the increase in sIPSC frequency in the dSCN. The rhythm in sIPSC frequency was absent in VIP/peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-deficient mice. Finally, we were able to detect a rhythm in the frequency of inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice held in constant darkness that was also dependent on VIP and the VPAC2 receptor. Overall, these data demonstrate that there is a circadian rhythm in GABAergic transmission in the dorsal region of the mouse SCN and that the VIP is required for expression of this rhythm. PMID:14973316

Itri, Jason; Michel, Stephan; Waschek, James A.; Colwell, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

81

Cytoskeletal Changes Underlie Estrogen's Acute Effects on Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Estrogen, in addition to its genomic effects in brain, causes rapid and reversible changes to synaptic operations. We report here that these acute actions are due to selective activation of an actin-signaling cascade normally used in the production of long-term potentiation (LTP). Estrogen, or a selective agonist of the steroid’s beta-receptor, caused a modest increase in fast glutamatergic transmission and a pronounced facilitation of LTP in adult hippocampal slices; both effects were completely eliminated by latrunculin, a toxin that prevents actin filament assembly. Estrogen also increased spine concentrations of filamentous actin and strongly enhanced its polymerization in association with LTP. A search for the origins of these effects showed that estrogen activates the small GTPase RhoA and phosphorylates (inactivates) the actin severing protein cofilin, a downstream target of RhoA. Moreover, an antagonist of RhoA kinase (ROCK) blocked estrogen’s synaptic effects. Estrogen thus emerges as a positive modulator of a RhoA>ROCK>LIM kinase>cofilin pathway that regulates the sub-synaptic cytoskeleton. It does not, however, strongly affect a second LTP-related pathway, involving the GTPases Rac and Cdc42 and their effector p21-activated kinase, which may explain why its acute effects are reversible. Finally, ovariectomy depressed RhoA activity, spine cytoskeletal plasticity, and LTP whereas brief infusions of estrogen rescued plasticity, suggesting that the deficits in plasticity arise from acute, as well as genomic, consequences of hormone loss. PMID:19828812

Kramar, Eniko A.; Chen, Lulu Y.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Christopher, S. Rex; Liu, Feng; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary

2009-01-01

82

Effect of temperature on synaptic transmission between identified neurones of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis, has been used as a model to study the mechanisms of temperature-dependent processes in the central nervous system. Effects of temperature changes on transmission in monosynaptic connections, made by the FMRFamide-containing neurone VD4 and the giant dopaminergic neurone RPeD1 with follower neurones, were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes. In the temperature range of 4-6 degrees C, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) in response to VD4 stimulation were not observed in postsynaptic cells while the IPSPs persisted in the RPeD1 followers. A temperature rise resulted in a sharp increase in the IPSP amplitude in followers of both VD4 and RPeD1. In isolated nervous systems taken from molluscs which have been kept at 4-6 degrees C for 2 weeks and more, no coupling between VD4, RPeD1 and synaptically connected cells was seen in the full experimental temperature range. The synaptic coupling recovered only after maintaining the molluscs at a water temperature of 14-16 degrees C for at least 2 days. The changes observed in synaptic responses to temperature alterations correspond to the behaviour of the molluscs. PMID:12401546

Sidorov, Alexander V

2002-11-15

83

Fractalkine/CX3CL1 depresses central synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices.  

PubMed

This work reports the effect of chemokine fractalkine/CX3CL1, an endogenous small peptide highly expressed in the central nervous system, on evoked synaptic responses investigated in mouse CA1 stratum radiatum using an electrophysiological approach. We report that in acute mouse hippocampal slices, superfusion of CX3CL1 resulted in a reversible depression of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) which developed within few seconds, increased for up to 10 min of application and disappeared within 30 min after the end of CX3CL1 treatment. We also show that CX3CL1-induced synaptic depression is (i) dose-dependent with IC50 and nH values of 0.7 nM and 1, respectively, (ii) not associated with a change in paired-pulse facilitation, (iii) mediated through CX3CL1 receptor (CX3CR1), being absent in CX3CR1-/- mice and inhibited in wild-type mice by a specific blocking antibody, and (iv) occluded by the induction of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). We conclude that CX3CL1 is a potent neuromodulator of the evoked excitatory synaptic transmission, sharing common mechanisms with LTD. PMID:16815480

Bertollini, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide; Gross, Cornelius; Limatola, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio

2006-09-01

84

Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.  

PubMed

Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. PMID:20382202

Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

2010-05-31

85

Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.  

PubMed

At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, ? = 1/(D??s), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, ? is the vesicle diameter, ? is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons. PMID:25311636

Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

2014-11-01

86

Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources  

PubMed Central

Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001 PMID:24368731

Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

2013-01-01

87

Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources.  

PubMed

Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01206.001. PMID:24368731

Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

2013-01-01

88

M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22674722

Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

2012-08-15

89

M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22674722

Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

2012-01-01

90

The venom of Ampulex compressa--effects on behaviour and synaptic transmission of cockroaches.  

PubMed

1. The solitary wasp Ampulex compressa stings a cockroach, Periplaneta americana, twice. 2. The first sting into the ventral thorax results in a transient paralysis. During this paralysis the wasp stings the suboesophageal ganglion, which gradually results in a permanent deactivation. 3. The venom gland is a paired and highly branched organ, with a common ductus venatus. The large lumen is lined with a folded cuticula. No venom reservoir is present. 4. Extract of the venom gland induces a slow contraction of the guinea pig ileum. 5. The agonist present in the venom cannot be identified with a known agonist. 6. Venom gland extract blocks synaptic transmission from the cercal nerve to giant neurons in the sixth abdominal ganglion of the cockroach. 7. The block develops gradually, like the gradual appearance of the effects of the sting into the suboesophageal ganglion on the behaviour of the cockroach. PMID:2565180

Piek, T; Hue, B; Lind, A; Mantel, P; van Marle, J; Visser, J H

1989-01-01

91

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits ?3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident ?1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited ?3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

2014-01-01

92

Neuronal Nogo-A negatively regulates dendritic morphology and synaptic transmission in the cerebellum.  

PubMed

Neuronal signal integration as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity highly depend on the morphology of dendrites and their spines. Nogo-A is a membrane protein enriched in the adult central nervous system (CNS) myelin, where it restricts the capacity of axons to grow and regenerate after injury. Nogo-A is also expressed by certain neurons, in particular during development, but its physiological function in this cell type is less well understood. We addressed this question in the cerebellum, where Nogo-A is transitorily highly expressed in the Purkinje cells (PCs) during early postnatal development. We used general genetic ablation (KO) as well as selective overexpression of Nogo-A in PCs to analyze its effect on dendritogenesis and on the formation of their main input synapses from parallel (PFs) and climbing fibers (CFs). PC dendritic trees were larger and more complex in Nogo-A KO mice and smaller than in wild-type in Nogo-A overexpressing PCs. Nogo-A KO resulted in premature soma-to-dendrite translocation of CFs and an enlargement of the CF territory in the molecular layer during development. Although spine density was not influenced by Nogo-A, the size of postsynaptic densities of PF-PC synapses was negatively correlated with the Nogo-A expression level. Electrophysiological studies revealed that Nogo-A negatively regulates the strength of synaptic transmission at the PF-PC synapse. Thus, Nogo-A appears as a negative regulator of PC input synapses, which orchestrates cerebellar connectivity through regulation of synapse morphology and the size of the PC dendritic tree. PMID:23277570

Petrinovic, Marija M; Hourez, Raphael; Aloy, Elisabeth M; Dewarrat, Gregoire; Gall, David; Weinmann, Oliver; Gaudias, Julien; Bachmann, Lukas C; Schiffmann, Serge N; Vogt, Kaspar E; Schwab, Martin E

2013-01-15

93

Propagation of Epileptiform Activity Can Be Independent of Synaptic Transmission, Gap Junctions, or Diffusion and Is Consistent with Electrical Field Transmission  

PubMed Central

The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ?0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission. PMID:24453330

Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P.; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.

2014-01-01

94

Propagation of epileptiform activity can be independent of synaptic transmission, gap junctions, or diffusion and is consistent with electrical field transmission.  

PubMed

The propagation of activity in neural tissue is generally associated with synaptic transmission, but epileptiform activity in the hippocampus can propagate with or without synaptic transmission at a speed of ?0.1 m/s. This suggests an underlying common nonsynaptic mechanism for propagation. To study this mechanism, we developed a novel unfolded hippocampus preparation, from CD1 mice of either sex, which preserves the transverse and longitudinal connections and recorded activity with a penetrating microelectrode array. Experiments using synaptic transmission and gap junction blockers indicated that longitudinal propagation is independent of chemical or electrical synaptic transmission. Propagation speeds of 0.1 m/s are not compatible with ionic diffusion or pure axonal conduction. The only other means of communication between neurons is through electric fields. Computer simulations revealed that activity can indeed propagate from cell to cell solely through field effects. These results point to an unexpected propagation mechanism for neural activity in the hippocampus involving endogenous field effect transmission. PMID:24453330

Zhang, Mingming; Ladas, Thomas P; Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E; Durand, Dominique M

2014-01-22

95

Presynaptic modulation of synaptic transmission by opioid receptor in rat subthalamic nucleus in vitro  

PubMed Central

Presynaptic modulation of synaptic transmission in rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons was investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. Evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were reversibly reduced by methionine enkephalin (ME) with an IC50 value of 1.1 ± 0.3 ?M. The action of ME was mimicked by the ?-selective agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), and was partially blocked by the ?-selective antagonists naloxonazine and d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP). Evoked GABAA IPSCs were also inhibited by the ?-selective agonist [d-Pen2,5]-enkephalin (DPDPE), but not by the ?-selective agonist (+)-(5?,7?,8?)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U-69593) and the orphan receptor agonist orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ). DPDPE-induced inhibition was completely blocked by the ?-selective antagonist N,N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH (ICI 174,864). ME, DAMGO and DPDPE increased the paired-pulse ratio of IPSCs. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were reversibly reduced by ME with an IC50 value of 0.35 ± 0.14 ?M. Inhibition by ME was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of EPSCs. The action of ME was mimicked by DAMGO, and blocked by naloxonazine. DPDPE had little effect on evoked EPSCs. Neither U-69593 nor OFQ had any effect. ME significantly decreased the frequency of spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) without change in their amplitude. The action of ME was mimicked by DAMGO. DPDPE had no effect. The presynaptic voltage-dependent potassium conductance blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100 ?M) abolished the inhibitory effects of ME on evoked IPSCs and EPSCs. In contrast, 4-AP only partially blocked the actions of baclofen. These results suggest that opioids inhibit inhibitory synaptic transmission in the STN through the activation of presynaptic ?- and ?- receptors. In contrast, inhibition of excitatory synaptic inputs to the STN occurs through the activation of only ?-receptors. Both inhibitions may be mediated by blockade of voltage-dependent potassium conductance. PMID:12015431

Shen, Ke-Zhong; Johnson, Steven W

2002-01-01

96

Constitutively active group I mGluRs and PKMzeta regulate synaptic transmission in developing perirhinal cortex  

PubMed Central

Synaptic transmission is essential for early development of the central nervous system. However, the mechanisms that regulate early synaptic transmission in the cerebral cortex are unclear. PKM? is a kinase essential for the maintenance of LTP. We show for the first time that inhibition of PKM? produces a profound depression of basal synaptic transmission in neonatal, but not adult, rat perirhinal cortex. This suggests that synapses in early development are in a constitutive LTP-like state. Furthermore, basal synaptic transmission in immature, but not mature, perirhinal cortex relies on persistent activity of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, PI3Kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Thus early in development, cortical synapses exist in an LTP-like state maintained by tonically active mGlu receptor-, mTOR- and PKM?- dependent cascades. These results provide new understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control synapses during development and may aid our understanding of developmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:23357951

Panaccione, Isabella; King, Rachel; Molinaro, Gemma; Riozzi, Barbara; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bashir, Zafar I.

2014-01-01

97

Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

2014-01-01

98

Bcl-xL Inhibitor ABT-737 Reveals a Dual Role for Bcl-xL in Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

A role for BCL-xL in regulating neuronal activity is suggested by its dramatic effects on synaptic function and mitochondrial channel activity. When recombinant BCL-xL is injected into the giant presynaptic terminal of squid stellate ganglion or applied directly to mitochondrial outer membranes within the living terminal, it potentiates synaptic transmission acutely, and it produces mitochondrial channel activity. The squid, however, is a genetically intractable model, making it difficult to apply genetic tools in squid to explore the role of endogenous BCL-xL in synaptic function. Therefore the small molecule inhibitor ABT-737, a mimetic of the BH3-only protein BAD, binding to the BH3-binding domain pocket, was tested in squid, revealing a dual role for BCL-xL. ABT-737 slowed recovery of synaptic responses after repetitive synaptic activity, indicating that endogenous BCL-xL is necessary for timely recovery of rapidly firing synapses. Unexpectedly, however, ABT-737 also protected neurons from hypoxia-induced synaptic rundown and from increased permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane during hypoxia. This implies that endogenous BCL-xL or a modified form of BCL-xL, such as the N-truncated, proteolytic, pro-apoptotic cleavage product, ?N BCL-xL, contributes to injurious responses of the hypoxic synapse. To determine if ABT-737 is also an inhibitor of ?N BCL-xL, recombinant ?N BCL-xL protein was injected into the synapse. ABT-737 potently inhibited synaptic rundown induced by recombinant ?N BCL-xL. These observations support the possibility that endogenous proteolysis or a functionally equivalent modification of BCL-xL is responsible for the deleterious effects of hypoxia on synaptic activity. PMID:18160428

Hickman, John A.; Hardwick, J. Marie; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Jonas, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

99

Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the adult mouse insular cortex in vitro.  

PubMed

The insular cortex (IC) is known to play important roles in higher brain functions such as memory and pain. Activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD) is a major form of synaptic plasticity related to memory and chronic pain. Previous studies of LTD have mainly focused on the hippocampus, and no study in the IC has been reported. In this study, using a 64-channel recording system, we show for the first time that repetitive low-frequency stimulation (LFS) can elicit frequency-dependent LTD of glutamate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in both superficial and deep layers of the IC of adult mice. The induction of LTD in the IC required activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)5, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channel. Protein phosphatase 1/2A and endocannabinoid signaling are also critical for the induction of LTD. In contrast, inhibiting protein kinase C, protein kinase A, protein kinase M? or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II did not affect LFS-evoked LTD in the IC. Bath application of the group I mGluR agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine produced another form of LTD in the IC, which was NMDA receptor-independent and could not be occluded by LFS-induced LTD. Our studies have characterised the basic mechanisms of LTD in the IC at the network level, and suggest that two different forms of LTD may co-exist in the same population of IC synapses. PMID:23930740

Liu, Ming-Gang; Koga, Kohei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Kang, Sukjae Joshua; Collingridge, Graham L; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Zhuo, Min

2013-10-01

100

Activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels depresses basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area in APP (swe/ind) TgCRND8 mice.  

PubMed

Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels regulate synaptic transmission by contributing to the repolarization phase of the action potential that invades the presynaptic terminal. BK channels are prone to activation under pathological conditions, such as brain ischemia and epilepsy. It is unclear if activation of these channels contributes to the depression of synaptic transmission observed in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we recorded the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the hippocampus CA1 region of brain slices from 6 to 9 weeks (pre-plaque) TgCRND8 mice, a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease that harbors a double amyloid precursor mutation (KM670N/671L "Swedish" and V717F "Indiana"). Compared to age-matched controls, the fEPSPs in these animals are significantly depressed. This depression is largely mediated by the activation of presynaptic BK channels in the CA1 area. Both BK channel blockers (charybdotoxin and paxilline), and the fast binding calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, enhance the fEPSP by deactivating the BK channels. Repetitive stimulation to the afferent pathway enhances fEPSP. This enhancement is more prominent when BK channel blockers are added in Tg slices, suggesting that repetitive stimulation further promotes BK channel activation in Tg slices. The potential candidates that mediate the activation of BK channels in these pre-plaque Alzheimer's disease model mice might involve impaired calcium homeostasis and AD related over-generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:18547679

Ye, Hui; Jalini, Shirin; Mylvaganam, Shanthini; Carlen, Peter

2010-04-01

101

The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity in the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is a common human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that affects the regulated release of BDNF, and has been implicated in affective disorders and cognitive dysfunction. A decreased activation of the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL-mPFC), a brain region critical for the regulation of affective behaviors, has been described in BDNFMet carriers. However, it is unclear whether and how the Val66Met polymorphism affects the IL-mPFC synapses. Here we report that spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) was absent in the IL-mPFC pyramidal neurons from BDNFMet/Met mice, a mouse that recapitulates the specific phenotypic properties of the human BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Also, we observed a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the pyramidal neurons of BDNFMet/Met mice. While BDNF enhanced non-NMDA receptor transmission and depressed GABA receptor transmission in the wild-type mice, both effects were absent in BDNFMet/Met mice after BDNF treatment. Indeed, exogenous BDNF reversed the deficits in STDP and NMDA receptor transmission in BDNFMet/Met neurons. BDNF-mediated selective reversal of the deficit in plasticity and NMDA receptor transmission, but its lack of effect on GABA and non-NMDA receptor transmission in BDNFMet/Met mice, suggests separate mechanisms of Val66Met polymorphism upon synaptic transmission. The effect of the Val66Met polymorphism on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the IL-mPFC represents a mechanism to account for this SNP's impact on affective disorders and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:22396415

Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Bath, Kevin G.; Perez-Castro, Rosalia; Lee, Francis S.; Chao, Moses V.; Ninan, Ipe

2012-01-01

102

FMRP Regulates Neurotransmitter Release and Synaptic Information Transmission by Modulating Action Potential Duration via BK channels  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the physiological functions of FMRP remain highly debatable. Here we show that FMRP regulates neurotransmitter release in CA3 pyramidal neurons by modulating action potential (AP) duration. Loss of FMRP leads to excessive AP broadening during repetitive activity, enhanced presynaptic calcium influx and elevated neurotransmitter release. The AP broadening defects caused by FMRP loss have a cell-autonomous presynaptic origin and can be acutely rescued in postnatal neurons. These presynaptic actions of FMRP are translation-independent and are mediated selectively by BK channels via interaction of FMRP with BK channel’s regulatory ?4 subunits. Information-theoretical analysis demonstrates that loss of these FMRP functions causes marked dysregulation of synaptic information transmission. FMRP-dependent AP broadening is not limited to the hippocampus, but also occurs in cortical pyramidal neurons. Our results thus suggest major translation-independent presynaptic functions of FMRP that may have important implications for understanding FXS neuropathology. PMID:23439122

Deng, Pan-Yue; Rotman, Ziv; Blundon, Jay A.; Cho, Yongcheol; Cui, Jianmin; Cavalli, Valeria; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Klyachko, Vitaly A.

2013-01-01

103

Group III mGluR regulation of synaptic transmission at the SC-CA1 synapse is developmentally regulated  

PubMed Central

Summary Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reduce synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapse in rats by a presynaptic mechanism. Previous studies show that low concentrations of the group III-selective agonist, L-AP4, reduce synaptic transmission in slices from neonatal but not adult rats, whereas high micromolar concentrations reduce transmission in both age groups. L-AP4 activates mGluRs 4 and 8 at much lower concentrations than those required to activate mGluR7, suggesting that the group III mGluR subtype modulating transmission is a high affinity receptor in neonates and a low affinity receptor in adults. The previous lack of subtype selective ligands has made it difficult to test this hypothesis. We have measured fEPSPs in the presence of novel subtype selective agents to address this question. We show that the effects of L-AP4 can be blocked by LY341495 in both neonates and adults, verifying that these effects are mediated by mGluRs. In addition, the selective mGluR8 agonist, DCPG, has a significant effect in slices from neonatal rats but does not reduce synaptic transmission in adult slices. The mGluR4 selective allosteric potentiator, PHCCC, is unable to potentiate the L-AP4-induced effects at either age. Taken together, our data suggest that group III mGluRs regulate transmission at the SC-CA1 synapse throughout development but there is a developmental regulation of the subtypes involved so that that both mGluR8 serves this role in neonates but not adults whereas mGluR7 is involved in regulating transmission at this synapse in throughout postnatal development. PMID:18255102

Ayala, Jennifer E.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Luo, Qingwei; Banko, Jessica L.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

2008-01-01

104

Liprin-?2 promotes the presynaptic recruitment and turnover of RIM1/CASK to facilitate synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

The presynaptic active zone mediates synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and modulation of its molecular composition is important for many types of synaptic plasticity. Here, we identify synaptic scaffold protein liprin-?2 as a key organizer in this process. We show that liprin-?2 levels were regulated by synaptic activity and the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Furthermore, liprin-?2 organized presynaptic ultrastructure and controlled synaptic output by regulating synaptic vesicle pool size. The presence of liprin-?2 at presynaptic sites did not depend on other active zone scaffolding proteins but was critical for recruitment of several components of the release machinery, including RIM1 and CASK. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that depletion of liprin-?2 resulted in reduced turnover of RIM1 and CASK at presynaptic terminals, suggesting that liprin-?2 promotes dynamic scaffolding for molecular complexes that facilitate synaptic vesicle release. Therefore, liprin-?2 plays an important role in maintaining active zone dynamics to modulate synaptic efficacy in response to changes in network activity. PMID:23751498

Spangler, Samantha A.; Schmitz, Sabine K.; Kevenaar, Josta T.; de Graaff, Esther; de Wit, Heidi; Demmers, Jeroen

2013-01-01

105

Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs) or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs) recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75%) but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic transmission in the dorsal horn are broadly reduced by descending monoamine transmitters. These actions likely integrate with modulatory actions elsewhere to reconfigure spinal circuits during motor behaviors. PMID:24587177

García-Ramírez, David L; Calvo, Jorge R; Hochman, Shawn; Quevedo, Jorge N

2014-01-01

106

Effects of prenatal paraquat and mancozeb exposure on amino acid synaptic transmission in developing mouse cerebellar cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of prenatal exposure to the pesticides paraquat (PQ) and mancozeb (MZ) on the development of synaptic transmission in mouse cerebellar cortex. Pregnant NMRI mice were treated with either saline, 10 mg\\/kg PQ, 30 mg\\/kg MZ or the combination of PQ + MZ, between gestational days 12 (E12) and E20. Variation in the

Leticia Miranda-Contreras; Rosaura Dávila-Ovalles; Pedro Benítez-Díaz; Zulma Peńa-Contreras; Ernesto Palacios-Prü

2005-01-01

107

Muscarinic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by the presynaptic M3 receptors in the rat neostriatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carbachol on the excitatory synaptic transmission was studied in rat neostriatal neurons using intracellular and whole-cell voltage clamp-recording methods. Depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by cortical stimulation. Superfusion of carbachol (0.01–3 ?M) reversibly decreases the EPSP amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner and with an estimated IC50 of 0.3 ?M. While, neither the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 100

Kuei-Sen Hsu; Chiung-Chun Huang; Po-Wu Gean

1995-01-01

108

Reelin and CyclinDependent Kinase 5Dependent Signals Cooperate in Regulating Neuronal Migration and Synaptic Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain require the coordinated interaction of multiple cellular signaling pathways. The extracellular signaling molecule Reelin and the cytoplasmic serine\\/threonine kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) are both required for normal neuronal positioning, lamination of the neocortex, and foliation of the cerebellum. They also modulate synaptic transmission in the adult brain. It is not known,

Uwe Beffert; Edwin J. Weeber; Gerardo Morfini; Jane Ko; Scott T. Brady; Li-Huei Tsai; J. David Sweatt; Joachim Herz

2004-01-01

109

Regulation of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic transmission by endogenous glutamate via non-NMDA receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic transmission by endogenously released glutamate was studied in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. After 7 days in vitro (DIV), both spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) could be detected. After 15 DIV, most postsynaptic spontaneous currents occurred as sEPSC\\/sIPSC sequences when recorded at a holding voltage of

Michel Vignes

2001-01-01

110

?-Bungarotoxin- and methyllycaconitine-sensitive nicotinic receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in interneurons of rat hippocampal slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates for the first time that ?7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in conventional hippocampal slices. In the presence of antagonists of muscarinic, AMPA, NMDA, GABAA, ATP, and 5-HT3 receptors, spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs) recorded from CA1 interneurons were blocked by the ?7 nAChR antagonists methyllycaconitine and ?-bungarotoxin and by a desensitizing concentration of

Manickavasagom Alkondon; Edna F. R. Pereira; Edson X. Albuquerque

1998-01-01

111

Altered long-term synaptic plasticity and kainate-induced Ca 2+ transients in the substantia gelatinosa neurons in GLU K6-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional kainate receptors are expressed in the spinal cord substantia gelatinosa region, and their activation contributes to bi-directional regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at primary afferent synapses with spinal cord substantia gelatinosa neurons. However, no study has reported a role(s) for kainate receptor subtypes in long-term synaptic plasticity phenomena in this region. Using gene-targeted mice lacking glutamate receptor 5 (GLUK5)

Dong-ho Youn; Nana Voitenko; Gabor Gerber; Yun-kyung Park; Jan Galik; Mirjana Randi?

2005-01-01

112

A novel component of cannabis extract potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat olfactory cortex in vitro.  

PubMed

Cannabis is a potential treatment for epilepsy, although the few human studies supporting this use have proved inconclusive. Previously, we showed that a standardized cannabis extract (SCE), isolated Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and even Delta9-THC-free SCE inhibited muscarinic agonist-induced epileptiform bursting in rat olfactory cortical brain slices, acting via CB1 receptors. The present work demonstrates that although Delta9-THC (1 microM) significantly depressed evoked depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rat olfactory cortex neurones, both SCE and Delta9-THC-free SCE significantly potentiated evoked PSPs (all results were fully reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, 1 microM); interestingly, the potentiation by Delta9-THC-free SCE was greater than that produced by SCE. On comparing the effects of Delta9-THC-free SCE upon evoked PSPs and artificial PSPs (aPSPs; evoked electrotonically following brief intracellular current injection), PSPs were enhanced, whereas aPSPs were unaffected, suggesting that the effect was not due to changes in background input resistance. Similar recordings made using CB1 receptor-deficient knockout mice (CB1-/-) and wild-type littermate controls revealed cannabinoid or extract-induced changes in membrane resistance, cell excitability and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice that were similar to those seen in rat neurones, but no effect on these properties were seen in CB1-/- cells. It appears that the unknown extract constituent(s) effects over-rode the suppressive effects of Delta9-THC on excitatory neurotransmitter release, which may explain some patients' preference for herbal cannabis rather than isolated Delta9-THC (due to attenuation of some of the central Delta9-THC side effects) and possibly account for the rare incidence of seizures in some individuals taking cannabis recreationally. PMID:15234473

Whalley, Benjamin J; Wilkinson, Jonathan D; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Constanti, Andrew

2004-07-15

113

Signaling mechanisms mediating muscarinic enhancement of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) inhibits spinal nociceptive transmission by potentiation of GABAergic tone through M(2), M(3), and M(4) subtypes. To study the signaling mechanisms involved in this unique mAChR action, GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of lamina II neurons were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in rat spinal cord slices. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M caused a profound increase in the frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs, which was abolished in the Ca(2+)-free solution. Inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) largely reduced the effect of oxotremorine-M on sIPSCs. Blocking nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) with SKF96365 or 2-APB also largely attenuated the effect of oxotremorine-M. However, the KCNQ channel blocker XE991 and the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A had no significant effect on oxotremorine-M-induced increases in sIPSCs. Furthermore, the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin or LY294002 significantly reduced the potentiating effect of oxotremorine-M on sIPSCs. In the spinal cord in which the M(3) subtype was specifically knocked down by intrathecal small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment, SKF96365 and wortmannin still significantly attenuated the effect of oxotremorine-M. In contrast, SKF96365 and wortmannin both failed to alter the effect of oxotremorine-M on sIPSCs when the M(2)/M(4) mAChRs were blocked. Therefore, our study provides new evidence that activation of mAChRs increases synaptic GABA release through Ca(2+) influx and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The PI3K-NSCC signaling cascade is primarily involved in the excitation of GABAergic interneurons by the M(2)/M(4) mAChRs in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:19110040

Zhang, H-M; Chen, S-R; Cai, Y-Q; Richardson, T E; Driver, L C; Lopez-Berestein, G; Pan, H-L

2009-02-18

114

Long-Term Depression of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in the Rat Amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the fact that both kindling and fear-potentiated startle are expressed by long-term enhancement of synaptic transmis- sion in the amygdala, synaptic plasticity in this area of the brain is of particular importance. Here, we show for the first time that low-frequency stimulation of the lateral nucleus at 1 Hz for 15 min elicited a long-term depression (LTD)

Su-Jane Wang; Po-Wu Gean

1999-01-01

115

Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the rat amygdala.  

PubMed

An animal model most sensitive for measuring anticipatory anxiety is fear conditioning, which is expressed by an enduring increase in synaptic strength in the amygdala. A converse view predicts that agents that induce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the amygdala may be useful in the amelioration of stress disorders. In the present study, we show that activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR II) by (2S,3S, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl) glycine (l-ccg) induces an LTD in the basolateral amygdala neurons. The effect was concentration-dependent with a maximal inhibition of approximately 30%. The induction of l-CCG LTD required concurrent synaptic activity, required presynaptic but not postsynaptic Ca(2+) increases, and was independent of NMDA receptors. l-CCG LTD was associated with an increase in the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation and was not occluded by low-frequency stimulation-induced LTD, suggesting that these two forms of LTD did not share a common underlying mechanism. After eliciting LTD with l-CCG, application of isoproterenol increased the synaptic responses back to its original baseline, demonstrating that chemically depressed synapses could be potentiated by another chemical. A selective PKA inhibitor, KT 5720, by its own caused a depression of synaptic transmission and blocked l-CCG LTD, presumably by mimicking and thereby occluding any further depression. Together, these results suggest that l-CCG LTD is induced by presynaptically mGluR II-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase, resulting in a decrease in cAMP formation and PKA activation, which leads to a long-lasting decrease in transmitter release. PMID:11124977

Lin, H C; Wang, S J; Luo, M Z; Gean, P W

2000-12-15

116

Learning-induced modulation of the GABAB-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission: mechanisms and functional significance.  

PubMed

Complex olfactory-discrimination (OD) learning results in a series of intrinsic and excitatory synaptic modifications in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons that enhance the circuit excitability. Such overexcitation must be balanced to prevent runway activity while maintaining the efficient ability to store memories. We showed previously that OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAA-mediated inhibition. Here we show that GABAB-mediated inhibition is also enhanced after learning and study the mechanism underlying such enhancement and explore its functional role. We show that presynaptic, GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is enhanced after learning. In contrast, the population-average postsynaptic GABAB-mediated synaptic inhibition is unchanged, but its standard deviation is enhanced. Learning-induced reduction in paired pulse facilitation in the glutamatergic synapses interconnecting pyramidal neurons was abolished by application of the GABAB antagonist CGP55845 but not by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels only, indicating enhanced suppression of excitatory synaptic release via presynaptic GABAB-receptor activation. In addition, the correlation between the strengths of the early (GABAA-mediated) and late (GABAB-mediated) synaptic inhibition was much stronger for each particular neuron after learning. Consequently, GABAB-mediated inhibition was also more efficient in controlling epileptic-like activity induced by blocking GABAA receptors. We suggest that complex OD learning is accompanied by enhancement of the GABAB-mediated inhibition that enables the cortical network to store memories, while preventing uncontrolled activity. PMID:24598518

Kfir, Adi; Ohad-Giwnewer, Naama; Jammal, Luna; Saar, Drorit; Golomb, David; Barkai, Edi

2014-05-01

117

Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina  

PubMed Central

Cross-synaptic synchrony—correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron—is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03892.001 PMID:25180102

Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

2014-01-01

118

Multiphasic modulation of cholinergic interneurons by nigrostriatal afferents.  

PubMed

The motor and learning functions of the striatum are critically dependent on synaptic transmission from midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs). Both neural populations alter their discharge in vivo in response to salient sensory stimuli, albeit in opposite directions. Whereas midbrain dopamine neurons respond to salient stimuli with a brief burst of activity, CINs exhibit a distinct pause in firing that is often followed by a period of increased excitability. Although this "pause-rebound" sensory response requires dopaminergic signaling, the precise mechanisms underlying the modulation of CIN firing by dopaminergic afferents remain unclear. Here, we show that phasic activation of nigrostriatal afferents in a mouse striatal slice preparation is sufficient to evoke a pause-rebound response in CINs. Using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that synaptically released dopamine inhibits CINs through type 2 dopamine receptors, while another unidentified transmitter mediates the delayed excitation. These findings imply that, in addition to their direct effects on striatal projection neurons, midbrain dopamine neurons indirectly modulate striatal output by dynamically controlling cholinergic tone. In addition, our data suggest that phasic dopaminergic activity may directly participate in the characteristic pause-rebound sensory response that CINs exhibit in vivo in response to salient and conditioned stimuli. PMID:24948810

Straub, Christoph; Tritsch, Nicolas X; Hagan, Nellwyn A; Gu, Chenghua; Sabatini, Bernardo L

2014-06-18

119

Recombinant BDNF Rescues Deficits in Basal Synaptic Transmission and Hippocampal LTP in BDNF Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed at high levels in hippocampal neurons, and its expression is modulated by neural activity. Knockout mice can be used to study the roles of molecules like BDNF in synaptic plasticity with more molecular specificity than is possible using pharmacological approaches. Because in conventional knockouts the disrupted gene product is absent in all tissues throughout

Susan L Patterson; Ted Abel; Thomas A. S Deuel; Kelsey C Martin; Jack C Rose; Eric R Kandel

1996-01-01

120

SEROTONIN IS A FACILITATORY NEUROMODULATOR OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND "REINFORCES" LONG-TERM POTENTIATION  

E-print Network

is a crucial site for the learning and memory components of these behaviors. We are therefore studying-term potentiation (LTP) of the synaptic input to the VL. Moreover, we have shown that the VL and its LTP are involved in behavioral long-term memory acquisition. To advance our understanding of the VL as a learning

Hochner, Binyamin

121

GABAB Receptor-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Has History-Dependent Effects on Synaptic Transmission during Physiologically Relevant Spike Trains  

PubMed Central

Presynaptic inhibition is a form of neuromodulation that interacts with activity-dependent short-term plasticity so that the magnitude, and sometimes even the polarity, of that activity-dependent short-term plasticity is changed. However, the functional consequences of this interaction during physiologically relevant spike trains are poorly understood. We examined the effects of presynaptic inhibition on excitatory synaptic transmission during physiologically relevant spike trains, using the GABAB receptor (GABABR) agonist baclofen to engage presynaptic inhibition and field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in hippocampal slices to monitor synaptic output. We examined the effects of baclofen on the relationship between an fEPSP during the spike train and the timing of spikes preceding that fEPSP, a relationship that we refer to as the history dependence of synaptic transmission. Baclofen alters this history dependence by causing no inhibition during short interspike intervals (ISIs) in the spike train but a maximal inhibition during long ISIs. This effect strengthens the dependence of the fEPSP on the first ISI preceding it. One consequence of this effect is that the apparent affinity of baclofen is strongly reduced during physiologically relevant spike trains when compared with conventional stimulus paradigms, and a second consequence is that the overall inhibition experienced by a synapse will vary considerably during repeated trials of a behavioral task. We conclude that GABABR-mediated presynaptic inhibition is more accurately described as a high-pass filter than as a simple inhibition, and that this filtering must be taken into account to accurately assess the effects of presynaptic inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:12832501

Ohliger-Frerking, Patricia; Wiebe, Sherman P.; Staubli, Ursula; Frerking, Matthew

2010-01-01

122

Different mechanisms of Ca2+ regulation that influence synaptic transmission: comparison between crayfish and Drosophila neuromuscular junctions.  

PubMed

A brief historical background on synaptic transmission in relation to Ca(2+) dynamics and short-term facilitation is described. This study focuses on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in high output terminals of larval Drosophila compared to a low-output terminal of the crayfish neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Three processes; plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger [NCX], Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) are important in regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) are examined. When the NCX is compromised by reduced [Na(+)](o), no consistent effect occurred; but a NCX blocker KB-R7943 decreased the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitudes. Compromising the PMCA with pH 8.8 resulted in an increase in EPSP amplitude but treatment with a PMCA specific inhibitor carboxyeosin produced opposite results. Thapsigargin exposure to block the SERCA generally decreases EPSP amplitude. Compromising the activity of the above Ca(2+) regulating proteins had no substantial effects on short-term depression. The Kum(170TS) strain (with dysfunctional SERCA), showed a decrease in EPSP amplitudes including the first EPSP within the train. Synaptic transmission is altered by reducing the function of the above three [Ca(2+)](i) regulators; but they are not consistent among different species as expected. Results in crayfish NMJ were more consistent with expected results as compared to the Drosophila NMJ. It is predicated that different mechanisms are used for regulating the [Ca(2+)](i) in high and low output synaptic terminals. PMID:19650116

Desai-Shah, Mohati; Cooper, Robin L

2009-12-01

123

CaV2.1 voltage activated calcium channels and synaptic transmission in familial hemiplegic migraine pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Studies on the genetic forms of epilepsy, chronic pain, and migraine caused by mutations in ion channels have given crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms, pathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches to complex neurological disorders. In this review we focus on the role of mutated CaV2.1 (i.e., P/Q-type) voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, and on the ultimate consequences that mutations causing familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM1) have in neurotransmitter release. Transgenic mice harboring the human pathogenic FHM1 mutation R192Q or S218L (KI) have been used as models to study neurotransmission at several central and peripheral synapses. FHM1 KI mice are a powerful tool to explore presynaptic regulation associated with expression of CaV2.1 channels. Mutated CaV2.1 channels activate at more hyperpolarizing potentials and lead to a gain-of-function in synaptic transmission. This gain-of-function might underlie alterations in the excitatory/ inhibitory balance of synaptic transmission, favoring a persistent state of hyperexcitability in cortical neurons that would increase the susceptibility for cortical spreading depression (CSD), a mechanism believed to initiate the attacks of migraine with aura. PMID:22074995

Uchitel, Osvaldo D; Inchauspe, Carlota González; Urbano, Francisco J; Di Guilmi, Mariano N

2012-01-01

124

Electrical synaptic transmission in developing zebrafish: properties and molecular composition of gap junctions at a central auditory synapse.  

PubMed

In contrast to the knowledge of chemical synapses, little is known regarding the properties of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses in developing zebrafish, which provide a valuable model to study neural function at the systems level. Identifiable "mixed" (electrical and chemical) auditory synaptic contacts known as "club endings" on Mauthner cells (2 large reticulospinal neurons involved in tail-flip escape responses) allow exploration of electrical transmission in fish. Here, we show that paralleling the development of auditory responses, electrical synapses at these contacts become anatomically identifiable at day 3 postfertilization, reaching a number of ?6 between days 4 and 9. Furthermore, each terminal contains ?18 gap junctions, representing between 2,000 and 3,000 connexon channels formed by the teleost homologs of mammalian connexin 36. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that gap junctions at each of these contacts are functional and that synaptic transmission has properties that are comparable with those of adult fish. Thus a surprisingly small number of mixed synapses are responsible for the acquisition of auditory responses by the Mauthner cells, and these are likely sufficient to support escape behaviors at early developmental stages. PMID:25080573

Yao, Cong; Vanderpool, Kimberly G; Delfiner, Matthew; Eddy, Vanessa; Lucaci, Alexander G; Soto-Riveros, Carolina; Yasumura, Thomas; Rash, John E; Pereda, Alberto E

2014-11-01

125

The role of APP and APLP for synaptic transmission, plasticity, and network function: lessons from genetic mouse models.  

PubMed

APP, APLP1, and APLP2 form a family of mammalian membrane proteins with unknown function. APP, however, plays a key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating that it is somehow involved in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and maintenance of neurons. At present, most of our knowledge about the function of APP comes from consequences of AD-related mutations. The native role of APP, and even more of APLP1/2, remains largely unknown. New genetic knockout and knockin models involving several members of the APP/APLP family may yield better insight into the synaptic and systemic functions of these proteins. Here, we summarize recent results from such transgenic animals with special emphasis on synaptic plasticity and coherent patterns of memory-related network activity in the hippocampus. Data from APP knockout mice suggest that this protein is needed for the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in aged, but not in juvenile mice. The missing function can be rescued by expressing part of the protein, as well as by blocking inhibition. Double knockout mice lacking APP and APLP2 die shortly after birth indicating that different members of the APP/APLP family can mutually compensate for genetic ablation of single proteins. Recent techniques allow for analysis of tissue with combined defects, e.g., by expressing only part of APP in APLP2 knockout mice or by growing stem cells with multiple deletions on normal slice cultures. Data from these experiments confirm that APP and APLP2 do indeed play an important role in synaptic plasticity. Much less is known about the role of APP/APLP at the network level. Coherent patterns of activity like hippocampal network oscillations are believed to support formation and consolidation of memory. Analysis of such activity patterns in tissue from mice with altered expression of APP/APLP has just started and may shed further light on the importance of these proteins for cognitive functions. PMID:22006270

Korte, Martin; Herrmann, Ulrike; Zhang, Xiaomin; Draguhn, Andreas

2012-04-01

126

Vagus nerve stimulation enhances perforant path-CA3 synaptic transmission via the activation of ?-adrenergic receptors and the locus coeruleus.  

PubMed

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for epilepsy and depression and has cognition-enhancing effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The hippocampus is widely recognized to be related to epilepsy, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. One possible mechanism of VNS involves its effect on the hippocampus; i.e. it increases the release of noradrenaline in the hippocampus. However, the effect of VNS on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is unknown. To determine whether VNS modulates neurotransmission in the hippocampus, we examined the effects of VNS on perforant path (PP)-CA3 synaptic transmission electrophysiologically in anaesthetized rats. VNS induces a persistent enhancement of PP-CA3 field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Arc, an immediate early gene, was used to identify active brain regions after VNS. The locus coeruleus (LC), which contains the perikarya of noradrenergic projections, harboured more Arc-positive cells, as measured by in-situ hybridization, after 10-min VNS. In addition, electrical lesions of LC neurons or intraventricular administration of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist timolol prevented the enhancement of PP-CA3 responses by VNS. In conclusion, the protracted increase in PP-CA3 synaptic transmission that is induced by VNS entails activation of the LC and ?-adrenergic receptors. Our novel findings suggest that information from the periphery modulates synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. PMID:21733240

Shen, Huilian; Fuchino, Yuta; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Nomura, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio

2012-05-01

127

Electroacupuncture and A-317491 depress the transmission of pain on primary afferent mediated by the P2X3 receptor in rats with chronic neuropathic pain states.  

PubMed

P2X is a family of ligand-gated ion channels that act through adenosine ATP. The P2X3 receptor plays a key role in the transmission of neuropathic pain at peripheral and spinal sites. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat neuropathic pain effectively. To determine the role of EA in neuropathic pain mediated through the P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglion neurons and the spinal cord, a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was used. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham CCI, CCI, CCI plus contralateral EA, and CCI plus ipsilateral EA. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were recorded. Furthermore, the expression of the P2X3 receptor was evaluated through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The effects of EA and A-317491 were investigated through the whole-cell patch-clamp method and intrathecal administration. Our results show that the MWT and TWL of EA groups were higher than those in the CCI group, whereas the expression of the P2X3 receptor was lower than that in the CCI group. However, no significant difference was detected between the two EA groups. EA depressed the currents created by ATP and the upregulation of the P2X3 receptor in CCI rats. Additionally, EA was more potent in reducing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia when combined with A-317491 through intrathecal administration. These results show that both contralateral and ipsilateral EA might inhibit the primary afferent transmission of neuropathic pain induced through the P2X3 receptor. In addition, EA and A-317491 might have an additive effect in inhibiting the transmission of pain mediated by the P2X3 receptor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25041872

Wang, Wan-Sheng; Tu, Wen-Zhan; Cheng, Rui-Dong; He, Rong; Ruan, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Bo; Lai, Yin-Ping; Zou, En-Miao; Jiang, Song-He

2014-12-01

128

Src, a Molecular Switch Governing Gain Control of Synaptic Transmission Mediated by N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

1999-07-01

129

The mysterious trace amines: protean neuromodulators of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

The trace amines are a structurally related group of amines and their isomers synthesized in mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues. They are closely associated metabolically with the dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitter systems in mammalian brain. Like dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition. The trace amines are unique as they are present in trace concentrations, exhibit high rates of metabolism and are distributed heterogeneously in mammalian brain. While some are synthesized in their parent amine neurotransmitter systems, there is also evidence to suggest other trace amines may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic amine-based synaptic physiology. At high concentrations, they have well-characterized presynaptic "amphetamine-like" effects on catecholamine and indolamine release, reuptake and biosynthesis; at lower concentrations, they possess postsynaptic modulatory effects that potentiate the activity of other neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin. The trace amines also possess electrophysiological effects that are in opposition to these neurotransmitters, indicating to some researchers the existence of receptors specific for the trace amines. While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has impeded significant development of their detailed mechanistic roles in the coordination of catecholamine and indolamine synaptic physiology. The recent discovery and characterization of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors responsive to trace amines such as beta-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and octopamine, including socially ingested psychotropic drugs such as amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and lysergic acid diethylamide, have revitalized the field of scientific studies investigating trace amine synaptic physiology, and its association with major human disorders of affect and cognition. PMID:16962229

Burchett, Scott A; Hicks, T Philip

2006-08-01

130

Endogenous cannabinoids mediate long-term synaptic depression in the nucleus accumbens  

PubMed Central

Do endocannabinoids (eCBs) participate in long-term synaptic plasticity in the brain? Using pharmacological approaches and genetically altered mice, we show that stimulation of prelimbic cortex afferents at naturally occurring frequencies causes a long-term depression of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic synapses mediated by eCB release and presynaptic CB1 receptors. Translation of glutamate synaptic transmission into eCB retrograde signaling involved metabotropic glutamate receptors and postsynaptic intracellular Ca2+ stores. These findings unveil the role of the eCB system in activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity and identify a mechanism by which marijuana can alter synaptic functions in the endogenous brain reward system. PMID:12060781

Robbe, David; Kopf, Manfred; Remaury, Anne; Bockaert, Joel; Manzoni, Olivier J.

2002-01-01

131

Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice.  

PubMed

Ataxia, episodic dyskinesia, and thalamocortical seizures are associated with an inherited loss of P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel function. P/Q-type channels are widely expressed throughout the neuraxis, obscuring identification of the critical networks underlying these complex neurological disorders. We showed recently that the conditional postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) in mice (purky) leads to these aberrant phenotypes, suggesting that intrinsic alteration in PC output is a sufficient pathogenic factor for disease initiation. The question arises whether P/Q-type channel deletion confined to a single upstream cerebellar synapse might induce the pathophysiological abnormality of genomically inherited P/Q-type channel disorders. PCs integrate two excitatory inputs, climbing fibers from inferior olive and parallel fibers (PFs) from granule cells (GCs) that receive mossy fiber (MF) input derived from precerebellar nuclei. In this study, we introduce a new mouse model with a selective knock-out of P/Q-type channels in rhombic-lip-derived neurons including the PF and MF pathways (quirky). We found that in quirky mice, PF-PC synaptic transmission is reduced during low-frequency stimulation. Using focal light stimulation of GCs that express optogenetic light-sensitive channels, channelrhodopsin-2, we found that modulation of PC firing via GC input is reduced in quirky mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that quirky mice display ataxia, dyskinesia, and absence epilepsy. These results suggest that developmental alteration of patterned input confined to only one of the main afferent cerebellar excitatory synaptic pathways has a significant role in generating the neurological phenotype associated with the global genomic loss of P/Q-type channel function. PMID:23516282

Maejima, Takashi; Wollenweber, Patric; Teusner, Lena U C; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Herlitze, Stefan; Mark, Melanie D

2013-03-20

132

Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

2014-01-01

133

Exposure to Cocaine Regulates Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Nucleus Accumbens  

PubMed Central

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) function to gate and prioritize emotional/motivational arousals for behavioral output. The neuronal output NAc MSNs is mainly determined by the integration of membrane excitability and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic inputs. Whereas cocaine-induced alterations at excitatory synapses and membrane excitability have been extensively examined, the overall functional output of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure still poorly defined because little is known about whether inhibitory synaptic input to these neurons is affected by cocaine. Here, our results demonstrate multidimensional alterations at inhibitory synapses in NAc neurons following cocaine self-administration in rats. Specifically, the amplitude of miniature (m) inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was decreased after 21-d withdrawal from 5-d cocaine self-administration. Upon re-exposure to cocaine after 21-day withdrawal, whereas the amplitude of mIPSCs remained down-regulated, the frequency became significantly higher. Furthermore, the reversal potential of IPSCs, which was not significantly altered during withdrawal, became more hyperpolarized upon cocaine re-exposure. Moreover, the relative weight of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to NAc MSNs was significantly decreased after 1-d cocaine withdrawal, increased after 21-d withdrawal, and returned to the basal level upon cocaine re-exposure after 21-d withdrawal. These results, taken together with previous results showing cocaine-induced adaptations at excitatory synapses and intrinsic membrane excitability of NAc MSNs, may provide a relatively thorough picture of the functional state of NAc MSNs following cocaine exposure. PMID:23595733

Otaka, Mami; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R.; Liu, Lei; Neumann, Peter A.; Cui, Ranji; Huang, Yanhua; Schluter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

2013-01-01

134

Controlled superfusion of the rat spinal cord for studying non-synaptic transmission: an autoradiographic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, evidence has been raised that long-term changes in the central nervous system are mediated by extrasynaptic spread of neuropeptides (‘volume transmission’). To study the effects of volume transmission in the spinal cord we developed the technique of controlled superfusion of the rat cord dorsum. This paper presents quantitative data about the spread, local spinal tissue concentration and redistribution of

Heidemarie Beck; Helmut Schröck; Jürgen Sandkühler

1995-01-01

135

Effects of monomethyltin and dimethyltin compounds on heterologously expressed neuronal ion channels (Xenopus oocytes) and synaptic transmission (hippocampal slices).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of monomethyltin trichloride (MMT) and dimethyltin dichloride (DMT) on various neuronal ion channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days old) and adult (2-4 months old) rats. The Xenopus oocyte expression system was chosen to allow direct assessment of the effects of MMT and DMT both on glutamate receptors sensitive to AMPA and NMDA and on various voltage-operated potassium and sodium channels. Hippocampal slices were used to analyze the effects of MMT and DMT on synaptic potentials generated by the important excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse. In general, MMT and DMT were found to have no effect either on voltage-operated sodium and potassium channels or on the metabotropic glutamate receptor but they did differentially affect the functions of ionotropic glutamate receptors and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. MMT (100 microM) significantly reduced NMDA-mediated ion currents by up to 32%, but had no effect on ion currents through AMPA receptors. In slices of adult rats, MMT had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs and brought about a 35% reduction in the LTP amplitudes. In contrast, in slices of young rats MMT evoked a reversible 30% increase in the amplitudes of fEPSPs but had no effect on LTP induction. DMT (100 microM) reduced ion currents through NMDA-receptor ion channels by up to 29% and those through AMPA-receptor ion channels by up to 7%. In hippocampal slices 100 microM DMT reduced the amplitudes of fEPSPs (adults: 50%; young rats: 70%) and LTP (adults: 40%; young rats: 55%). Neither of the organotins affected the paired-pulse facilitation at this synapse, indicating that the organotins exert their effects at the postsynaptic site. The action of MMT and DMT may contribute to the organotin-induced impairment of behavior patterns in connection with learning and memory. PMID:16989903

Krüger, K; Höing, T; Bensch, W; Diepgrond, V; Ahnefeld, M; Madeja, M; Binding, N; Musshoff, U

2007-01-01

136

Modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission by low concentrations of cell-permeant Ca 2+ chelators: effects of Ca 2+ affinity, chelator structure and binding kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chelators are commonly used for fluorescence and electrophysiological studies of neuronal Ca2+ signalling. Recently, they have also been used as neuroprotectants. Since they buffer calcium ions, these agents also modify the same signals which are being studied. These properties may be used to modulate Ca2+ signals such as those involved in synaptic transmission, and may explain their neuroprotective mechanism.

I Spigelman; M Tymianski; C. M Wallace; P. L Carlen; A. A Velumian

1996-01-01

137

Tuning synaptic transmission in the hippocampus by stress: the CRH system  

E-print Network

long-term potentiation, volume transmission, CRF, CRH receptor, CRFR 1 LEARNINGlong-term potentiation in mouse hippocampus by corticotropin- releasing factor and acute stress: implications for hippocampus- dependent learning.

Chen, Yuncai; Andres, Adrienne L; Frotscher, Michael; Baram, Tallie Z

2012-01-01

138

Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion  

PubMed Central

The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kawabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al. 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (Van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology, function and integrity of muscle structure in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:23933137

Wise, Alexandria; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Hua, Shao-Ying; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

2013-01-01

139

Cocaine-induced changes of synaptic transmission in the striatum are modulated by adenosine A2A receptors and involve the tyrosine phosphatase STEP.  

PubMed

The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10??M). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine. PMID:23989619

Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

2014-02-01

140

Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to be required for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, in view of the fact that DHA facilitates NMDA responses and blocks K(+) channels, it might predispose the neurons to epileptiform bursting. By using extracellular recording of population spikes in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, we tested this possibility by examining the effect of DHA on the epileptiform activity induced by bicuculline or in Mg(2+)-free medium. When stimuli were delivered to the Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway every 20 or 30 sec, DHA had no significant effect on the epileptiform activity. However, when the frequency of stimulation was increased to 0.2 Hz, DHA attenuated the amplitude of the bursting activity induced by bicuculline to 57.5+/- 10.8% and those induced by Mg(2+)-free ACSF to 65.8+/-13.9% of control. DHA reduced the slope of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) to 77.1+/-7.4% of baseline, without significant effect on the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). By intracellular recording of neurons in the stratum pyramidale of rat hippocampal slices, we found that DHA markedly inhibited the repetitive firing of action potentials elicited by depolarizing current pulses but did not affect the initial action potential. Thus, DHA may attenuate epileptic activity mainly through the frequency-dependent blockade of Na(+) channels. PMID:10881029

Young, C; Gean, P W; Chiou, L C; Shen, Y Z

2000-08-01

141

Synaptic PRG-1 Modulates Excitatory Transmission via Lipid Phosphate-Mediated Signaling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Plasticity related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific membrane protein related to lipid phosphate phosphatases, which acts in the hippocampus specifically at the excitatory synapse terminating on glutamatergic neurons. Deletion of prg-1 in mice leads to epileptic seizures and augmentation of EPSCs, but not IPSCs. In utero electroporation of PRG-1 into deficient animals revealed that PRG-1 modulates excitation at the synaptic junction. Mutation of the extracellular domain of PRG-1 crucial for its interaction with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) abolished the ability to prevent hyperexcitability. As LPA application in vitro induced hyperexcitability in wild-type but not in LPA2 receptor-deficient animals, and uptake of phospholipids is reduced in PRG-1-deficient neurons, we assessed PRG-1/LPA2 receptor-deficient animals, and found that the pathophysiology observed in the PRG-1-deficient mice was fully reverted. Thus, we propose PRG-1 as an important player in the modulatory control of hippocampal excitability dependent on presynaptic LPA2 receptor signaling. PMID:19766573

Trimbuch, Thorsten; Beed, Prateep; Vogt, Johannes; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Maier, Nikolaus; Kintscher, Michael; Breustedt, Jörg; Schuelke, Markus; Streu, Nora; Kieselmann, Olga; Brunk, Irene; Laube, Gregor; Strauss, Ulf; Battefeld, Arne; Wende, Hagen; Birchmeier, Carmen; Wiese, Stefan; Sendtner, Michael; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Kishimoto-Suga, Mika; Brose, Nils; Baumgart, Jan; Geist, Beate; Aoki, Junken; Savaskan, Nic E.; Bräuer, Anja U.; Chun, Jerold; Ninnemann, Olaf; Schmitz, Dietmar; Nitsch, Robert

2013-01-01

142

Cholinergic efferent synaptic transmission regulates the maturation of auditory hair cell ribbon synapses  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous electrical activity generated by developing sensory cells and neurons is crucial for the maturation of neural circuits. The full maturation of mammalian auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) depends on patterns of spontaneous action potentials during a ‘critical period’ of development. The intrinsic spiking activity of IHCs can be modulated by inhibitory input from cholinergic efferent fibres descending from the brainstem, which transiently innervate immature IHCs. However, it remains unknown whether this transient efferent input to developing IHCs is required for their functional maturation. We used a mouse model that lacks the ?9-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (?9nAChR) in IHCs and another lacking synaptotagmin-2 in the efferent terminals to remove or reduce efferent input to IHCs, respectively. We found that the efferent system is required for the developmental linearization of the Ca2+-sensitivity of vesicle fusion at IHC ribbon synapses, without affecting their general cell development. This provides the first direct evidence that the efferent system, by modulating IHC electrical activity, is required for the maturation of the IHC synaptic machinery. The central control of sensory cell development is unique among sensory systems. PMID:24350389

Johnson, Stuart L.; Wedemeyer, Carolina; Vetter, Douglas E.; Adachi, Roberto; Holley, Matthew C.; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Marcotti, Walter

2013-01-01

143

An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Neuroligins are evolutionarily conserved postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that function, at least in part, by forming trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins. Different neuroligin isoforms perform diverse functions and exhibit distinct intracellular localizations, but contain similar cytoplasmic sequences whose role remains largely unknown. Here, we analysed the effect of a single amino-acid substitution (R704C) that targets a conserved arginine residue in the cytoplasmic sequence of all neuroligins, and that was associated with autism in neuroligin-4. We introduced the R704C mutation into mouse neuroligin-3 by homologous recombination, and examined its effect on synapses in vitro and in vivo. Electrophysiological and morphological studies revealed that the neuroligin-3 R704C mutation did not significantly alter synapse formation, but dramatically impaired synapse function. Specifically, the R704C mutation caused a major and selective decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, without similarly changing NMDA or GABA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission, and without detectably altering presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of neuroligin-3 has a central role in synaptic transmission by modulating the recruitment of AMPA receptors to postsynaptic sites at excitatory synapses. PMID:21642956

Etherton, Mark R; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Sharma, Manu; Ko, Jaewon; Sudhof, Thomas C

2011-01-01

144

Biphasic modulation of synaptic transmission by hypertonicity at the embryonic Drosophila neuromuscular junction.  

PubMed

Puff-application of hypertonic saline (sucrose added to external saline) causes a transient increase in the frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents (mSCs) at the neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila embryos. The frequency gradually returns to pre-application levels. External Ca(2+) is not needed for this response, but it may modify it. At 50 mM added sucrose, for example, enhanced spontaneous release was observed only in the presence of external Ca(2+), suggesting that Ca(2+) augments the response. In a high-K(+) solution, in which the basal mSC frequency was elevated, higher sucrose concentrations produced an increase in mSC frequency that was followed (during and after the hypertonic exposure) by depression, with the magnitude of both effects increasing with hypertonicity between 100 and 500 mM. Evoked release by nerve stimulation showed only depression in response to hypertonicity. We do not believe that the depression of spontaneous or evoked release can be explained by the depletion of releasable quanta, however, since the frequency of quantal release did not reach levels compatible with this explanation and the enhancement and depression could be obtained independent of one another. In a mutant lacking neuronal synaptobrevin, only the depression of mSC frequency was induced by hypertonicity. Conversely, only the enhancing effect was observed in wild-type embryos when the mSC frequency was elevated with forskolin in Ca(2+)-free saline. In cultured embryonic Drosophila neurons, Ca(2+) signals that were induced by high K(+) and detected by Fura-2, were reduced by hypertonicity, suggesting that the depressing response is due to a direct effect of hypertonicity on Ca(2+) influx. PMID:12433954

Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Tomonori; Kidokoro, Yoshiaki

2002-11-15

145

Dynamic tuning of electrical and chemical synaptic transmission in a network of motion coding retinal neurons.  

PubMed

Recently, we demonstrated that gap junction coupling in the population of superior coding ON-OFF directionally selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) genetically labeled in the Hb9::eGFP mouse retina allows the passage of lateral anticipatory signals that help track moving stimuli. Here, we examine the properties of gap junctions in the DSGC network, and address how interactions between electrical and chemical synapses and intrinsic membrane properties contribute to the dynamic tuning of lateral anticipatory signals. When DSGC subtypes coding all four cardinal directions were individually loaded with the gap junction-permeable tracer Neurobiotin, only superior coding DSGCs exhibited homologous coupling. Consistent with these anatomical findings, gap junction-dependent feedback spikelets were only observed in Hb9(+) DSGCs. Recordings from pairs of neighboring Hb9(+) DSGCs revealed that coupling was reciprocal, non-inactivating, and relatively weak, and provided a substrate for an extensive subthreshold excitatory receptive field around each cell. This subthreshold activity appeared to boost coincident light-driven chemical synaptic responses. However, during responses to moving stimuli, gap junction-mediated boosting appeared to be dynamically modulated such that upstream DSGCs primed downstream cells, but not vice versa, giving rise to highly skewed responses in individual cells. We show that the asymmetry in priming arises from a combination of spatially offset GABAergic inhibition and activity-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties of DSGCs. Thus, dynamic interactions between electrical and chemical synapses and intrinsic membrane properties allow the network of DSGCs to propagate anticipatory responses most effectively along their preferred direction without leading to runaway excitation. PMID:24027292

Trenholm, Stuart; McLaughlin, Amanda J; Schwab, David J; Awatramani, Gautam B

2013-09-11

146

Evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine7 receptors play a role in the mediation of afferent transmission within the nucleus tractus solitarius in anaesthetized rats  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing pathways utilizing 5-HT7 receptors are known to be critical for the mediation of cardiovascular reflexes. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is a site involved in the integration of cardiovascular afferent information. The present experiments examined the involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in the processing of cardiovascular reflexes in the NTS. Experimental approach: In anaesthetized rats extracellular recordings were made from 104 NTS neurones that were excited by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve and/or activation of cardiopulmonary afferents. Drugs were applied ionophoretically in the vicinity of these neurones. Key results: The non-selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT) applied to 78 neurones increased the firing rate in 18 by 59% and decreased it in 38 neurones by 47%. Similarly, the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT applied to 20 neurones had an excitatory (8), inhibitory (7) or no effect (5) on the 20 neurones tested. In the presence of the 5-HT7 antagonist SB 258719 the 5-CT excitation was attenuated. Furthermore, the excitatory response of NTS neurones evoked by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve or activation of cardiopulmonary afferents with intra atrial phenylbiguanide was attenuated by SB 258719. The inhibitory action of 5-CT was unaffected by SB 258719 and the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635. WAY-100635 failed to have any effect on 5-CT and vagal afferent-evoked excitations. Conclusions and implications: Vagal afferent-evoked excitation of NTS neurones can be blocked by SB 258719, a selective 5-HT7 antagonist. This observation further supports the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in NTS afferent processing. PMID:19785653

Oskutyte, Diana; Jordan, David; Ramage, Andrew G

2009-01-01

147

TH-9 (a theophylline derivative) induces long-lasting enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus that is occluded by frequency-dependent plasticity in vitro.  

PubMed

Dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, is a rapidly increasing medical condition that presents with enormous challenge for treatment. It is characterized by impairment in memory and cognitive function often accompanied by changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus. We recently synthesized TH-9, a conjugate racetam-methylxanthine compound and tested if it had potential for enhancing synaptic function and possibly, plasticity, by examining its effect on hippocampal fast excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 hippocampal area of naďve juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats using conventional electrophysiological recording techniques. TH-9 caused a concentration-dependent, long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs. This effect was blocked by adenosine A1, acetylcholine (muscarinic and nicotinic) and glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonists but not by a ?-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA(B)) receptor antagonist. The TH-9 effect was also blocked by enhancing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inhibiting protein kinase A. Pretreatment with TH-9 did not prevent the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). Conversely, induction of LTP or LTD completely occluded the ability of TH-9 to enhance fEPSPs. Thus, TH-9 utilizes cholinergic and adenosinergic mechanisms to cause long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs which were occluded by LTP and LTD. TH-9 may therefore employ similar or convergent mechanisms with frequency-dependent synaptic plasticities to produce the observed long-lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission and may thus, have potential for use in improving memory. PMID:22728090

Nashawi, H; Bartl, T; Bartl, P; Novotny, L; Oriowo, M A; Kombian, S B

2012-09-18

148

Effect of the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) on hippocampal mossy fiber calcium signals and on synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

An important pool of chelatable zinc is present in the synaptic vesicles of mossy fiber terminals from hippocampal CA3 area, being zinc released following single or repetitive electrical stimulation. Previous studies have suggested different synaptic roles for released mossy fiber zinc, including the inhibition of presynaptic calcium and of postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma amino-butyric acid (GABAA) receptors. The effect of endogenously released zinc on mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) induction also is not yet established. We have investigated the effect of the permeant zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) on mossy fiber calcium and on synaptic transmission, before and during the application of LTP-inducing stimulation. We have found, using the calcium indicator Fura-2, that single and tetanically-evoked mossy fiber calcium signals are both enhanced in the presence of 20 microM TPEN, while the single field potentials are unaffected. As expected, no effect was observed on the single calcium signals or field potentials obtained at the CA3-CA1 synapses, from the CA1 area, which has a lower concentration of vesicular zinc. These results support the idea that at the hippocampal mossy fiber synapses, released zinc inhibits presynaptic calcium mechanisms. A higher concentration of TPEN (100 microM) significantly reduced mossy fiber synaptic transmission but did not prevent the induction of mossy fiber LTP, suggesting that zinc is not required for the formation of this form of LTP. PMID:17106583

Matias, Carlos M; Matos, Nuno C; Arif, Mona; Dionisio, Jose C; Quinta-Ferreira, M Emilia

2006-01-01

149

Unmyelinated visceral afferents exhibit frequency dependent action potential broadening while myelinated visceral afferents do not.  

PubMed

Sensory information arising from visceral organ systems is encoded into action potential trains that propagate along afferent fibers to target nuclei in the central nervous system. These information streams range from tight patterns of action potentials that are well synchronized with the sensory transduction event to irregular, patternless discharge with no clear correlation to the sensory input. In general terms these afferent pathways can be divided into unmyelinated and myelinated fiber types. Our laboratory has a long standing interest in the functional differences between these two types of afferents in terms of the preprocessing of sensory information into action potential trains (synchrony, frequency, duration, etc.), the reflexogenic consequences of this sensory input to the central nervous system and the ionic channels that give rise to the electrophysiological properties of these unique cell types. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any functional differences in the somatic action potential characteristics of unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in response to different rates of sensory nerve stimulation. Our results showed that activity and frequency-dependent widening of the somatic action potential was quite prominent in unmyelinated but not myelinated vagal afferents. Spike broadening often leads to increased influx of Ca(2+) ions that has been associated with a diverse range of modulatory mechanisms both at the cell body and central synaptic terminations (e.g. increased neurotransmitter release.) We conclude that our observations are indicative of fundamentally different mechanisms for neural integration of sensory information arising from unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents. PMID:17555875

Li, Bai-Yan; Feng, Bin; Tsu, Hwa Y; Schild, John H

2007-06-21

150

Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Induces Long-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission in the Rat Amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

An animal model most sensitive for measuring anticipatory anx- iety is fear conditioning, which is expressed by an enduring increase in synaptic strength in the amygdala. A converse view predicts that agents that induce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the amygdala may be useful in the ameliora- tion of stress disorders. In the present study, we show that

Hui-Ching Lin; Su-Jane Wang; Ming-Zen Luo; Po-Wu Gean

2000-01-01

151

Targeted expression of tetanus toxin light chain in Drosophila specifically eliminates synaptic transmission and causes behavioral defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetanus toxin cleaves the synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin, and the ensuing loss of neurotransmitter exocytosis has implicated synaptobrevin in this process. To further the study of synaptic function in a genetically tractable organism and to generate a tool to disable neuronal communication for behavioural studies, we have expressed a gene encoding tetanus toxin light chain in Drosophila. Toxin expression in

Sean T Sweeney; Kendal Broadie; John Keane; Heiner Niemann; Cahir J O'Kane

1995-01-01

152

Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures  

PubMed Central

The Pten and Tsc1 genes both encode proteins that repress mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Disruption of either gene in the brain results in epilepsy and autism-like symptoms in humans and mouse models, therefore it is important to understand the molecular and physiological events that lead from gene disruption to disease phenotypes. Given the similar roles these two molecules play in the regulation of cellular growth and the overlap in the phenotypes that result from their loss, we predicted that the deletion of either the Pten or Tsc1 gene from autaptic hippocampal neurons would have similar effects on neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission. Accordingly, we found that loss of either Pten or Tsc1 caused comparable increases in soma size, dendrite length and action potential properties. However, the effects of Pten and Tsc1 loss on synaptic transmission were different. Loss of Pten lead to an increase in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, while loss of Tsc1 did not affect excitatory neurotransmission and reduced inhibitory transmission by decreasing mIPSC amplitude. Although the loss of Pten or Tsc1 both increased downstream mTORC1 signaling, phosphorylation of Akt was increased in Pten-ko and decreased in Tsc1-ko neurons, potentially accounting for the different effects on synaptic transmission. Despite the different effects at the synaptic level, our data suggest that loss of Pten or Tsc1 may both lead to an increase in the ratio of excitation to inhibition at the network level, an effect that has been proposed to underlie both epilepsy and autism. PMID:24574959

Weston, Matthew C.; Chen, Hongmei; Swann, John W.

2014-01-01

153

Recruitment of New Sites of Synaptic Transmission During the cAMP-Dependent Late Phase of LTP at CA3–CA1 Synapses in the Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation at CA3–CA1 hippocampal synapses exhibits an early phase and a late phase, which can be distinguished by their underlying molecular mechanisms. Unlike the early phase, the late phase is dependent on both cAMP and protein synthesis. Quantal analysis of unitary synaptic transmission between a single presynaptic CA3 neuron and a single postsynaptic CA1 neuron suggests that, under certain

Vadim Y. Bolshakov; Hava Golan; Eric R. Kandel; Steven A. Siegelbaum

1997-01-01

154

Autism-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 impair synaptic transmission and neurexin-neuroligin-mediated transsynaptic signaling.  

PubMed

Mutations in several postsynaptic proteins have recently been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Neuroligins, Neurexins, and members of the ProSAP/Shank family, thereby suggesting that these genetic forms of autism may share common synaptic mechanisms. Initial studies of ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 support a role for this protein in glutamate receptor function and spine morphology, but these synaptic phenotypes are not universally penetrant, indicating that other core facets of ProSAP2/Shank3 function must underlie synaptic deficits in patients with ASDs. In the present study, we have examined whether the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Neuroligins functions to coordinate pre/postsynaptic signaling through the Neurexin-Neuroligin signaling complex in hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Indeed, we find that synaptic levels of ProSAP2/Shank3 regulate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and induce widespread changes in the levels of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins via Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling. ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 disrupt not only postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling but also interfere with the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to signal across the synapse to alter presynaptic structure and function. These data indicate that ASD-associated mutations in a subset of synaptic proteins may target core cellular pathways that coordinate the functional matching and maturation of excitatory synapses in the CNS. PMID:23100419

Arons, Magali H; Thynne, Charlotte J; Grabrucker, Andreas M; Li, Dong; Schoen, Michael; Cheyne, Juliette E; Boeckers, Tobias M; Montgomery, Johanna M; Garner, Craig C

2012-10-24

155

Autism-Associated Mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 Impair Synaptic Transmission and Neurexin-Neuroligin-Mediated Transsynaptic Signaling  

PubMed Central

Mutations in several postsynaptic proteins have recently been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Neuroligins, Neurexins, and members of the ProSAP/Shank family, thereby suggesting that these genetic forms of autism may share common synaptic mechanisms. Initial studies of ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 support a role for this protein in glutamate receptor function and spine morphology, but these synaptic phenotypes are not universally penetrant, indicating that other core facets of ProSAP2/Shank3 function must underlie synaptic deficits in patients with ASDs. In the present study, we have examined whether the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Neuroligins functions to coordinate pre/postsynaptic signaling through the Neurexin–Neuroligin signaling complex in hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Indeed, we find that synaptic levels of ProSAP2/Shank3 regulate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and induce widespread changes in the levels of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins via Neurexin–Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling. ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 disrupt not only postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling but also interfere with the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to signal across the synapse to alter presynaptic structure and function. These data indicate that ASD-associated mutations in a subset of synaptic proteins may target core cellular pathways that coordinate the functional matching and maturation of excitatory synapses in the CNS. PMID:23100419

Arons, Magali H.; Thynne, Charlotte J.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.; Li, Dong; Schoen, Michael; Cheyne, Juliette E.; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Montgomery, Johanna M.

2012-01-01

156

Simvastatin treatment enhances NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission by upregulating the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit.  

PubMed

The ramifications of statins on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease have been well documented. However, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of the mevalonate pathway may provide independent neuroprotective and procognitive pleiotropic effects, most likely via inhibition of isoprenoids, mainly farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). FPP and GGPP are the major donors of prenyl groups for protein prenylation. Modulation of isoprenoid availability impacts a slew of cellular processes including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our previous work has demonstrated that simvastatin (SV) administration improves hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, rescuing memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of hippocampal slices with SV enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), and this effect is dependent on the activation of Akt (protein kinase B). Further studies showed that SV-induced enhancement of hippocampal LTP is driven by depletion of FPP and inhibition of farnesylation. In the present study, we report the functional consequences of exposure to SV at cellular/synaptic and molecular levels. While application of SV has no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide channel-mediated sag potentials, the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), and excitability, SV application potentiates the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission. In mouse hippocampal slices and human neuronal cells, SV treatment increases the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR without affecting cellular cholesterol content. We conclude that SV-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is likely mediated by augmentation of synaptic NMDAR components that are largely responsible for driving synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region. PMID:24687455

Parent, Marc-Alexander L T; Hottman, David A; Cheng, Shaowu; Zhang, Wei; McMahon, Lori L; Yuan, Li-Lian; Li, Ling

2014-07-01

157

The synaptic origins of receptive field properties in the cricket cercal sensory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The synaptic connections made by identified sensory neurons were studied electrophysiologically in the cercal sensory system of the cricket (Acheta domestica).2.The results confirmed that the synaptic connections made by a particular sensory neuron were correlated with the precise topographic projection of the sensory neurons and the location of the postsynaptic dendrites within this afferent projection. Where an afferent axon

D. Shepherd; G. Kfimper; R. K. Murphey

1988-01-01

158

Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.  

PubMed

Cannabinoids suppress fertility via reducing hypothalamic GnRH output. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor (GABA(A)-R)-mediated transmission is a major input to GnRH cells that can be excitatory. We hypothesized that cannabinoids act via inhibiting GABAergic input. We performed loose-patch electrophysiological studies of acute slices from adult male GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Bath application of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) agonist WIN55,212 decreased GnRH neuron firing rate. This action was detectable in presence of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid but disappeared when bicuculline was also present, indicating GABA(A)-R involvement. In immunocytochemical experiments, CB1-immunoreactive axons formed contacts with GnRH neurons and a subset established symmetric synapses characteristic of GABAergic neurotransmission. Functional studies were continued with whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in presence of tetrodotoxin. WIN55,212 decreased the frequency of GABA(A)-R-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) (reflecting spontaneous vesicle fusion), which was prevented with the CB1 antagonist AM251, indicating collectively that activation of presynaptic CB1 inhibits GABA release. AM251 alone increased mPSC frequency, providing evidence that endocannabinoids tonically inhibit GABA(A)-R drive onto GnRH neurons. Increased mPSC frequency was absent when diacylglycerol lipase was blocked intracellularly with tetrahydrolipstatin, showing that tonic inhibition is caused by 2-arachidonoylglycerol production of GnRH neurons. CdCl(2) in extracellular solution can maintain both action potentials and spontaneous vesicle fusion. Under these conditions, when endocannabinoid-mediated blockade of spontaneous vesicle fusion was blocked with AM251, GnRH neuron firing increased, revealing an endogenous endocannabinoid brake on GnRH neuron firing. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling may represent an important mechanism under physiological and pathological conditions whereby GnRH neurons regulate their excitatory GABAergic inputs. PMID:20926585

Farkas, Imre; Kalló, Imre; Deli, Levente; Vida, Barbara; Hrabovszky, Erik; Fekete, Csaba; Moenter, Suzanne M; Watanabe, Masahiko; Liposits, Zsolt

2010-12-01

159

What activates visceral afferents?  

PubMed

Vagal and spinal afferents represent the information superhighways that convey sensory information from the gut to the central nervous system. These afferents are sensitive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Vagal afferents terminate in the muscle layers and in the mucosa. Muscle afferents are activated at physiological levels of distension and during peristalsis. In contrast, spinal afferents encode supraphysiological levels of intestinal pressure. Vagal and spinal afferents also express a wide range of membrane receptors to a variety of chemical mediators generated from both within and outside the gut wall. Some of these receptors are part of a modality specific transduction pathway involved in sensory signalling from the gut lumen to vagal afferent endings in the mucosa. Others, which are activated by substances derived from multiple cellular sources during ischaemia, injury, or inflammation act in a synergistic way to cause acute or chronic sensitisation of the afferent nerves to mechanical and chemical stimuli. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie hypersensitivity may have implications for the pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of functional bowel disorders like irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:14960550

Grundy, D

2004-03-01

160

Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in ‘children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2?3,3?4,4?5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2?3,5?6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope >200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX+PCB170 (1–100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached >250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX+100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca2+-dependence of [3H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca2+ appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs. PMID:19289137

Kim, Authors: Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

2009-01-01

161

Mutation of the calcium channel gene Cacna1f disrupts calcium signaling, synaptic transmission and cellular organization in mouse retina.  

PubMed

Retinal neural transmission represents a key function of the eye. Identifying the molecular components of this vital process is helped by studies of selected human genetic eye disorders. For example, mutations in the calcium channel subunit gene CACNA1F cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2 or iCSNB), a human retinal disorder with abnormal electrophysiological response and visual impairments consistent with a retinal neurotransmission defect. To understand the subcellular basis of this retinal disorder, we generated a mouse with a loss-of-function mutation by inserting a self-excising Cre-lox-neo cassette into exon 7 of the murine orthologue, Cacna1f. Electroretinography of the mutant mouse revealed a scotopic a-wave of marginally reduced amplitude compared with the wild-type mouse and absence of the post-receptoral b-wave and oscillatory potentials. Cone ERG responses together with visual evoked potentials and multi-unit activity in the superior colliculus were also absent. Calcium imaging in Fluo-4 loaded retinal slices depolarized with KCl showed 90% less peak signal in the photoreceptor synapses of the Cacna1f mutant than in wild-type mice. The absence of post-receptoral ERG responses and the diminished photoreceptor calcium signals are consistent with a loss of Ca((2+)) channel function in photoreceptors. Immunocytochemistry showed no detectable Ca(v)1.4 protein in the outer plexiform layer of Cacna1f-mutant mice, profound loss of photoreceptor synapses, and abnormal dendritic sprouting of second-order neurons in the photoreceptor layer. Together, these findings in the Cacna1f-mutant mouse reveal that the Ca(v)1.4 calcium channel is vital for the functional assembly and/or maintenance and synaptic functions of photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Moreover, the outcome of this study provides critical clues to the pathophysiology of the human retinal channelopathy of X-linked incomplete CSNB. PMID:16155113

Mansergh, Fiona; Orton, Noelle C; Vessey, John P; Lalonde, Melanie R; Stell, William K; Tremblay, Francois; Barnes, Steven; Rancourt, Derrick E; Bech-Hansen, N Torben

2005-10-15

162

Opioid Peptides Inhibit Excitatory But Not Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Rat Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus  

PubMed Central

Opioid peptides produce gastrointestinal inhibition and increase feeding when applied to the brainstem. The present studies were designed to determine the actions of opioid peptides on synaptic transmission within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and the localization of ?-opioid receptors. Whole-cell recordings were made from identified gastrointestinal-projecting DMV neurons in thin brainstem slices of the rat. Electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius evoked EPSCs and IPSCs. In all neurons tested, methionine (Met)-enkephalin (0.003–30 ?m) inhibited the peak amplitude of the EPSCs. The effect was prevented by naloxone (1 ?m) as well as by naloxonazine (0.2 ?m). An increase in the ratio of the evoked paired pulses indicated that the inhibition was attributable to actions at presynaptic receptors. This presynaptic inhibitory action was mimicked by [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (0.1 ?m) and the analgesic dipeptide kyotorphin (10 ?m) but not by cyclic[d-Pen2, d-Pen5]-enkephalin (1 ?m) and trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (1 ?m). In contrast, the amplitude of evoked IPSCs was not altered either by Met-enkephalin or by any of the opioid receptor-selective agonists. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that nerve terminals apposing DMV neurons showed immunoreactivity to ?-opioid receptors colocalized with glutamate immunoreactivity but not glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity. These results suggest that within the DMV, ?-opioid receptors are present on the nerve terminals of excitatory but not inhibitory inputs to GI motoneurons. Such specificity may imply that the central inhibitory action of opioid peptides on gastrointestinal function targets selected pathways. PMID:11943802

Browning, Kirsteen N.; Kalyuzhny, Alexander E.; Travagli, R. Alberto

2011-01-01

163

Central dysmyelination reduces the temporal fidelity of synaptic transmission and the reliability of postsynaptic firing during high-frequency stimulation.  

PubMed

Auditory brain stem circuits rely on fast, precise, and reliable neurotransmission to process auditory information. To determine the fundamental role of myelination in auditory brain stem function, we examined the evoked auditory brain stem response (ABR) from the Long Evans shaker (LES) rat, which lacks myelin due to a genetic deletion of myelin basic protein. In control rats, the ABR evoked by a click consisted of five well-defined waves (denoted waves I-V). In LES rats, waves I, IV, and V were present, but waves II and III were undetectable, indicating disrupted function in the earliest stages of central nervous system auditory processing. In addition, the developmental shortening of the interval between waves I and IV that normally occurs in control rats was arrested and resulted in a significant increase in the central conduction time in LES rats. In brain stem slices, action potential transmission between the calyx of Held terminals and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) neurons was delayed and less reliable in LES rats, although the resting potential, threshold, input resistance, and length of the axon initial segment of the postsynaptic MNTB neurons were normal. The amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and the degree of synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation were not different between LES rats and controls, but LES rats exhibited a marked slow component to the EPSC decay and a much higher rate of presynaptic failures. Together, these results indicate that loss of myelin disrupts brain stem auditory processing, increasing central conduction time and reducing the reliability of neurotransmission. PMID:23843435

Kim, Sei Eun; Turkington, Karl; Kushmerick, Christopher; Kim, Jun Hee

2013-10-01

164

Changes in synaptic transmission and protein expression in the brains of adult offspring after prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway.  

PubMed

During early brain development, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in cell migration, neuritogenesis, axon guidance and synapse formation, but the mechanisms which regulate NMDA receptor density and function remain unclear. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes an agonist (quinolinic acid) and an antagonist (kynurenic acid) at NMDA receptors and we have previously shown that inhibition of the pathway using the kynurenine-3-monoxygenase inhibitor Ro61-8048 in late gestation produces rapid changes in protein expression in the embryos and effects on synaptic transmission lasting until postnatal day 21 (P21). The present study sought to determine whether any of these effects are maintained into adulthood. After prenatal injections of Ro61-8048 the litter was allowed to develop to P60 when some offspring were euthanized and the brains removed for examination. Analysis of protein expression by Western blotting revealed significantly reduced expression of the GluN2A subunit (32%) and the morphogenetic protein sonic hedgehog (31%), with a 29% increase in the expression of doublecortin, a protein associated with neurogenesis. No changes were seen in mRNA abundance using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Neuronal excitability was normal in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices but paired-pulse stimulation revealed less inhibition at short interpulse intervals. The amount of long-term potentiation was decreased by 49% in treated pups and recovery after low-frequency stimulation was delayed. The results not only strengthen the view that basal, constitutive kynurenine metabolism is involved in normal brain development, but also show that changes induced prenatally can affect the brains of adult offspring and those changes are quite different from those seen previously at weaning (P21). Those changes may be mediated by altered expression of NMDAR subunits and sonic hedgehog. PMID:24076085

Forrest, C M; Khalil, O S; Pisar, M; McNair, K; Kornisiuk, E; Snitcofsky, M; Gonzalez, N; Jerusalinsky, D; Darlington, L G; Stone, T W

2013-12-19

165

Presynaptic Calcium Stores Modulate Afferent Release in Vestibular Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of the acoustic and vestibular system, are presynaptic to primary afferent neurons of the eighth nerve and excite neural activity by the release of glutamate. In the present work, the role played by intracellular Ca 2 stores in afferent transmission was investigated, at the presynaptic level, by monitoring changes in the intracellular Ca 2 concentration ((Ca

Andrea Lelli; Paola Perin; Marta Martini; Catalin D. Ciubotaru; Ivo Prigioni; Paolo Valli; Maria L. Rossi; Fabio Mammano

2003-01-01

166

Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

167

Systemic dexmedetomidine augments inhibitory synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn through activation of descending noradrenergic control: an in vivo patch-clamp analysis of analgesic mechanisms  

PubMed Central

?2-adrenoceptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the systemic administration of ?2-agonists such as dexmedetomidine produces clinically useful, centrally-mediated sedation and analgesia; however, these same actions also limit the utility of these agents (ie unwanted sedative actions). Despite a wealth of data on cellular and synaptic actions of ?2-agonists in vitro, it is not known which neuronal circuits are modulated in vivo to produce the analgesic effect. To address this issue, we made in vivo recordings of membrane currents and synaptic activities in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons and examined their responses to systemic dexmedetomidine. We found that dexmedetomidine at doses that produce analgesia (<10 ?g/kg) enhanced inhibitory postsynaptic transmission within the superficial dorsal horn without altering excitatory synaptic transmission or evoking direct postsynaptic membrane currents. In contrast, higher doses of dexmedetomidine (>10 ?g/kg) induced outward currents by a direct postsynaptic action. The dexmedetomidine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) facilitation was not mimicked by spinal application of dexmedetomidine and was absent in spinalized rats, suggesting it acts at a supraspinal site. Further it was inhibited by spinal application of the ?1-antagonist prazosin. In the brain stem, low doses of systemic dexmedetomidine produced an excitation of locus coeruleus neurons. These results suggest that systemic ?2-adrenoceptor stimulation may facilitate inhibitory synaptic responses in the superficial dorsal horn to produce analgesia mediated by activation of the pontospinal noradrenergic inhibitory system. This novel mechanism may provide new targets for intervention perhaps allowing analgesic actions to be dissociated from excessive sedation. PMID:24355412

Funai, Yusuke; Pickering, Anthony Edward; Uta, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu; Mori, Takashi; Asada, Akira; Imoto, Keiji; Furue, Hidemasa

2014-01-01

168

PGE2 glycerol ester, a COX-2 oxidative metabolite of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

The oxygenation of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) produces novel types of prostanoids: prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) and prostaglandin ethanolamides (PG-EAs). However, the physiological function of COX-2 oxidative metabolites of eCBs is still unclear. Here we demonstrate that PGE2-G, a COX-2 oxidative metabolite of 2-AG, induced a concentration-dependent increase in the frequency ofminiature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, an effect opposite to that of 2-AG. This increase was not inhibited by SR141716, a CB1 receptor antagonist, but was attenuated by an IP3 or MAPK inhibitor. In addition, we also examined the effects of other prostanoids derived from COX-2 oxygenation of eCBs on mIPSCs. PGD2-G, PGF2alpha-G and PGD2-EA, but not PGE2-EA or PGF2alpha-EA, also increased the frequency of mIPSCs. The eCB-derived prostanoid-induced responses appeared to be different from those of corresponding arachidonic acid-derived prostanoids, implying that these effects are not mediated via known prostanoid receptors. We further discovered that the inhibition of COX-2 activity reduced inhibitory synaptic activity and augmented depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), whereas the enhancement of COX-2 augmented the synaptic transmission and abolished DSI. Our results, which show that COX-2 oxidative metabolites of eCBs exert opposite effects to their parent molecules on inhibitory synaptic transmission, suggest that alterations in COX-2 activity will have significant impact on endocannabinoid signalling in hippocampal synaptic activity. PMID:16484297

Sang, Nan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chu

2006-05-01

169

TRPA1-expressing primary afferents synapse with specific morphological subtypes of substantia gelatinosa neurons in the adult rat spinal cord  

PubMed Central

The TRPA1-channel has been proposed to be a molecular transducer of cold and inflammatory nociceptive signals. It is expressed on a subset of small primary afferent neurons both in the peripheral terminals, where it serves as a sensor, and on the central nerve endings in the dorsal horn. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord is a key site for integration of noxious inputs. The SG neurons are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous and the precise synaptic circuits of the SG are poorly understood. We examined how activation of TRPA1 channels affects synaptic transmission onto SG neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and morphological analyses in adult rat spinal cord slices. Cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist) elicited a barrage of EPSCs in a subset of the SG neurons that responded to allyl isothiocyanate (less specific TRPA1 agonist) and capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Cinnamaldehyde evoked EPSCs in vertical and radial, but not islet or central SG cells. Notably, cinnamaldehyde produced no change in IPSCs nor did it produce direct post-synaptic effects. In the presence of TTX, cinnamaldehyde increased the frequency but not amplitude of miniature EPSCs. Intriguingly, cinnamaldehyde had a selective inhibitory action on monosynaptic C (but not A?) fiber-evoked EPSCs. These results indicate that activation of spinal TRPA1 presynaptically facilitates miniature excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferents onto vertical and radial cells to initiate action potentials. The presence of TRPA1 channels on the central terminals raises the possibility of a novel mechanism for a cell type-specific bidirectional modulatory action on the SG. PMID:20497466

Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Pickering, Anthony E.; Rashid, Md Harunor; Mizuguchi-Takase, Hiroko; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Imoto, Keiji; Yoshimura, Megumu

2014-01-01

170

Activity-Dependent Metaplasticity of Inhibitory and Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in the Lamprey Spinal Cord Locomotor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem- evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons

David Parker; Sten Grillner

1999-01-01

171

Dissociation of CA3 pyramidal cells with attached, functional, identified mossy fiber and interneuronal boutons for studying glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

Pyramidal cells of CA3 area receive glutamatergic signals from the mossy fibers (MFs), perforant path and collaterals of other pyramidal cells, as well as GABAergic inputs from interneurons. In hippocampal slices, an extracellular stimulation electrode is often used to activate the MFs, with the disadvantage of possibly activating fibers other than MFs. We set-up a preparation that allows the analysis of the glutamatergic input from identified, giant MF boutons as well as of GABAergic inputs from boutons of interneurons on single CA3 pyramidal cells. Mossy fiber boutons were labeled by exposing hippocampal slices to a zinc-reactive fluorescent dye, or by injecting a fluorescent dye in the granule cell layer and allowing its transport along the MFs to their terminals in CA3 area. After conducting an enzyme-free, mechanical dissociation of CA3 area, we obtained pyramidal cells containing fluorescent, giant MF boutons attached to their apical dendrites, as well as boutons of interneuronal origin. Whole cell recordings were then performed, whereby synaptic responses could be evoked by selective stimulation of the identified boutons. The synaptic currents evoked by stimulation of MF boutons, unlike those evoked by stimulation of interneuronal boutons, underwent strong frequency potentiation and were depressed by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which are characteristics of transmission of MF origin. Combination of fluorophores can be used to label different tracts/boutons allowing the study of the different characteristics of neurotransmitter release from a variety of sources on single target cells. PMID:22633895

Beltrán, Jesús Q; Reyes, Sebastián; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Vińas, David; Gutiérrez, Rafael

2012-07-15

172

Protein kinase A-dependent enhanced NMDA receptor function in pain-related synaptic plasticity in rat amygdala neurones  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of pain-related plasticity in the amygdala, a key player in emotionality, were studied at the cellular and molecular levels in a model of arthritic pain. The influence of the arthritis pain state induced in vivo on synaptic transmission and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function was examined in vitro using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of neurones in the latero-capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which is now defined as the ‘nociceptive amygdala’. Synaptic transmission was evoked by electrical stimulation of afferents from the pontine parabrachial area (part of the spino-parabrachio-amygdaloid pain pathway) in brain slices from control rats and from arthritic rats. This study shows that pain-related synaptic plasticity is accompanied by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated enhanced NMDA-receptor function and increased phosphorylation of NMDA-receptor 1 (NR1) subunits. Synaptic plasticity in the arthritis pain model, but not normal synaptic transmission in control neurones, was inhibited by a selective NMDA receptor antagonist. Accordingly, an NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic component was recorded in neurones from arthritic animals, but not in control neurones, and was blocked by inhibition of PKA but not protein kinase C (PKC). Exogenous NMDA evoked a larger inward current in neurones from arthritic animals than in control neurones, indicating a postsynaptic effect. Paired-pulse facilitation, a measure of presynaptic mechanisms, was not affected by an NMDA-receptor antagonist. Increased levels of phosphorylated NR1 protein, but not of total NR1, were measured in the CeA of arthritic rats compared to controls. Our results suggest that pain-related synaptic plasticity in the amygdala involves a critical switch of postsynaptic NMDA receptor function through PKA-dependent NR1 phosphorylation. PMID:15760935

Bird, Gary C; Lash, L Leanne; Han, Jeong S; Zou, Xiaoju; Willis, William D; Neugebauer, Volker

2005-01-01

173

Amplification of neuromuscular transmission by methylprednisolone involves activation of presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors and redistribution of synaptic vesicles.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying improvement of neuromuscular transmission deficits by glucocorticoids are still a matter of debate despite these compounds have been used for decades in the treatment of autoimmune myasthenic syndromes. Besides their immunosuppressive action, corticosteroids may directly facilitate transmitter release during high-frequency motor nerve activity. This effect coincides with the predominant adenosine A2A receptor tonus, which coordinates the interplay with other receptors (e.g. muscarinic) on motor nerve endings to sustain acetylcholine (ACh) release that is required to overcome tetanic neuromuscular depression in myasthenics. Using myographic recordings, measurements of evoked [(3)H]ACh release and real-time video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye, results show that tonic activation of facilitatory A2A receptors by endogenous adenosine accumulated during 50 Hz bursts delivered to the rat phrenic nerve is essential for methylprednisolone (0.3 mM)-induced transmitter release facilitation, because its effect was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385 (10 nM). Concurrent activation of the positive feedback loop operated by pirenzepine-sensitive muscarinic M1 autoreceptors may also play a role, whereas the corticosteroid action is restrained by the activation of co-expressed inhibitory M2 and A1 receptors blocked by methoctramine (0.1 ?M) and DPCPX (2.5 nM), respectively. Inhibition of FM4-64 loading (endocytosis) by methylprednisolone following a brief tetanic stimulus (50 Hz for 5 s) suggests that it may negatively modulate synaptic vesicle turnover, thus increasing the release probability of newly recycled vesicles. Interestingly, bulk endocytosis was rehabilitated when methylprednisolone was co-applied with ZM241385. Data suggest that amplification of neuromuscular transmission by methylprednisolone may involve activation of presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors by endogenous adenosine leading to synaptic vesicle redistribution. PMID:25220030

Oliveira, L; Costa, A C; Noronha-Matos, J B; Silva, I; Cavalcante, W L G; Timóteo, M A; Corrado, A P; Dal Belo, C A; Ambiel, C R; Alves-do-Prado, W; Correia-de-Sá, P

2015-02-01

174

Synaptic retinoic acid signaling and homeostatic synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

One of the defining features of the nervous system is its ability to modify synaptic strength in an experience-dependent manner. Chronic elevation or reduction of network activity activates compensatory mechanisms that modulate synaptic strength in the opposite direction (i.e. reduced network activity leads to increased synaptic strength), a process called homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Among the many mechanisms that mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity, retinoic acid (RA) has emerged as a novel signaling molecule that is critically involved in homeostatic synaptic plasticity induced by blockade of synaptic activity. In neurons, silencing of synaptic transmission triggers RA synthesis. RA then acts at synapses by a non-genomic mechanism that is independent of its well-known function as a transcriptional regulator, but operates through direct activation of protein translation in neuronal dendrites. Protein synthesis is activated by RA-binding to its receptor RAR?, which functions locally in dendrites in a non-canonical manner as an RNA-binding protein that mediate RA's effect on translation. The present review will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the novel role of RA, which led to the identification of RA as a critical synaptic signaling molecule that mediates activity-dependent regulation of protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23270606

Chen, Lu; Lau, Anthony G; Sarti, Federica

2014-03-01

175

Short-term synaptic depression causes a non-monotonic response to correlated stimuli.  

PubMed

Unreliability is a ubiquitous feature of synaptic transmission in the brain. The information conveyed in the discharges of an ensemble of cells (e.g., in the spike count or in the timing of synchronous events) may not be faithfully transmitted to the postsynaptic cell because a large fraction of the spikes fail to elicit a synaptic response. In addition, short-term depression increases the failure rate with the presynaptic activity. We use a simple neuron model with stochastic depressing synapses to understand the transformations undergone by the spatiotemporal patterns of incoming spikes as these are first converted into synaptic current and afterward into the cell response. We analyze the mean and SD of the current produced by different stimuli with spatiotemporal correlations. We find that the mean, which carries information only about the spike count, rapidly saturates as the input rate increases. In contrast, the current deviation carries information about the correlations. If the afferent action potentials are uncorrelated, it saturates monotonically, whereas if they are correlated it increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to the value produced by the uncorrelated stimulus. This means that, at high input rates, depression erases from the synaptic current any trace of the spatiotemporal structure of the input. The non-monotonic behavior of the deviation can be inherited by the response rate provided that the mean current saturates below the current threshold setting the cell in the fluctuation-driven regimen. Afferent correlations therefore enable the modulation of the response beyond the saturation of the mean current. PMID:16162924

de la Rocha, Jaime; Parga, Néstor

2005-09-14

176

Activation of Presynaptic GABAB(1a,2) Receptors Inhibits Synaptic Transmission at Mammalian Inhibitory Cholinergic Olivocochlear-Hair Cell Synapses  

PubMed Central

The synapse between olivocochlear (OC) neurons and cochlear mechanosensory hair cells is cholinergic, fast, and inhibitory. The inhibitory sign of this cholinergic synapse is accounted for by the activation of Ca2+-permeable postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors coupled to the opening of hyperpolarizing Ca2+-activated small-conductance type 2 (SK2)K+ channels. Acetylcholine (ACh) release at this synapse is supported by both P/Q- and N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Although the OC synapse is cholinergic, an abundant OC GABA innervation is present along the mammalian cochlea. The role of this neurotransmitter at the OC efferent innervation, however, is for the most part unknown. We show that GABA fails to evoke fast postsynaptic inhibitory currents in apical developing inner and outer hair cells. However, electrical stimulation of OC efferent fibers activates presynaptic GABAB(1a,2) receptors [GABAB(1a,2)Rs] that downregulate the amount of ACh released at the OC–hair cell synapse, by inhibiting P/Q-type VGCCs. We confirmed the expression of GABABRs at OC terminals contacting the hair cells by coimmunostaining for GFP and synaptophysin in transgenic mice expressing GABAB1–GFP fusion proteins. Moreover, coimmunostaining with antibodies against the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and synaptophysin support the idea that GABA is directly synthesized at OC terminals contacting the hair cells during development. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a physiological role for GABA in cochlear synaptic function. In addition, our data suggest that the GABAB1a isoform selectively inhibits release at efferent cholinergic synapses. PMID:24068816

Wedemeyer, Carolina; Zorrilla de San Martin, Javier; Ballestero, Jimena; Gomez-Casati, Maria Eugenia; Torbidoni, Ana Vanesa; Fuchs, Paul A.; Bettler, Bernhard; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen

2013-01-01

177

Dual modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by agonists at group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat spinal dorsal horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors on excitatory transmission in the rat dorsal horn, but mostly substantia gelatinosa, neurons were investigated using conventional intracellular recording in slices. The broad spectrum mGlu receptor agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD), the group I mGlu receptor selective agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), and the selective mGlu subtype 5 agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), all induce long-lasting

Jie Zhong; Gabor Gerber; Ljubomir Koji?; Mirjana Randi?

2000-01-01

178

Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal slice: functional consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 3 known forms of synaptic plasticity at CNS synapses: long-term potentiation (LTP) mediated by NMDA receptor activation, LTP mediated by voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) activation, and long-term depression (LTD) mediated by the NMDA receptor. All 3 forms of synaptic plasticity can be observed in hippocampal CA1 cells, all are induced by afferent activation, all involve Ca2+ influx, and

T. J. Teyler; I. Cavus; C. Coussens

1995-01-01

179

Exaggerated responses to chronic nociceptive stimuli and enhancement of N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in mutant mice lacking d-amino-acid oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission were analyzed in mutant mice lacking d-amino-acid oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of d-amino acids. The second phase of the formalin-induced licking response, a part of which is known to be mediated by NMDA receptors in the spinal cord, was significantly augmented in mutant mice. NMDA receptor-mediated

Kohji Wake; Hajime Yamazaki; Shinji Hanzawa; Ryuichi Konno; Hideaki Sakio; Akira Niwa; Yuuichi Hori

2001-01-01

180

Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely contacted Type B and Type C hair cells, particularly on the outer rows of the medial striola. Afferents supplying more central striolar regions innervated fewer Type B and larger numbers of Type E and Type F hair cells. Striolar afferents with thin parent axons largely supplied Type E hair cells with bulbed kniocilia in the innermost striolar rows.

Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

1994-01-01

181

High Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Leads to Presynaptic GABA(B)-Dependent Depression of Subthalamo-Nigral Afferents  

PubMed Central

Patients with akinesia benefit from chronic high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Among the mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic success of HFS-STN might be a suppression of activity in the output region of the basal ganglia. Indeed, recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of fully adult mice revealed that HFS-STN consistently produced a reduction of compound glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents at a time when the tetrodotoxin-sensitive components of the local field potentials had already recovered after the high frequency activation. These observations suggest that HFS-STN not only alters action potential conduction on the way towards the SNr but also modifies synaptic transmission within the SNr. A classical conditioning-test paradigm was then designed to better separate the causes from the indicators of synaptic depression. A bipolar platinum-iridium macroelectrode delivered conditioning HFS trains to a larger group of fibers in the STN, while a separate high-ohmic glass micropipette in the rostral SNr provided test stimuli at minimal intensity to single fibers. The conditioning-test interval was set to 100 ms, i.e. the time required to recover the excitability of subthalamo-nigral axons after HFS-STN. The continuity of STN axons passing from the conditioning to the test sites was examined by an action potential occlusion test. About two thirds of the subthalamo-nigral afferents were occlusion-negative, i.e. they were not among the fibers directly activated by the conditioning STN stimulation. Nonetheless, occlusion-negative afferents exhibited signs of presynaptic depression that could be eliminated by blocking GABA(B) receptors with CGP55845 (1 µM). Further analysis of single fiber-activated responses supported the proposal that the heterosynaptic depression of synaptic glutamate release during and after HFS-STN is mainly caused by the tonic release of GABA from co-activated striato-nigral afferents to the SNr. This mechanism would be consistent with a gain-of-function hypothesis of DBS. PMID:24376521

Dvorzhak, Anton; Gertler, Christoph; Harnack, Daniel; Grantyn, Rosemarie

2013-01-01

182

Effects of steroids on NMDA receptors and excitatory synaptic transmission in neonatal motoneurons in rat spinal cord slices.  

PubMed

The effect of steroids on NMDA receptors and excitatory postsynaptic transmission was studied in fluorescence-labelled motoneurons in thin spinal cord slices. In outside-out patches, NMDA-induced responses were potentiated by 79% in the presence of 20-oxopregn-5-en-3beta-yl sulfate (PS), while in the presence of 20-oxo-5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-yl sulfate (3alpha5alphaS) and 20-oxo-5beta-pregnan-3alpha-yl sulfate (3alpha5betaS) they were diminished by 57% and 66%, respectively. PS and 3alpha5betaS had no effect on the amplitude of single NMDA receptor channel openings, however, both compounds altered relative distribution of the openings to individual conductance levels. In control cases, the most frequent openings of the NMDA receptor channels were at the 70 pS conductance level, while in the presence of PS or 3alpha5betaS, the most frequent openings were at the 55 pS conductance level. Analysis of the mean current transferred by NMDA receptor channel openings at individual conductance levels indicated that in the presence of PS, the mean current induced by 55 pS conductance openings was significantly increased. In the presence of 3alpha5betaS, the mean currents induced by 55 pS and 70 pS conductance openings were significantly decreased. The amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs was potentiated by 54% in the presence of PS and the deactivation kinetics slowed. Neither the amplitude nor the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs was significantly changed in the presence of 3alpha5betaS. The results of our experiments indicate that neurosteroids affect NMDA receptors in motoneurons. The effect appears to be influenced by the receptor subunit composition. PMID:11553299

Abdrachmanova, G; Chodounská, H; Vyklický, L

2001-08-01

183

Altered long-term synaptic plasticity and kainate-induced Ca2+ transients in the substantia gelatinosa neurons in GLU(K6)-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Functional kainate receptors are expressed in the spinal cord substantia gelatinosa region, and their activation contributes to bi-directional regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at primary afferent synapses with spinal cord substantia gelatinosa neurons. However, no study has reported a role(s) for kainate receptor subtypes in long-term synaptic plasticity phenomena in this region. Using gene-targeted mice lacking glutamate receptor 5 (GLU(K5)) or GLU(K6) subunit, we here show that GLU(K6) subunit, but not GLU(K5) subunit, is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, evoked by two different protocols: (1) high-frequency primary afferent stimulation (100 Hz, 3 s) and (2) low-frequency spike-timing stimulation (1 Hz, 200 pulses). In addition, GLU(K6) subunit plays an important role in the expression of kainate-induced Ca2+ transients in the substantia gelatinosa. On the other hand, genetic deletion of GLU(K5) or GLU(K6) subunit does not prevent the induction of long-term depression. These results indicate that unique expression of kainate receptors subunits is important in regulating spinal synaptic plasticity and thereby processing of sensory information, including pain. PMID:16219388

Youn, Dong-Ho; Voitenko, Nana; Gerber, Gabor; Park, Yun-Kyung; Galik, Jan; Randi?, Mirjana

2005-12-01

184

Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN) suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to noxious events. Moreover, these modifications of cingulate synapses appear to regulate afferent signals that may be important to the transition from acute to chronic pain conditions associated with persistent peripheral noxious stimulation. Enhanced and maintained nociceptive activities in cingulate cortex, therefore, can become adverse and it will be important to learn how to regulate such changes in thalamic firing patterns that transmit nociceptive information to ACC in early stages of chronic pain. PMID:19732417

2009-01-01

185

Role of Neurotrophin Receptor TrkB in the Maturation of Rod Photoreceptors and Establishment of Synaptic Transmission to the Inner Retina  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts through TrkB, a receptor with kinase activity, and mitigates light-induced apoptosis in adult mouse rod photoreceptors. To determine whether TrkB signaling is necessary for rod development and function, we examined the retinas of mice lacking all isoforms of the TrkB receptor. Rod migration and differentiation occur in the mutant retina, but proceed at slower rates than in wild-type mice. In postnatal day 16 (P16) mutants, rod outer segment dimensions and rhodopsin content are comparable with those of photoreceptors in P12 wild type (WT). Quantitative analyses of the photoreceptor component in the electroretinogram (ERG) indicate that the gain and kinetics of the rod phototransduction signal in dark-adapted P16 mutant and P12 WT retinas are similar. In contrast to P12 WT, however, the ERG in mutant mice entirely lacks a b-wave, indicating a failure of signal transmission in the retinal rod pathway. In the inner retina of mutant mice, although cells appear anatomically and immunohistochemically normal, they fail to respond to prolonged stroboscopic illumination with the normal expression of c-fos. Absence of the b-wave and failure of c-fos expression, in view of anatomically normal inner retinal cells, suggest that lack of TrkB signaling causes a defect in synaptic signaling between rods and inner retinal cells. Retinal pigment epithelial cells and cells in the inner retina, including Müller, amacrine, and retinal ganglion cells, express the TrkB receptor, but rod photoreceptors do not. Moreover, inner retinal cells respond to exogenous BDNF with c-fos expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Thus, interactions of rods with TrkB-expressing cells must be required for normal rod development. PMID:10516311

Rohrer, Baerbel; Korenbrot, Juan I.; LaVail, Matthew M.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Xu, Baoji

2009-01-01

186

Modeling the resonant release of synaptic transmitter by hair cells as an example of biological oscillators with cooperative steps  

PubMed Central

The initial synapses of the auditory system, which connect hair cells to afferent nerve fibers, display two unusual features. First, synaptic transmission occurs in a multiquantal fashion: the contents of multiple synaptic vesicles are discharged simultaneously. Second, synaptic transmission may be tuned to specific frequencies of stimulation. We developed a minimal theoretical model to explore the possibility that hair-cell synapses achieve both multiquantal release and frequency selectivity through a cooperative mechanism for the exocytotic release of neurotransmitter. We first characterized vesicle release as a four-step cycle at each release site, then generalized the result to an arbitrary number of steps. The cyclic process itself induces some degree of resonance, and may display a stable, underdamped fixed point of the release dynamics associated with a pair of complex eigenvalues. Cooperativity greatly enhances the frequency selectivity by moving the eigenvalues toward the imaginary axis; spontaneously oscillatory release can arise beyond a Hopf bifurcation. These phenomena occur both in the macroscopic limit, when the number of release sites involved is very large, and in the more realistic stochastic regime, when only a limited number of release sites participate at each synapse. It is thus possible to connect multiquantal release with frequency selectivity through the mechanism of cooperativity. PMID:20080698

Andor-Ardo, Daniel; Hudspeth, A. J.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.; Piro, Oreste

2010-01-01

187

Synaptic Plasticity: Multiple Forms, Functions, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences, whether they be learning in a classroom, a stressful event, or ingestion of a psychoactive substance, impact the brain by modifying the activity and organization of specific neural circuitry. A major mechanism by which the neural activity generated by an experience modifies brain function is via modifications of synaptic transmission; that is, synaptic plasticity. Here, we review current understanding

Ami Citri; Robert C Malenka

2008-01-01

188

Impact of Spontaneous Synaptic Activity on the Resting Properties of Cat Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons In Vivo  

E-print Network

synaptic transmission with tetrodotoxin (TTX). The amount of than in brain slices kept in vitro (see synaptic ceived much attention lately (reviewed in Johnston et al. transmission with tetrodotoxin (TTX

Destexhe, Alain

189

Altered synaptic transmission at olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals in mice lacking N-type calcium channel Cav2.2.  

PubMed

We investigated the role of voltage-activated calcium (Cav) channels for synaptic transmission at mouse olfactory and vomeronasal nerve terminals at the first synapse of the main and accessory olfactory pathways, respectively. We provided evidence for a central role of the N-type Cav channel subunit Cav2.2 in presynaptic transmitter release at these synapses. Striking Cav2.2 immunoreactivity was localised to the glomerular neuropil of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), and co-localised with presynaptic molecules such as bassoon. Voltage-clamp recordings of sensory nerve-evoked, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in mitral/tufted (M/T) and superficial tufted cells of the MOB and mitral cells of the AOB, in combination with established subtype-specific Cav channel toxins, indicated a predominant role of N-type channels in transmitter release at these synapses, whereas L-type, P/Q-type, and R-type channels had either no or only relatively minor contributions. In Cacna1b mutant mice lacking the Cav2.2 (?1B) subunit of N-type channels, olfactory nerve-evoked M/T cell EPSCs were not reduced but became blocker-resistant, thus indicating a major reorganisation and compensation of Cav channel subunits as a result of the Cav2.2 deletion at this synapse. Cav2.2-deficient mice also revealed that Cav2.2 was critically required for paired-pulse depression of olfactory nerve-evoked EPSCs in M/T cells of the MOB, and they demonstrated an essential requirement for Cav2.2 in vomeronasal nerve-evoked EPSCs of AOB mitral cells. Thus, Cacna1b loss-of-function mutations are unlikely to cause general anosmia but Cacna1b emerges as a strong candidate in the search for mutations causing altered olfactory perception, such as changes in general olfactory sensitivity and altered social responses to chemostimuli. PMID:25195871

Weiss, Jan; Pyrski, Martina; Weissgerber, Petra; Zufall, Frank

2014-11-01

190

Role of Afferents in the Differentiation of Bipolar Cells in the Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

To establish dendritic arbors that integrate properly into a neural circuit, neurons must rely on cues from the local environment. The neurons presynaptic to these arbors, the afferents, are one potential source of these cues, but the particular dendritic features they regulate remain unclear. Retinal bipolar cells can be classified by the type of photoreceptor, cone or rod, forming synaptic contacts with their dendrites, suggesting a potential role of these afferents in shaping the bipolar cell dendritic arbor. In the present investigation, the role of photoreceptors in directing the differentiation of bipolar cells has been studied using two genetically modified “coneless” and “conefull” mice. Single cone (Type 7) and rod bipolar cells were labeled with DiI to reveal the entire dendritic arbor, and subsequently analyzed for several morphological features. For both cone and rod bipolar cells, the dendritic field area, number of dendritic terminals, and stratification of terminals in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were comparable among coneless, conefull, and wildtype retinas, and the overall morphological appearance of each type of cell was largely conserved, indicating an independence from afferent specification. The presence of normal afferents was, however, found to be critical for the proper spatial distribution of dendritic terminals, exhibiting a clustered distribution for the cone bipolar cells and a dispersed distribution for the rod bipolar cells. These results demonstrate a selectivity in the afferent dependency of bipolar cell differentiation, their basic morphogenetic plan commanded cell-intrinsically, and their fine terminal connectivity directed by the afferents themselves. PMID:20130177

Keeley, Patrick W.; Reese, Benjamin E.

2010-01-01

191

Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity. PMID:24162508

Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F

2013-01-01

192

Homotaurine induces measurable changes of short latency afferent inhibition in a group of mild cognitive impairment individuals.  

PubMed

Current treatment options for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are limited at providing symptomatic relief, with no effects on the underlying pathophysiology. Recently, advances in the understanding of the AD pathogenesis highlighted the role of ABeta (A?) oligomers particularly interfering with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These findings led to the development of potential anti-amyloid therapies, and among them homotaurine, a glycosaminoglycan mimetic designed to interfere with the actions of A? early in the cascade of amyloidogenic events, and by its ?-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) A receptor affinity. Recently, we showed that AD patients have impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as measured by standard theta burst stimulation protocols applied over the primary motor cortex (M1). Furthermore, AD patients have a weakened short latency afferent inhibition (SLAI), a neurophysiological measure of central cholinergic transmission, which changes reflect the cholinergic dysfunction occurring in the pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating whether homotaurine administration could modulate in vivo measured mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, namely LTP and LTD, and also SLAI in a group of mild cognitive impaired patients. We observed that homotaurine administration did not induce relevant changes of both LTP and LTD recordings, while induced changes of SLAI in our group of patients. We suggest that homotaurine effects are dependent on changes of cortical GABA transmission suggesting a potential role for this compound in ameliorating the cholinergic transmission by modulating the inhibitory cortical activity. PMID:25295005

Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Manenti, Guglielmo; Semprini, Roberta; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

193

Homotaurine Induces Measurable Changes of Short Latency Afferent Inhibition in a Group of Mild Cognitive Impairment Individuals  

PubMed Central

Current treatment options for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are limited at providing symptomatic relief, with no effects on the underlying pathophysiology. Recently, advances in the understanding of the AD pathogenesis highlighted the role of ABeta (A?) oligomers particularly interfering with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These findings led to the development of potential anti-amyloid therapies, and among them homotaurine, a glycosaminoglycan mimetic designed to interfere with the actions of A? early in the cascade of amyloidogenic events, and by its ?-aminobutyric acid type (GABA) A receptor affinity. Recently, we showed that AD patients have impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as measured by standard theta burst stimulation protocols applied over the primary motor cortex (M1). Furthermore, AD patients have a weakened short latency afferent inhibition (SLAI), a neurophysiological measure of central cholinergic transmission, which changes reflect the cholinergic dysfunction occurring in the pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating whether homotaurine administration could modulate in vivo measured mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, namely LTP and LTD, and also SLAI in a group of mild cognitive impaired patients. We observed that homotaurine administration did not induce relevant changes of both LTP and LTD recordings, while induced changes of SLAI in our group of patients. We suggest that homotaurine effects are dependent on changes of cortical GABA transmission suggesting a potential role for this compound in ameliorating the cholinergic transmission by modulating the inhibitory cortical activity. PMID:25295005

Martorana, Alessandro; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Manenti, Guglielmo; Semprini, Roberta; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

194

Matched pre- and post-synaptic changes underlie synaptic plasticity over long time scales.  

PubMed

Modifications of synaptic efficacies are considered essential for learning and memory. However, it is not known how the underlying functional components of synaptic transmission change over long time scales. To address this question, we studied cortical synapses from young Wistar rats before and after 12 h intervals of spontaneous or glutamate-induced spiking activity. We found that, under these conditions, synaptic efficacies can increase or decrease by up to 10-fold. Statistical analyses reveal that these changes reflect modifications in the number of presynaptic release sites, together with postsynaptic changes that maintain the quantal size per release site. The quantitative relation between the presynaptic and postsynaptic transmission components was not affected when synaptic plasticity was enhanced or reduced using a broad range of pharmacological agents. These findings suggest that ongoing synaptic plasticity results in matched presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications, in which elementary modules that span the synaptic cleft are added or removed as a function of experience. PMID:23575825

Loebel, Alex; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Richardson, Magnus J E; Markram, Henry; Herz, Andreas V M

2013-04-10

195

Synaptic Vesicle-bound Pyruvate Kinase can Support Vesicular Glutamate Uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose metabolism is essential for normal brain function and plays a vital role in synaptic transmission. Recent evidence\\u000a suggests that ATP synthesized locally by glycolysis, particularly via glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase\\/3-phosphoglycerate\\u000a kinase, is critical for synaptic transmission. We present evidence that ATP generated by synaptic vesicle-associated pyruvate\\u000a kinase is harnessed to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Isolated synaptic vesicles incorporated [3H]glutamate

Atsuhiko Ishida; Yasuko Noda; Tetsufumi Ueda

2009-01-01

196

Neuromodulation by glutamate and acetylcholine can change circuit dynamics by regulating the relative influence of afferent input and excitatory feedback.  

PubMed

Substances such as acetylcholine and glutamate act as both neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. As neuromodulators, they change neural information processing by regulating synaptic transmitter release, altering baseline membrane potential and spiking activity, and modifying long-term synaptic plasticity. Slice physiology research has demonstrated that many neuromodulators differentially modulate afferent, incoming information compared to intrinsic and recurrent processing in cortical structures such as piriform cortex, neocortex, and the hippocampus. The enhancement of afferent (external) pathways versus the suppression at recurrent (internal) pathways could cause cortical dynamics to switch between a predominant influence of external stimulation to a predominant influence of internal recall. Modulation of afferent versus intrinsic processing could contribute to the role of neuromodulators in regulating attention, learning, and memory effects in behavior. PMID:17952661

Giocomo, Lisa M; Hasselmo, Michael E

2007-10-01

197

Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers--Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of action potentials in response to nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery, leading to antinociception. Opioids also exhibit a local anesthetic effect without opioid receptor activation in peripheral nerve fibers. This review article will focus on analgesia and anesthesia produced by the actions of opioids on primary-afferent fibers.

Kumamoto, Eiichi; Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi

2011-01-01

198

Mediation of Amphetamine-Induced Long-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission by CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rat Amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amygdala is thought to mediate memory consolidation of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference, a behavioral para- digm that requires memory for an association between environmental cues and the affective state produced by the drug treatment. Here we show that amphetamine induces long-term synaptic depression (LTD) in the amygdala. Amphetamine LTD is not affected by dopa- mine, serotonin 1A, and norepinephrine2

Ya-Chun Huang; Su-Jane Wang; Lih-Chu Chiou; Po-Wu Gean

2003-01-01

199

NMDA-Independent Long-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus: Mechanisms of Induction and Effects of Nootropic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In studies on transversal slices of the rat dorsal hippocampus, we found that low-frequency tetanic stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (2 sec-1, 7.5 min) results in long-term depression (LTD) of field EPSP of granular cells in the dentate gyrus. This synaptic plasticity phenomenon was weakened by calmodulin, nitric oxide synthase, and protein kinase C inhibitors, trifluoperazine (1 µM), N-nitro-L-arginine

I. I. Abramets; Yu. V. Kuznetsov; I. M. Samoi'lovich

2001-01-01

200

Input-specific synaptic plasticity in the amygdala is regulated by neuroligin-1 via postsynaptic NMDA receptors  

PubMed Central

Despite considerable evidence for a critical role of neuroligin-1 in the specification of excitatory synapses, the cellular mechanisms and physiological roles of neuroligin-1 in mature neural circuits are poorly understood. In mutant mice deficient in neuroligin-1, or adult rats in which neuroligin-1 was depleted, we have found that neuroligin-1 stabilizes the NMDA receptors residing in the postsynaptic membrane of amygdala principal neurons, which allows for a normal range of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. We observed marked decreases in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents at afferent inputs to the amygdala of neuroligin-1 knockout mice. However, the knockout mice exhibited a significant impairment in spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (STD-LTP) at the thalamic but not the cortical inputs to the amygdala. Subsequent electrophysiological analyses indicated that STD-LTP in the cortical pathway is largely independent of activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors. These findings suggest that neuroligin-1 can modulate, in a pathway-specific manner, synaptic plasticity in the amygdala circuits of adult animals, likely by regulating the abundance of postsynaptic NMDA receptors. PMID:20176955

Jung, Sang-Yong; Kim, Juhyun; Kwon, Oh Bin; Jung, Jung Hoon; An, Kyongman; Jeong, A Young; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Yun-Beom; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Kim, Joung-Hun

2010-01-01

201

Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response Associated with Neuronal Survival After a Critical Period in the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying enhanced plasticity of synaptic connections and susceptibilities to manipulations of afferent activity in developing sensory systems are not well understood. One example is the rapid and dramatic neuron death that occurs after removal of afferent input to the cochlear nucleus (CN) of young mammals and birds. The molecular basis of this critical period of neuronal vulnerability and the transition to survival independent of afferent input remains to be defined. Here we used microarray analyses, real time RT PCR, and immunohistochemistry of the mouse CN to show that deafferentation results in strikingly different sets of regulated genes in vulnerable (postnatal day (P) 7) and invulnerable (P21) CN. An unexpectedly large set of immune-related genes was induced by afferent deprivation after the critical period, which corresponded with glial proliferation over the same time frame. Apoptotic gene expression was not highly regulated in the vulnerable CN after afferent deprivation but, surprisingly, did increase after deafferentation at P21, when all neurons ultimately survive. Pharmacological activity blockade in the 8th nerve mimicked afferent deprivation for only a subset of the afferent deprivation regulated genes, indicating the presence of an additional factor not dependent on action potential-mediated signaling that is also responsible for transcriptional changes. Overall, our results suggest that the cell death machinery during this critical period is mainly constitutive, whereas after the critical period neuronal survival could be actively promoted by both constitutive and induced gene expression. PMID:18945907

Harris, Julie A.; Iguchi, Fukuichiro; Seidl, Armin H.; Lurie, Diana I.; Rubel, Edwin W

2008-01-01

202

Alterations in Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity in Mice Over-Expressing Human ?-Synuclein  

PubMed Central

Most forms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are sporadic in nature, but some have genetic causes as first described for the ?-synuclein gene. The ?-synuclein protein also accumulates as insoluble aggregates in Lewy bodies in sporadic PD as well as in most inherited forms of PD. The focus of the present study is the modulation of synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway of transgenic (Tg) mice that over express the human ?-synuclein protein throughout the brain (ASOTg). Paired-pulse facilitation was detected in vitro by activation of corticostriatal afferents in ASOTg mice, consistent with a presynaptic effect of elevated human ?-synuclein. However basal synaptic transmission was unchanged in ASOTg, suggesting that human ?-synuclein could impact paired-pulse facilitation via a presynaptic mechanism not directly related to the probability of neurotransmitter release. Mice lacking ?-synuclein or those expressing normal and A53T human ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons showed, instead, paired-pulse depression. High-frequency stimulation induced a presynaptic form of long-term depression solely in ASOTg striatum. A presynaptic, NMDA receptor-independent form of chemical long-term potentiation induced by forskolin (FSK) was enhanced in ASOTg striatum, while FSK-induced cAMP levels were reduced in ASOTg synaptoneurosome fractions. Overall the results suggest that elevated human ?-synuclein alters presynaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway, possibly reflecting a reduction in glutamate at corticostriatal synapses by modulation of adenylyl cyclase signaling pathways. ASOTg mice may recapitulate an early stage in PD during which over expressed ?-synuclein dampens corticostriatal synaptic transmission and reduces movement. PMID:19361478

Watson, J.B.; Hatami, A.; David, H.; Masliah, E.; Roberts, K.; Evans, C. E.; Levine, M.S.

2009-01-01

203

Identity of Endogenous NMDAR Glycine Site Agonist in Amygdala Is Determined by Synaptic Activity Level  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity contribute to the acquisition and retention of conditioned fear memory. However, synaptic rules which may determine the extent of NMDA receptor activation in the amygdala, a key structure implicated in fear learning, remain unknown. Here we show that the identity of the NMDAR glycine site agonist at synapses in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala may depend on the level of synaptic activation. Tonic activation of NMDARs at synapses in the amygdala under low-activity conditions is supported by ambient D-serine, whereas glycine may be released from astrocytes in response to afferent impulses. The release of glycine may decode the increases in afferent activity levels into enhanced NMDAR-mediated synaptic events, serving an essential function in the induction of NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways. PMID:23612301

Li, Yan; Sacchi, Silvia; Pollegioni, Loredano; Basu, Alo C.; Coyle, Joseph T.; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.

2013-01-01

204

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity  

E-print Network

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity Alberto E of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. In chemical synapses, presynaptic electrical currents

Rash, John E.

205

Mediation of amphetamine-induced long-term depression of synaptic transmission by CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the rat amygdala.  

PubMed

The amygdala is thought to mediate memory consolidation of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference, a behavioral paradigm that requires memory for an association between environmental cues and the affective state produced by the drug treatment. Here we show that amphetamine induces long-term synaptic depression (LTD) in the amygdala. Amphetamine LTD is not affected by dopamine, serotonin 1A, and norepinephrine alpha2 receptor antagonists but is blocked by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. It is mimicked by the CB1 agonist WIN55212-2 and facilitated and partially occluded by endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor AM404. Both amphetamine and WIN55212-2 LTDs are associated with an increase in the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation and a decrease in the frequency but not the amplitude of miniature EPSCs. They are also sensitive to block by P/Q type calcium channel blocker and occluded by each other, indicating that these two forms of synaptic plasticity share a common underlying mechanism. Loading postsynaptic neuron with calcium chelator blocked amphetamine LTD in some but not all neurons tested. However, in the presence of AM404, amphetamine LTD was present in all neurons recorded. These results suggest that amphetamine-induced endocannabinoid release depends on a rise in intracellular calcium and the incomplete block of LTD in some neurons may be attributable to the spillover of endocannabinoid from nearby cells. The finding that endocannabinoids underlie the synaptic actions of amphetamine may open a new avenue for the treatment of psychostimulants addiction. PMID:14614090

Huang, Ya-Chun; Wang, Su-Jane; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Gean, Po-Wu

2003-11-12

206

Selective activation of primary afferent fibers evaluated by sine-wave electrical stimulation  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous sine-wave stimuli at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz (Neurometer) are thought to selectively activate A?, A? and C afferent fibers, respectively. However, there are few reports to test the selectivity of these stimuli at the cellular level. In the present study, we analyzed action potentials (APs) generated by sine-wave stimuli applied to the dorsal root in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) preparations using intracellular recordings. We also measured excitatory synaptic responses evoked by transcutaneous stimuli in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn, which receive inputs predominantly from C and A? fibers, using in vivo patch-clamp recordings. In behavioral studies, escape or vocalization behavior of rats was observed with both 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at intensity of ~0.8 mA (T5/ T250), whereas with 2000 Hz stimulation, much higher intensity (2.14 mA, T2000) was required. In DRG neurons, APs were generated at T5/T250 by 2000 Hz stimulation in A?, by 250 Hz stimulation both in A? and A?, and by 5 Hz stimulation in all three classes of DRG neurons. However, the AP frequencies elicited in A? and A? by 5 Hz stimulation were much less than those reported previously in physiological condition. With in vivo experiments large amplitude of EPSCs in SG neurons were elicited by 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at T5/ T250. These results suggest that 2000 Hz stimulation excites selectively A? fibers and 5 Hz stimulation activates noxious transmission mediated mainly through C fibers. Although 250 Hz stimulation activates both A? and A? fibers, tactile sensation would not be perceived when painful sensation is produced at the same time. Therefore, 250 Hz was effective stimulus frequency for activation of A? fibers initiating noxious sensation. Thus, the transcutaneous sine-wave stimulation can be applied to evaluate functional changes of sensory transmission by comparing thresholds with the three stimulus frequencies. PMID:15813963

Koga, Kohei; Furue, Hidemasa; Rashid, Md Harunor; Takaki, Atsushi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Yoshimura, Megumu

2005-01-01

207

Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents  

PubMed Central

The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

2011-01-01

208

Onset Coding Is Degraded in Auditory Nerve Fibers from Mutant Mice Lacking Synaptic Ribbons  

E-print Network

Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the ...

Buran, Bradley N.

209

Robust suppression of afferent-induced excitation in the rat spinal dorsal horn after conditioning low-frequency stimulation.  

PubMed

The neuronal plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn induced after conditioning low-frequency stimulation of afferent A fibers, and its relationship with spinal inhibitory networks, was investigated with an optical-imaging method that detects neuronal excitation. High-intensity single-pulse stimulation of the dorsal root activating both A and C fibers evoked an optical response in the dorsal horn in transverse slices of 12- to 25-day-old rat spinal cords stained with a voltage-sensitive dye, RH-482. The optical response, reflecting the net excitation of neuronal elements along the thickness of each slice, was suppressed after a conditioning low-frequency stimulation (0.2-1 Hz for 10 min) to A fibers in the dorsal root. The degree of suppression was largest in the lamina II of the dorsal horn (48% reduction), where the majority of C fibers terminate, and much less in the deeper dorsal horn (5% reduction in laminae III-IV). The onset of suppression was somewhat slow; after the low-frequency stimulation, the magnitude of excitation gradually decreased, reached the maximum effect 30 min after the conditioning, and remained at the suppressed level for >1 h. Suppression was not observed when the low-frequency stimulation was given during a 20-min perfusion with a solution containing an NMDA-receptor antagonist, DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (30 microM). A brief application of an opioid-receptor antagonist, naloxone (0.5 microM), inhibited the induction, but not the maintenance, of low-frequency stimulus-induced suppression. However, treatments with the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1 microM) and the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (0.3 microM) did not affect suppression induction and maintenance. In conclusion, conditioning low-frequency stimulation to A fibers interferes with the afferent-induced excitation in the dorsal horn. The low-frequency stimulation-induced suppression is maintained by a reduction of glutamatergic excitatory transmissions in the dorsal horn, not by an enhanced inhibition. Activation of the spinal opioid-mediated system by low-frequency stimulation, but not the inhibitory amino acid-mediated system, is necessary to initiate robust suppression. The long-term depression of afferent synaptic efficacy onto excitatory interneurons likely takes the primary role in the robust suppression of neuronal excitation in the dorsal horn. PMID:10515985

Ikeda, H; Asai, T; Randi?, M; Murase, K

1999-10-01

210

Permanent central synaptic disconnection of proprioceptors after nerve injury and regeneration. I. Loss of VGLUT1/IA synapses on motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Motor and sensory proprioceptive axons reinnervate muscles after peripheral nerve transections followed by microsurgical reattachment; nevertheless, motor coordination remains abnormal and stretch reflexes absent. We analyzed the possibility that permanent losses of central IA afferent synapses, as a consequence of peripheral nerve injury, are responsible for this deficit. VGLUT1 was used as a marker of proprioceptive synapses on rat motoneurons. After nerve injuries synapses are stripped from motoneurons, but while other excitatory and inhibitory inputs eventually recover, VGLUT1 synapses are permanently lost on the cell body (75–95% synaptic losses) and on the proximal 100 ?m of dendrite (50% loss). Lost VGLUT1 synapses did not recover, even many months after muscle reinnervation. Interestingly, VGLUT1 density in more distal dendrites did not change. To investigate whether losses are due to VGLUT1 downregulation in injured IA afferents or to complete synaptic disassembly and regression of IA ventral projections, we studied the central trajectories and synaptic varicosities of axon collaterals from control and regenerated afferents with IA-like responses to stretch that were intracellularly filled with neurobiotin. VGLUT1 was present in all synaptic varicosities, identified with the synaptic marker SV2, of control and regenerated afferents. However, regenerated afferents lacked axon collaterals and synapses in lamina IX. In conjunction with the companion electrophysiological study [Bullinger KL, Nardelli P, Pinter MJ, Alvarez FJ, Cope TC. J Neurophysiol (August 10, 2011). doi:10.1152/jn.01097.2010], we conclude that peripheral nerve injuries cause a permanent retraction of IA afferent synaptic varicosities from lamina IX and disconnection with motoneurons that is not recovered after peripheral regeneration and reinnervation of muscle by sensory and motor axons. PMID:21832035

Titus-Mitchell, Haley E.; Bullinger, Katie L.; Kraszpulski, Michal; Nardelli, Paul; Cope, Timothy C.

2011-01-01

211

Modulation of synaptic transmission and excitation-contraction coupling in the opener muscle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus, by 5-hydroxytryptamine and octopamine.  

PubMed

The modulatory actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and octopamine (OA) were investigated in the opener nerve-muscle preparation of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus. Membrane resistance and resting potential were unaltered by 5-HT and OA at concentrations up to 2.5 X 10(-5) M; but EPSP-amplitudes were increased, up to 3-fold by OA and up to 18-fold by 5-HT. The lowest effective concentration was 2.5 X 10(-9) M; a maximal effect was produced at 2.5 X 10(-6) M. The effect was reversible only after prolonged washing. The enhancement of EPSPs by 5-HT or OA is due to an increased amplitude of the synaptic current; the current duration is not altered. The facilitation ratio (ratio of amplitudes of a pair of EPSPs) is not significantly affected by 5-HT or OA despite the often enormous increase of the absolute EPSP-amplitudes. The modulatory action also affects the excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling process: the effectiveness of e-c coupling was increased 7.4-fold by 5-HT (2.5 X 10(-6) M) and 18.7-fold by OA (5 X 10(-6) M). The threshold potential of e-c coupling was not affected. PMID:6300277

Fischer, L; Florey, E

1983-01-01

212

Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in Striatal Neurons Leads to Up-regulation of Genes Associated with Sustained Synaptic Transmission Including Arc/Arg3.1 Protein*  

PubMed Central

The G-protein coupled receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), is expressed on both cell surface and intracellular membranes in striatal neurons. Using pharmacological tools to differentiate membrane responses, we previously demonstrated that cell surface mGluR5 triggers rapid, transient cytoplasmic Ca2+ rises, resulting in c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, whereas stimulation of intracellular mGluR5 induces long, sustained Ca2+ responses leading to the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Elk-1 (Jong, Y. J., Kumar, V., and O'Malley, K. L. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 35827–35838). Using pharmacological, genetic, and bioinformatics approaches, the current findings show that both receptor populations up-regulate many immediate early genes involved in growth and differentiation. Activation of intracellular mGluR5 also up-regulates genes involved in synaptic plasticity including activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Mechanistically, intracellular mGluR5-mediated Arc induction is dependent upon extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ and ERK1/2 as well as calmodulin-dependent kinases as known chelators, inhibitors, and a dominant negative Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II construct block Arc increases. Moreover, intracellular mGluR5-induced Arc expression requires the serum response transcription factor (SRF) as wild type but not SRF-deficient neurons show this response. Finally, increased Arc levels due to high K+ depolarization is significantly reduced in response to a permeable but not an impermeable mGluR5 antagonist. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of intracellular mGluR5 in the cascade of events associated with sustained synaptic transmission. PMID:22179607

Kumar, Vikas; Fahey, Paul G.; Jong, Yuh-Jiin I.; Ramanan, Narendrakumar; O'Malley, Karen L.

2012-01-01

213

Transmission from the dominant input shapes the stereotypic ratio of photoreceptor inputs onto horizontal cells.  

PubMed

Many neurons receive synapses in stereotypic proportions from converging but functionally distinct afferents. However, developmental mechanisms regulating synaptic convergence are not well understood. Here we describe a heterotypic mechanism by which one afferent controls synaptogenesis of another afferent, but not vice versa. Like other CNS circuits, zebrafish retinal H3 horizontal cells (HC) undergo an initial period of remodelling, establishing synapses with ultraviolet and blue cones while eliminating red and green cone contacts. As development progresses, the HCs selectively synapse with ultraviolet cones to generate a 5:1 ultraviolet-to-blue cone synapse ratio. Blue cone synaptogenesis increases in mutants lacking ultraviolet cones, and when transmitter release or visual stimulation of ultraviolet cones is perturbed. Connectivity is unaltered when blue cone transmission is suppressed. Moreover, there is no cell-autonomous regulation of cone synaptogenesis by neurotransmission. Thus, biased connectivity in this circuit is established by an unusual activity-dependent, unidirectional control of synaptogenesis exerted by the dominant input. PMID:24832361

Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Williams, Philip R; D'Orazi, Florence D; Suzuki, Sachihiro C; Fadool, James M; Allison, W Ted; Raymond, Pamela A; Wong, Rachel O

2014-01-01

214

Differential content of vesicular glutamate transporters in subsets of vagal afferents projecting to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the rat.  

PubMed

The vagus nerve contains primary visceral afferents that convey sensory information from cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal tissues to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). The heterogeneity of vagal afferents and their central terminals within the NTS is a common obstacle for evaluating functional groups of afferents. To determine whether different anterograde tracers can be used to identify distinct subpopulations of vagal afferents within NTS, we injected cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) and isolectin B4 (IB4) into the vagus nerve. Confocal analyses of medial NTS following injections of both CTb and IB4 into the same vagus nerve resulted in labeling of two exclusive populations of fibers. The ultrastructural patterns were also distinct. CTb was found in both myelinated and unmyelinated vagal axons and terminals in medial NTS, whereas IB4 was found only in unmyelinated afferents. Both tracers were observed in terminals with asymmetric synapses, suggesting excitatory transmission. Because glutamate is thought to be the neurotransmitter at this first primary afferent synapse in NTS, we determined whether vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) were differentially distributed among the two distinct populations of vagal afferents. Anterograde tracing from the vagus with CTb or IB4 was combined with immunohistochemistry for VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 in medial NTS and evaluated with confocal microscopy. CTb-labeled afferents contained primarily VGLUT2 (83%), whereas IB4-labeled afferents had low levels of vesicular transporters, VGLUT1 (5%) or VGLUT2 (21%). These findings suggest the possibility that glutamate release from unmyelinated vagal afferents may be regulated by a distinct, non-VGLUT, mechanism. PMID:23897509

Hermes, Sam M; Colbert, James F; Aicher, Sue A

2014-02-15

215

Developmental alterations of DHPG-induced long-term depression of corticostriatal synaptic transmission: switch from NMDA receptor-dependent towards CB1 receptor-dependent plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal models of early Parkinson’s disease (PD), motor deficits are accompanied by excessive striatal glutamate release.\\u000a Blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), endocannabinoid degradation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis\\u000a combats PD symptoms. Activation of group I mGluRs with the specific agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induces long-term\\u000a depression of corticostriatal transmission (LTDDHPG) in the adult mouse striatum requiring NO

Aisa N. Chepkova; Wiebke Fleischer; Thomas Kazmierczak; Nanuli Doreulee; Helmut L. Haas; Olga A. Sergeeva

2009-01-01

216

Differences in Synaptic GABA A Receptor Number Underlie Variation in GABA Mini Amplitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many neurons, responses to individual quanta of transmitter exhibit large variations in amplitude. The origin of this variability, although central to our understanding of synaptic transmission and plasticity, remains controversial. To examine the relationship between quantal amplitude and postsynaptic receptor number, we adopted a novel approach, combining patch-clamp recording of synaptic currents with quantitative immunogold localization of synaptic receptors.

Zoltan Nusser; Stuart Cull-Candy; Mark Farrant

1997-01-01

217

The effect of bilateral deafness on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength in the inferior colliculus  

E-print Network

following sensory deprivation. Introduction A decrease in electrical activity or synaptic transmission can that accompany deafferentation or sensory deprivation. In the central auditory system, partial sensory

218

Developmental alterations of DHPG-induced long-term depression of corticostriatal synaptic transmission: switch from NMDA receptor-dependent towards CB1 receptor-dependent plasticity.  

PubMed

In animal models of early Parkinson's disease (PD), motor deficits are accompanied by excessive striatal glutamate release. Blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), endocannabinoid degradation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis combats PD symptoms. Activation of group I mGluRs with the specific agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induces long-term depression of corticostriatal transmission (LTD(DHPG)) in the adult mouse striatum requiring NO synthesis downstream to cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation suggesting a dual role for LTD(DHPG): neuroprotective by down-regulation of glutamatergic transmission and, under certain circumstances, neurotoxic by release of NO. We report now that LTD(DHPG) undergoes a developmental switch from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-dependent/CB1R-independent to NMDA receptor-independent/CB1R-dependent plasticity with NO playing an essential role for LTD(DHPG) at all developmental stages. The gain in function of CB1R is explained by their developmental up-regulation evaluated with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These findings are relevant for the pathophysiology and therapy of PD as they link the activation of group I mGluRs, endocannabinoid release, and striatal NO production. PMID:19701770

Chepkova, Aisa N; Fleischer, Wiebke; Kazmierczak, Thomas; Doreulee, Nanuli; Haas, Helmut L; Sergeeva, Olga A

2009-11-01

219

Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10–20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

Shitara, H.; Shinozaki, T.; Takagishi, K.; Honda, M.; Hanakawa, T.

2013-01-01

220

Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or gave electrical right median nerve stimulation (MNS) in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG). We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging. PMID:24062660

Shitara, H; Shinozaki, T; Takagishi, K; Honda, M; Hanakawa, T

2013-01-01

221

Inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons by levetiracetam involves Zn˛?-dependent GABA type A receptor-mediated presynaptic modulation.  

PubMed

Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug with a unique but as yet not fully resolved mechanism of action. Therefore, by use of a simplified rat-isolated nerve-bouton preparation, we have investigated how LEV modulates glutamatergic transmission from mossy fiber terminals to hippocampal CA3 neurons. Action potential-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were recorded using a conventional whole-cell patch-clamp recording configuration in voltage-clamp mode. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin decreased glutamatergic eEPSCs in a concentration-dependent fashion by inhibiting voltage-dependent Na? and Ca˛? channel currents. In contrast, LEV had no effect on eEPSCs or voltage-dependent Na? or Ca˛? channel currents. Activation of presynaptic GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors by muscimol induced presynaptic inhibition of eEPSCs, resulting from depolarization block. Low concentrations of Zn˛?, which had no effect on eEPSCs, voltage-dependent Na? or Ca˛? channel currents, or glutamate receptor-mediated whole cell currents, reduced the muscimol-induced presynaptic inhibition. LEV applied in the continuous presence of 1 µM muscimol and 1 µM Zn˛? reversed this Zn˛? modulation on eEPSCs. The antagonizing effect of LEV on Zn˛?-induced presynaptic GABA(A) receptor inhibition was also observed with the Zn˛? chelators Ca-EDTA and RhodZin-3. Our results clearly show that LEV removes the Zn˛?-induced suppression of GABA(A)-mediated presynaptic inhibition, resulting in a presynaptic decrease in glutamate-mediated excitatory transmission. Our results provide a novel mechanism by which LEV may inhibit neuronal activity. PMID:24259680

Wakita, Masahito; Kotani, Naoki; Kogure, Kyuya; Akaike, Norio

2014-02-01

222

Estimating synaptic parameters from mean, variance, and covariance in trains of synaptic responses.  

PubMed Central

Fluctuation analysis of synaptic transmission using the variance-mean approach has been restricted in the past to steady-state responses. Here we extend this method to short repetitive trains of synaptic responses, during which the response amplitudes are not stationary. We consider intervals between trains, long enough so that the system is in the same average state at the beginning of each train. This allows analysis of ensemble means and variances for each response in a train separately. Thus, modifications in synaptic efficacy during short-term plasticity can be attributed to changes in synaptic parameters. In addition, we provide practical guidelines for the analysis of the covariance between successive responses in trains. Explicit algorithms to estimate synaptic parameters are derived and tested by Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of a binomial model of synaptic transmission, allowing for quantal variability, heterogeneity in the release probability, and postsynaptic receptor saturation and desensitization. We find that the combined analysis of variance and covariance is advantageous in yielding an estimate for the number of release sites, which is independent of heterogeneity in the release probability under certain conditions. Furthermore, it allows one to calculate the apparent quantal size for each response in a sequence of stimuli. PMID:11566771

Scheuss, V; Neher, E

2001-01-01

223

The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing  

PubMed Central

In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic) path (pp-CA1 synapse) and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse). Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We observed that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 synapse have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (>24 h) was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing. PMID:23986697

Aksoy-Aksel, Ayla; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

2013-01-01

224

Glutamatergic functions of primary afferent neurons with special emphasis on vagal afferents.  

PubMed

Glutamate has been identified as the main transmitter of primary afferent neurons. This was established based on biochemical, electrophysiological, and immunohistochemical data from studies on glutamatergic receptors and their agonists/antagonists. The availability of specific antibodies directed against glutamate and, more recently, vesicular glutamate transporters corroborated this and led to significant new discoveries. In particular, peripheral endings of various classes of afferents contain vesicular glutamate transporters, suggesting vesicular storage in and exocytotic release of glutamate from peripheral afferent endings. This suggests that autocrine mechanisms regulate sensory transduction processes. However, glutamate release from peripheral sensory terminals could also enable afferent neurons to influence various cells associated with them. This may be particularly relevant for vagal intraganglionic laminar endings, which could represent glutamatergic sensor-effector components of intramural reflex arcs in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, morphological analysis of the relationships of putative glutamatergic primary afferents with associated tissues may direct forthcoming studies on their functions. PMID:17241909

Raab, Marion; Neuhuber, Winfried L

2007-01-01

225

Extrinsic primary afferent signalling in the gut.  

PubMed

Visceral sensory neurons activate reflex pathways that control gut function and also give rise to important sensations, such as fullness, bloating, nausea, discomfort, urgency and pain. Sensory neurons are organised into three distinct anatomical pathways to the central nervous system (vagal, thoracolumbar and lumbosacral). Although remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the roles of many ion channels, receptors and second messengers in visceral sensory neurons, the basic aim of understanding how many classes there are, and how they differ, has proven difficult to achieve. We suggest that just five structurally distinct types of sensory endings are present in the gut wall that account for essentially all of the primary afferent neurons in the three pathways. Each of these five major structural types of endings seems to show distinctive combinations of physiological responses. These types are: 'intraganglionic laminar' endings in myenteric ganglia; 'mucosal' endings located in the subepithelial layer; 'muscular-mucosal' afferents, with mechanosensitive endings close to the muscularis mucosae; 'intramuscular' endings, with endings within the smooth muscle layers; and 'vascular' afferents, with sensitive endings primarily on blood vessels. 'Silent' afferents might be a subset of inexcitable 'vascular' afferents, which can be switched on by inflammatory mediators. Extrinsic sensory neurons comprise an attractive focus for targeted therapeutic intervention in a range of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23438947

Brookes, Simon J H; Spencer, Nick J; Costa, Marcello; Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P

2013-05-01

226

Selective activation of primary afferent fibers evaluated by sine-wave electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous sine-wave stimuli at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz (Neurometer) are thought to selectively activate Abeta, Adelta and C afferent fibers, respectively. However, there are few reports to test the selectivity of these stimuli at the cellular level. In the present study, we analyzed action potentials (APs) generated by sine-wave stimuli applied to the dorsal root in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) preparations using intracellular recordings. We also measured excitatory synaptic responses evoked by transcutaneous stimuli in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn, which receive inputs predominantly from C and Adelta fibers, using in vivo patch-clamp recordings. In behavioral studies, escape or vocalization behavior of rats was observed with both 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at intensity of approximately 0.8 mA (T5/ T250), whereas with 2000 Hz stimulation, much higher intensity (2.14 mA, T2000) was required. In DRG neurons, APs were generated at T5/T250 by 2000 Hz stimulation in Abeta, by 250 Hz stimulation both in Abeta and Adelta, and by 5 Hz stimulation in all three classes of DRG neurons. However, the AP frequencies elicited in Abeta and Adelta by 5 Hz stimulation were much less than those reported previously in physiological condition. With in vivo experiments large amplitude of EPSCs in SG neurons were elicited by 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at T5/ T250. These results suggest that 2000 Hz stimulation excites selectively Abeta fibers and 5 Hz stimulation activates noxious transmission mediated mainly through C fibers. Although 250 Hz stimulation activates both Adelta and Abeta fibers, tactile sensation would not be perceived when painful sensation is produced at the same time. Therefore, 250 Hz was effective stimulus frequency for activation of Adelta fibers initiating noxious sensation. Thus, the transcutaneous sine-wave stimulation can be applied to evaluate functional changes of sensory transmission by comparing thresholds with the three stimulus frequencies. PMID:15813963

Koga, Kohei; Furue, Hidemasa; Rashid, Md Harunor; Takaki, Atsushi; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Yoshimura, Megumu

2005-01-01

227

EONS: an online synaptic modeling platform.  

PubMed

Chemical synapses, although representing the smallest unit of communication between two neurons in the nervous system constitute a complex ensemble of mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms and the way synaptic transmission occurs is critical for our comprehension of CNS functions in general and learning and memory in particular. Here we describe a modeling platform called EONS (Elementary Object of Neural System) accessible online, which allows neuroscientists throughout the world to study qualitatively, but also quantitatively the relative contributions of diverse mechanisms underlying synaptic efficacy: the relevance of each and every elements that comprise a synapse, the interactions between these components and their subcellular distribution, as well as the influence of synaptic geometry (presynaptic terminal, cleft and postsynaptic density). PMID:17946227

Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Qiu, Yumei; Ziane, Mohammed B; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

2006-01-01

228

Myelination: an overlooked mechanism of synaptic plasticity?  

PubMed

Myelination of the brain continues through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood--the question is, Why? Two new articles provide intriguing evidence that myelination may be an underappreciated mechanism of activity-dependent nervous system plasticity: one study reported increased myelination associated with extensive piano playing, another indicated that rats have increased myelination of the corpus callosum when raised in environments providing increased social interaction and cognitive stimulation. These articles make it clear that activity-dependent effects on myelination cannot be considered strictly a developmental event. They raise the question of whether myelination is an overlooked mechanism of activity-dependent plasticity, extending in humans until at least age 30. It has been argued that regulating the speed of conduction across long fiber tracts would have a major influence on synaptic response, by coordinating the timing of afferent input to maximize temporal summation. The increase in synaptic amplitude could be as large as neurotransmitter-based mechanisms of plasticity, such as LTP. These new findings raise a larger question: How did the oligodendrocytes know they were practicing the piano or that their environment was socially complex? PMID:16282593

Fields, R Douglas

2005-12-01

229

Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH) on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT) were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.

Mahmoud, Ghada S.; Amer, Ayman S.

2014-01-01

230

High-fidelity transmission of sensory information by single cerebellar mossy fibre boutons.  

PubMed

Understanding the transmission of sensory information at individual synaptic connections requires knowledge of the properties of presynaptic terminals and their patterns of firing evoked by sensory stimuli. Such information has been difficult to obtain because of the small size and inaccessibility of nerve terminals in the central nervous system. Here we show, by making direct patch-clamp recordings in vivo from cerebellar mossy fibre boutons-the primary source of synaptic input to the cerebellar cortex-that sensory stimulation can produce bursts of spikes in single boutons at very high instantaneous firing frequencies (more than 700 Hz). We show that the mossy fibre-granule cell synapse exhibits high-fidelity transmission at these frequencies, indicating that the rapid burst of excitatory postsynaptic currents underlying the sensory-evoked response of granule cells can be driven by such a presynaptic spike burst. We also demonstrate that a single mossy fibre can trigger action potential bursts in granule cells in vitro when driven with in vivo firing patterns. These findings suggest that the relay from mossy fibre to granule cell can act in a 'detonator' fashion, such that a single presynaptic afferent may be sufficient to transmit the sensory message. This endows the cerebellar mossy fibre system with remarkable sensitivity and high fidelity in the transmission of sensory information. PMID:18097412

Rancz, Ede A; Ishikawa, Taro; Duguid, Ian; Chadderton, Paul; Mahon, Séverine; Häusser, Michael

2007-12-20

231

Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.  

PubMed

Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

2014-07-15

232

The somatostatin analogue octreotide inhibits capsaicin-mediated activation of nociceptive primary afferent fibres in spinal cord lamina II (substantia gelatinosa).  

PubMed

Somatostatin (SST) in spinal cord has been linked with the inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission in several experimental paradigms. The SST2 receptor (SSTR2) is the main SST receptor subtype in the superficial dorsal horn (DH) and is activated, besides to the naďve peptide, by the SST synthetic analogue octreotide (OCT). In the present work, we have studied the central effects of SSTR2 activation on capsaicin (CAP)-induced glutamate release in mouse DH. In neurons of the lamina II of DH, CAP (2 ?M) induced a strong increase of mEPSC frequency that was significantly reduced (70%) by OCT. SSTR2 involvement was assessed by using the specific antagonist CYN 154806. No differences were observed between frequency increase in CAP alone vs. CAP in the presence of CYN 154806+OCT. The effect of OCT was further investigated by studying c-fos expression in spinal cord slices. The CAP-induced increase in density of Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the superficial DH was strongly prevented by OCT. SSTR2a (a splicing variant of SSTR2) immunoreactivity was found in both pre- and post-synaptic compartments of laminae I-II synapses. By light and electron microscopy, SSTR2a was mainly localized onto non-peptidergic isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive primary afferent fibres (PAFs). A subset of them was also found to express the CAP receptor TRPV1. These data show that the SST analogue OCT inhibits CAP-mediated activation of non-peptidergic nociceptive PAFs in lamina II. Our data indicate that SSTR2a plays an important role in the pre-synaptic modulation of central excitatory nociceptive transmission in mouse. PMID:21109472

Bencivinni, Ileana; Ferrini, Francesco; Salio, Chiara; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Merighi, Adalberto

2011-07-01

233

Pancreatobiliary afferent recordings in the anaesthetised Australian possum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory innervation to the pancreatobiliary system is poorly characterized. Afferent signals from the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tree are transmitted to the central nervous system via the vagus and spinal nerves. We aimed to record afferent discharge in order to characterize the vagal and splanchnic afferent signals from the possum upper gastrointestinal tract, biliary tree and pancreas. In 21

A. C. Schloithe; C. M. Woods; J. S. Davison; L. A. Blackshaw; J. Toouli; G. T. P. Saccone

2006-01-01

234

Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment  

PubMed Central

Beyond direct synaptic communication, neurons are able to talk to each other without making synapses. They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors. While synaptic transmission is responsible for the ‘what’ of brain function, the ‘how’ of brain function (mood, attention, level of arousal, general excitability, etc.) is mainly controlled non-synaptically using the extracellular space as communication channel. It is principally the ‘how’ that can be modulated by medicine. In this paper, we discuss different forms of non-synaptic transmission, localized spillover of synaptic transmitters, local presynaptic modulation and tonic influence of ambient transmitter levels on the activity of vast neuronal populations. We consider different aspects of non-synaptic transmission, such as synaptic–extrasynaptic receptor trafficking, neuron–glia communication and retrograde signalling. We review structural and functional aspects of non-synaptic transmission, including (i) anatomical arrangement of non-synaptic release sites, receptors and transporters, (ii) intravesicular, intra- and extracellular concentrations of neurotransmitters, as well as the spatiotemporal pattern of transmitter diffusion. We propose that an effective general strategy for efficient pharmacological intervention could include the identification of specific non-synaptic targets and the subsequent development of selective pharmacological tools to influence them. PMID:20136842

Vizi, ES; Fekete, A; Karoly, R; Mike, A

2010-01-01

235

Cyclooxygenase-2 in synaptic signaling.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a rate-limiting enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and a key player in neuroinflammation, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and in traumatic brain injury- and ischemia-induced neuronal damage, and epileptogenesis. Accumulated information suggests that the contribution of COX-2 to neuropathology is associated with its involvement in synaptic modification. Inhibition or elevation of COX-2 has been shown to suppress or enhance excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). These events are mainly mediated via PGE(2), the predominant reaction product of COX-2, and the PGE(2) subtype 2 receptor (EP(2))-protein kinase A pathway. Recent evidence shows that endogenous cannabinoids are substrates for COX-2 and can be oxygenated by COX-2 to form new classes of prostaglandins (prostaglandin glycerol esters and prostaglandin ethanolamides). These COX-2 oxidative metabolites of endocannabinoids, as novel signaling mediators, modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity and cause neurodegeneration. The actions of these COX-2 metabolites are likely mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) signal transduction pathways. These discoveries suggest that the contributions of COX-2 to neurotransmission and brain malfunction result not only from its conversion of arachidonic acid to classic prostaglandins but also from its oxidative metabolism of endocannabinoids to novel prostaglandins. Thus, elucidation of COX-2 in synaptic signaling may provide a mechanistic basis for designing new drugs aimed at preventing, treating or alleviating neuroinflammation-associated neurological disorders. PMID:18537667

Yang, Hongwei; Chen, Chu

2008-01-01

236

Afferent signalling of gastric acid challenge.  

PubMed

Gastric acid is a factor in the pain associated with peptic ulcer and other acid-related disorders including functional dyspepsia, given that antisecretory treatment is a mainstay in the treatment of upper abdominal pain. However, the molecular sensors, afferent pathways and central processing systems of gastric chemonociception are little known. This article reviews emerging evidence that vagal afferent pathways play a pivotal role in gastric chemonociception. Exposure of the rat gastric mucosa to backdiffusing concentrations of luminal acid is signalled to the brainstem, but not spinal cord, as visualized by functional neuroanatomy based on the rapid expression of c-fos. This observation is complemented by the finding that the visceromotor response to gastric acid challenge is suppressed by vagotomy, but not splanchnectomy. The gastric acid-induced expression of c-fos in the brainstem is reduced by inhibition of gastric acid secretion and enhanced by pentagastrin-evoked stimulation of gastric acid secretion. These data indicate that endogenous acid modulates the sensory gain of acid-sensitive vagal afferents. Further consistent with a role of these neurons in gastric nociception is the finding that exposure to proinflammatory cytokines and the induction of experimental gastritis or gastric ulceration sensitizes vagal afferent pathways to gastric acid. Taken together, these observations are of relevance to the understanding and treatment of gastric hyperalgesia and dyspeptic pain. PMID:15075448

Holzer, P

2003-12-01

237

Patterns of saccular afferent innervation in sciaenids.  

PubMed

In this study, saccular afferent arborization patterns in Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and spot Leiostomus xanthurus were characterized. Leiostomus xanthurus showed the simplest configuration while M. undulatus displayed the most complex. In addition, hair-cell densities at sites sampled along the rostro-caudal axis of the saccular epithelia correlated with the observed patterns of arborization. PMID:23991887

Selckmann, G M; Ramcharitar, J

2013-09-01

238

What Is Transmitted in "Synaptic Transmission"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next"…

Montagna, Erik; de Azevedo, Adriana M. S.; Romano, Camilla; Ranvaud, Ronald

2010-01-01

239

Endocannabinoids as Modulators of Synaptic Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the major roles of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the brain is to mediate short-term and some forms of long-term retrograde\\u000a inhibition of synaptic transmission. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is highly expressed in many brain regions. In particular,\\u000a the CB1 receptor is localized to axon terminals of neurons that release either glutamate or GABA. The purpose of this

Sachin Patel; Cecilia J. Hillard

240

Engrailed alters the specificity of synaptic connections of Drosophila auditory neurons with the giant fiber.  

PubMed

We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON-GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H; Marie, Bruno; Blagburn, Jonathan M

2014-08-27

241

Definition Synaptic Integration in Dendritic Trees  

E-print Network

#12; Definition Synaptic Integration in Dendritic Trees Propagation of Action Potentials possible function of dendritic trees is to spatially isolate synaptic inputs to enhance their summation synaptic responses as they propagate through the dendritic tree. Synaptic events are conductance changes

Alford, Simon

242

APP Is Cleaved by Bace1 in Pre-Synaptic Vesicles and Establishes a Pre-Synaptic Interactome, via Its Intracellular Domain, with Molecular Complexes that Regulate Pre-Synaptic Vesicles Functions.  

PubMed

Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type I membrane protein that undergoes extensive processing by secretases, including BACE1. Although mutations in APP and genes that regulate processing of APP, such as PSENs and BRI2/ITM2B, cause dementias, the normal function of APP in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and memory formation is poorly understood. To grasp the biochemical mechanisms underlying the function of APP in the central nervous system, it is important to first define the sub-cellular localization of APP in synapses and the synaptic interactome of APP. Using biochemical and electron microscopy approaches, we have found that APP is localized in pre-synaptic vesicles, where it is processed by Bace1. By means of a proteomic approach, we have characterized the synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain. We focused on this region of APP because in vivo data underline the central funtional and pathological role of the intracellular domain of APP. Consistent with the expression of APP in pre-synaptic vesicles, the synaptic APP intracellular domain interactome is predominantly constituted by pre-synaptic, rather than post-synaptic, proteins. This pre-synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain includes proteins expressed on pre-synaptic vesicles such as the vesicular SNARE Vamp2/Vamp1 and the Ca2+ sensors Synaptotagmin-1/Synaptotagmin-2, and non-vesicular pre-synaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, endocytosis and recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles, such as target-membrane-SNAREs (Syntaxin-1b, Syntaxin-1a, Snap25 and Snap47), Munc-18, Nsf, ?/?/?-Snaps and complexin. These data are consistent with a functional role for APP, via its carboxyl-terminal domain, in exocytosis, endocytosis and/or recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles. PMID:25247712

Del Prete, Dolores; Lombino, Franco; Liu, Xinran; D'Adamio, Luciano

2014-01-01

243

APP Is Cleaved by Bace1 in Pre-Synaptic Vesicles and Establishes a Pre-Synaptic Interactome, via Its Intracellular Domain, with Molecular Complexes that Regulate Pre-Synaptic Vesicles Functions  

PubMed Central

Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is a type I membrane protein that undergoes extensive processing by secretases, including BACE1. Although mutations in APP and genes that regulate processing of APP, such as PSENs and BRI2/ITM2B, cause dementias, the normal function of APP in synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and memory formation is poorly understood. To grasp the biochemical mechanisms underlying the function of APP in the central nervous system, it is important to first define the sub-cellular localization of APP in synapses and the synaptic interactome of APP. Using biochemical and electron microscopy approaches, we have found that APP is localized in pre-synaptic vesicles, where it is processed by Bace1. By means of a proteomic approach, we have characterized the synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain. We focused on this region of APP because in vivo data underline the central funtional and pathological role of the intracellular domain of APP. Consistent with the expression of APP in pre-synaptic vesicles, the synaptic APP intracellular domain interactome is predominantly constituted by pre-synaptic, rather than post-synaptic, proteins. This pre-synaptic interactome of the APP intracellular domain includes proteins expressed on pre-synaptic vesicles such as the vesicular SNARE Vamp2/Vamp1 and the Ca2+ sensors Synaptotagmin-1/Synaptotagmin-2, and non-vesicular pre-synaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, endocytosis and recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles, such as target-membrane-SNAREs (Syntaxin-1b, Syntaxin-1a, Snap25 and Snap47), Munc-18, Nsf, ?/?/?-Snaps and complexin. These data are consistent with a functional role for APP, via its carboxyl-terminal domain, in exocytosis, endocytosis and/or recycling of pre-synaptic vesicles. PMID:25247712

Del Prete, Dolores; Lombino, Franco; Liu, Xinran; D'Adamio, Luciano

2014-01-01

244

In vivo synaptic recovery following optogenetic hyperstimulation.  

PubMed

Local recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs) allows neurons to sustain transmitter release. Extreme activity (e.g., during seizure) may exhaust synaptic transmission and, in vitro, induces bulk endocytosis to recover SV membrane and proteins; how this occurs in animals is unknown. Following optogenetic hyperstimulation of Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons, we analyzed synaptic recovery by time-resolved behavioral, electrophysiological, and ultrastructural assays. Recovery of docked SVs and of evoked-release amplitudes (indicating readily-releasable pool refilling) occurred within ?8-20 s (? = 9.2 s and ? = 11.9 s), whereas locomotion recovered only after ?60 s (? = 20 s). During ?11-s stimulation, 50- to 200-nm noncoated vesicles ("100nm vesicles") formed, which disappeared ?8 s poststimulation, likely representing endocytic intermediates from which SVs may regenerate. In endophilin, synaptojanin, and dynamin mutants, affecting endocytosis and vesicle scission, resolving 100nm vesicles was delayed (>20 s). In dynamin mutants, 100nm vesicles were abundant and persistent, sometimes continuous with the plasma membrane; incomplete budding of smaller vesicles from 100nm vesicles further implicates dynamin in regenerating SVs from bulk-endocytosed vesicles. Synaptic recovery after exhaustive activity is slow, and different time scales of recovery at ultrastructural, physiological, and behavioral levels indicate multiple contributing processes. Similar processes may jointly account for slow recovery from acute seizures also in higher animals. PMID:23878262

Kittelmann, Maike; Liewald, Jana F; Hegermann, Jan; Schultheis, Christian; Brauner, Martin; Steuer Costa, Wagner; Wabnig, Sebastian; Eimer, Stefan; Gottschalk, Alexander

2013-08-01

245

Afferent and efferent components of Octopus retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.An isolated, superfused eye-optic lobe preparation was used to study action potential activity in the optic nerves ofOctopus vulgaris.2.In intact nerves, responses to illumination take the form of sustained activity during illumination followed by an afterdischarge, often organised into bursts.3.Afferent and efferent components of these responses have been separated by optic nerve section. The sustained response during illumination is predominantly

John A. Patterson; Susan C. Silver

1983-01-01

246

Synaptic integration in dendritic trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most neurons have elaborate dendritic trees that receive tens of thousands of synaptic inputs. Because postsynaptic responses to individual synaptic events are usually small and transient, the integration of many synaptic responses is needed to depolarize most neurons to action potential threshold. Over the past decade, advances in electrical and optical recording techniques have led to new insights into how

Allan T. Gulledge; Björn M. Kampa; Greg J. Stuart

2005-01-01

247

Identity of endogenous NMDAR glycine site agonist in amygdala is determined by synaptic activity level.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity contribute to the acquisition and retention of conditioned fear memory. However, synaptic rules which may determine the extent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation in the amygdala, a key structure implicated in fear learning, remain unknown. Here we show that the identity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glycine site agonist at synapses in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala may depend on the level of synaptic activation. Tonic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at synapses in the amygdala under low activity conditions is supported by ambient D-serine, whereas glycine may be released from astrocytes in response to afferent impulses. The release of glycine may decode the increases in afferent activity levels into enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic events, serving an essential function in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation in fear conditioning pathways. PMID:23612301

Li, Yan; Sacchi, Silvia; Pollegioni, Loredano; Basu, Alo C; Coyle, Joseph T; Bolshakov, Vadim Y

2013-01-01

248

Cortical Presynaptic Control of Dorsal Horn C-Afferents in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C–fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C–fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C–fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C–fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. PMID:23935924

Martinez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condes-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

2013-01-01

249

Ceramidase Regulates Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis and Trafficking  

PubMed Central

A screen for Drosophila synaptic dysfunction mutants identified slug-a-bed (slab). The slab gene encodes ceramidase, a central enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism and regulation. Sphingolipids are major constituents of lipid rafts, membrane domains with roles in vesicle trafficking, and signaling pathways. Null slab mutants arrest as fully developed embryos with severely reduced movement. The SLAB protein is widely expressed in different tissues but enriched in neurons at all stages of development. Targeted neuronal expression of slab rescues mutant lethality, demonstrating the essential neuronal function of the protein. C5-ceramide applied to living preparations is rapidly accumulated at neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses dependent on the SLAB expression level, indicating that synaptic sphingolipid trafficking and distribution is regulated by SLAB function. Evoked synaptic currents at slab mutant NMJs are reduced by 50–70%, whereas postsynaptic glutamate-gated currents are normal, demonstrating a specific presynaptic impairment. Hypertonic saline-evoked synaptic vesicle fusion is similarly impaired by 50–70%, demonstrating a loss of readily releasable vesicles. In addition, FM1-43 dye uptake is reduced in slab mutant presynaptic terminals, indicating a smaller cycling vesicle pool. Ultrastructural analyses of mutants reveal a normal vesicle distribution clustered and docked at active zones, but fewer vesicles in reserve regions, and a twofold to threefold increased incidence of vesicles linked together and tethered at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that SLAB ceramidase function controls presynaptic terminal sphingolipid composition to regulate vesicle fusion and trafficking, and thus the strength and reliability of synaptic transmission. PMID:15356190

Rohrbough, Jeffrey; Rushton, Emma; Palanker, Laura; Woodruff, Elvin; Matthies, Heinrich J. G.; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K.; Broadie, Kendal

2009-01-01

250

Synaptic state-dependent functional interplay between postsynaptic density-95 and synapse-associated protein 102.  

PubMed

Activity-dependent regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is the basis for establishing differences in synaptic weights among individual synapses during developmental and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Synaptic signaling scaffolds of the Discs large (DLG)-membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family regulate these processes by tethering signaling proteins to receptor complexes. Using a molecular replacement strategy with RNAi-mediated knockdown in rat and mouse hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, a postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) knock-out mouse line and electrophysiological analysis, our current study identified a functional interplay between two paralogs, PSD-95 and synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) to regulate synaptic AMPARs. During synaptic development, the SAP102 protein levels normally plateau but double if PSD-95 expression is prevented during synaptogenesis. For an autonomous function of PSD-95 in regulating synaptic AMPARs, in addition to the previously demonstrated N-terminal multimerization and the first two PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg1, zona occludens-1) domains, the PDZ3 and guanylate kinase domains were required. The Src homology 3 domain was dispensable for the PSD-95-autonomous regulation of basal synaptic transmission. However, it mediated the functional interaction with SAP102 of PSD-95 mutants to enhance AMPARs. These results depict a protein domain-based multifunctional aspect of PSD-95 in regulating excitatory synaptic transmission and unveil a novel form of domain-based interplay between signaling scaffolds of the DLG-MAGUK family. PMID:23946397

Bonnet, Stéphanie A D; Akad, Derya S; Samaddar, Tanmoy; Liu, Yanling; Huang, Xiaojie; Dong, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver M

2013-08-14

251

Afferent innervation patterns of the saccule in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The innervation patterns of vestibular saccular afferents were quantitatively investigated in pigeons using biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. Type I hair cells were found throughout a large portion of the macula, with the highest density observed in the striola. Type II hair cells were located throughout the macula, with the highest density in the extrastriola. Three classes of afferent innervation patterns were observed, including calyx, dimorph, and bouton units, with 137 afferents being anatomically reconstructed and used for quantitative comparisons. Calyx afferents were located primarily in the striola, innervated a number of type I hair cells, and had small innervation areas. Most calyx afferent terminal fields were oriented parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and the morphological polarization reversal line. Dimorph afferents were located throughout the macula, contained fewer type I hair cells in a calyceal terminal than calyx afferents and had medium sized innervation areas. Bouton afferents were restricted to the extrastriola, with multi-branching fibers and large innervation areas. Most of the dimorph and bouton afferents had innervation fields that were oriented dorso-ventrally but were parallel to the neighboring reversal line. The organizational morphology of the saccule was found to be distinctly different from that of the avian utricle or lagena otolith organs and appears to represent a receptor organ undergoing evolutionary adaptation toward sensing linear motion in terrestrial and aerial species.

Zakir, M.; Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

2003-01-01

252

Information transmission and detection thresholds in the vestibular nuclei: single neurons vs. population encoding  

E-print Network

Information transmission and detection thresholds in the vestibular nuclei: single neurons vs. Information transmission and detection thresholds in the vestibular nuclei: single neurons vs. population. Peripheral vestibular afferents display differential variability that is correlated with the importance

Chacron, Maurice

253

Stereological and ultrastructural quantification of the afferent synaptome of individual neurons.  

PubMed

Determining the number and placement of synaptic inputs along the distinct plasma membrane domains of neurons is essential for explaining the basis of neuronal activity and function. We detail a strategy that combines juxtacellular labeling, neuronal reconstructions and stereological sampling of inputs at the ultrastructural level to define key elements of the afferent 'synaptome' of a given neuron. This approach provides unbiased estimates of the total number and somato-dendritic distribution of synapses made with individual neurons. These organizational properties can be related to the activity of the same neurons previously recorded in vivo, for direct structure-function correlations at the single-cell level. The approach also provides the quantitative data required to develop biologically realistic models that simulate and predict neuronal activity and function. PMID:23479177

Henny, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T C; Micklem, Benjamin R; Magill, Peter J; Bolam, J Paul

2014-03-01

254

Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Docking by Different Classes of Macromolecules in Active Zone Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM

Joseph A. Szule; Mark L. Harlow; Jae Hoon Jung; Francisco F. De-Miguel; Robert M. Marshall; Uel J. McMahan

2012-01-01

255

Greater excitability and firing irregularity of tufted cells underlies distinct afferent-evoked activity of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells.  

PubMed

Mitral and tufted cells, the two classes of principal neurons in the mammalian main olfactory bulb, exhibit morphological differences but remain widely viewed as functionally equivalent. Results from several recent studies, however, suggest that these two cell classes may encode complementary olfactory information in their distinct patterns of afferent-evoked activity. To understand how these differences in activity arise, we have performed the first systematic comparison of synaptic and intrinsic properties between mitral and tufted cells. Consistent with previous studies, we found that tufted cells fire with higher probability and rates and shorter latencies than mitral cells in response to physiological afferent stimulation. This stronger response of tufted cells could be partially attributed to synaptic differences, as tufted cells received stronger afferent-evoked excitation than mitral cells. However, differences in intrinsic excitability also contributed to the differences between mitral and tufted cell activity. Compared to mitral cells, tufted cells exhibited twofold greater excitability and peak instantaneous firing rates. These differences in excitability probably arise from differential expression of voltage-gated potassium currents, as tufted cells exhibited faster action potential repolarization and afterhyperpolarizations than mitral cells. Surprisingly, mitral and tufted cells also showed firing mode differences. While both cell classes exhibited regular firing and irregular stuttering of action potential clusters, tufted cells demonstrated a greater propensity to stutter than mitral cells. Collectively, stronger afferent-evoked excitation, greater intrinsic excitability and more irregular firing in tufted cells can combine to drive distinct responses of mitral and tufted cells to afferent-evoked input. PMID:24614745

Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathaniel N

2014-05-15

256

Activation of kainate GLU(K5) transmission rescues kindling-induced impairment of LTP in the rat lateral amygdala.  

PubMed

The amygdala is a component of the limbic system that plays a central role in emotional behavior and certain psychiatric diseases. Pathophysiological alterations of neuronal excitability in the amygdala are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy and certain (epilepsy accompanying) psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depressive disorders. The role of kainate receptors in the activity of synaptic networks, in brain function, and diseases is still poorly understood. Various kainate receptor subtypes have been shown to contribute to synaptic transmission and modulate presynaptic release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several lines of evidence point to the importance of GLU(K5) kainate receptors in epilepsy. In this study we investigated the role of specific GLU(K5) kainate receptor in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). The cellular mechanisms for emotional learning in the amygdala are believed to be the result of changes in synaptic transmission efficacy, similar to long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we used both field potential and intracellular recordings in horizontal rat amygdala slices, and showed that LTP in the LA, induced by high-frequency stimulation of afferents running within LA, is impaired 48 h after the last induced seizure. This kindling-induced impairment was reversed by the specific kainate GLU(K5) agonist ATPA. Partial blockade of GABAergic transmission with the specific GABA(A) receptor antagonist SR95531 also significantly facilitated the induction of early LA-LTP, but only partially abolished the kindling-induced impairment of LA-LTP. This study shows that the stimulation of the GLU(K5) kainate receptor subtype rescues the kindling-induced impairment of LA-LTP at least within 48 h after the last seizure. Therefore, GLU(K5) kainate receptor subunits are involved in kindling-induced plasticity changes in the amygdala. PMID:18046310

Schubert, Manja; Albrecht, Doris

2008-09-01

257

Cell-specific retrograde signals mediate antiparallel effects of angiotensin II on osmoreceptor afferents to vasopressin and oxytocin neurons.  

PubMed

Homeostatic control of extracellular fluid osmolality in rats requires a parallel excitation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurosecretory neurons by osmoreceptor afferents to regulate the amount of water and sodium in the urine under normal conditions. However, during decreased blood volume (hypovolemia), natriuresis is suppressed, whereas osmotically driven antidiuresis is enhanced to promote retention of isotonic fluid. Because Angiotensin II (Ang II) is released centrally to indicate hypovolemia, we hypothesized that Ang II can evoke a state-dependent switch in circuit function. Here, we show that Ang II, a neuropeptide released centrally during hypovolemia, suppresses osmoreceptor-mediated synaptic excitation of OT neurons while potentiating excitation of VP neurons. Ang II does this by inducing cell-autonomous release of nitric oxide by VP neurons and endocannabinoids by OT neurons to respectively enhance and reduce glutamate release by osmoreceptor afferents. These findings indicate that peptide modulators such as Ang II can regulate synaptic communication to achieve a state-dependent and target-specific modulation of circuit activity. PMID:25043186

Stachniak, Tevye J; Trudel, Eric; Bourque, Charles W

2014-07-24

258

Development/Plasticity/Repair Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Afferent Deprivation Elicits a Transcriptional Response Associated sensory systems are not well understood. One example is the rapid and dramatic neuron death that occurs,whichcorrespondedwithglialproliferationoverthesametimeframe.Apoptotic gene expression was not highly regulated in the vulnerable CN after afferent deprivation but

Rubel, Edwin

259

Structure-function relationships in identified afferent neurones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals with structure-function relationships in primary afferent and spinal cord neurones that were intracellularly injected with a marker substance (mostly HRP) after physiological identification. At the level of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, there is a significant correlation between soma size and conduction velocity (or diameter) of the afferent fibre for most subpopulations of DRG cells, but the

S. Mense

1990-01-01

260

Antidromic discharges of dorsal root afferents in the neonatal rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presynaptic inhibition of primary afferents can be evoked from at least three sources in the adult animal: 1) by stimulation of several supraspinal structures; 2) by spinal reflex action from sensory inputs; or 3) by the activity of spinal locomotor networks.The depolarisation in the intraspinal afferent terminals which is due, at least partly, to the activation of GABAA receptors may

Laurent Vinay; Frédéric Brocard; Silvia Fellippa-Marques; François Clarac

1999-01-01

261

Scaffolding proteins of the post-synaptic density contribute to synaptic plasticity by regulating receptor localization and distribution: relevance for neuropsychiatric diseases.  

PubMed

Synaptic plasticity represents the long lasting activity-related strengthening or weakening of synaptic transmission, whose well-characterized types are the long term potentiation and depression. Despite this classical definition, however, the molecular mechanisms by which synaptic plasticity may occur appear to be extremely complex and various. The post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic synapses is a major site for synaptic plasticity processes and alterations of PSD members have been recently implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases where an impairment of synaptic plasticity has also been reported. Among PSD members, scaffolding proteins have been demonstrated to bridge surface receptors with their intracellular effectors and to regulate receptors distribution and localization both at surface membranes and within the PSD. This review will focus on the molecular physiology and pathophysiology of synaptic plasticity processes, which are tuned by scaffolding PSD proteins and their close related partners, through the modulation of receptor localization and distribution at post-synaptic sites. We suggest that, by regulating both the compartmentalization of receptors along surface membrane and their degradation as well as by modulating receptor trafficking into the PSD, postsynaptic scaffolding proteins may contribute to form distinct signaling micro-domains, whose efficacy in transmitting synaptic signals depends on the dynamic stability of the scaffold, which in turn is provided by relative amounts and post-translational modifications of scaffolding members. The putative relevance for neuropsychiatric diseases and possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed in the last part of this work. PMID:22991141

Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

2013-01-01

262

[Peptidergic modulation of the hippocampus synaptic activity].  

PubMed

Effects of two newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptides: Noopept and Selank on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) or Selank (2 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependent spontaneous m1PSCs, whereas spike-independent mlPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that both peptides mediated their effect sue to activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion, at least for Noonent. PMID:22390072

Skrebitski?, V G; Kondratenko, R V; Povarov, I S; Dereviagin, V I

2011-11-01

263

Drosophila neuroligin3 regulates neuromuscular junction development and synaptic differentiation.  

PubMed

Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules thought to be important for synapse maturation and function. Mammalian studies have shown that different Nlgs have different roles in synaptic maturation and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, the roles of Drosophila neuroligin1 (DNlg1), neuroligin2, and neuroligin4 have been examined. However, the roles of neuroligin3 (dnlg3) in synaptic development and function have not been determined. In this study, we used the Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) as a model system to investigate the in vivo role of dnlg3. We showed that DNlg3 was expressed in both the CNS and NMJs where it was largely restricted to the postsynaptic site. We generated dnlg3 mutants and showed that these mutants exhibited an increased bouton number and reduced bouton size compared with the wild-type (WT) controls. Consistent with alterations in bouton properties, pre- and postsynaptic differentiations were affected in dnlg3 mutants. This included abnormal synaptic vesicle endocytosis, increased postsynaptic density length, and reduced GluRIIA recruitment. In addition to impaired synaptic development and differentiation, we found that synaptic transmission was reduced in dnlg3 mutants. Altogether, our data showed that DNlg3 was required for NMJ development, synaptic differentiation, and function. PMID:25228693

Xing, Guanglin; Gan, Guangming; Chen, Dandan; Sun, Mingkuan; Yi, Jukang; Lv, Huihui; Han, Junhai; Xie, Wei

2014-11-14

264

Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.  

PubMed

Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. Synapse 69:7-14, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25155519

Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

2015-01-01

265

BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and in other brain regions, playing a role in the formation of certain forms of memory. The effects of BDNF in LTP are mediated by TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) receptors, which are known to be coupled to the activation of the Ras/ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and phospholipase C-? (PLC-?) pathways. The role of BDNF in LTP is best studied in the hippocampus, where the neurotrophin acts at pre- and post-synaptic levels. Recent studies have shown that BDNF regulates the transport of mRNAs along dendrites and their translation at the synapse, by modulating the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis, and by acting on specific miRNAs. Furthermore, the effect of BDNF on transcription regulation may further contribute to long-term changes in the synaptic proteome. In this review we discuss the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms contributing to the short- and long-term regulation of the synaptic proteome by BDNF, and the role in synaptic plasticity, which is likely to influence learning and memory formation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. PMID:23602987

Leal, Graciano; Comprido, Diogo; Duarte, Carlos B

2014-01-01

266

Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

1997-01-01

267

Response properties from turtle auditory hair cell afferent fibers suggest spike generation is driven by synchronized release both between and within synapses  

PubMed Central

Inner ear hair cell afferent fiber synapses are capable of transferring information at high rates for long periods of time with extraordinary fidelity. As at other sensory synapses, hair cells rely on graded receptor potentials and unique vesicle trafficking and release properties of ribbon synapses to relay intensity information. Postsynaptic recordings from afferent fibers of the turtle auditory papilla identified excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that were fast AMPA receptor-based responses with rapid onset and decay times. EPSCs varied in amplitude by ?15× per fiber, with kinetics that showed a tendency to slow at larger amplitudes. Complex EPSCs were produced by temporal summation of single events, likely across synapses. Complex EPSCs were more efficient at generating action potentials than single EPSCs. Potassium-evoked release increased the frequency of EPSCs, in particular complex events, but did not increase EPSC amplitudes. Temporal summation of EPSCs across synapses may underlie action potential generation at these synapses. Broad amplitude histograms were probed for mechanisms of multivesicular release with reduced external Ca2+ or the introduction of Cd2+ or Sr2+ to uncouple release. The results are consistent with broad amplitude histograms being generated by a combination of the variability in synaptic vesicle size and coordinated release of these vesicles. It is posited that multivesicular release plays less of a role in multisynaptic ribbon synapses than in single synaptic afferent fibers. PMID:23596330

Schnee, M. E.; Castellano-Munoz, M.

2013-01-01

268

Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity  

PubMed Central

Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain. PMID:23641210

Ostojic, Srdjan; Fusi, Stefano

2013-01-01

269

Studying synaptic efficiency by post-hoc immunolabelling  

PubMed Central

Background In terms of vesicular recycling, synaptic efficiency is a key determinant of the fidelity of synaptic transmission. The ability of a presynaptic terminal to reuse its vesicular content is thought to be a signature of synaptic maturity and this process depends on the activity of several proteins that govern exo/endocytosis. Upon stimulation, individual terminals in networks of cultured cerebellar granule neurons exhibit heterogeneous exocytic responses, which reflect the distinct states of maturity and plasticity intrinsic to individual synaptic terminals. This dynamic scenario serves as the substrate for processes such as scaling, plasticity and synaptic weight redistribution. Presynaptic strength has been associated with the activity of several types of proteins, including the scaffolding proteins that form the active zone cytomatrix and the proteins involved in presynaptic exocytosis. Methods We have combined fluorescence imaging techniques using the styryl dye FM1-43 in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells with subsequent?post-hoc?immunocytochemistry in order to study synaptic efficiency in terms of vesicular release. We describe a protocol to easily quantify these results with minimal user intervention. Results In this study we describe a technique that specifically correlates presynaptic activity with the levels of presynaptic markers. This method involves the use of the styryl dye FM1-43 to estimate the release capacity of a synaptic terminal, and the subsequent post-hoc immunolabelling of thousands of individual nerve terminals. We observed a strong correlation between the release capacity of the nerve terminal and the levels of the RIM1? but not the Munc13-1 protein in the active zone. Conclusions Our findings support those of previous studies and point out to RIM1? as a crucial factor in determining synaptic efficiency. These results also demonstrate that this technique is a useful tool to analyse the molecular differences underlying the heterogeneous responses exhibited by neuronal networks. PMID:24138605

2013-01-01

270

Cingulate cortex synaptic terminal proteins and neural cell adhesion molecule in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The neuronal organization and patterns of afferent innervation are abnormal in the cingulate cortex in schizophrenia, and associated changes in synaptic terminals could be present. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was defined with biochemical and fusion protein studies as detecting syntaxin (antibody SP6), synaptophysin (antibody SP4) and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (antibody SP12). These antibodies and a polyclonal antibody reactive with neural cell adhesion molecule were used to investigate the cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Immunocytochemistry indicated that syntaxin immunoreactivity had a considerably wider distribution than synaptophysin. Overall, multivariate analysis indicated increased synaptic terminal protein immunoreactivity in schizophrenia compared to controls (P=0.004). Controlled for age and post mortem interval, syntaxin immunoreactivity was significantly elevated in schizophrenia (P=0.004), and neural cell adhesion molecule immunoreactivity was also elevated (P=0.05). The neural cell adhesion molecule to synaptophysin ratio was increased (P=0.005), possibly indicating the presence of less mature synapses in schizophrenia. Elevated syntaxin immunoreactivity is consistent with increased glutamatergic afferents to the cingulate cortex in schizophrenia, and combined with the neural cell adhesion molecule to synaptophysin ratio results suggests that synaptic function in this region in schizophrenia may be abnormal. PMID:9135092

Honer, W G; Falkai, P; Young, C; Wang, T; Xie, J; Bonner, J; Hu, L; Boulianne, G L; Luo, Z; Trimble, W S

1997-05-01

271

Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip

2013-09-01

272

Catching synaptic vesicles in action  

PubMed Central

The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle was initially discovered at the neuromuscular junction using electron microscopy (EM) analysis.1 With the introduction of fluorescent probes that are able to monitor real-time cellular events in live cells, EM analysis was pushed to the side lines because it could not provide meaningful kinetic analyses of the various steps in the synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:25143799

Schikorski, Thomas

2014-01-01

273

Effect of Microgravity on Afferent Innervation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations and publications are: (1) an audiovisual summary web presentation on results from SLM-MIR avian experiments. A color presentation summarizing results from the SLM-MIR and STS-29 avian experiments; (2) color threshold and ratio of S 100B MAP5, NF68/200, GABA and GAD; (3) chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents; (4) microgravity in the STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos; (5) expression of S 100B in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear; (6) otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes;(7) the glycan keratin sulfate in inner ear crystals; (8) elliptical-P cells in the avian perilymphatic interface of the tegmentum vasculosum; and (9) LAMP2c and S100B upregulation in brain stem after VIIIth nerve deafferentation.

1998-01-01

274

Axonal noise as a source of synaptic variability.  

PubMed

Post-synaptic potential (PSP) variability is typically attributed to mechanisms inside synapses, yet recent advances in experimental methods and biophysical understanding have led us to reconsider the role of axons as highly reliable transmission channels. We show that in many thin axons of our brain, the action potential (AP) waveform and thus the Ca++ signal controlling vesicle release at synapses will be significantly affected by the inherent variability of ion channel gating. We investigate how and to what extent fluctuations in the AP waveform explain observed PSP variability. Using both biophysical theory and stochastic simulations of central and peripheral nervous system axons from vertebrates and invertebrates, we show that channel noise in thin axons (<1 µm diameter) causes random fluctuations in AP waveforms. AP height and width, both experimentally characterised parameters of post-synaptic response amplitude, vary e.g. by up to 20 mV and 0.5 ms while a single AP propagates in C-fibre axons. We show how AP height and width variabilities increase with a ľ power-law as diameter decreases and translate these fluctuations into post-synaptic response variability using biophysical data and models of synaptic transmission. We find for example that for mammalian unmyelinated axons with 0.2 µm diameter (matching cerebellar parallel fibres) axonal noise alone can explain half of the PSP variability in cerebellar synapses. We conclude that axonal variability may have considerable impact on synaptic response variability. Thus, in many experimental frameworks investigating synaptic transmission through paired-cell recordings or extracellular stimulation of presynaptic neurons, causes of variability may have been confounded. We thereby show how bottom-up aggregation of molecular noise sources contributes to our understanding of variability observed at higher levels of biological organisation. PMID:24809823

Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A Aldo

2014-05-01

275

Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors. PMID:23535140

Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

2013-01-01

276

Opioid modulation of ferret vagal afferent mechanosensitivity.  

PubMed

Despite universal use of opioids in the clinic to inhibit pain, there is relatively little known of their peripheral actions on sensory nerve endings, where in fact they may be better targeted with more widespread applications. Here we show differential effects of mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioids on mechanosensitive ferret esophageal vagal afferent endings investigated in vitro. The effects of selective agonists [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO), 2-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) ethyl] acetamide hydrochlorine (ICI 199441), and (+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC-80), respectively, on mechanosensory stimulus-response functions were quantified. DAMGO (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) reduced the responses of tension receptors to circumferential tension (1-5 g) by up to 50%, and the responses of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking (10-1,000 mg von Frey hair) by >50%. DAMGO effects were reversed by naloxone (10(-5) M). Tension/mucosal (TM) receptor responses to tension and stroking were unaffected by DAMGO. ICI 199441 (10(-6) to 10(-5) M) potently inhibited all responses except TM receptor responses to tension, and SNC-80 (10(-5) to 10(-3) M) had no effect other than a minor inhibition of mucosal receptor responses to intense stimuli at 10(-3) M. We conclude that mu- and kappa-opioids have potent and selective peripheral effects on esophageal vagal afferents that may have applications in treatment of disorders of visceral sensation. PMID:18258789

Page, Amanda J; O'Donnell, Tracey A; Blackshaw, L Ashley

2008-04-01

277

Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

1998-01-01

278

COX-2 oxidative metabolism of endocannabinoids augments hippocampal synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are important endogenous lipid mediators in synaptic transmission and plasticity and are oxygenated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to form new types of prostaglandins. However, little is known about whether COX-2 oxidative metabolism of eCBs and their metabolites alter synaptic signaling. Here we demonstrate that increased COX-2 expression significantly enhances basal synaptic transmission and augments long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampus. This augmentation was inhibited in the presence of a selective COX-2 inhibitor or with deletion of the COX-2 gene. The CB(1) receptor-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) was diminished when COX-2 expression was increased either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation or transgenic neuronal over-expression of COX-2. Conversely, DSI was potentiated when COX-2 activity was pharmacologically or genetically inhibited. Interestingly, COX-2 oxidative metabolites of eCBs elevated LTP, an effect opposite to that of their parent molecules 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA). In addition, the ERK/MAPK and IP(3) pathways were found to mediate PGE(2)-G-induced enhancement of LTP. Our results indicate that COX-2 oxidative metabolism of eCBs is an important signaling pathway in modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. PMID:18295507

Yang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jian; Andreasson, Katrin; Chen, Chu

2008-04-01

279

Synthesis of generalized algorithms for the fast computation of synaptic conductances with Markov kinetic models in large network simulations.  

PubMed

Markovkinetic models constitute a powerful framework to analyze patch-clamp data from single-channel recordings and model the dynamics of ion conductances and synaptic transmission between neurons. In particular, the accurate simulation of a large number of synaptic inputs in wide-scale network models may result in a computationally highly demanding process. We present a generalized consolidating algorithm to simulate efficiently a large number of synaptic inputs of the same kind (excitatory or inhibitory), converging on an isopotential compartment, independently modeling each synaptic current by a generic n-state Markov model characterized by piece-wise constant transition probabilities. We extend our findings to a class of simplified phenomenological descriptions of synaptic transmission that incorporate higher-order dynamics, such as short-term facilitation, depression, and synaptic plasticity. PMID:10770837

Giugliano, M

2000-04-01

280

Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia.  

PubMed

The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. PMID:18457135

Peńa-Contreras, Z; Mendoza-Briceńo, R V; Miranda-Contreras, L; Palacios-Prü, E L

2007-03-01

281

IEEE Trans. Neural Nets special issue on spiking neural computation (2004) in press 1 Abstract--Responses of vestibular primary afferent neurons to  

E-print Network

--Responses of vestibular primary afferent neurons to head rotation exhibit fractional order dynamics. As a consequence estimation, vestibular. I. INTRODUCTION arge neurons in the brains of teleost fish, called Mauthner neurons in the vertebrate vestibular system. We have studied information transmission in rotation- sensitive vestibular

Paulin, Mike

282

SYNAPTIC INHIBITION IN AN ISOLATED NERVE CELL  

PubMed Central

Following the preceding studies on the mechanisms of excitation in stretch receptor cells of crayfish, this investigation analyzes inhibitory activity in the synapses formed by two neurons. The cell body of the receptor neuron is located in the periphery and sends dendrites into a fine muscle strand. The dendrites receive innervation through an accessory nerve fiber which has now been established to be inhibitory. There exists a direct peripheral inhibitory control mechanism which can modulate the activity of the stretch receptor. The receptor cell which can be studied in isolation was stimulated by stretch deformation of its dendrites or by antidromic excitation and the effect of inhibitory impulses on its activity was analyzed. Recording was done mainly with intracellular leads inserted into the cell body. 1. Stimulation of the relatively slowly conducting inhibitory nerve fiber either decreases the afferent discharge rate or stops impulses altogether in stretched receptor cells. The inhibitory action is confined to the dendrites and acts on the generator mechanism which is set up by stretch deformation. By restricting depolarization of the dendrites above a certain level, inhibition prevents the generator potential from attaining the "firing level" of the cell. 2. The same inhibitory impulse may set up a postsynaptic polarization or a depolarization, depending on the resting potential level of the cell. The membrane potential at which the inhibitory synaptic potential reverses its polarity, the equilibrium level, may vary in different preparations. The inhibitory potentials increase as the resting potential is displaced in any direction from the inhibitory equilibrium. 3. The inhibitory potentials usually rise to a peak in about 2 msec. and decay in about 30 msec. After repetitive inhibitory stimulation a delayed secondary polarization phase has frequently been seen, prolonging the inhibitory action. Repetitive inhibitory excitation may also be followed by a period of facilitation. Some examples of "direct" excitation by the depolarizing action of inhibitory impulses are described. 4. The interaction between antidromic and inhibitory impulses was studied. The results support previous conclusions (a) that during stretch the dendrites provide a persisting "drive" for the more central portions of the receptor cell, and (b) that antidromic all-or-none impulses do not penetrate into the distal portions of stretch-depolarized dendrites. The "after-potentials" of antidromic impulses are modified by inhibition. 5. Evidence is presented that inhibitory synaptic activity increases the conductance of the dendrites. This effect may occur in the absence of inhibitory potential changes. PMID:13252239

Kuffler, Stephen W.; Eyzaguirre, Carlos

1955-01-01

283

Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation  

PubMed Central

There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

2014-01-01

284

A Physiologic Role for Serotonergic Transmission in Adult Rat Taste Buds  

PubMed Central

Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the afferent signal. Serotonin may thus play a major modulatory role within peripheral taste in shaping the afferent taste signals prior to their transmission across gustatory nerves. PMID:25386961

Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

2014-01-01

285

Synaptic activation of cardiac vagal neurons by capsaicin sensitive and insensitive sensory neurons.  

PubMed

Little is known about the central circuitry involved in the sensory activation of cardioinhibitory vagal neurons (CVNs). To study the polysynaptic activation of CVNs from sensory neurons the postsynaptic currents in CVNs in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX) were evoked by stimulation of the vagus nerve. In addition, the role of afferent A-fiber and C-fiber activation of CVNs was examined. CVNs were identified by a retrograde fluorescent tracer and were studied in an in vitro slice preparation using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Stimulation of the vagus nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs that were reversibly blocked by the NMDA antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5) and the non-NMDA antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquionoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Vagal stimulation also evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) that were reversibly blocked by the GABA(A) antagonist gabazine. Capsaicin, which inactivates C-fibers, was used to examine the role of afferent A-fibers and C-fibers in the synaptic activation of CVNs. Capsaicin significantly (P<0.05) reduced the amplitude of evoked glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic currents by 59% and 76%, respectively. The latency of the GABAergic response increased significantly (P<0.05) in the presence of capsaicin from 36+/-1 to 41+/-1 ms while the latency of the glutamatergic response (44+/-3 ms) was unaffected. There are three conclusions from this study. Stimulation of vagal afferents evokes both GABAergic and glutamatergic responses in CVNs, C-type afferent fibers are critical to the afferent stimulation of CVNs, and the A-fiber GABAergic pathway to CVNs may be more complex than the C-fiber GABAergic pathway. PMID:12850588

Evans, Cory; Baxi, Sunit; Neff, Robert; Venkatesan, Priya; Mendelowitz, David

2003-07-25

286

Electrophysiology of vagal afferents: amino acid detection in the gut.  

PubMed

The alimentary canal includes the mouth, stomach, and intestines, and is connected to the brain by thousands of chemosensory neurons. In contrast to the understanding of the lingual taste system, there is little insight into the chemosensory function of other regions of the alimentary canal. The presence of known taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract suggests a similarity to taste mechanisms present in the oral cavity. Afferent fibers of the vagus play a prominent role in signaling the chemical contents of the gastrointestinal tract to the hindbrain and this information can be used to elicit defensive responses, such as vomiting or nutritional responses. A host of amino acids are likely detected by vagal afferent fibers, but the initial sensory transduction of these stimuli and functional significance remains a mystery. Several problems with recording the electrophysiological signals of vagal afferents are discussed, with particular reference to sampling the afferent signals from the duodenum and liver region. PMID:19686111

Horn, Charles C

2009-07-01

287

Role of visceral afferent neurons in mucosal inflammation and defense.  

PubMed

The maintenance of gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal integrity depends on the rapid alarm of protective mechanisms in the face of pending injury. Two populations of extrinsic primary afferent neurons, vagal and spinal, subserve this goal through different mechanisms. These sensory neurons react to GI insults by triggering protective autonomic reflexes including the so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex. Spinal afferents, in addition, can initiate protective tissue reactions at the site of assault through release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from their peripheral endings. The protective responses triggered by sensory neurons comprise alterations in GI blood flow, secretion, and motility as well as modifications of immune function. This article focuses on significant advances that during the past couple of years have been made in identifying molecular nocisensors on afferent neurons and in dissecting the signaling mechanisms whereby afferent neurons govern inflammatory processes in the gut. PMID:18029228

Holzer, Peter

2007-12-01

288

Synaptic Mitochondrial Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Synaptic degeneration, an early pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is closely correlated to impaired cognitive function and memory loss. Recent studies suggest that involvement of amyloid-beta peptide (A?) in synaptic mitochondrial alteration underlies these synaptic lesions. Thus, to understand the A?-associated synaptic mitochondrial perturbations would fortify our understanding of synaptic stress in the pathogenesis of AD. Recent Advances: Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with synaptic failure in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Based on recent findings in human AD subjects, AD animal models, and AD cellular models, synaptic mitochondria undergo multiple malfunctions including A? accumulation, increased oxidative stress, decreased respiration, and compromised calcium handling capacity, all of which occur earlier than changes seen in nonsynaptic mitochondria before predominant AD pathology. Of note, the impact of A? on mitochondrial motility and dynamics exacerbates synaptic mitochondrial alterations. Critical Issues: Synaptic mitochondria demonstrate early deficits in AD; in combination with the role that synaptic mitochondria play in sustaining synaptic functions, deficits in synaptic mitochondria may be a key factor involved in an early synaptic pathology in AD. Future Directions: The importance of synaptic mitochondria in supporting synapses and the high vulnerability of synaptic mitochondria to A? make them a promising target of new therapeutic strategy for AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1467–1475. PMID:21942330

Du, Heng; Guo, Lan

2012-01-01

289

[The role of vagal afferents in visceral hyperalgesia].  

PubMed

The visceral sensation from the abdomen are delivered continuously to the brain by the vagus nerve, the largest visceral sensory nerve in the body. Although it is commonly assumed that vagal afferents are not involved in nociception and pain, there is growing evidence that they play a complex role in these processes. Vagal afferents may contribute to the effective-emotional rather than to the sensory-disciminative aspect of pain. PMID:17252992

Zurowski, Daniel; Nowak, ?ukasz; Thor, Piotr J

2005-01-01

290

Chemical coding and central projections of gastric vagal afferent neurons.  

PubMed

Vagal afferents that innervate gastric muscle or mucosa transmit distinct sensory information from their endings to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). While these afferent subtypes are functionally distinct, no neurochemical correlate has been described and it is unknown whether they terminate in different central locations. This study aimed to identify gastric vagal afferent subtypes in the nodose ganglion (NG) of ferrets, their terminal areas in NTS and neurochemistry for isolectin-B4 (IB4) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Vagal afferents were traced from gastric muscle or mucosa and IB4 and CGRP labelling assessed in NG and NTS. 7 +/- 1% and 6 +/- 1% of NG neurons were traced from gastric muscle or mucosa respectively; these were more likely to label for CGRP or for both CGRP and IB4 than other NG neurons (P < 0.01). Muscular afferents were also less likely than others to label with IB4 (P < 0.001). Less than 1% of NG neurons were traced from both muscle and mucosa. Central terminals of both afferent subtypes occurred in the subnucleus gelatinosus of the NTS, but did not overlap completely. This region also labelled for CGRP and IB4. We conclude that while vagal afferents from gastric muscle and mucosa differ little in their chemical coding for CGRP and IB4, they can be traced selectively from their peripheral endings to NG and to overlapping and distinct regions of NTS. Thus, there is an anatomical substrate for convergent NTS integration for both types of afferent input. PMID:18266614

Young, R L; Cooper, N J; Blackshaw, L A

2008-06-01

291

Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar afferents projected throughout the cochlear nuclei, to the dorsolateral regions of the cerebellar nuclei, and to lateral regions of the superior, lateral, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei.

Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

1996-01-01

292

Hardwiring of fine synaptic layers in the zebrafish visual pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Neuronal connections are often arranged in layers, which are divided into sublaminae harboring synapses with similar response properties. It is still debated how fine-grained synaptic layering is established during development. Here we investigated two stratified areas of the zebrafish visual pathway, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina and the neuropil of the optic tectum, and determined if activity is required for their organization. Results The IPL of 5-day-old zebrafish larvae is composed of at least nine sublaminae, comprising the connections between different types of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells (ACs, BCs, GCs). These sublaminae were distinguished by their expression of cell type-specific transgenic fluorescent reporters and immunohistochemical markers, including protein kinase C? (PKC), parvalbumin (Parv), zrf3, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In the tectum, four retinal input layers abut a laminated array of neurites of tectal cells, which differentially express PKC and Parv. We investigated whether these patterns were affected by experimental disruptions of retinal activity in developing fish. Neither elimination of light inputs by dark rearing, nor a D, L-amino-phosphono-butyrate-induced reduction in the retinal response to light onset (but not offset) altered IPL or tectal lamination. Moreover, thorough elimination of chemical synaptic transmission with Botulinum toxin B left laminar synaptic arrays intact. Conclusion Our results call into question a role for activity-dependent mechanisms – instructive light signals, balanced on and off BC activity, Hebbian plasticity, or a permissive role for synaptic transmission – in the synaptic stratification we examined. We propose that genetically encoded cues are sufficient to target groups of neurites to synaptic layers in this vertebrate visual system. PMID:19087349

Nevin, Linda M; Taylor, Michael R; Baier, Herwig

2008-01-01

293

Synaptic contacts impaired by styrene-7,8-oxide toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a chemical compound widely used in industrial applications, is a potential hazard for humans, particularly in occupational settings. Neurobehavioral changes are consistently observed in occupationally exposed individuals and alterations of neurotransmitters associated with neuronal loss have been reported in animal models. Although the toxic effects of styrene have been extensively documented, the molecular mechanisms responsible for SO-induced neurotoxicity are still unclear. A possible dopamine-mediated effect of styrene neurotoxicity has been previously demonstrated, since styrene oxide alters dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Thus, the present study hypothesizes that styrene neurotoxicity may involve synaptic contacts. Primary striatal neurons were exposed to styrene oxide at different concentrations (0.1-1 mM) for different time periods (8, 16, and 24 h) to evaluate the dose able to induce synaptic impairments. The expression of proteins crucial for synaptic transmission such as Synapsin, Synaptophysin, and RAC-1 were considered. The levels of Synaptophysin and RAC-1 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, morphological alterations, observed at the ultrastructural level, primarily involved the pre-synaptic compartment. In SO-exposed cultures, the biochemical cascade of caspases was activated affecting the cytoskeleton components as their target. Thus the impairments in synaptic contacts observed in SO-exposed cultures might reflect a primarily morphological alteration of neuronal cytoskeleton. In addition, our data support the hypothesis developed by previous authors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating events of SO cytotoxicity.

Corsi, P. [Dip. di Farmacologia e Fisiologia Umana, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Bari, 70124 Italy (Italy)], E-mail: pcorsi@fisiol.uniba.it; D'Aprile, A. [Dip. di Medicina Interna e Pubblica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy); Nico, B. [Dip. di Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy); Costa, G.L. [Dip. di Anatomia, Farmacologia e Scienze Medico Forensi, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Parma (Italy); Assennato, G. [Dip. di Medicina Interna e Pubblica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Bari (Italy)

2007-10-01

294

Cellular/Molecular Connexin35 Mediates Electrical Transmission at Mixed  

E-print Network

Cellular/Molecular Connexin35 Mediates Electrical Transmission at Mixed Synapses on Mauthner Cells regions, suggesting that connexin35-mediated electrical transmission is common in goldfish brain" (electrical and chemical) synaptic terminals that offer the unique opportunity to correlate physiological

Rash, John E.

295

Synaptic disinhibition during maintenance of long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.  

PubMed Central

Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP. Images PMID:8159706

Stelzer, A; Simon, G; Kovacs, G; Rai, R

1994-01-01

296

Importin-?11 Regulates Synaptic pMAD and Thereby Influences Synaptic Development and Function at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction  

PubMed Central

Importin proteins act both at the nuclear pore to promote substrate entry and in the cytosol during signal trafficking. Here, we describe mutations in the Drosophila gene importin-?11 which has not previously been analyzed genetically. Mutants of importin-?11 died as late pupae from neuronal defects and neuronal importin-?11 was present not only at nuclear pores but also in the cytosol and at synapses. Neurons lacking importin-?11 were viable and properly differentiated but exhibited discrete defects. Synaptic transmission was defective in adult photoreceptors and at larval neuromuscular junctions. Mutant photoreceptor axons formed grossly normal projections and synaptic terminals in the brain, but synaptic arbors on larval muscles were smaller while still containing appropriate synaptic components. BMP signaling was the apparent cause of the observed NMJ defects. Importin-?11 interacted genetically with the BMP pathway and at mutant synaptic boutons, a key component of this pathway, phosphorylated Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (pMAD), was reduced. Neuronal expression of an importin-?11 transgene rescued this phenotype as well as the other observed neuromuscular phenotypes. Despite the loss of synaptic pMAD, pMAD persisted in motor neuron nuclei, suggesting a specific impairment in the local function of pMAD. Restoring levels of pMAD to mutant terminals via expression of constitutively active type I BMP receptors or by reducing retrograde transport in motor neurons, also restored synaptic strength and morphology. Thus, importin-?11 function interacts with the BMP pathway to regulate a pool of pMAD that must be present at the presynapse for its proper development and function. PMID:20392948

Higashi-Kovtun, Misao E.; Mosca, Timothy J.; Dickman, Dion K.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

297

Acid-sensing by airway afferent nerves  

PubMed Central

Inhalation of acid aerosol or aspiration of acid solution evokes a stimulatory effect on airway C-fiber and A? afferents, which in turn causes airway irritation and triggers an array of defense reflex responses (e.g., cough, reflex bronchoconstriction, etc.). Tissue acidosis can also occur locally in the respiratory tract as a result of ischemia or inflammation, such as in the airways of asthmatic patients during exacerbation. The action of proton on the airway sensory neurons is generated by activation of two different current species: a transient (rapidly activating and inactivating) current mediated through the acid-sensing ion channels, and a slowly activating and sustained current mediated through the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. In view of the recent findings that the expression and/or sensitivity of TRPV1 are up-regulated in the airway sensory nerves during chronic inflammatory reaction, the proton-evoked irritant effects on these nerves may play an important part in the manifestation of various symptoms associated with airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:23524016

Lee, Lu-Yuan; Gu, Qihai; Xu, Fadi; Hong, Ju-Lun

2013-01-01

298

Afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.  

PubMed

Sleep is influenced by diverse factors such as circadian time, affective states, ambient temperature, pain, etc., but pathways mediating these influences are unknown. To identify pathways that may influence sleep, we examined afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), an area critically implicated in promoting sleep. Injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the VLPO produced modest numbers of CTB-labeled monoaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus, raphe nuclei, and ventrolateral medulla, as well as a few neurons in the locus coeruleus. Immunohistochemistry for monoaminergic markers showed dense innervation of the VLPO by histaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic fibers. Along with previous findings, these results suggest that the VLPO and monoaminergic nuclei may be reciprocally connected. Retrograde and anterograde tracing showed moderate or heavy inputs to the VLPO from hypothalamic regions including the median preoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), autonomic regions including the infralimbic cortex and parabrachial nucleus, and limbic regions including the lateral septal nucleus and ventral subiculum. Light to moderate inputs arose from orexin and melanin concentrating hormone neurons, but cholinergic or dopaminergic inputs were extremely sparse. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) projections to the VLPO were sparse, but the heavy input to the VLPO from the DMH, which receives direct and indirect SCN inputs, could provide an alternate pathway regulating the circadian timing of sleep. These robust pathways suggest candidate mechanisms by which sleep may be influenced by brain systems regulating arousal, autonomic, limbic, and circadian functions. PMID:11826126

Chou, Thomas C; Bjorkum, Alvhild A; Gaus, Stephanie E; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E; Saper, Clifford B

2002-02-01

299

Phosphorylation of the AMPA Receptor GluR1 Subunit Is Required for Synaptic Plasticity and Retention of Spatial Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity of the nervous system is dependent on mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. Excitatory synapses in the brain undergo long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), cellular models of learning and memory. Protein phosphorylation is required for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including LTP and LTD. However, the critical kinase substrates that mediate plasticity

Hey-Kyoung Lee; Kogo Takamiya; Jung-Soo Han; Hengye Man; Chong-Hyun Kim; Gavin Rumbaugh; Sandy Yu; Lin Ding; Chun He; Ronald S. Petralia; Robert J. Wenthold; Michela Gallagher; Richard L. Huganir

2003-01-01

300

In the CNS, the amino acid glutamate is released from synaptic terminals and acts on postsynaptic ionotropic  

E-print Network

In the CNS, the amino acid glutamate is released from synaptic terminals and acts on postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) to mediate fast excita tory synaptic transmission. Glutamate can also act on metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and exert a variety of modulatory effects through

Alford, Simon

301

Reorganization of Learning-Associated Prefrontal Synaptic Plasticity between the Recall of Recent and Remote Fear Extinction Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have previously shown that fear extinction is accompanied by an increase of synaptic efficacy in inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and that disrupting these changes to mPFC synaptic transmission compromises extinction processes. The aim of this study was to examine…

Hugues, Sandrine; Garcia, Rene

2007-01-01

302

The Comparison of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Morphine Administration on Fast Synaptic Transmission in Magnocellular Neurons of Supraoptic Nucleus, Plasma Vasopressin Levels, and Urine Volume of Male Rats  

PubMed Central

The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats.

Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

2014-01-01

303

The comparison of the effects of acute and repeated morphine administration on fast synaptic transmission in magnocellular neurons of supraoptic nucleus, plasma vasopressin levels, and urine volume of male rats.  

PubMed

The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats. PMID:25276199

Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

2014-01-01

304

The synaptic morphological perceptron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

Myers, Daniel S.

2006-08-01

305

A unifying theory of synaptic long-term plasticity based on a sparse distribution of synaptic strength  

PubMed Central

Long-term synaptic plasticity is fundamental to learning and network function. It has been studied under various induction protocols and depends on firing rates, membrane voltage, and precise timing of action potentials. These protocols show different facets of a common underlying mechanism but they are mostly modeled as distinct phenomena. Here, we show that all of these different dependencies can be explained from a single computational principle. The objective is a sparse distribution of excitatory synaptic strength, which may help to reduce metabolic costs associated with synaptic transmission. Based on this objective we derive a stochastic gradient ascent learning rule which is of differential-Hebbian type. It is formulated in biophysical quantities and can be related to current mechanistic theories of synaptic plasticity. The learning rule accounts for experimental findings from all major induction protocols and explains a classic phenomenon of metaplasticity. Furthermore, our model predicts the existence of metaplasticity for spike-timing-dependent plasticity Thus, we provide a theory of long-term synaptic plasticity that unifies different induction protocols and provides a connection between functional and mechanistic levels of description. PMID:24624080

Krieg, Daniel; Triesch, Jochen

2014-01-01

306

Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteins.  

PubMed

The identification of encephalitis associated with antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins, although recent, has already had a substantial impact in clinical neurology and neuroscience. The target antigens are receptors and proteins that have critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity, including the NMDA receptor, the AMPA receptor, the GABA(B) receptor, and the glycine receptor. Other autoantigens, such as leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2, form part of trans-synaptic complexes and neuronal cell adhesion molecules involved in fine-tuning synaptic transmission and nerve excitability. Syndromes resulting from these immune responses resemble those of pharmacologic or genetic models in which the antigens are disrupted. For some immune responses, there is evidence that the antibodies alter the structure and function of the antigen, suggesting a direct pathogenic effect. These disorders are important because they can affect children and young adults, are severe and protracted, occur with or without tumor association, and respond to treatment but may relapse. This review provides an update on these syndromes and autoantigens with special emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21747075

Lancaster, Eric; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Dalmau, Josep

2011-07-12

307

Inflammation subverts hippocampal synaptic plasticity in experimental multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Abnormal use-dependent synaptic plasticity is universally accepted as the main physiological correlate of memory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders. It is unclear whether synaptic plasticity deficits take place during neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE mice, we found significant alterations of synaptic plasticity rules in the hippocampus. When compared to control mice, in fact, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was favored over long-term depression (LTD) in EAE, as shown by a significant rightward shift in the frequency-synaptic response function. Notably, LTP induction was also enhanced in hippocampal slices from control mice following interleukin-1? (IL-1?) perfusion, and both EAE and IL-1? inhibited GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) without affecting glutamatergic transmission and AMPA/NMDA ratio. EAE was also associated with selective loss of GABAergic interneurons and with reduced gamma-frequency oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, we provided evidence that microglial activation in the EAE hippocampus was associated with IL-1? expression, and hippocampal slices from control mice incubated with activated microglia displayed alterations of GABAergic transmission similar to those seen in EAE brains, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1? signaling. These data may yield novel insights into the basis of cognitive deficits in EAE and possibly of MS. PMID:23355887

Nisticň, Robert; Mango, Dalila; Mandolesi, Georgia; Piccinin, Sonia; Berretta, Nicola; Pignatelli, Marco; Feligioni, Marco; Musella, Alessandra; Gentile, Antonietta; Mori, Francesco; Bernardi, Giorgio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mercuri, Nicola B; Centonze, Diego

2013-01-01

308

Neuroligin-1 controls synaptic abundance of NMDA-type glutamate receptors through extracellular coupling.  

PubMed

Despite the pivotal functions of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) for neural circuit development and synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of NMDAR trafficking are poorly understood. The cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-1 (NL1) modifies NMDAR-dependent synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether NL1 controls synaptic accumulation or function of the receptors. Here, we provide evidence that NL1 regulates the abundance of NMDARs at postsynaptic sites. This function relies on extracellular, NL1 isoform-specific sequences that facilitate biochemical interactions between NL1 and the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Our work uncovers NL1 isoform-specific cis-interactions with ionotropic glutamate receptors as a key mechanism for controlling synaptic properties. PMID:23269831

Budreck, Elaine C; Kwon, Oh-Bin; Jung, Jung Hoon; Baudouin, Stephane; Thommen, Albert; Kim, Hye-Sun; Fukazawa, Yugo; Harada, Harumi; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Scheiffele, Peter; Kim, Joung-Hun

2013-01-01

309

Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were located in the extrastriola. The cellular organization and innervation patterns of the utricular maculae in birds appear to represent an organ in adaptive evolution, different from that observed for amphibians or mammals.

Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

2003-01-01

310

Pancreatobiliary afferent recordings in the anaesthetised Australian possum.  

PubMed

The sensory innervation to the pancreatobiliary system is poorly characterized. Afferent signals from the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tree are transmitted to the central nervous system via the vagus and spinal nerves. We aimed to record afferent discharge in order to characterize the vagal and splanchnic afferent signals from the possum upper gastrointestinal tract, biliary tree and pancreas. In 21 anaesthetised possums nerve fibres were teased from the vagus or splanchnic nerve for multi-unit recording. Mechanical stimuli consisted of balloon distension of the gallbladder and duodenum (2-7 ml) and fluid distension (0-20 mm Hg) of the bile or pancreatic ducts. Approximately 60% of fibres from all nerves displayed spontaneous discharge. Spinal afferent responses to mechanical stimuli were infrequent (n=13). Increased discharge occurred in response to duodenal (12/99 fibres) or gallbladder (7/96 fibres) distension, but not to bile duct (0/73 fibres) or pancreatic duct (0/51 fibres) distension. Vagal afferent responses to distension of the duodenum or stomach (5-30 ml) were more common (n=8). Increased discharge was recorded in response to duodenal (49/134 fibres), or gastric (22/70 fibres) distension. Responses to gallbladder distension were less frequent (6/99 fibres) and as with the spinal afferent no response to bile duct (0/66) or pancreatic duct (0/70) distension were recorded. We conclude that mechanosensitive afferents in the pancreatobiliary system are relatively rare, particularly within the ducts, and/or that they are adapted to monitor stimuli other than luminal distension. PMID:16574498

Schloithe, A C; Woods, C M; Davison, J S; Blackshaw, L A; Toouli, J; Saccone, G T P

2006-06-30

311

Feedforward Inhibition and Synaptic Scaling - Two Sides of the Same Coin?  

PubMed Central

Feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling are important adaptive processes that control the total input a neuron can receive from its afferents. While often studied in isolation, the two have been reported to co-occur in various brain regions. The functional implications of their interactions remain unclear, however. Based on a probabilistic modeling approach, we show here that fast feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling interact synergistically during unsupervised learning. In technical terms, we model the input to a neural circuit using a normalized mixture model with Poisson noise. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that, in the presence of lateral inhibition introducing competition between different neurons, Hebbian plasticity and synaptic scaling approximate the optimal maximum likelihood solutions for this model. Our results suggest that, beyond its conventional use as a mechanism to remove undesired pattern variations, input normalization can make typical neural interaction and learning rules optimal on the stimulus subspace defined through feedforward inhibition. Furthermore, learning within this subspace is more efficient in practice, as it helps avoid locally optimal solutions. Our results suggest a close connection between feedforward inhibition and synaptic scaling which may have important functional implications for general cortical processing. PMID:22457610

Lucke, Jorg

2012-01-01

312

Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis  

PubMed Central

Synaptic transmission between midbrain dopamine neurons and target neurons in the striatum is essential for the selection and reinforcement of movements. Recent evidence indicates that nigrostriatal dopamine neurons inhibit striatal projection neurons by releasing a neurotransmitter that activates GABAA receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to mesolimbic afferents, and confirm that the released neurotransmitter is GABA. However, the GABA synthetic enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 are not detected in midbrain dopamine neurons. Instead, these cells express the membrane GABA transporters mGAT1 (Slc6a1) and mGAT4 (Slc6a11) and inhibition of these transporters prevents GABA co-release. These findings therefore indicate that GABA co-release is a general feature of midbrain dopaminergic neurons that relies on GABA uptake from the extracellular milieu as opposed to de novo synthesis. This atypical mechanism may confer dopaminergic neurons the flexibility to differentially control GABAergic transmission in a target-dependent manner across their extensive axonal arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01936.001 PMID:24843012

Tritsch, Nicolas X; Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua; Sabatini, Bernardo L

2014-01-01

313

Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis.  

PubMed

Synaptic transmission between midbrain dopamine neurons and target neurons in the striatum is essential for the selection and reinforcement of movements. Recent evidence indicates that nigrostriatal dopamine neurons inhibit striatal projection neurons by releasing a neurotransmitter that activates GABAA receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to mesolimbic afferents, and confirm that the released neurotransmitter is GABA. However, the GABA synthetic enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 are not detected in midbrain dopamine neurons. Instead, these cells express the membrane GABA transporters mGAT1 (Slc6a1) and mGAT4 (Slc6a11) and inhibition of these transporters prevents GABA co-release. These findings therefore indicate that GABA co-release is a general feature of midbrain dopaminergic neurons that relies on GABA uptake from the extracellular milieu as opposed to de novo synthesis. This atypical mechanism may confer dopaminergic neurons the flexibility to differentially control GABAergic transmission in a target-dependent manner across their extensive axonal arbors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01936.001. PMID:24843012

Tritsch, Nicolas X; Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua; Sabatini, Bernardo L

2014-01-01

314

Sensory signal transduction in the vagal primary afferent neurons.  

PubMed

The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. Activation of vagal afferent fibers results in inhibition of food intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of pancreatic secretion. Afferents nerves terminating near to the mucosa are in a position to monitor the composition of the luminal contents. As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. This review addresses the role for both cholecytokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) released from enteroendocrine cells and acting as paracrine agents on the terminals of vagal afferents in responses to a number of luminal signals. CCK acted on both high- and low-affinity CCK-A receptors present on distinct vagal primary afferent neurons. Neurons of the nodose ganglia respond to intraduodenal perfusions of maltose, glucose, and hypertonic saline. These neurons were also sensitive to exogenous luminally applied 5-HT at concentrations that mimic physiologic levels. Intravenous administration of a 5-HT3 antagonist blocked these responses suggesting that nodose neuronal responses to luminal osmolarity and to the digestion products of carbohydrates are dependent on the release of endogenous 5-HT from the mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which acts on the 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferent fibers to stimulate vagal afferent neurons. Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. The nodose ganglion contains neurons that may possess only high- or low-affinity CCK-A receptors or 5-HT3 receptors. Some neurons that express high-affinity CCK-A receptors also express 5-HT3 receptors and (or) secretin receptors. Pre-exposure to luminal 5-HT may augment the subsequent response to a subthreshold dose of CCK. Synergistic interaction between CCK and secretin also occurs at the nodose ganglia; this is mediated by high affinity CCK-A receptor. This may explain the robust postprandial secretion of enzyme, bicarbonate, and fluid despite the modest increase in CCK after a meal. Some neurons that possess low-affinity CCK-A receptor colocalize with leptin receptors (OB-Rs). These neurons also respond to mechanical distention. Interaction between CCK-A receptor and OB-Rs in these neurons likely facilitates leptin mediation of short-term satiety. PMID:17979708

Li, Ying

2007-01-01

315

A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the primary experimental model for investigating the synaptic basis of learning and memory in vertebrates. The best understood form of long-term potentiation is induced by the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This subtype of glutamate receptor endows long-term potentiation with Hebbian characteristics, and allows electrical events at the postsynaptic membrane

T. V. P. Bliss; G. L. Collingridge

1993-01-01

316

Tomosyn Inhibits Synaptic Vesicle Priming in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

microscopy; GFP, green fluorescent protein; NMJ, neuromuscular junction; RNAi, RNA interference; SNARE, soluble NSF attachment protein receptors; TOM-1Ct, C-terminal coiled-coil motif of TOM-1; WT, wild type * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E... directly assayed the physiological phenotype of tomosyn loss-of-function mutants at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Our results indicate that tomosyn inhibits synaptic transmission through actions that regulate the size...

Gracheva, Elena O.; Burdina, Anna O.; Holgado, Andrea M.; Berthelot-Grosjean, Martine; Ackley, Brian D.; Hadwiger, Gayla; Nonet, Michael L.; Weimer, Robby M.; Richmond, Janet E.

2006-07-25

317

Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.  

PubMed

Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior. PMID:24849343

Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

2014-05-21

318

Input-specific maturation of synaptic dynamics of parvalbumin interneurons in primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Cortical networks consist of local recurrent circuits and long-range pathways from other brain areas. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVNs) regulate the dynamic operation of local ensembles as well as the temporal precision of afferent signals. The synaptic recruitment of PVNs that support these circuit operations is not well-understood. Here we demonstrate that the synaptic dynamics of PVN recruitment in mouse visual cortex are customized according to input source with distinct maturation profiles. Whereas the long-range inputs to PVNs show strong short-term depression throughout postnatal maturation, local inputs from nearby pyramidal neurons progressively lose such depression. This enhanced local recruitment depends on PVN-mediated reciprocal inhibition and results from both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, including calcium-permeable AMPA receptors at PVN postsynaptic sites. Although short-term depression of long-range inputs is well-suited for afferent signal detection, the robust dynamics of local inputs may facilitate rapid and proportional PVN recruitment in regulating local circuit operations. PMID:25385583

Lu, Jiangteng; Tucciarone, Jason; Lin, Ying; Huang, Z Josh

2014-11-25

319

VGluT3+ Primary Afferents Play Distinct Roles in Mechanical and Cold Hypersensitivity Depending on Pain Etiology.  

PubMed

Sensory nerve fibers differ not only with respect to their sensory modalities and conduction velocities, but also in their relative roles for pain hypersensitivity. It is presently largely unknown which types of sensory afferents contribute to various forms of neuropathic and inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3-positive (VGluT3(+)) primary afferents, for example, have been implicated in mechanical hypersensitivity after inflammation, but their role in neuropathic pain remains under debate. Here, we investigated a possible etiology-dependent contribution of VGluT3(+) fibers to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity in different models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In addition to VGluT3(-/-) mice, we used VGluT3-channelrhodopsin 2 mice to selectively stimulate VGluT3(+) sensory afferents by blue light, and to assess light-evoked behavior in freely moving mice. We show that VGluT3(-/-) mice develop reduced mechanical hypersensitivity upon carrageenan injection. Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were reduced in VGluT3(-/-) mice in neuropathic pain evoked by the chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin, but not in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of the sciatic nerve. Further, we provide direct evidence that, despite not mediating painful stimuli in naive mice, activation of VGluT3(+) sensory fibers by light elicits pain behavior in the oxaliplatin but not the CCI model. Immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data support a role of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-mediated facilitation of synaptic strength at the level of the dorsal horn as an underlying mechanism. Together, we demonstrate that VGluT3(+) fibers contribute in an etiology-dependent manner to the development of mechano-cold hypersensitivity. PMID:25186747

Draxler, Peter; Honsek, Silke Doris; Forsthuber, Liesbeth; Hadschieff, Viktoria; Sandkühler, Jürgen

2014-09-01

320

Synaptic ribbon dynamics in photoreceptors of mice.  

PubMed

The present study deals with structural plasticity of a special type of chemical synapse, the ribbon synapse. Near the presynaptic membrane ribbon synapses contain conspicuous electron-dense synaptic bodies which appear mainly as rod-like profiles under the transmission electron microscope. In addition, club-shaped and spherical profiles may be present, the function of which is unclear. To gain some insight into the significance of the latter structures we studied their presence in rod-type photoreceptor cells of BALB/c mice under different lighting conditions. Quantification revealed that the club-shaped and the spherical profiles showed a clear light/dark dependence. They were virtually absent at night and increased strikingly in number when the animals were exposed to light. When darkness was extended into the morning, the profiles remained low in number. As the rod cells diminish their neurotransmitter release during the light phase, the present findings are interpreted as signs of synapse inactivation. PMID:11729995

Vollrath, L; Spiwoks-Becker, I; Adly, M A; Schaaff, U; Lasarzik, I; Neumann, S

2001-01-01

321

Functional diversity on synaptic plasticity mediated by endocannabinoids  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) act as modulators of synaptic transmission through activation of a number of receptors, including, but not limited to, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). eCBs share CB1 receptors as a common target with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Although THC has been used for recreational and medicinal purposes for thousands of years, little was known about its effects at the cellular level or on neuronal circuits. Identification of CB1 receptors and the subsequent development of its specific ligands has therefore enhanced our ability to study and bring together a substantial amount of knowledge regarding how marijuana and eCBs modify interneuronal communication. To date, the eCB system, composed of cannabinoid receptors, ligands and the relevant enzymes, is recognized as the best-described retrograde signalling system in the brain. Its impact on synaptic transmission is widespread and more diverse than initially thought. The aim of this review is to succinctly present the most common forms of eCB-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission, while also illustrating the multiplicity of effects resulting from specializations of this signalling system at the circuital level. PMID:23108543

Cachope, Roger

2012-01-01

322

Astrocyte regulation of synaptic behavior.  

PubMed

Astrocytes regulate multiple aspects of neuronal and synaptic function from development through to adulthood. Instead of addressing each function independently, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the different ways astrocytes modulate neuronal synaptic function throughout life, with a particular focus on recent findings in each area. It includes the emerging functions of astrocytes, such as a role in synapse formation, as well as more established roles, including the uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters. This broad approach covers the many ways astrocytes and neurons constantly interact to maintain the correct functioning of the brain. It is important to consider all of these diverse functions of astrocytes when investigating how astrocyte-neuron interactions regulate synaptic behavior to appreciate the complexity of these ongoing interactions. PMID:25288116

Allen, Nicola J

2014-10-11

323

Synaptic dysfunction and intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Intellectual disability (ID) is a common and highly heterogeneous paediatric disorder with a very severe social impact. Intellectual disability can be caused by environmental and/or genetic factors. Although in the last two decades a number of genes have been discovered whose mutations cause mental retardation, we are still far from identifying the impact of these mutations on brain functions. Many of the genes mutated in ID code for several proteins with a variety of functions: chromatin remodelling, pre-/post-synaptic activity, and intracellular trafficking. The prevailing hypothesis suggests that the ID phenotype could emerge from abnormal cellular processing leading to pre- and/or post-synaptic dysfunction. In this chapter, we focus on the role of small GTPases and adhesion molecules, and we discuss the mechanisms through which they lead to synaptic network dysfunction. PMID:22351067

Valnegri, Pamela; Sala, Carlo; Passafaro, Maria

2012-01-01

324

Modulatory role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors in synaptic and non-synaptic chemical communication in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a family of ligand-gated channels closely related to but distinct from the muscle nAChRs. Recent progress in neurochemical and pharmacological methods supports the hypothesis of presynaptically located nAChRs on axon terminals and indicates that the major effect of nAChR is the modulation rather than processing of fast synaptic transmission. Strong neurochemical evidence indicate

E. S. Vizi; B. Lendvai

1999-01-01

325

Afferent Stochastic Modulation of Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor Units  

PubMed Central

When all roots to the sixth ganglion of the crayfish are cut, the caudal photoreceptor unit (PRU) fires at regular intervals. With an intact preparation, stimulation of caudal tactile hairs has predominantly inhibitory effects on the PRU: short bursts of afferent impulses, produced by momentary mechanical stimulation of tactile hairs, have (a) occasional immediate excitatory effect on the PRU, (b) prolonged inhibitory effect. The mean firing rate of the afferented and deafferented PRUs reacts similarly to a step increase in light, but the same unit fires faster after deafferentation. In the dark, deafferented units often fire paired or multiple pulses; the interval between pulses in a pair is similar to the short mode in afferented histograms. A fiber-optic probe of the caudal ganglion demonstrates the approximate location of the photosensitive element. PMID:5651771

Hermann, Howard T.; Olsen, Richard E.

1968-01-01

326

LPHN3, a presynaptic adhesion-GPCR implicated in ADHD, regulates the strength of neocortical layer 2/3 synaptic input to layer 5  

PubMed Central

Background Latrophilins (LPHNs) are a small family of neuronal adhesion-GPCRs originally discovered as receptors for the black widow spider toxin ?-latrotoxin. Mutations in LPHN3 have recently been identified as risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, but their physiological function has remained elusive. In this study, we tested two hypotheses regarding LPHN3 function: (1) LPHN3 regulates synaptic transmission by modulating probability of release; and (2) LPHN3 controls synapse development and the abundance of synapses. Results We manipulated LPHN3 expression in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons and examined the consequences on the L2/3 to L5 cortical microcircuit. Employing an optogenetic strategy combined with shRNA knockdown of LPHN3, we found that LPHN3 did not influence probability of release at synapses formed by L2/3 neurons onto L5 pyramidal cells. The strength of L2/3 afferent input to L5, however, was weakened by loss of LPHN3. Using Synaptophysin-GFP as an anatomical marker of presynaptic terminals, we found that the density of synapses formed by L2/3 axons in L5 was reduced when LPHN3 was lost. Finally, we investigated the structural organization of the extracellular domain of LPHN3. We used single particle negative stain electron microscopy to image the extracellular domain of LPHN3 and showed that the Olfactomedin and Lectin domains form a globular domain on an elongated stalk. Cell-based binding experiments with mutant proteins revealed that the Olfactomedin domain was required for binding to FLRT3, whereas both the Olfactomedin and Lectin domains were involved in binding to Teneurin 1. Mutant LPHN3 lacking the Olfactomedin domain was not capable of rescuing the deficit in presynaptic density following knockdown of endogenous LPHN3. Conclusions We find that LPHN3 regulates the number of synapses formed by L2/3 neurons in L5 and the strength of synaptic drive from the L2/3-L5 pathway. The Olfactomedin domain of LPHN3 is required for this effect on synapse number and binding to its postsynaptic ligand FLRT3. We propose that LPHN3 functions in synaptic development and is important in determining the connectivity rates between principal neurons in the cortex. PMID:24739570

2014-01-01

327

Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

2014-10-19

328

Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes  

PubMed Central

The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

2014-01-01

329

Vagal afferent stimulation activates astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract via AMPA receptors: evidence of an atypical neural-glial interaction in the brainstem.  

PubMed

The nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), located in the dorsomedial medulla, is the site of visceral sensory modulation of a variety of homeostatic reflexes. Given recent advancements in the understanding of active regulation of synaptic information flow by astrocytes, we sought to determine whether afferent sensory inputs to NST neurons also activates NST astrocytes. Using confocal, live-cell calcium imaging of brainstem slices, we investigated the possibility that stimulation of vagal sensory afferents, the major sensory input into the NST, activated NST astrocytes, as indicated by increases in astrocytic intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca˛?](i)). Astrocytes and neurons were preloaded with the calcium reporter dye Calcium Green, and astrocytes were selectively stained by sulforhodamine 101. Electrical stimulation of vagal afferent axons produced rapid increases in [Ca˛?](i) in NST astrocytes as well as neurons. Surprisingly, this effect on astrocytes was blocked by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX and was unaffected by antagonism of NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Bath application of AMPA also activated astrocytes. This activation was dependent on extracellular Ca˛? influx through both typical AMPA receptors and calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. This AMPA-mediated Ca˛? influx was further amplified by actions of the ryanodine receptor by way of calcium-induced calcium release. Our immunohistochemical staining of NST cells further verified the presence of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 on astrocytes. These observations suggest that NST astrocytes may be active participants in the regulation of autonomic reflexes even in the normal, healthy state. PMID:21957265

McDougal, David H; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Rogers, Richard C

2011-09-28

330

The afferent pupillary defect in acute optic neuritis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two patients with acute optic neuritis were studied by the techniques of infrared pupillometry and visual evoked responses (VER) to pattern reversal. A relative afferent pupillary defect was found in all cases and the magnitude of this defect was found to be related to the amplitude, but not to the latency, of the VER. During follow-up the afferent defect was found to remain persistently abnormal while other methods of clinical evaluation could not demonstrate abnormality reliably. The amplitude of the VER also remained low. PMID:501365

Ellis, C J

1979-01-01

331

Pre-Synaptic Release Deficits in a DYT1 Dystonia Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1 dystonia) is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in one allele of DYT1 (TOR1A), coding for torsinA. The most common mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (?GAG), which causes a deletion of a glutamic acid residue (?E) in the C-terminal region of torsinA. Although recent studies using cultured cells suggest that torsinA contributes to protein processing in the secretory pathway, endocytosis, and the stability of synaptic proteins, the nature of how this mutation affects synaptic transmission remains unclear. We previously reported that theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice is not altered in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice. Here, we examined short-term synaptic plasticity and synaptic transmission in the hippocampal slices. Field recordings in the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals (SC) pathway revealed significantly enhanced paired pulse ratios (PPRs) in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting an impaired synaptic vesicle release. Whole-cell recordings from the CA1 neurons showed that Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice exhibited normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSC), suggesting that action-potential independent spontaneous pre-synaptic release was normal. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the frequency, but not amplitude or kinetics, of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSC) in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting that the action-potential dependent pre-synaptic release was impaired. Moreover, hippocampal torsinA was significantly reduced in Dyt1 ?GAG heterozygous KI mice. Although the hippocampal slice model may not represent the neurons directly associated with dystonic symptoms, impaired release of neurotransmitters caused by partial dysfunction of torsinA in other brain regions may contribute to the pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia. PMID:23967309

Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Sweatt, J. David; Li, Yuqing

2013-01-01

332

Estrogen's Place in the Family of Synaptic Modulators  

PubMed Central

Estrogen, in addition to its genomic effects, triggers rapid synaptic changes in hippocampus and cortex. Here we summarize evidence that the acute actions of the steroid arise from actin signaling cascades centrally involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). A 10-min infusion of E2 reversibly increased fast EPSPs and promoted theta burst-induced LTP within adult hippocampal slices. The latter effect reflected a lowered threshold and an elevated ceiling for the potentiation effect. E2’s actions on transmission and plasticity were completely blocked by latrunculin, a toxin that prevents actin polymerization. E2 also caused a reversible increase in spine concentrations of filamentous (F-) actin and markedly enhanced polymerization caused by theta burst stimulation (TBS). Estrogen activated the small GTPase RhoA, but not the related GTPase Rac, and phosphorylated (inactivated) synaptic cofilin, an actin severing protein targeted by RhoA. An inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK) thoroughly suppressed the synaptic effects of E2. Collectively, these results indicate that E2 engages a RhoA >ROCK> cofilin> actin pathway also used by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and adenosine, and therefore belongs to a family of ‘synaptic modulators’ that regulate plasticity. Finally, we describe evidence that the acute signaling cascade is critical to the depression of LTP produced by ovariectomy. PMID:20419049

Kramar, Eniko A.; Chen, Lulu Y.; Rex, Christopher S.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary

2010-01-01

333

Impaired synaptic plasticity in a rat model of tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a common hereditary disorder caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, and characterized by severe epilepsy, cerebral hamartomas and mental retardation. We have used rats that are heterozygous for an autosomal-dominant germline mutation in the TSC2 gene (TSC2+/- rats) to examine the consequences of TSC2 mutations for hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While basal synaptic transmission in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse was not altered, paired-pulse plasticity was significantly enhanced in TSC2+/- rats (interpulse intervals 20-200 ms). Moreover, TSC2+/- rats exhibited a marked reduction of different forms of synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited following high-frequency tetanization of Schaffer collaterals was significantly decreased from 1.45 +/- 0.05-fold potentiation to 1.15 +/- 0.04 (measured after 60 min). This difference in LTP levels between TSC2+/- and wild-type rats also persisted in the presence of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. In addition to changed LTP, the level of long-term depression (LTD) elicited by different forms of low-frequency stimulation was significantly less in TSC2+/- rats. These results suggest that TSC2 mutations may cause hippocampal synapses to lose much of their potential for activity-dependent synaptic modification. An understanding of the underlying molecular pathways may suggest new therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting the development of the profound mental retardation in TSC. PMID:16487150

von der Brelie, Christian; Waltereit, Robert; Zhang, Lian; Beck, Heinz; Kirschstein, Timo

2006-02-01

334

Diffusion dynamics of synaptic molecules during inhibitory postsynaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted molecular reorganization of the inhibitory synapse during postsynaptic plasticity, with special emphasis on the key role of protein dynamics to ensure prompt and reliable activity-dependent adjustments of synaptic strength. PMID:25294987

Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea

2014-01-01

335

Targeting calpain in synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Calpains represent a family of neutral, calcium-dependent proteases, which modify the function of their target proteins by partial truncation. These proteases have been implicated in numerous cell functions, including cell division, proliferation, migration, and death. In the CNS, where ?-calpain and m-calpain are the main calpain isoforms, their activation has been linked to synaptic plasticity as well as to neurodegeneration. This review will focus on the role of calpains in synaptic plasticity and discuss the possibility of developing methods to manipulate calpain activity for therapeutic purposes. Areas covered This review covers the literature showing how calpains are implicated in synaptic plasticity and in a number of conditions associated with learning impairment. The possibility of developing new drugs targeting these enzymes for treating these conditions is discussed. Expert opinion As evidence accumulates that calpain activation participates in neurodegeneration and cancer, there is interest in developing therapeutic approaches using direct or indirect calpain inhibition. In particular, a peptide derived from the calpain truncation site of mGluR1? was shown to decrease neurodegeneration following neonatal hypoxia/ischemia. More selective approaches need to be developed to target calpain or some of its substrates for therapeutic indications associated with deregulation of synaptic plasticity. PMID:23379852

Baudry, Michel; Chou, Maggie M; Bi, Xiaoning

2014-01-01

336

Structural and neurochemical comparison of vagal and spinal afferent neurons projecting to the rat lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Afferent information from the lung is conveyed both to the brainstem and to the spinal cord by primary afferent fibres originating from vagal sensory (jugular-nodose ganglion complex=JNC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, respectively. Most interest, so far, has been paid to the vagal pathway while much less is known about spinal afferents. Here we provide the first direct comparison

Malte Plato; Wolfgang Kummer; Rainer V. Haberberger

2006-01-01

337

Primary afferent depolarization in the rat spinal cord is mediated by pathways utilising NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.  

PubMed

In the present experiments the dorsal root-evoked dorsal root potential (DR-DRP) has been measured in vitro from a mature rat sacrococcygeal preparation. The DR-DRP is an index of presynaptic inhibition since it represents the depolarization of primary afferent terminals by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) released synaptically from interneurones. The present study shows that the synaptic excitation of the GABAergic interneurons contains a large component resistant to the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) (100 microM) and 3((+)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP) 20-100 microM. This non-NMDA receptor mediated component reflected in the DR-DRP was depressed markedly by the non-selective excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists kynurenate (1-2 mM) and 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) (10-20 microM). Because previous reports show non-cholinergic activation of Renshaw cells to be blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists the present observations suggest that pre- and postsynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord are mediated by different types of excitatory amino acid receptor. PMID:2569701

Evans, R H; Long, S K

1989-05-22

338

Development/Plasticity/Repair Extensive Reorganization of Primary Afferent Projections  

E-print Network

sensory systems, the gustatory system is particularly susceptible to the effects of deprivation much the control of sensory and homeostatic processes. Key words: brainstem nuclei; primary afferents; taste periods of sensory development lead to central morphological and func- tional changes (Hubel and Wiesel

Hill, David L.

339

Hypertonicity activates pulmonary vagal afferents independently of vasoconstriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injecting hypertonic saline into the lung periphery causes a vagally mediated neural hyperpnea and tachypnea (the excitatory lung reflex, ELR). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline activates lung afferents mainly by increasing fluid flux from pulmonary vessels into the alveoli. If our hypothesis is correct, reducing perfusion of the vagal sensory region will reduce the

N. Song; A. M. Roberts; J. Yu

2011-01-01

340

Selective vagal afferent dysfunction in dogs with congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital idiopathic megaoesophagus (CIM) is a rare, naturally occurring disorder of the dog that is characterised by deficient motility and dilatation of the oesophagus. Recent studies indicate that the vagal sensory system mediating reflexes induced by oesophageal distension is defective in, and may underlie the pathomechanism of this disorder. We sought to establish whether other distension sensitive vagal afferent systems

Christopher T Holland; Paul M Satchell; Brian R. H Farrow

2002-01-01

341

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory  

E-print Network

afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain sli- ces, electrical stimulation stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results

Leeds, University of

342

Afferent Input Regulates the Formation of Distal Dendritic Branches  

E-print Network

the three-dimensional architecture of chronically deafferented vs. normally developed dendritic trees (number of branch points, total length, and total surface area) on the entire dendritic tree. Sholl that afferent input plays a specific role in shaping the morphology of dendritic trees by regulating

Libersat, Frederic

343

Enterocyte-afferent nerve interactions in dietary fat sensing.  

PubMed

The central nervous system (CNS) constantly monitors nutrient availability in the body and, in particular, in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to regulate nutrient and energy homeostasis. Extrinsic parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are crucial for CNS nutrient sensing in the GI tract. These extrinsic afferent nerves detect the nature and amount of nutrients present in the GI tract and relay the information to the brain, which controls energy intake and expenditure accordingly. Dietary fat and fatty acids are sensed through various direct and indirect mechanisms. These sensing processes involve the binding of fatty acids to specific G protein-coupled receptors expressed either on the afferent nerve fibres or on the surface of enteroendocrine cells that release gut peptides, which themselves can modulate afferent nerve activity through their cognate receptors or have endocrine effects directly on the brain. Further dietary fat sensing mechanisms that are related to enterocyte fat handling and metabolism involve the release of several possible chemical mediators such as fatty acid ethanolamides or apolipoprotein A-IV. We here present evidence for yet another mechanism that may be based on ketone bodies resulting from enterocyte oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids. The presently available evidence suggests that sympathetic rather than vagal afferents are involved, but further experiments are necessary to critically examine this concept. PMID:25200298

Mansouri, A; Langhans, W

2014-09-01

344

Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem  

PubMed Central

A new form of synaptic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission was observed when making voltage-clamp recordings from large presynaptic terminals, the calyces of Held and postsynaptic cells, the principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), in slices of the rat auditory brainstem. A short (100 ms) depolarization of the postsynaptic cell to 0 mV reduced the amplitude of the EPSCs by 35 ± 5% (n = 7), measured at 10 ms following the depolarization. Recovery occurred within 0·5 s. The reduction of the EPSCs was most probably due to reduced presynaptic calcium influx, since postsynaptic depolarization reduced presynaptic calcium or barium currents. Conversely, presynaptic depolarization also reduced postsynaptic calcium or barium influx, under conditions where transmitter release was minimal. The calcium currents and the postsynaptic depolarization-induced suppression of synaptic transmission recovered with a similar time course, suggesting that this form of synaptic depression was, most probably, due to depletion of Ca2+ in the synaptic cleft. We conclude that when the Ca2+ influx into the pre- or postsynaptic cell is large, extracellular Ca2+ is depleted. Under these conditions, the Ca2+ concentration in the synaptic cleft is a sensitive indicator of the level of synaptic activity. However, the synaptic cleft is less sensitive to Ca2+ depletion than predicted from its estimated volume. PMID:10562339

Borst, J G G; Sakmann, B

1999-01-01

345

Vagal afferent input alters the discharge of osmotic and ANG II-responsive median preoptic neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of activating vagal afferent fibers on the discharge of median preoptic (MnPO) neurons responsive to peripheral angiotensin II (ANG II) and osmotic inputs. Vagal afferents were activated by electrical stimulation of the proximal end of the transected cervical vagus nerve (3 pulses, 100 Hz, 1 ms, 100-500 muA). Of 21 MnPO neurons, 19 were antidromically activated from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) (latency: 10.3+/-1.3 ms, threshold: 278+/-25 muA). MnPO-PVH cells had an average spontaneous discharge of 2.1+/-0.4 Hz. Injection of ANG II (150 ng) and/or hypertonic NaCl (1.5 Osm/L, 100 mul) through the internal carotid artery significantly (P<0.01) increased the firing rate of most MnPO-PVH neurons (16/19, 84%). Vagus nerve stimulation significantly (P<0.01) decreased discharge (-73+/-9%) in 10 of 16 (63%) neurons with an average onset latency of 108+/-19 ms. Among the remaining 6 MnPO-PVH neurons vagal activation either increased discharge (177+/-100%) with a latency of 115+/-15 ms (n=2) or had no effect (n=4). Pharmacological activation of chemosensitive vagal afferents with phenyl biguanide produced an increase (n=3), decrease (n=2), or no change (n=6) in discharge. These observations indicate that a significant proportion of ANG II- and/or osmo-sensitive MnPO neurons receive convergent vagal input. Although the sensory modalities transmitted by the vagal afferents to MnPO-PVH neurons are not presently known, the presence of inhibitory and excitatory vagal-evoked responses indicates that synaptic processing by these cells integrates humoral and visceral information to subserve potentially important cardiovascular and body fluid homeostatic functions. PMID:17161831

Stocker, Sean D; Toney, Glenn M

2007-02-01

346

Cortical and subcortical plasticity in the brains of humans, primates, and rats after damage to sensory afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

The failure of injured axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury deprives brain neurons of their normal sources of activation. These injuries also result in the reorganization of affected areas of the central nervous system that is thought to drive both the ensuing recovery of function and the formation of maladaptive neuronal circuitry. Better understanding of the physiological consequences of novel synaptic connections produced by injury and the mechanisms that control their formation are important to the development of new successful strategies for the treatment of patients with spinal cord injuries. Here we discuss the anatomical, physiological and behavioral changes that take place in response to injury-induced plasticity after damage to the dorsal column pathway in rats and monkeys. Complete section of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord at a high cervical level in monkeys and rats interrupts the ascending axon branches of low threshold mechanoreceptor afferents subserving the forelimb and the rest of the lower body. Such lesions render the corresponding part of the somatotopic representation of primary somatosensory cortex totally unresponsive to tactile stimuli. There are also behavioral consequences of the sensory loss, including an impaired use of the hand/forelimb in manipulating small objects. In monkeys, if some of the afferents from the hand remain intact after dorsal column lesions, these remaining afferents extensively reactivate portions of somatosensory cortex formerly representing the hand. This functional reorganization develops over a postoperative period of one month, during which hand use rapidly improves. These recoveries appear to be mediated, at least in part, by the sprouting of preserved afferents within the cuneate nucleus of the dorsal column-trigeminal complex. In rats, such functional collateral sprouting has been promoted by the post-lesion digestion of the perineuronal net in the cuneate nucleus. Thus, this and other therapeutic strategies have the potential of enhancing sensorimotor recoveries after spinal cord injuries in humans. PMID:17692844

Kaas, Jon H.; Qi, Hui-Xin; Burish, Mark; Gharbawie, Omar; Onifer, Stephen M.; Massey, James M.

2008-01-01

347

Optical survey of initial expression of synaptic function in the embryonic chick trigeminal sensory nucleus.  

PubMed

We examined the initial expression of synaptic function in the embryonic chick trigeminal nucleus using voltage-sensitive dye recording. Brainstem preparations with three trigeminal nerve afferents, the ophthalmic nerve (N.V1), maxillary nerve (N.V2) and mandibular nerve (N.V3), were dissected from 5.5- to 6.5-day-old chick embryos. In our previous study [Sato et al., 1999], we detected slow signals corresponding to glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials and identified the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Pr5), spinal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Sp5) and trigeminal motor nucleus. In this study, we examined the effects of removing Mg(2+) from the physiological solution, which enhanced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function in the sensory nuclei. In 6.5-day-old (St 29) embryos, the slow signal was observed in Pr5 and Sp5 only when N.V1 was stimulated, whereas it appeared in Mg(2+)-free solution with every nerve stimulation. In 6-day-old (St 28) embryos, the slow signal was observed in Sp5 with N.V1 stimulation, and the appearance of synaptic function in Mg(2+)-free solution varied, depending on the nerves and preparations used. In 5.5-day-old (St 27) embryos, synaptic function was not detected even when external Mg(2+) was removed. These results indicate that the initial expression of synaptic function in the trigeminal system occurs earlier than previously considered, and that the developmental organization of synaptic function differs among the three trigeminal nerves and between the two sensory nuclei. PMID:24769319

Momose-Sato, Yoko; Sato, Katsushige

2014-06-01

348

Recordings of cultured neurons and synaptic activity using patch-clamp chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar patch-clamp chip technology has been developed to enhance the assessment of novel compounds for therapeutic efficacy and safety. However, this technology has been limited to recording ion channels expressed in isolated suspended cells, making the study of ion channel function in synaptic transmission impractical. Recently, we developed single- and dual-recording site planar patch-clamp chips and demonstrated their capacity to record ion channel activity from neurons established in culture. Such capacity provides the opportunity to record from synaptically connected neurons cultured on-chip. In this study we reconstructed, on-chip, a simple synaptic circuit between cultured pre-synaptic visceral dorsal 4 neurons and post-synaptic left pedal dorsal 1 neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis. Here we report the first planar patch-clamp chip recordings of synaptic phenomena from these paired neurons and pharmacologically demonstrate the cholinergic nature of this synapse. We also report simultaneous dual-site recordings from paired neurons, and demonstrate dedicated cytoplasmic perfusion of individual neurons via on-chip subterranean microfluidics. This is the first application of planar patch-clamp technology to examine synaptic communication.

Martina, Marzia; Luk, Collin; Py, Christophe; Martinez, Dolores; Comas, Tanya; Monette, Robert; Denhoff, Mike; Syed, Naweed; Mealing, Geoffrey A. R.

2011-06-01

349

GIT1 and ?PIX Are Essential for GABAA Receptor Synaptic Stability and Inhibitory Neurotransmission.  

PubMed

Effective inhibitory synaptic transmission requires efficient stabilization of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at synapses, which is essential for maintaining the correct excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain. However, the signaling mechanisms that locally regulate synaptic GABAAR membrane dynamics remain poorly understood. Using a combination of molecular, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we delineate a GIT1/?PIX/Rac1/PAK signaling pathway that modulates F-actin and is important for maintaining surface GABAAR levels, inhibitory synapse integrity, and synapse strength. We show that GIT1 and ?PIX are required for synaptic GABAAR surface stability through the activity of the GTPase Rac1 and downstream effector PAK. Manipulating this pathway using RNAi, dominant-negative and pharmacological approaches leads to a disruption of GABAAR clustering and decrease in the strength of synaptic inhibition. Thus, the GIT1/?PIX/Rac1/PAK pathway plays a crucial role in regulating GABAAR synaptic stability and hence inhibitory synaptic transmission with important implications for inhibitory plasticity and information processing in the brain. PMID:25284783

Smith, Katharine R; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Wei, Jing; Li, Xiangning; Pathania, Manavendra; Vaccaro, Victoria; Yan, Zhen; Kittler, Josef T

2014-10-01

350

The nonsense-mediated decay pathway maintains synapse architecture and synaptic vesicle cycle efficacy.  

PubMed

A systematic Drosophila forward genetic screen for photoreceptor synaptic transmission mutants identified no-on-and-no-off transient C (nonC) based on loss of retinal synaptic responses to light stimulation. The cloned gene encodes phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase (PIKK) Smg1, a regulatory kinase of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway. The Smg proteins act in an mRNA quality control surveillance mechanism to selectively degrade transcripts containing premature stop codons, thereby preventing the translation of truncated proteins with dominant-negative or deleterious gain-of-function activities. At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse, an extended allelic series of Smg1 mutants show impaired structural architecture, with decreased terminal arbor size, branching and synaptic bouton number. Functionally, loss of Smg1 results in a ~50% reduction in basal neurotransmission strength, as well as progressive transmission fatigue and greatly impaired synaptic vesicle recycling during high-frequency stimulation. Mutation of other NMD pathways genes (Upf2 and Smg6) similarly impairs neurotransmission and synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings suggest that the NMD pathway acts to regulate proper mRNA translation to safeguard synapse morphology and maintain the efficacy of synaptic function. PMID:20826458

Long, A Ashleigh; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Woodruff, Elvin A; Rohrbough, Jeff; Leung, Hung-Tat; Shino, Shikoh; An, Lingling; Doerge, Rebecca W; Metzstein, Mark M; Pak, William L; Broadie, Kendal

2010-10-01

351

Dynamic Regulation of NMDA Receptor Transmission  

PubMed Central

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for establishing, maintaining, and modifying glutamatergic synapses in an activity-dependent manner. The subunit composition, synaptic expression, and some of the properties of NMDARs are regulated by synaptic activity, affecting processes like synaptic plasticity. NMDAR transmission is dynamic, and we were interested in studying the effect of acute low or null synaptic activity on NMDA receptors and its implications for synaptic plasticity. Periods of no stimulation or low-frequency stimulation increased NMDAR transmission. Changes became stable after periods of 20 min of low or no stimulation. These changes in transmission have a postsynaptic origin and are explained by incorporation of GluN2B-containing receptors to synapses. Importantly, periods of low or no stimulation facilitate long-term potentiation induction. Moreover, recovery after a weak preconditioning stimulus that normally blocks subsequent potentiation is facilitated by a nonstimulation period. Thus synaptic activity dynamically regulates the level of NMDAR transmission adapting constantly the threshold for plasticity. PMID:20980539

Gambrill, Abigail C.; Storey, Granville P.

2011-01-01

352

Synaptic Activity and Bioenergy Homeostasis: Implications in Brain Trauma and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Powered by glucose metabolism, the brain is the most energy-demanding organ in our body. Adequate ATP production and regulation of the metabolic processes are essential for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and neuronal function. Glutamatergic synaptic activity utilizes the largest portion of bioenergy for synaptic events including neurotransmitter synthesis, vesicle recycling, and most importantly, the postsynaptic activities leading to channel activation and rebalancing of ionic gradients. Bioenergy homeostasis is coupled with synaptic function via activities of the sodium pumps, glutamate transporters, glucose transport, and mitochondria translocation. Energy insufficiency is sensed by the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic regulator that stimulates the catalytic process to enhance energy production. A decline in energy supply and a disruption in bioenergy homeostasis play a critical role in multiple neuropathological conditions including ischemia, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injuries. PMID:24376435

Khatri, Natasha; Man, Heng-Ye

2013-01-01

353

Ht31 peptide inhibited inflammatory pain by blocking NMDA receptor-mediated nociceptive transmission in spinal dorsal horn of mice.  

PubMed

A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) assemble cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) into signaling complexes with a wide range of ion channels, including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is critical for the central sensitization of nociceptive behaviors. Although PKA has been widely described in the regulation of NMDAR-dependent nociceptive transmission and plasticity, the roles of AKAPs in these processes are largely unknown as yet. The present study interfered with AKAPs/PKA interaction by introducing stearated Ht31 peptide (St-Ht31) into spinal dorsal horn neurons, and investigated the possible changes of primary afferent-evoked, NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDAR-EPSCs). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that intracellular loading of St-Ht31 through the glass pipettes didn't affect NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses in the spinal cord slices from intact mice. When inflammatory pain was established by intraplantar injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), however, St-Ht31 significantly repressed the amplitudes of NMDAR-EPSCs by selectively removing GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR out of synapses. With the inhibition of NMDAR-mediated nociceptive transmission, St-Ht31 effectively ameliorated CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Pharmacological manipulation of microtubule-based NMDAR transport, dynamin-dependent NMDAR endocytosis or actin depolymerization abolished the inhibitory effects of St-Ht31 peptide on NMDAR-EPSCs, suggesting that disruption of AKAPs/PKA interaction by St-Ht31 might disturb multiple NMDAR trafficking steps to reduce the receptor synaptic expression and spinal sensitization. PMID:25312281

Wang, Wen-Tao; Pan, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Suo, Zhan-Wei; Yang, Xian; Hu, Xiao-Dong

2015-02-01

354

Synaptic vesicle dynamics: a simple model of phasic release.  

PubMed

We present a simple model of phasic neurotransmitter release whichreproduces the salient features of chemical neurotransmission. The synapticvesicle cycle has been modelled as a set of biochemical reactionsrepresented by a system of coupled differential equations. These equationshave been solved analytically to obtain the time dependent behaviour of thesystem on perturbation from the steady state. The scheme of the synapticvesicle network has been emphasized and its role in determining some of themajor experimentally observed properties of synaptic transmission has beendiscussed, which includes the biphasic decay of the rate neurotransmitterrelease even under sustained stimulation. Another interesting outcome ofthis theoretical exercise is the saturation of total release with thecalcium dependent rate constant. The theoretically calculated values oftotal release fit very well into a sigmoidal saturating function with afourth order cooperativity exponent similar to the empiricalDodge-Rahamimoff equation. It appears that the synaptic vesiclenetwork itself is responsible for some of the major properties associatedwith chemical neurotransmission. PMID:23345651

Chaudhuri, S; Bhaumik, K

1997-06-01

355

Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons.  

PubMed

Peptidergic neurons are not easily integrated into current connectomics concepts, since their peptide messages can be distributed via non-synaptic paracrine signaling or volume transmission. Moreover, the polarity of peptidergic interneurons in terms of in- and out-put sites can be hard to predict and is very little explored. We describe in detail the morphology and the subcellular distribution of fluorescent vesicle/dendrite markers in CCAP neurons (NCCAP), a well defined set of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila larva. NCCAP can be divided into five morphologically distinct subsets. In contrast to other subsets, serial homologous interneurons in the ventral ganglion show a mixed localization of in- and output markers along ventral neurites that defy a classification as dendritic or axonal compartments. Ultrastructurally, these neurites contain both pre- and postsynaptic sites preferably at varicosities. A significant portion of the synaptic events are due to reciprocal synapses. Peptides are mostly non-synaptically or parasynaptically released, and dense-core vesicles and synaptic vesicle pools are typically well separated. The responsiveness of the NCCAP to ecdysis-triggering hormone may be at least partly dependent on a tonic synaptic inhibition, and is independent of ecdysteroids. Our results reveal a remarkable variety and complexity of local synaptic circuitry within a chemically defined set of peptidergic neurons. Synaptic transmitter signaling as well as peptidergic paracrine signaling and volume transmission from varicosities can be main signaling modes of peptidergic interneurons depending on the subcellular region. The possibility of region-specific variable signaling modes should be taken into account in connectomic studies that aim to dissect the circuitry underlying insect behavior and physiology, in which peptidergic neurons act as important regulators. PMID:23914156

Karsai, Gergely; Pollák, Edit; Wacker, Matthias; Vömel, Matthias; Selcho, Mareike; Berta, Gergely; Nachman, Ronald J; Isaac, R Elwyn; Molnár, László; Wegener, Christian

2013-01-01

356

Diverse in- and output polarities and high complexity of local synaptic and non-synaptic signaling within a chemically defined class of peptidergic Drosophila neurons  

PubMed Central

Peptidergic neurons are not easily integrated into current connectomics concepts, since their peptide messages can be distributed via non-synaptic paracrine signaling or volume transmission. Moreover, the polarity of peptidergic interneurons in terms of in- and out-put sites can be hard to predict and is very little explored. We describe in detail the morphology and the subcellular distribution of fluorescent vesicle/dendrite markers in CCAP neurons (NCCAP), a well defined set of peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila larva. NCCAP can be divided into five morphologically distinct subsets. In contrast to other subsets, serial homologous interneurons in the ventral ganglion show a mixed localization of in- and output markers along ventral neurites that defy a classification as dendritic or axonal compartments. Ultrastructurally, these neurites contain both pre- and postsynaptic sites preferably at varicosities. A significant portion of the synaptic events are due to reciprocal synapses. Peptides are mostly non-synaptically or parasynaptically released, and dense-core vesicles and synaptic vesicle pools are typically well separated. The responsiveness of the NCCAP to ecdysis-triggering hormone may be at least partly dependent on a tonic synaptic inhibition, and is independent of ecdysteroids. Our results reveal a remarkable variety and complexity of local synaptic circuitry within a chemically defined set of peptidergic neurons. Synaptic transmitter signaling as well as peptidergic paracrine signaling and volume transmission from varicosities can be main signaling modes of peptidergic interneurons depending on the subcellular region. The possibility of region-specific variable signaling modes should be taken into account in connectomic studies that aim to dissect the circuitry underlying insect behavior and physiology, in which peptidergic neurons act as important regulators. PMID:23914156

Karsai, Gergely; Pollak, Edit; Wacker, Matthias; Vomel, Matthias; Selcho, Mareike; Berta, Gergely; Nachman, Ronald J.; Isaac, R. Elwyn; Molnar, Laszlo; Wegener, Christian

2013-01-01

357

Vagal Afferent Innervation of the Proximal Gastrointestinal Tract Mucosa: Chemoreceptor and Mechanoreceptor Architecture  

PubMed Central

The vagus nerve supplies low-threshold chemo- and mechanosensitive afferents to the mucosa of the proximal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The absence of a full characterization of the morphology and distributions of these projections has hampered comprehensive functional analyses. In the present experiment, dextran (10K) conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine and biotin was injected into the nodose ganglion and used to label the terminal arbors of individual vagal afferents of both rats and mice. Series of serial 100-µm thick sections of the initial segment of the duodenum as well as the pyloric antrum were collected and processed with diaminobenzidine for permanent tracer labeling. Examination of over 400 isolated afferent fibers, more than 200 from each species, indicated that three vagal afferent specializations, each distinct in morphology and in targets, innervate the mucosa of the proximal GI tract. One population of fibers, the villus afferents, supplies plates of varicose endings to the apical tips of intestinal villi, immediately subjacent to the epithelial wall. A second type of afferent, the crypt afferent, forms subepithelial rings of varicose processes encircling the intestinal glands or crypts, immediately below the cryptvillus junction. Statistical assessment of the isolated fibers indicated that the villus arbors and the crypt endings are independent, issued by different vagal afferents. A third vagal afferent specialization, the antral gland afferent, arborizes along the gastric antral glands and forms terminal concentrations immediately below the luminal epithelial wall. The terminal locations, morphological features, and regional distributions of these three specializations provide inferences about the sensitivities of the afferents. PMID:21246548

Powley, Terry L.; Spaulding, Ryan A.; Haglof, Stanley A.

2014-01-01

358

Activity patterns govern synapse-specific AMPA receptor trafficking between deliverable and synaptic pools  

PubMed Central

In single neurons, glutamatergic synapses receiving distinct afferent inputs may contain AMPA receptors (-Rs) with unique subunit compositions. However, the cellular mechanisms by which differential receptor transport achieves this synaptic diversity remain poorly understood. In lateral geniculate neurons, we show that retinogeniculate and corticogeniculate synapses have distinct AMPA-R subunit compositions. Under basal conditions at both synapses, GluR1-containing AMPA-Rs are transported from an anatomically defined reserve pool to a deliverable pool near the postsynaptic density (PSD), but further incorporate into the PSD or functional synaptic pool only at retinogeniculate synapses. Vision-dependent activity, stimulation mimicking retinal input, or activation of CaMKII or Ras signaling regulated forward GluR1 trafficking from the deliverable pool to the synaptic pool at both synapses, whereas Rap2 signals reverse GluR1 transport at retinogeniculate synapses. These findings suggest that synapse-specific AMPA-R delivery involves constitutive and activity-regulated transport steps between morphological pools, a mechanism that may extend to the site-specific delivery of other membrane protein complexes. PMID:19376069

Kielland, Anders; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Corson, James; Zhang, Lei; Rosin, Diane L.; Heggelund, Paul; Zhu, J. Julius

2009-01-01

359

Afferent bladder nerve activity in the rat: a mechanism for starting and stopping voiding contractions.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the relation between afferent bladder nerve activity and bladder mechanics and the mechanisms that initiate and terminate bladder contractions. Bladder nerve activity, pressure and volume were recorded during the micturition cycle in the rat. The highest correlation was found between afferent nerve activity and stress (pressure x volume). Afferent nerve activity depended linearly on stress within 6%, and both slope and offset were independent of the bladder-filling rate. The levels of afferent bladder nerve activity at the onset and cessation of efferent firing to the bladder were highly reproducible with coefficients of variation of afferent activity is proportional to bladder wall stress, and bladder contraction is initiated when afferent activity exceeds a threshold due to an increasing pressure and volume. The contraction continues until afferent activity drops below a threshold again as a result of a decreasing volume. PMID:15517231

le Feber, Joost; van Asselt, Els; van Mastrigt, Ron

2004-12-01

360

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles dock to the plasma membrane at synapses to facilitate rapid exocytosis. Docking was originally proposed to require the soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins; however, perturbation studies suggested that docking was independent of the SNARE proteins. We now find that the SNARE protein syntaxin is required for docking of all vesicles at synapses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The active zone protein UNC-13, which interacts with syntaxin, is also required for docking in the active zone. The docking defects in unc-13 mutants can be fully rescued by overexpressing a constitutively open form of syntaxin, but not by wild-type syntaxin. These experiments support a model for docking in which UNC-13 converts syntaxin from the closed to the open state, and open syntaxin acts directly in docking vesicles to the plasma membrane. These data provide a molecular basis for synaptic vesicle docking. PMID:17645391

Olsen, Shawn; Jorgensen, Erik M

2007-01-01

361

Drosophila neuroligin 1 regulates synaptic growth and function in response to activity and phosphoinositide-3-kinase.  

PubMed

Neuroligins are postsynaptic neural cell adhesion molecules that mediate synaptic maturation and function in vertebrates and invertebrates, but their mechanisms of action and regulation are not well understood. At the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), previous analysis demonstrated a requirement for Drosophila neuroligin 1 (dnlg1) in synaptic growth and maturation. The goal of the present study was to better understand the effects and mechanisms of loss-of-function and overexpression of dnlg1 on synapse size and function, and to identify signaling pathways that control dnlg1 expression. Consistent with reduced synapse size, evoked excitatory junctional currents (EJCs) were diminished in dnlg1 mutants but displayed normal Ca(2+) sensitivity and short-term plasticity. However, postsynaptic function was also perturbed, in that glutamate receptor staining and the distribution of amplitudes of miniature excitatory junctional currents (mEJCs) were abnormal in mutants. All the above phenotypes were rescued by a genomic transgene. Overexpression of dnlg1 in muscle resulted in synaptic overgrowth, but reduced the amplitudes of EJCs and mEJCs. Overgrowth and reduced EJC amplitude required Drosophila neurexin 1 (dnrx1) function, suggesting that increased DNlg1/DNrx1 signaling attenuates synaptic transmission and regulates growth through a retrograde mechanism. In contrast, reduced mEJC amplitude was independent of dnrx1. Synaptic overgrowth, triggered by neuronal hyperactivity, absence of the E3 ubiquitin ligase highwire, and increased phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in motor neurons reduced synaptic DNlg1 levels. Likewise, postsynaptic attenuation of PI3K, which increases synaptic strength, was associated with reduced DNlg1 levels. These observations suggest that activity and PI3K signaling pathways modulate growth and synaptic transmission through dnlg1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:22954894

Mozer, Brian A; Sandstrom, David J

2012-11-01

362

A Drosophila neuroligin regulates synaptic growth and function in response to activity and phosphoinositide-3-kinase  

PubMed Central

Neuroligins are postsynaptic neural cell adhesion molecules that mediate synaptic maturation and function in vertebrates and invertebrates, but their mechanisms of action and regulation are not well understood. At the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), previous analysis demonstrated a requirement for Drosophila neuroligin 1 (dnlg1) in synaptic growth and maturation. The goal of the present study was to better understand the effects and mechanisms of loss-of-function and overexpression of dnlg1 on synapse size and function, and to identify signaling pathways that control dnlg1 expression. Consistent with a reduced synapse size, evoked excitatory junctional currents (EJCs) were diminished in dnlg1 mutants but displayed normal Ca2+ sensitivity and short-term plasticity. However, postsynaptic function was also perturbed, in that glutamate receptor staining and the distribution of amplitudes of miniature excitatory junctional currents (mEJCs) were abnormal in mutants. All the above phenotypes were rescued by a genomic transgene. Overexpression of dnlg1 in muscle resulted in synaptic overgrowth, but reduced the amplitudes of EJCs and mEJCs. Overgrowth and reduced EJC amplitude required dnrx1 function, suggesting that increased dnlg1/dnrx1 signaling attenuates synaptic transmission and regulates growth through a retrograde mechanism. In contrast, reduced mEJC amplitude was independent of dnrx1. Synaptic overgrowth, triggered by neuronal hyperactivity, absence of the E3 ubiquitin ligase highwire, and increased phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in motor neurons reduced synaptic DNlg1 levels. Likewise, postsynaptic attenuation of PI3K, which increases synaptic strength, was associated with reduced DNlg1 levels. These observations suggest that activity and PI3K signaling pathways modulate growth and synaptic transmission through dnlg1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:22954894

Mozer, Brian A.; Sandstrom, David J.

2012-01-01

363

Cholinergic Modulation of GABAergic and Glutamatergic Transmission in the Dorsal Subcoeruleus: Mechanisms for REM Sleep Control  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Dorsal subcoeruleus (SubCD) neurons are thought to promote PGO waves and to be modulated by cholinergic afferents during REM sleep. We examined the differential effect of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CAR) on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (PSCs), and investigated the effects of CAR on SubCD neurons during the developmental decrease in REM sleep. Design: Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were conducted on brainstem slices of 7- to 20-day-old rats. Measurements and Results: CAR acted directly on 50% of SubCD neurons by inducing an inward current, via both nicotinic and muscarinic M1 receptors. CAR induced a potassium mediated outward current via activation of M2 muscarinic receptors in 43% of SubCD cells. Evoked stimulation established the presence of NMDA, AMPA, GABA, and glycinergic PSCs in the SubCD. CAR was found to decrease the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in 31 of 34 SubCD cells, but decreased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs in only 1 of 13 SubCD cells tested. Spontaneous EPSCs were decreased by CAR in 55% of cells recorded, while spontaneous IPSCs were increased in 27% of SubCD cells. These findings indicate that CAR exerts a predominantly inhibitory role on fast synaptic glutamatergic activity and a predominantly excitatory role on fast synaptic GABAergic/glycinergic activity in the SubCD. Conclusion: We hypothesize that during REM sleep, cholinergic “REM-on” neurons that project to the SubCD induce an excitation of inhibitory interneurons and inhibition of excitatory events leading to the production of coordinated activity in SubCD projection neurons. The coordination of these projection neurons may be essential for the production of REM sleep signs such as PGO waves. Citation: Heister DS; Hayar A; Garcia-Rill E. Cholinergic modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal subcoeruleus: mechanisms for REM sleep control. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1135-1147. PMID:19750918

Heister, David S.; Hayar, Abdallah; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

2009-01-01

364

Neuromodulation of Cortical Synaptic Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory experience can shape the synaptic connectivity of the sensory cortices during its maturation in infants, and during\\u000a learning in adults. Besides sensory inputs, cortical plasticity also depends on neuromodulatory inputs conveying information\\u000a on the individual’s behavioral state. As a result, experience-dependent cortical plasticity requires the individual to be\\u000a awake and attentive. In contrast, passive experience usually does not leave

Alfredo Kirkwood

365

The concept of long term potentiation of transmission at synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of long term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission, whereby a series of conditioning trains of impulses potentiate the size of synaptic potentials for periods in excess of hours, was discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Lomo [1966, Acta Physiol. Scand.68(Suppl. 277), 128] and subsequently characterized by Bliss and Lomo (1970, J. Physiol.207, 61P). The search for the underlying

M. R. Bennett

2000-01-01

366

Multiscale modeling and synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

Synaptic plasticity is a major convergence point for theory and computation, and the process of plasticity engages physiology, cell, and molecular biology. In its many manifestations, plasticity is at the hub of basic neuroscience questions about memory and development, as well as more medically themed questions of neural damage and recovery. As an important cellular locus of memory, synaptic plasticity has received a huge amount of experimental and theoretical attention. If computational models have tended to pick specific aspects of plasticity, such as STDP, and reduce them to an equation, some experimental studies are equally guilty of oversimplification each time they identify a new molecule and declare it to be the last word in plasticity and learning. Multiscale modeling begins with the acknowledgment that synaptic function spans many levels of signaling, and these are so tightly coupled that we risk losing essential features of plasticity if we focus exclusively on any one level. Despite the technical challenges and gaps in data for model specification, an increasing number of multiscale modeling studies have taken on key questions in plasticity. These have provided new insights, but importantly, they have opened new avenues for questioning. This review discusses a wide range of multiscale models in plasticity, including their technical landscape and their implications. PMID:24560151

Bhalla, Upinder S

2014-01-01

367

Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function.  

PubMed

Multiple independent mutations in neuroligin genes were identified in patients with familial autism, including the R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Previous studies showed that NL3(R451C) knock-in mice exhibited modestly impaired social behaviors, enhanced water maze learning abilities, and increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex, and they suggested that the behavioral changes in these mice may be caused by a general shift of synaptic transmission to inhibition. Here, we confirm that NL3(R451C) mutant mice behaviorally exhibit social interaction deficits and electrophysiologically display increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex. Unexpectedly, however, we find that the NL3(R451C) mutation produced a strikingly different phenotype in the hippocampus. Specifically, in the hippocampal CA1 region, the NL3(R451C) mutation caused an ?1.5-fold increase in AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, dramatically altered the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses, induced an approximately twofold up-regulation of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, and enhanced long-term potentiation almost twofold. NL3 KO mice did not exhibit any of these changes. Quantitative light microscopy and EM revealed that the NL3(R451C) mutation increased dendritic branching and altered the structure of synapses in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. Thus, in NL3(R451C) mutant mice, a single point mutation in a synaptic cell adhesion molecule causes context-dependent changes in synaptic transmission; these changes are consistent with the broad impact of this mutation on murine and human behaviors, suggesting that NL3 controls excitatory and inhibitory synapse properties in a region- and circuit-specific manner. PMID:21808020

Etherton, Mark; Földy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Liu, Xinran; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

2011-08-16

368

Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Multiple independent mutations in neuroligin genes were identified in patients with familial autism, including the R451C substitution in neuroligin-3 (NL3). Previous studies showed that NL3R451C knock-in mice exhibited modestly impaired social behaviors, enhanced water maze learning abilities, and increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex, and they suggested that the behavioral changes in these mice may be caused by a general shift of synaptic transmission to inhibition. Here, we confirm that NL3R451C mutant mice behaviorally exhibit social interaction deficits and electrophysiologically display increased synaptic inhibition in the somatosensory cortex. Unexpectedly, however, we find that the NL3R451C mutation produced a strikingly different phenotype in the hippocampus. Specifically, in the hippocampal CA1 region, the NL3R451C mutation caused an ?1.5-fold increase in AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission, dramatically altered the kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses, induced an approximately twofold up-regulation of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, and enhanced long-term potentiation almost twofold. NL3 KO mice did not exhibit any of these changes. Quantitative light microscopy and EM revealed that the NL3R451C mutation increased dendritic branching and altered the structure of synapses in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. Thus, in NL3R451C mutant mice, a single point mutation in a synaptic cell adhesion molecule causes context-dependent changes in synaptic transmission; these changes are consistent with the broad impact of this mutation on murine and human behaviors, suggesting that NL3 controls excitatory and inhibitory synapse properties in a region- and circuit-specific manner. PMID:21808020

Etherton, Mark; Foldy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Liu, Xinran; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Malenka, Robert C.; Sudhof, Thomas C.

2011-01-01

369

Statistical Signs of Synaptic Interaction in Neurons  

PubMed Central

The influence of basic open-loop synaptic connections on the firing of simultaneously recorded neurons has been investigated with auto- and cross-correlation histograms, using experimental records and computer simulations. The basic connections examined were direct synaptic excitation, direct synaptic inhibition, and shared synaptic input. Each type of synaptic connection produces certain characteristic features in the cross-correlogram depending on the properties of the synapse and statistical features in the firing pattern of each neuron. Thus, empirically derived cross-correlation measures can be interpreted in terms of the underlying physiological mechanisms. Their potential uses and limitations in the detection and identification of synaptic connections between neurons whose extracellularly recorded spike trains are available are discussed. PMID:4322240

Moore, George P.; Segundo, Jose P.; Perkel, Donald H.; Levitan, Herbert

1970-01-01

370

Effects of afferent volleys from the limbs on the discharge patterns of interpositus neurones in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose.  

PubMed Central

1. In cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose, micro-electrodes have been used to record the discharge patterns of single neurones in the region of the nucleus interpositus. 2. Almost all cells tested could be antidromically invaded following electrical stimulation of the contralateral red nucleus, showing that they were cerebellar efferent neurones. 3. A little over half of the interpositus neurones were spontaneously active, usually at rates of less than 20 impulses/sec. 4. About 40% of the cells had