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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability  

SciTech Connect

The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

1999-04-19

2

Regional Approaches to Affordable Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, prepared by the American Planning Association (APA) with funding from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Fannie Mae Foundation, examines regional planning strategies that enhance the feasibility of affordable housing...

J. Schwab R. Retzlaff S. Meck

2003-01-01

3

Unaffordable “AffordableHousing: Challenging the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Area Median Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no such thing as “affordablehousing. Affordability is not a characteristic of housing: It is a relationship between housing and people. For some people, all housing is affordable, no matter how expensive. For others, no housing is affordable, no matter how cheap.

Michael E. Stone

2009-01-01

4

Lifetime Income and Housing Affordability in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing measures of housing affordability are essentially short-run indicators that compare current income with property prices. Taking into consideration that a housing purchase is a long-horizon decision and the property price reflects the discounted present value of future mortgage payments, we develop a housing affordability index as the ratio of lifetime income to housing price. Lifetime income is computed

Tilak Abeysinghe; Jiaying Gu

2008-01-01

5

12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1807.401 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.401 Affordable housingârental housing. To qualify as...

2013-01-01

6

Practical Guide to Affordable Housing Development. Building a Brighter Future for Rural Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for affordable housing is one of the most important issues facing rural communities today. Rural Partners has initiated a collaborative effort through participating organizations to address this critical issue. A practical guide to affordable hou...

2003-01-01

7

Planning for Affordable Single-Family Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual highlights some of the steps that communities have taken to cut housing costs. The focus is on affordable single-family detached housing and the local land development regulations that communities are enacting to promote such housing. The manua...

1986-01-01

8

Beyond NIMBY and poverty deconcentration: reframing the outcomes of affordable rental housing development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and research around affordable rental housing remain stuck between the “rock” of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) fears and the “hard place” of deconcentrating poverty goals, leading to fragmented outcome measurement in contemporary project-based affordable rental housing programs. This article compares the motivations and results of existing research focused on NIMBY concerns around place to that of programs that promote the deconcentration

Corianne Payton Scally; Richard Koenig

2012-01-01

9

'Make It Right.' A Case Study Exploring An Affordable Green Housing Development in New Orleans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the current efforts taking place to rebuild New Orleans, Louisiana and focuses specifically on the ‘Make It Right’ (MIR) Foundation’s model for rebuilding the Lower Ninth Ward with affordable green housing. The primary research question focused on the motivations, design implications, financial implications, advantages, and challenges found in the ‘Make It Right’ Foundation’s housing and community reconstruction

2010-01-01

10

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20...Act to the DHHL to carry out affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the...

2013-04-01

11

Rental Housing Affordability for Low- and Moderate-Income People. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development of the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs. House of Representatives. One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This record of testimony before the House Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development focuses on the affordability of housing for low- and moderate-income people. A decent home and suitable living environment is a right guaranteed by the 1968 Fair Housing Act, but many Americans are in housing crisis. The subcommittee investigated ways for…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs.

12

Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing  

SciTech Connect

An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

1998-12-07

13

12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable housingâhomeownership. (a) Acquisition with...

2013-01-01

14

12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable housingâgeneral. Each Awardee that uses CMF...

2013-01-01

15

12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable housingâhomeownership. (a) Acquisition with...

2012-01-01

16

12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable housingâgeneral. Each Awardee that uses CMF...

2012-01-01

17

A Housing Affordability Standard for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 there has been extensive exploration of the meaning of housing affordability by members of the academic, professional and advocacy communities in Britain. These debates have revealed weaknesses in the traditional ratio standard of affordability and led to arguments in support of an alternative, residual income concept of affordability. However, so far there has been only limited success in

Michael E. Stone

2006-01-01

18

Affordable Housing Demonstration: A Case Study, Mesa County, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study describes a cooperative venture between a forward-looking municipality and a builder to produce affordable housing for singles and joint ownership by unrelated persons in Mesa County, Colo. The Coventry Club project was developed and built...

1984-01-01

19

Nonprofit perceptions of local government performance in affordable housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how executive directors of nonprofit organizations perceive local government performance in affordable housing. It builds on a larger body of research concerning the affordable housing activities of government and community-based nonprofit housing organizations at the local level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This analysis is based on a national survey of neighborhood housing

Robert Mark Silverman

2009-01-01

20

A Brief History of Affordable Housing Cooperatives in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over 75 years housing cooperatives have been a source of affordable housing. Currently, the 376,000 dwelling units of affordable cooperatives is equivalent to seventeen percent of the rent reduction units owned by publichousing authorities. Understanding that affordable cooperatives have been developed under varying historical circumstances provides insights on how they could play a role in the future supply of

Gerald Sazama

1996-01-01

21

"Why Not in Our Community?": Removing Barriers to Affordable Housing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past decade or so has been a true "comeback" era for American cities. Once proclaimed to be rather dead and lifeless, many urban centers have been reinvigorated through massive capital investments in a number of mega-projects, including huge residential and retail developments. Unfortunately, a number of people are now unable to afford to live in the cities in which they work. This latest report from the Department of Housing and Urban Development looks at the regulatory barriers that impact the availability of affordable housing around the United States. Released in February 2005, the 31-page report finds that "outdated, exclusionary and unnecessary regulations continue to block the construction or rehabilitation of affordable housing in some parts of America". Some of these specific trends in today's housing markets include complex environmental regulations, "smart growth" principles, and various impact fees that may be assessed on such developments. The report will definitely be of interest to those with an interest in housing policy in the United States and in urban policies and trends more generally.

22

After the boom, housing affordability a growing challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home ownership has long been a cornerstone of the American dream. Although the housing boom has crested, ensuring a supply of affordable housing remains a challenge for areas whose growth has been robust.

William R. Smith; Julie Hotchkiss

2007-01-01

23

System Dynamics Based Study of Affordable Housing in Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the late 1990s, the housing affordability issue has aroused exceedingly heated discussion in Shanghai. The boom of the market, however, attracts frantic speculation that generates some serious problems in Shanghai, especially the severe inflation of house price. This paper investigates the dynamic factors that could drive up the house price in Shanghai emerging house market. Since delays, feedbacks and

Jie Chen; Yongguang Zhong; Lei Wang

2007-01-01

24

School Districts Devising New Ways to Offer Teachers Affordable Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a new wave of plans to recruit and retain teachers who say they cannot afford to buy or rent homes in pricey school districts, officials are considering measures that would put affordable housing within their reach. Those who have had teacher-housing programs in place for a while say they have seen success, although the programs have not…

Honawar, Vaishali

2006-01-01

25

America's affordable housing crisis: a contract unfulfilled.  

PubMed

For many poor Americans, having a decent home and suitable living environment remains a dream. This lack of adequate housing is not only a burden for many of the poor, but it is harmful to the larger society as well, because of the adverse effects of inadequate housing on public health. Not only is the failure to provide adequate housing shortsighted from a policy perspective, but it is also a failure to live up to societal obligations. There is a societal obligation to meet the housing needs of everyone, including the most disadvantaged. Housing assistance must become a federally-funded entitlement. PMID:11988431

Freeman, Lance

2002-05-01

26

Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

2012-03-01

27

Direct subsidies and housing affordability in Australian private rental markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have undergone a broad retreat from the use of indirect (supply) subsidies to meet low-income housing-affordability problems, shifting to direct subsidies often linked to means-tested income-maintenance systems. Although the reasons for this change of direction are well documented, the efficacy of direct housing subsidies in terms of tackling affordability remains in question. The authors examine in detail one

Gavin A Wood; Matthew Forbes; Kenneth Gibb

2005-01-01

28

Housing Affordability for Households of Color in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

While housing is deeply significant for all of us, in our society it tends to pose particular challenges to many, if not most, people of color. For one thing, households of color continue to have considerably lower incomes, on average, than White-headed households. This means that households of color can, on average, afford less and therefore have fewer housing choices

Michael E. Stone

2006-01-01

29

Managing Local Opposition to Affordable Housing: A New Approach to NIMBY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of affordable housing and services for low and moderate income households has been plagued by “local opposition” (commonly referred to as the not-in-my-back-yard or “NIMBY” syndrome) for decades. Many affordable housing developers view local opposition is the most important barrier to development after insufficient subsidy. A hardening of racial and economic attitudes and increasing opposition to growth and

Tim Iglesias

2002-01-01

30

Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

31

Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

Mazzolani, Federico M. [Department of Structural Engineering, University Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80 - 80125 Naples (Italy); Mandara, Alberto [Department of Civil Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy); Froncillo, Salvatore [Consulting Engineer, Via Michelangelo, 44 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

2008-07-08

32

Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

2012-05-31

33

Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

Educause Quarterly, 2000

2000-01-01

34

The Residual Income Approach to Housing Affordability: The Theory and the Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual income approach to housing affordability is one that looks at what different household types can afford to spend on housing after taking into account the other necessary expenditures of living. It is an alternative to benchmark measures of affordability as used in social housing rent setting in Australia (the 25% rule) or assessing the overall affordability in the

Michael E. Stone

2011-01-01

35

Shelter Poverty: The Chronic Crisis of Housing Affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines housing affordability in the United States over the past three decades using the author’s concept of “shelter poverty.” The major findings are as follows: The number of shelter-poor households has been over 30 million since the early 1990s, an increase of more than 70 percent since 1970. Among families with children, rates of shelter poverty are much

Michael E. Stone

2004-01-01

36

Collaboratively Defining Municipal Roles in Addressing the Housing Crisis: Learning from Updating the Coquitlam Affordable Housing Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising housing costs and changing housing needs have made it exceedingly difficult for many Canadian households to secure adequate affordable housing. This is a particularly significant obstacle for residents in the Greater Vancouver area. The City of Coquitlam recognizes that access to safe, affordable housing is fundamental in maintaining healthy liveable communities, but faces considerable challenges in addressing this issue.

Erin Ferguson; Cathy van Poorten

37

Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA  

SciTech Connect

The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of heating needed from the gas-fired boilers. The flat-plate panels on the roof of the building heats the water using solar power. A heat exchanger transfers heat from water warmed by the panels to potable water for the units. The warmed potable water mixes with the tap water supply to create hot water for the buildings. This boost of water warmed by the solar panels reduces the heating costs for eh project by reducing the need to heat the water via gas-fired boilers. Both of these energy upgrades were chosen because they significantly improve the energy efficiency for the life of the building and are reducing monthly utility costs for both the residents and the owners. Since the owner is a not-for-profit dedicated to long-term ownership and serving households with very-low and low-incomes, the costs savings will ultimately benefit current and future residents as the dollars saved will either be realized directly by the resident or be invested in the project. Technically, the design of these systems is easily understood and the principles could be applied to other projects. The incremental costs depend largely on the existing market rate of the components-none of which are considered "cutting edge" so a market does currently exist.

Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

2012-04-30

38

Affordable housing through energy efficiency: The Northgate story  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we evaluate a comprehensive retrofit and rehabilitation effort to improve the comfort, affordability, and energy efficiency of 336 low-income housing units. The units had complete shell retrofits, including new siding, air-infiltration barriers, new windows and doors, and both roof and foundation insulation. In addition, the existing electric-baseboard heating system was replaced with a new gas-fired boiler for each apartment. New programmable thermostats, refrigerators, and tenant education were also included in the retrofit package. The evaluation of the project included pre- and post-retrofit utility bill analysis, computer simulation to evaluate the cost and saving of the individual measures, and a comprehensive survey of the residents regarding their comfort, behavior, and satisfaction with the retrofits. The analysis has shown energy savings of more than 20% for the shell measures, with a reduction in utility bills of nearly 50% from the combined measures. The resident survey shows high tenant satisfaction with the retrofits.

Diamond, R.C.; McAllister, J.A.; Feustel, H.E.; Patullo, C.; Buckley, T.

1992-03-01

39

Area Agencies on Aging and the National Affordable Housing Act: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OlderAmericansAct requires Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) to ensure appropriate housing for elders, an area in which most AAAs have not been active. The National Affordable Housing Act (NAHA) of 1990 provided an opportunity for AAAs to tap into federal funding for elderly housing. This article reports on a 1992 national survey ofAAA involvement in the Comprehensive Housing Affordability

Phoebe S. Liebig

1996-01-01

40

HUD and Housing in the 1990s: Crises in Affordability and Accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Half a century ago, in the Housing Act of 1949, Congress declared optimistically that every American should have access to safe, decent, affordable housing.3 In an effort to realize that ambitious objective, federal lawmakers have devised and bureaucrats have implemented a wide array of housing schemes. One commentator has provided nine categories for what he deems the ‘bewildering variety of

Michael Allan Wolf

1991-01-01

41

24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.240 When is a local cooperation agreement...

2013-04-01

42

What is housing affordability? The case for the residual income approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to increase the awareness of and support for the residual income approach to housing affordability indicators and standards, especially in the United States. It begins with an overview of various semantic, substantive, and definitional issues relating to the notion of affordability, leading to an argument supporting the conceptual soundness of the residual income approach. The concept is

Michael E. Stone

2006-01-01

43

The Residual Income Method: A New Lens on Housing Affordability and Market Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to explore the viability of an alternative method of measuring affordability (the residual income method) to that of the ubiquitous 30 per cent benchmark method and to use this alternative method for enriching understanding around a range of affordability and housing market issues. The work has been exploratory but it does reveal both the potential and

Michael E. Stone; Terry Burke; Liss Ralston

2011-01-01

44

Local house price developments and housing supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In this paper, we identify the relationship between (local) housing supply and (local) house price developments, especially in The Netherlands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – We measure the influence of new building on house prices by comparing areas designated for concentrated new building (main Dutch cities) with areas where no large housing projects are developed. On the basis of classical economic

Paul De Vries; Peter Boelhouwer

2005-01-01

45

Affordable in-house antiretroviral drug resistance assay with good performance in non-subtype B HIV-1  

PubMed Central

The introduction of antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings is effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and prolonging life of infected individuals. This has led to a demand for affordable HIV-1 drug resistance assays, since treatment failure due to development of drug resistance is common. This study developed and evaluated an affordable “in–house” genotyping assay to monitor HIV-1 drug resistance in Africa, particularly South Africa. An “in-house” assay using automated RNA extraction, and subtype C specific PCR and sequencing primers was developed and successfully evaluated 396 patient samples (viral load ranges 1,000->1.6million RNA copies/ml). The “in-house” assay was validated by comparing sequence data and drug resistance profiles from 90 patient and 10 external quality control samples to data from the ViroSeqTM HIV-1 Genotyping kit. The “in-house” assay was more efficient, amplifying all 100 samples, compared to 91 samples using Viroseq. The “in house” sequences were 99.2%) homologous to the ViroSeq sequences, and identical drug resistance mutation profiles were observed in 96 samples. Furthermore, the “in-house” assay genotyped 260 of 295 samples from seven African sites, where 47% were non-subtype C. Overall, the newly validated “in-house” drug resistance assay is suited for use in Africa as it overcomes the obstacle of subtype diversity.

Wallis, Carole L.; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Sanders, Eduard; Anzala, Omu; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stevens, Gwynn; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Stevens, Wendy

2010-01-01

46

Widening Gap: New Findings on Housing Affordability in America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1949, Congress declared it a national goal to provide 'a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family.' The findings contained in this report, based on data from the Census Bureau's latest American Housing Survey and Bureau o...

1999-01-01

47

The New Affordable and Social Housing Provision System in China: Implications for Comparative Housing Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic changes in urban housing provision in China after 1980 have been widely described and assessed. This paper updates earlier accounts of policy change in China and reflects upon the significance of these changes for theoretical and conceptual frameworks used in comparative housing studies. Housing privatisation and commercialisation transformed the Chinese socialist housing system into a dynamic housing market

Ya Ping Wang; Alan Murie

2011-01-01

48

Affordable Housing and Urban Sprawl Policy Choices in York County, Maine: A System Dynamics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

York County, Maine, is filled with typical New England home rule towns (they have high control over local decisions). It is experiencing a lack of affordable housing and too much urban sprawl. After a thorough examination of the situation in a typical York County town, including a causal loop diagram based on interviews with knowledgeable informants, a system dynamics model

John Voyer

49

Affordable, safe housing based on expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and a cementitious coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ongoing project to demonstrate an affordable, safe, and energy-efficient housing technology based on expanded polystyrene (EPS) panels with a cementitious coating. The concepts being described are (1) EPS panels embedded with galvanized steel trusses, steel mesh welded or clipped to the protruding points of the trusses and finished with a coating of cement plaster; (2) fiber-reinforced

A. J. Lee; H. Kelly; R. Jagoda; A. Rosenfeld; E. Stubee; J. Colaco; A. Gadgil; H. Akbari; L. Norford; H. van Burik

2006-01-01

50

Patterns in Functioning among Residents of an Affordable Assisted Living Housing Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This is the second article reporting a project that (a) characterized the longitudinal functional patterns of residents in an affordable, assisted living housing (ALH) milieu for low-income people and (b) compared the ALH residents' functional patterns with those for similarly low-income, community-dwelling people. Design and Methods:…

Fonda, Stephanie J.; Clipp, Elizabeth C.; Maddox, George L.

2002-01-01

51

Living in Affordable Housing and Duration of Tenure: Do Older Adults Stay in Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Projects as They Age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance data for the low-income housing tax credit program in Ohio was examined to identify factors associated with affordable housing tenure. Residents aged 55 and older reported a median tenure duration of 2.7 years. Cox regression was used to explore time until exiting housing, controlling for demographic factors, and the date the housing project was placed into service. Results suggest

Holly Beard; Brian Carnahan

2011-01-01

52

Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

Wallpe, Jordan P.

53

Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01

54

Words Matter: The Importance of Issue Framing and the Case of Affordable Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Does how planners talk about issues have an impact on public support?Purpose: I examine whether the words used to describe a policy make a difference for the level of acceptance of that policy.Methods: I conducted a random survey of suburban residents. One-half of the sample were randomly chosen to answer a question about their support for affordable housing; the

Edward G. Goetz

2008-01-01

55

Affordable Earth Observatories for Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally high cost has been the principal impediment to developing nations desiring to pursue space programs. More particularly, the benefits derivable from a space system have been less than adequate to justify the investment required. Chief among the causes has been the inability of the system to produce results with sufficient direct economic value to the peoples of their countries. Over the past 15 years, however, "the Microspace Revolution" has resulted in dramatic reductions in the cost of space systems, while at the same time technology has improved to provide greater capabilities in the smallest micro- and nano-class1 satellites. Because of these advances, it behooves developing nations to reevaluate space as an option for their national development. This paper summarizes two new micro-satellite concepts - NanoObservatoryTM and MicroObservatoryTM that offer the prom- ise of a dedicated Earth remote sensing capability at costs comparable to or less than simply buying data from the best known large systems, Landsat and SPOT. Each system is defined both by its observation capabilities and technical parameters of the system's design. Moreover, the systems are characterized in terms of the other potential benefits to developing economies, i.e., education of a technical workforce or applications of Earth imagery in solving national needs. Comparisons are provided with more traditional Earth observing satellites. NanoObservatoryTM is principally intended to serve as a developmental system to build general technical expertise space technology and Earth observation. MicroObservatoryTM takes the next step by focusing on a more sophisticated optical imag- ing camera while keeping the spacecraft systems simple and affordable. For both programs, AeroAstro is working with non- profit institutions to develop a corresponding program of technical participation with the nations that elect to pursue such programs. Dependent upon current capabilities, this might include the actual manufacture of selected components with the system. The status and development plans of both Observatories are discussed along with the established partnerships. 1

Meurer, R. H.

56

24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from...

2013-04-01

57

Affordable Clustered Housing-Care: A Category of Long-Term Care Options for the Elderly Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

What we label as affordable clustered housing-care options are making it increasingly possible for poor and frail older Americans to age in place comfortably and securely in residential-like settings combining both affordable shelter and long-term care. The hallmark of these housing arrangements is their sizable population clusters of low-income frail persons in need of supportive services. Despite their greater availability

Stephen M. Golant

2008-01-01

58

Energy-efficiency design and inspection guides for affordable housing construction  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the general methods used in guides developed for the energy efficient design and inspection of new and revitalized housing projects for military family housing. The methods and guides can also benefit the wider market of public and other housing. Inspections performed on military and public housing units were used to identify energy deficiencies. The most common problems found were related to disconnected and deteriorated forced air distribution duct work and poor system design resulting in significant air leakage. Design and inspection guides are summarized for new construction and revitalization projects. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Ternes, M.P.; Livengood, S.E.; Wendt, R.L.

1997-12-01

59

Technological innovation in community housing development: Barriers to energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community housing developers produce affordable housing and jobs for many residents of low-income neighborhoods through the rehabilitation of existing single and multi-family buildings. Typically operating as small, not-for-profits or community-based organizations, the vast numbers of community housing developers creates high coordinating costs of operating jointly to acquire the shared learning needed to implement new techniques, such as those involving energy

Cavallo

1996-01-01

60

Affordable energy solutions for developing communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes efforts by the IEEE PES Community Solutions Initiative (CSI) to provide reliable electricity to the 1.6 billion low income people who do not have access to electric light. The Community Solutions Initiative is a virtual community of professionals from a wide variety of backgrounds who are providing largely pro-bono efforts to design, develop, deliver and promote sustainable

R. Podmore; Ray Larsen; Henry Louie; Brian Waldron

2011-01-01

61

Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study  

SciTech Connect

A trend towards ''green'' building with a focus on energy efficiency is sweeping the United States homebuilding industry. An integrated systems-design approach leads to homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices. Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the country are taking the lead on this approach to home building for affordable housing. This approach supports Habitat's goals of supplying quality housing and reducing the energy cost burden on families in Habitat homes--goals that are especially important in these days of increasing energy costs.

Norton, P.; Stafford, B.; Carpenter, B.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.; Kriescher, P.

2005-04-01

62

Who Can Afford to Buy a House: Survey of Income and Program Participation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of research recently conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), it presents a microlevel analysis of the issue of homeownership affordability by 'qualifying' individu...

P. J. Fronczek H. A. Savage

1991-01-01

63

Planning and Affordable Housing in Australia and the UK: A Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use planning systems in Australia and the United Kingdom (UK) share a common history. In both nations, one objective of town planning has been to improve housing conditions for the urban poor and facilitate sufficient housing supply for growing post-war populations, with UK legislation serving as a model for Australia, at least until the Town and Country Planning Act

Nicole Gurran; Christine Whitehead

2011-01-01

64

Progress in Housing and Urban Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several community development programs have gained federal funding through the Housing and Community Development Act. These activities include the development of property tax relief measures for the elderly and a housing modernization program. Rules governing the funding have been proposed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).…

Walker, Bailus, Jr.

1975-01-01

65

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Periodicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) publishes three periodicals aimed towards urban development professionals, policy makers, and scholars. This website brings all three of these periodicals together in one place, and visitors can look through current and past issues of "ResearchWorks", "Cityscape", and the quarterly report, "U.S. Housing Market Conditions". For those interested in a more general-interest publication, "Cityscape" is a good bet, as it contains pieces on housing vouchers, ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods, and the legacy of the Fair Housing Act. "ResearchWorks" is the official newsletter of HUD's Office of Policy Development & Research, and here visitors can read about recent case studies and success stories in the area of urban development. There are some interesting theme issues here as well, including "Universities Rebuilding America" and "The Public's Views of Affordable Housing". Finally, the "U.S. Housing Market Conditions" reports consist of statistical data and written reports on the quarterly status of economic and housing market trends for 10 geographical regions.

2007-05-05

66

Development strategy for superinsulated housing  

SciTech Connect

This project addressed the problem of introducing radically new construction principles into the residential development arena in the City of Saint Louis which targeted substantial reductions in heating and cooling costs. Specifically, the goal was to devise a program that could explore the use of ''superinsulation'' as standard practice in the housing industry, both for new construction and rehabilitation. The basic approach was to implement a demonstration program that would produce a number of superinsulated housing units of a variety of types. These units would, in effect, be the ''test cases'' to adapt Canadian and European superinsulation standards to a midwestern United States climate. Subsequent monitoring of these units for actual energy use would ''prove'' the reliability and high cost-effectiveness of the technology.

Not Available

1985-01-01

67

Excluding Exceptions: Housing Non-Affordability and the Oppression of Environmental Sustainability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the provision of homes for less wealthy households in rural England. By allowing 'exceptions' to UK planning law to provide low-income housing for local residents, the national government seeks to secure dwellings for the less wealthy and so sustain socially mixed rural villages. This paper explores how the production of homes…

Hoggart, K.; Henderson, S.

2005-01-01

68

Sustainable development for some: green urban development and affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many brownfield development projects and many redevelopment projects aimed at improving older urban spaces list sustainable development as a stated goal. It is a key question, however, whether the benefits of these redevelopment projects are equitably shared with the original members of the community, and in the case of brownfields with residents of adjacent neighbours, or are there differential benefits

Ann Dale; Lenore L. Newman

2009-01-01

69

Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation (``UV Waterworks™'') developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

Gadgil, Ashok

2008-09-01

70

A planning model for urban housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A planning model for urban housing projects is developed within the framework of systems analysis. The first part gives a cost model of housing projects. Costs are shown to depend on the costs of building sites, construction costs, costs for streets and for parking facilities. The planning model takes factual and legal constraints into consideration. A housing benefit function

H. Albach

1971-01-01

71

SUSTAINABILITY MEETS AFFORDABILITY TO ENSURE ACCESSIBILITY TO NEW URBAN HOUSING PROJECTS IN HANOI (VIETNAM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today Vietnam is facing two knotty problems in its urbanization: ecology and economy. The former issue is global and the latter is specific in developing countries where the majority of the urban population is the low-income group and where many building projects are either suspended or partially implemented because of the insufficient financial resources. In the capital city of Hanoi,

Quang Minh Nguyen

72

Viewing Housing Holistically: The Resident-Focused Component of the Housing-Plus Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: It is widely believed that housing affects both residents' social and economic opportunities and the prospects for neighborhood upgrading. Housing plus refers to the public or nonprofit sectors providing affordable housing together with services that support family well-being and community development within subsidized rental housing developments. In this article I consider whether providing housing plus services rather than housing

Rachel G. Bratt

2008-01-01

73

Conservation value of clustered housing developments.  

PubMed

Traditionally, exurban lands in Colorado have been subdivided into a grid of parcels ranging from 2 to 16 ha. From an ecological perspective, this dispersed pattern of development effectively maximizes the individual influence of each home on the land. Clustered housing developments, designed to maximize open space, are assumed to benefit plant and wildlife communities of conservation interest. They have become a popular alternative for rural development despite the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating their conservation benefits. To better inform rural land-use planning, we evaluated clustered housing developments by comparing their spatial pattern with that of dispersed housing developments and by comparing their conservation value with that of both dispersed housing developments and undeveloped areas in Boulder County, Colorado. We used four indicators to assess conservation value: (1) densities of songbirds, (2) nest density and survival of ground-nesting birds, (3) presence of mammals, and (4) percent cover and proportion of native and non-native plant species. Clustered and dispersed housing developments did not differ on the majority of variables we examined. Both types of housing development had significantly higher densities of non-native and human-commensal species and significantly lower densities of native and human-sensitive species than undeveloped areas. More rigorous ecological guidelines and planning on a regional scale may help create clustered developments with higher conservation value. PMID:17002762

Lenth, Buffy A; Knight, Richard L; Gilgert, Wendell C

2006-10-01

74

The development of Lapdap, an affordable new treatment for malaria.  

PubMed

There is much discussion on how new drugs can be developed for use in developing countries at a price that makes them accessible to those who need them most. The development of a new antimalarial, chlorproguanil/dapsone (Lapdap), provides an example of a way this can be achieved. The idea of combining chlorproguanil with dapsone came from studies done in east Africa in the 1980s. These studies showed, both in vivo and in vitro, that chlorproguanil/dapsone had advantages over sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. A public-private partnership was established subsequently to manage a development programme of a fixed ratio tablet of this drug combination. The partnership comprised GlaxoSmithKline (formerly SmithKline Beecham), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the UK's Department for International Development (DFID). All clinical, toxicological, and pharmaceutical chemistry studies are complete and the findings have been submitted for regulatory approval. The question now is how Lapdap might be used safely and appropriately if it receives regulatory approval. A public-health group has been formed by WHO (with funding from DFID and the Gates Foundation) to research into this issue. The Lapdap development team completed its objective of submitting Lapdap for drug registration within a period of 5 years and at a low cost. Experience with the development of Lapdap may provide a model for the introduction of other new drugs developed primarily for use in developing countries. PMID:12614733

Lang, Trudie; Greenwood, Brian

2003-03-01

75

24 CFR 1000.140 - May a recipient use grant funds to purchase insurance for privately owned housing to protect...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.140 May a recipient use grant funds to...

2013-04-01

76

Affordable housing and planning gain, linkage fees and the rational nexus: Using the land use planning system in England and the USA to deliver housing subsidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines how the English planning system is being used to reduce land prices for social housing schemes at a time when government subsidies to social rented housing producers are being cut and compares and contrasts this with practice within the USA. The paper describes the key characteristics of the English planning system, recent trends in English housing policy,

A. D. H. Crook

1996-01-01

77

Synthesis of Findings from the Study of Affordable Housing Plus Services for Low- and Modest-Income Older Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the relationship between increasing age, chronic illness and disability, and growing longterm care needs well documented, new models of delivering health-related and supportive services are being sought that are attractive and affordable to low- and ...

A. Sanders M. F. Harahan R. Stone

2006-01-01

78

House poor in Los Angeles: examining patterns of housing-induced poverty by race, nativity, and legal status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and

Eileen Diaz McConnell

2012-01-01

79

Energy costs, urban development, and housing  

SciTech Connect

Six revised and edited papers from a conference held by the Brookings Institute in 1981 assess the effects of higher energy costs on various aspects of urban development and housing, including industrial location and regional development. Comments and discussion from public-agency participants follow each of the papers. Following an introductory summary of the policy findings and the conference papers, the six papers are: Home Energy Costs and the Housing of the Poor and Elderly, Energy Prices and Urban Decentralization, Energy and the Existing Stock of Housing, New Residential Construction and Energy Costs, Energy and the Location of Industry, and Energy and Regional Development. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and one was processed separately.

Downs, A.; Bradbury, K.L. (eds.)

1984-01-01

80

Mars Express spacecraft: design and development solutions for affordable planetary missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spacecraft designed to support the ESA Mars Express mission and its science payloads is customized around an existing avionics well suited to environmental and operational constraints of deep-space interplanetary missions. The reuse of the avionics initially developed for the Rosetta cometary program thanks to an adequate ESA cornerstone program budget paves the way for affordable planetary missions.The costs and

P. Moulinier; F. Faye; J. C. Lair; E. Maliet

2003-01-01

81

Understanding Affordances and Challenges of Three Types of Video for Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers have reported positive effects on teacher learning from observing published video, teachers' own video, and their colleagues' video, very few professional development programs have integrated all three types of video to improve teacher learning. In this study, we examined the affordances and challenges of the three types of…

Zhang, Meilan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan

2011-01-01

82

Affordable Mars Exploration Architectures: Applying Systems From The Commercial Development Of Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the possibility of leveraging systems concepts and technologies needed for the commercial development of space in innovative, affordable human Mars exploration architectures. Since the late 1980s, various space agencies, industry and university groups have examined a diverse set of human Mars exploration options. In the United States, the 1989 Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a continuing series

John C. Mankins

2002-01-01

83

Pirate Settlements, Housing Construction by Incremental Development and Low Income Housing Policies in Bogota, Colombia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper documents the relative size of the housing stock and the characteristics of households in illegal settlements, their living arrangements and their incomes. Also, it assesses the impact of housing construction by incremental development in illega...

G. Vernez

1973-01-01

84

Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most

J. Dean; O. VanGeet; S. Simkus; M. Eastment

2012-01-01

85

Developing Affordable Non-Medical Residential Care in Rural Communities: Barriers and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-medical residential care (NMRC) 1 represents the fastest growing long-term care service development in the late 1990s (Weiner, Stephenson, and Goldenson, 1998). Consumers, their families, private developers and state policymakers are hopeful that NMRC will meet their different needs. Consumers are anxious to find suitable, affordable, and non-institutional accommoda- tions as they begin to find that home maintenance and their

Elise J. Bolda; Kimberly Mooney Murry; Stephanie Flanary; John W. Seavey

2001-01-01

86

Learning from the Past--Preparing for the Future: Addressing Fair and Affordable Housing Issues in the Chicago Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference paper discusses the current situation of racial differences in housing in the Chicago (Illinois) area with regard to the ramifications of the "Miliken v. Bradley" (1974) case. The Miliken case closed the door on busing and school desegregation plans crossing school district lines and in many cases, crossing municipal boundaries. It…

Lewis, James H.

87

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements...ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements...housing activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply...

2013-04-01

88

Entrepreneurial Land Developers: Local Externalities and Mixed Housing Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing developments (condos and suburban developments) are not necessarily homogeneous. Developers provide different types of units with various sizes and other characteristics catering to different types of customers. In this paper, we allow local consumption externalities within each development: some consumers would be happy to pay high prices for the most prestigious units in the development, while some are happy

Hideo Konishi

2011-01-01

89

A development strategy for superinsulated housing  

SciTech Connect

This project addressed the problem of introducing radically new construction principles into the residential development arena in the City Of Saint Louis which targeted substantial reductions in heating and cooling costs. Specifically, the goal was to devise a program that could explore the use of ''superinsulation'' as standard practice in the housing industry, both for new construction and rehabilitation. This meant that major barriers in education, design capability, financing, and technology calibration had to be overcome. The basic approach was to implement a demonstration program that would produce a number of superinsulated housing units of a variety of types. These units would, in effect, be the ''test cases'' to adapt Canadian and European superinsulation standards to a midwestern United States climate. Subsequent monitoring of these units for actual energy use would ''prove'' the reliability and high cost-effectiveness of the technology. 31 tabs.

Not Available

1985-01-01

90

Housing, social capital and community development in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of Korea’s tenure system and its future development has become an increasingly important aspect of housing policy and community development. A major question being posed is what are the implications of housing tenure differences in social capital for housing (estate) development? Are there differences in levels of social capital between ‘homeowners and tenants’ as well as ‘public rental

Seong-Kyu Ha

2010-01-01

91

Even a rich man can afford that expensive house: ERP responses to construction-based pragmatic constraints during sentence comprehension.  

PubMed

A linguistic construction is typically viewed as encoding the pairing of syntactic form and semantic information that is independent of the meaning of constituent words. Here with the event-related potentials (ERPs) we demonstrate that such a construction can also encode pragmatic constraints (event likelihood) that immediately influence online sentence comprehension and the associated neural activity. The lian…dou…construction in Chinese (similar to even in English) normally describes an event of low expectedness (a semantic constraint); it also introduces a pragmatic scale implying that any event with a higher likelihood than the event described must occur (pragmatic inference). By embedding a highly likely event (a rich man buying a house) or an underspecified event (a man buying a house) in the construction, we created an incongruent condition and an underspecified condition and compared both with a control condition in which an event of low expectedness (a poor man buying a house) was described. ERPs on the main verb phrases showed an N400 with a maximum in the right hemisphere followed by a late negativity with an anterior maximum for both the incongruent and underspecified conditions, with a larger N400 effect for the former than for the latter. ERPs on the sentence-final phrases showed a sustained negativity for the incongruent, but not for the underspecified condition. The N400 effect may reflect the increased difficulty in unifying the current event into the lian…dou… construction. The late negativity may reflect a second-pass revision according to the likelihood scale to satisfy the pragmatic constraints of the construction. PMID:23774181

Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-06-15

92

24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...community housing development organization...expense and capacity building costs...Housing and Urban Development Office of...community housing development organization...expense and capacity building...

2009-04-01

93

24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...community housing development organization...expense and capacity building costs...Housing and Urban Development Office of...community housing development organization...expense and capacity building...

2010-04-01

94

Cutting energy costs in multifamily housing: Practical case studies for the builder and developer  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on an expert evaluation of nine existing and three proposed multifamily housing projects across the US. The existing buildings include three lowrise projects (three to four stories), six midrises (five to seven stories), and three highrise buildings (nine to thirty-nine stories). Two projects were designed and built in the late 1950's, two in the late 1960's, and five late in the ''energy-crisis'' of the 1970's. The existing projects range from municipally subsidized elderly housing, to HUD Section-8 suburban developments, to luxury urban highrise buildings. The three ''future'' buildings, designed by the NAHB research team, were based on trends anticipated in the multifamily industry by IREM and NAHB leaders, over the next five years. The key trends identified were: downsizing of units (by 10 to 20%); increased project size (in number of units), denser developments (more midrise and highrise projects), and increased amenities - all in the context of more affordable housing.

Whiddon, W.I.

1986-01-01

95

Modern industrial structure and development of house price spatial disparity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I examine the development of the spatial structure of house prices. Due to consumer preferences for access over amenity value, there is a spatial disparity of house prices. According to Alonso's extension of von Thünen's theory, the relationship between house prices in urban and rural areas tends to follow certain principles. This relationship is more often negative

Vífill Karlsson

2007-01-01

96

24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC...

2013-04-01

97

24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.160 Are non-dwelling structures developed,...

2013-04-01

98

National Low Income Housing Coalition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amid the successes of new residential housing developments throughout the United States, there are many policy analysts and community activists who remain concern about the general lack of affordable housing in some parts of the country. One such group is the National Low Income Housing Coalition, which is primarily focused on the creation and maintenance of housing for persons in the lowest income brackets. The site itself is quite rich in materials, including the AdvocateÂs Guide which contains short chapters describing more than 60 housing-related programs, proposals, and issues. Another very useful set of documents are the ÂOut of Reach annual reports, which offer statistical data and summaries of the affordability (or lack of affordability) of housing options in different regions of the country.

2005-01-01

99

Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments  

SciTech Connect

This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

Not Available

1991-10-01

100

International policy trends in housing the elderly in developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The proportion of elderly persons in the population is rising in the developed countries. Housing and related social policies\\u000a are undergoing change to respond to this socio-demographic change within the context of wider changes in policy thinking with\\u000a respect to housing and aging. International trends in housing policy for elderly people may be discerned despite national\\u000a variations. The governments of

Satya Brink

1990-01-01

101

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

102

OUT OF THE GOODNESS OF THEIR HEARTS? REGULATORY AND REGIONAL IMPACTS ON BANK INVESTMENT IN HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Banks are considered key actors in affordable housing and community development in the United States. Their involvement in such activities may be due partly to their dependence on economic rents generated from development. In the United States, however, banks are encouraged to support such activities by the federal 1977 Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). I examine how dif- ferent factors explain

DAN IMMERGLUCK

103

Development of a new class of satellites: a composite lightweight affordable spacecraft structure  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) has successfully designed and tested a Composite Lightweight Affordable Structure (CLASS). The use of advanced composites in space applications is well developed, but the application of an all-composite satellite structure has not been achieved until now. The development of this low-cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in small satellite structures, in this case, for the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORT{acute E}) satellite mission will make a considerable contribution to the advanced spacecraft community. A common practice for constructing small spacecraft structures is to use an all-aluminum spacecraft bus. Compared to a composite structure, this reduces the payload capacity significantly; however, the cost of the aluminum structure has historically been lower than one of that uses lightweight components. LANL mission requirements dictate the need for a long term solution that substantially increased the ratio of payload to structural mass while maintaining a low-risk low-cost approach. LANL intends to use the concept developed for FORT{acute E} on future missions requiring similar enhanced payload capacities. 1 fig.

Thompson, T.C.; Parietti, L.

1996-06-01

104

Recent House Price Developments: The Role of Fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the vast majority of OECD economies, house prices in real terms have been moving up strongly since the mid-1990s. Because of the important role housing wealth has been playing during the current upswing, this paper will look more closely at what is underlying these developments for 18 OECD countries over the period from 1970 to the present, with a

Nathalie Girouard; Mike Kennedy; Paul van den Noord; Christophe André

2006-01-01

105

Housing Study. General Development Plan, Girard, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The City of Girard is a 'Bedroom Community' supplying the labor force for the adjacent industrial activity, and as such requires a larger percentage of land activity devoted to housing. While the city is average in land area, its density is higher as comp...

E. G. McLean

1972-01-01

106

DEVELOPMENT AND MONITORING OF A SUSTAINABLE AFFORDABLE HOUSING COMMUNITY IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA GULF COAST UNIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The planet will be improved due to less energy and therefore lowered carbon production, less water use in yards, greater use of native plant species in yards, and less runoff pollution from yards. ...

107

24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acting in any of the capacities specified, the community housing development organization must...community housing development organization setaside...committed to develop the capacity of community housing development organizations...

2009-04-01

108

24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acting in any of the capacities specified, the community housing development organization must...community housing development organization setaside...committed to develop the capacity of community housing development organizations...

2010-04-01

109

Influence of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Development of the Patient Centered Medical Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model of care incorporates many public health concepts. Some supporters of PCMH regard the Affordable Care Act (ACA) as legislation that will invigorate PCMH progress across the country. This policy analysis intends to understand the influence of the ACA on the development of PCMH. The policy analysis compares relevant sections of the ACA with

Anjali Rao

2012-01-01

110

24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating...expenses of community housing development organizations (CHDOs...of the community housing development organization. Such costs...salaries, wages, and other employee compensation and...

2013-04-01

111

24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

112

Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant\\u000a exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana\\u000a etiology with adolescents (N=624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires\\u000a about their marijuana use,

Christopher Williams; Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Michelle Ifill-Williams

1999-01-01

113

Mandates and the Affordability of Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the economic rationale of affordability exemptions in the context of a health insurance mandate. On its face, an affordability exemption makes little sense-- it exempts people from purchasing a good that policymakers believe benefits them. I provide an economic definition of affordability and discuss how it is implemented in the contexts of food, housing, and health care.

Sherry A. Glied

2008-01-01

114

Defense Affordability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Affordability is that characteristic of a product or service that enables military users to do the following: (1) Acquire it for a reasonable life-cycle cost that falls within their budget, and in the quantity required; (2) Use it to meet their performanc...

J. S. Gansler R. C. Lipitz

2012-01-01

115

Developing a Statewide Higher Education Affordability Policy. Commission Report 06-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Postsecondary Education Commission is currently examining the question of affordability at California's colleges and universities. It is a pivotal issue that is being debated both within and outside the higher education community. Clearly, the ability of students and families to finance a higher education is becoming a critical issue. This…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

2006-01-01

116

A review of the literature informing affordable, available wound management choices for rural areas of tropical developing countries.  

PubMed

Health professionals are often absent in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Current wound management in this environment is costly and largely ineffective. Achieving effective wound management in this setting will require educating the lay health providers who manage wounds in villages. Two extensive literature searches were conducted using CINAHL and Medline with no date, geographic, or language restrictions. The question, "What is the evidence base for topical wound treatments and dressings that are affordable and available in developing countries?" was addressed by critically evaluating all 18 identified clinical studies and reviews. The results suggest that a moist wound environment can be maintained using improvised dressings such as banana leaves, saline-soaked furniture foam, and food wrap, and that these choices are superior to many commercial dressings. Some varieties of honey, papaya pulp, EUSOL, and lubricating jelly are effective, affordable substances for treating and debriding wounds. Papaya pulp can be unsafe if not very closely monitored. No studies addressing the second question, "What are the topical wound management interventions currently being used in rural areas of tropical developing countries?" were found. However, 13 articles that could guide the design of research studies in this field were identified and are reviewed here. This literature describes a wide variety of wound prevention and management methods, some known to be deleterious for healing. These two literature reviews reveal the large gaps in the evidence base on available and affordable wound treatment options for rural patients in developing countries. Future research should address these gaps. PMID:24106254

Benskin, Linda L L

2013-10-01

117

Towards a participatory loan – supported housing scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the developing countries, including Egypt, face problems of providing affordable housing for low-income strata. The evolution of these problems and their nature differ from one country to another, according to the political, social and economic contexts. This paper represents an attempt to provide an insight into the development of a housing scheme which offers a way of reducing

I. M Eldemery

2002-01-01

118

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

119

Leadership Development in Social Housing: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a research agenda to underpin leadership development activity in the social housing sector, in the light of an identified need for effective leadership in this sector owing to the continual reform and changes it faces. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is conducted by searching a…

Ward, Carolyn; Blenkinsopp, John; McCauley-Smith, Catherine

2010-01-01

120

Getting Back on Tract: Developer Housing Re-energized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of the suburban condition have been documented over the past few decades by urban planners and architects alike. However it is clear that demand for car-oriented developments remains high, and expansion of the suburbs with single family houses continues. Given this reality, this thesis focuses on the importance of developing a comprehensive design approach to tract housing that is more responsive to site, more energy efficient and less damaging to the environment. The work builds upon research that is being conducted through the Carleton Research & Innovation in Sustainable Energy Project (C-RISE). In collaboration with Urbandale Developers, C-RISE is studying the potential for making single family houses more energy efficient through passive solar design, building envelope, seasonal storage of solar thermal energy, hybrid passive-active storage of solar thermal energy, and passive and solar cooling. In light of this work, this thesis proposes a series of single family house designs that incorporate the C-RISE energy technologies and also address larger architectural issues around tract house and lot design.

Yeatman, Andrea

121

24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 972.209 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC...

2013-04-01

122

24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 972.106 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC...

2013-04-01

123

FutureHome - A PROTOTYPE FOR FACTORY HOUSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufactured housing project FutureHome, which received major funding from the European Commission, has developed the engineering know-how to create affordable, high quality, cost effective manufactured housing, with a customer focus that takes account of diversity of styles, designs, materials and locations. The provision of housing to an acceptable standard is becoming an increasingly serious problem worldwide, and the widening

Robert Wing; Brian Atkin

124

Inclusionary Housing Programs: Local Governments Respond to California's Housing Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As anti-growth sentiment increases across the country, two laudable goals—affordable housing and environmental protection—are coming into conflict. This tension is most evident in California. Nine of the ten least affordable communities in the country are in California. California also has one of the most complicated and expensive environmental regulatory processes for development. This results in builders being unable to produce

Cecily T Talbert; Nadia L Costa

2003-01-01

125

Housing and urban development research reports  

SciTech Connect

The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

Not Available

1984-01-01

126

An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit\\/analogue-input and 16 bit\\/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage.

Dirk Verellen; Sven Van Vaerenbergh; Koen Tournel; Karina Heuninckx; Laurent Joris; Michael Duchateau; Nadine Linthout; Thierry Gevaert; Truus Reynders; Iwein Van de Vondel; Luc Coppens; Tom Depuydt; Mark De Ridder; Guy Storme

2010-01-01

127

Urban planning, housing and the socio-economic development of women in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies aspects of housing and urban development legislation that inhibit the socio-economic progress of women in Cameroon. Three components of the legislation, namely the urban master plan, the land use decree and the building control ordinance are shown to imbibe elements that are overtly biased against women. Measures deemed capable of making housing and urban development policy outcomes

Ambe J. Njoh

1998-01-01

128

DEVELOPING A SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF THE UK PRIVATE HOUSE BUILDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the construction and the validation of an UK house building system dynamics model. The purpose of the model is to determine the drivers on new private house building demand. Such features as house building starts, construction in progress, housing completion and economic indicators are incorporated in the model. The focus of the paper is the development of

Séverine Hong-Minh; Paul Childerhouse; Mohamed Naim

129

City of Quincy, Florida. Housing Study. Comprehensive Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review updates and supplements the city's 1969 Initial Housing Element and provides a current evaluation of local housing needs and resources. The housing study is also designed to aid and implement other recently prepared Comprehensive Planning studi...

1971-01-01

130

Factors related to rapidity of housing placement in Housing and Urban Development-Department of Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program of 1990s.  

PubMed

The Housing and Urban Development-Department of Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program is the largest supported housing program in the country for homeless veterans who are seeking rapid entry into permanent independent housing. This study examined factors related to how rapidly clients were housed in the early years of the program and how long they stayed in the program. Mental health, substance abuse, work/income, criminal history, and site were examined as predictors of process times. Regression analyses based on 627 HUD-VASH clients who entered the program between 1992 and 2003 showed that client characteristics were not rate-limiting factors for obtaining HUD-VASH housing; i.e., clients who had greater substance abuse problems or more extensive criminal histories did not take longer to obtain housing. The large differences associated with site of entry partly reflected a curvilinear relationship between the duration of operation of the HUD-VASH program and process times; i.e., at relatively younger and older programs, clients entered housing slightly faster than at programs in the middle range. Lastly, HUD-VASH clients whose case managers reported good therapeutic alliances stayed in the program longer. These findings have implications for the continued expansion of the HUD-VASH program. PMID:21938662

Tsai, Jack; O'Connell, Maria; Kasprow, Wesley J; Rosenheck, Robert A

2011-01-01

131

Feasibility Analysis Model for Developer-Proposed Housing Projects in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current construction industry recession in the republic of Korea has caused many construction companies to promote their own housing development projects. However, developers are still proposing many housing projects. While many studies on feasibility analysis for housing projects have been released, the focus was on economic feasibility, and factors related to developers have not been identified clearly enough to

Young-Ki Huh; Bon-Gang Hwang; Joong-Seok Lee

2012-01-01

132

Development and accreditation of an in-house TLD program  

SciTech Connect

Southern California Edison began developing a TLD program for its San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station in 1982. By the fall of 1984, it had replaced the previous film badge service with a new in-house TGLD program, and the program had received NVLAP accreditation. This article describes the general approach taken to implement the new TLD program and the experiences gained enduring the accreditation process. The TLD system is described and four phases of program development are discussed: NVLAP pilot testing, TLD system field testing, formal NVLAP performance testing, and the on-site technical audit.

Hammar, K.M. (Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (US))

1984-04-01

133

Collaboration Practices and Affordances in Free\\/Open Source Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines collaborative work practices, development processes, project and community dynamics, and other socio-technical relationships in free and open source software developmentopen source software development (FOSSD). It also describes what kinds of collaboration affordancesaffordances facilitate collaborative work in FOSSD projects. It reviews a set of empirical studies of FOSSD that articulate different levels of analysis. Finally, there is discussion

Walt Scacchi

2010-01-01

134

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d)...

2013-01-01

135

76 FR 73988 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-08...Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street SW...the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C....

2011-11-29

136

76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09...Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office...Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

2011-11-29

137

12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...multiplied by the number of bedrooms in excess...affordable rents to count as housing for...multiplied by the number of bedrooms in excess...affordable rents to count as housing for...multiplied by the number of bedrooms in excess...affordable rents to count as housing...

2012-01-01

138

Senate stalling derails bill to fix Canada's law on affordable generic medicines for developing countries.  

PubMed

On 26 March 2011, when Parliament was dissolved for a federal election, Bill C-393 died on the Order Paper. The bill addressed flaws in Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR), which is supposed to facilitate the export of lower-cost medications, including HIV treatments, to developing countries. PMID:22165259

Amèrica-Simms, Lindsey; Elliott, Richard

2011-10-01

139

Indian and Alaska Native Housing and Community Development Programs: 1983 Annual Report to Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the Sixth Annual Report to Congress on Indian and Alaskan Native Housing and Community Development Programs. The Department operates four major HUD programs in Indian areas: HUD-Assisted Public Housing: The Homeownership Opportunity Programs...

1983-01-01

140

Utilizing Information Technology Tools to Provide Affordable Access to Evidence -based Resources in the Developing World  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will is a review of the development of the virtual health sciences libraries. Virtual\\/digital libraries provide full text access to selected journals and books. Since, the needs of researchers and academicians cannot be met from any single source of information, integrating RSS with virtual health sciences libraries can help provide more comprehensive, up-to-date and full text information. This

Ashish Atreja; Ranjan Dwivedi

2008-01-01

141

Development of an affordable system for 2D kinematics and dynamics analysis of human gait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a low-cost, yet reliable, system for 2D gait analysis is presented in this paper. The system consists of a home video camera with speed of 25 fps, LED markers, PC and a technical computing software, which are used for capturing and processing the digital image of markers attached to human body during motion. In the experiments, a person is instructed to walk in a specially arranged measurement area. The recorded images are then digitally processed to detect and track the 2D coordinate of the markers over time. To conduct a dynamics analysis, a mathematical formulation for human motion is constructed where the body is modeled by a system of five rigid bars connected by joints. Finally, a program is developed to plot and calculate the kinematics and dynamics data of human gait, where the markers position data over time, and other variables such as dimensions and weight of the body are used as the input in the program.

Mahyuddin, A. I.; Mihradi, S.; Dirgantara, T.; Sukmajaya, A.; Juliyad, N.; Purba, U.

2009-12-01

142

A Place to Call Home: The Crisis in Housing for the Poor. Buffalo, New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New data issued by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) show that most poor households in the Buffalo (New York) metropolitan area pay extremely large portions of their limited incomes for housing costs. Housing is considered affordable for a low-income household if it consumes no more than…

Leonard, Paul A.

143

Neighborhood Development Program, Colorado A-2, West Side Housing, Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is a Neighborhood Development Program and housing program to provide low and moderate and medium income housing in an area just west of the Central Business District of Denver, Colorado. The project will remove 47 businesses and 275 housing un...

1973-01-01

144

Literacy and Education Needs in Public and Indian Housing Developments throughout the Nation. Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to a Senate request, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) gathered existing data on educational attainment and achievement of residents in public and Indian housing projects. Data sources included the 1989 American Housing Survey, the 1988 Survey of Income and Program Participation, the 1988 National Longitudinal…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

145

Modeling and validation of the thermal performance of an affordable, energy efficient, healthy dwelling unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of an affordable energy-efficient single-story residential building designated as Tuskegee Healthy\\u000a House (THH) was simulated by developing a computational model for the house using Visual DOE-4 commercial software. Visual\\u000a DOE-4 package employs the same calculation engine of the proven DOE-2 building Energy Analysis program. The THH was built\\u000a from conventional building materials and construction methods according to

Mahmoud A. Hassan; Sayed S. Shebl; Essam A. Ibrahim; Heshmat A. Aglan

2011-01-01

146

House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status*  

PubMed Central

Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status.

McConnell, Eileen Diaz

2013-01-01

147

ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment of wastewater from a subdivision in a physical-chemical treatment plant (screening, chemical coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, carbon adsorption, chlorination) was evaluated. The 190 cu m/day (50,000 gal/day) plant was housed in the shell of a standard house on a ...

148

Report and Recommendations of the In-Rem Housing Task Force Committee on Housing and Urban Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates New York City's methods of managing, upgrading and disposing of the housing it takes for tax arrears. Seven major policy recommendations are offered for handling these in rem properties. The first recommendation suggests that the city develop early intervention strategies in order to stem the flow of distressed properties…

Community Service Society of New York, NY.

149

House trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preferred mode of living in the U.S. is the single-family home. With energy no longer cheap and abundant, many are discovering themselves hostage to a dwelling they find difficult to afford. Housing's share of the family budget rose from 27% in 1950 to 31% in 1973. Rapid increases in the price of fuel oil No. 2, natural gas, and

C. Meeks; E. Ouderkerk

2009-01-01

150

Study on the new features of urban housing development and design in Xi'an  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes several new features of housing development in the city of Xi'an. There are three parts of the paper. At first, the article proposes the background of the study. Then it summarizes three characteristics of the residential development at present. Firstly, the housing consumption starts to care for the brand of the developers. The competition is changing from

Jinghua Liu; Jiaping Liu

2011-01-01

151

Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

Song, Wang-Cheol

152

An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit/analogue-input and 16 bit/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage. A wireless interface was established for ease of use. The reset procedure consists of an internal circuit generating a local heating induced by an electrical current. Sensitivity has been investigated as a function of bias voltage (0-9 V) to the gate. Dosimetric properties have been evaluated for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams and in vivo benchmarking was performed against thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for conventional treatments (two groups of ten patients for each energy) and total body irradiation (TBI). MOSFETS were pre-irradiated with 20 Gy. Sensitivity of 0.08 mV cGy(-1) can be obtained for 200 cGy irradiations at 5 V bias voltage. Ten consecutive measurements at 200 cGy yield a SD of 2.08 cGy (1.05%). Increasing the dose in steps from 5 cGy to 1000 cGy yields a 1.00 Pearson correlation coefficient and agreement within 2.0%. Dose rate dependence (160-800 cGy min(-1)) was within 2.5%, temperature dependence within 2.0% (25-37 degrees C). A strong angular dependence has been observed for gantry incidences exceeding +/-30 degrees C. Dose response is stable up to 50 Gy (saturation occurs at approximately 90 Gy), which is used as threshold dose before resetting the MOSFET. An average measured-over-calculated dose ratio within 1.05 (SD: 0.04) has been obtained in vivo. TBI midplane-dose assessed by entrance and exit dose measurements agreed within 1.9% with ionization chamber in phantom, and within 1.0% with TLD in vivo. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET-based dosimetry system is proposed. The system has been validated and is currently used for in vivo entrance dose measurement in clinical routine for simple (open field) treatment configurations. PMID:20090184

Verellen, Dirk; Van Vaerenbergh, Sven; Tournel, Koen; Heuninckx, Karina; Joris, Laurent; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Gevaert, Thierry; Reynders, Truus; Van de Vondel, Iwein; Coppens, Luc; Depuydt, Tom; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

2010-01-20

153

SYSTEMS THINKING IN THE STUDY OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN HONG KONG NEW TOWNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have applied system dynamics to analyse housing development in Hong Kong new towns. Because housing development is concerned with many factors such as population growth, employment, personal income, gross domestic product and government policies, it is a complex social-economic system that demands system thinking for its solution. We have constructed a system dynamics model that attempts

Yucun Hu; Qiping Shen

154

Housing developers' perceptions of the planning process: a survey of Swedish companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The public activity of controlling land use is exerted through the planning process. The purpose of this paper is to examine how housing developers perceive different aspects of the planning process, and if these perceptions might act as a constraint for the development of new housing projects. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey, based on a questionnaire, has been conducted

Stefan Olander; Anne Landin

2008-01-01

155

Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home…

Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2012-01-01

156

In-house developed methodologies and tools for decommissioning projects  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes different methodologies and tools developed in-house by Tractebel Engineering to facilitate the engineering works to be carried out especially in the frame of decommissioning projects. Three examples of tools with their corresponding results are presented: - The LLWAA-DECOM code, a software developed for the radiological characterization of contaminated systems and equipment. The code constitutes a specific module of more general software that was originally developed to characterize radioactive waste streams in order to be able to declare the radiological inventory of critical nuclides, in particular difficult-to-measure radionuclides, to the Authorities. In the case of LLWAA-DECOM, deposited activities inside contaminated equipment (piping, tanks, heat exchangers...) and scaling factors between nuclides, at any given time of the decommissioning time schedule, are calculated on the basis of physical characteristics of the systems and of operational parameters of the nuclear power plant. This methodology was applied to assess decommissioning costs of Belgian NPPs, to characterize the primary system of Trino NPP in Italy, to characterize the equipment of miscellaneous circuits of Ignalina NPP and of Kozloduy unit 1 and, to calculate remaining dose rates around equipment in the frame of the preparation of decommissioning activities; - The VISIMODELLER tool, a user friendly CAD interface developed to ease the introduction of lay-out areas in a software named VISIPLAN. VISIPLAN is a 3D dose rate assessment tool for ALARA work planning, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN. Both softwares were used for projects such as the steam generators replacements in Belgian NPPs or the preparation of the decommissioning of units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP; - The DBS software, a software developed to manage the different kinds of activities that are part of the general time schedule of a decommissioning project. For each activity, when relevant, algorithms allow to estimate, on the basis of local inputs, radiological exposures of the operators (collective and individual doses), production of primary, secondary and tertiary waste and their characterization, production of conditioned waste, release of effluents,... and enable the calculation and the presentation (histograms) of the global results for all activities together. An example of application in the frame of the Ignalina decommissioning project is given. (authors)

Detilleux, Michel; Centner, Baudouin [Tractebel Engineering (Belgium)

2007-07-01

157

In-House Software Development: What Project Management Practices Lead to Success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management is an important part of software development, both for organizations that rely on third-party software development and for those whose software is developed primarily in-house. Moreover, quantitative survey-based research regarding software development's early, nontechnical aspects is lacking. To help provide a project management perspective for managers responsible for in-house software development, we conducted a survey in an attempt

June M. Verner; William M. Evanco

2005-01-01

158

Neighborhood Dynamics and the Housing Price Effects of Spatially Targeted Economic Development Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighborhoods are the result of a complicated interplay between residential choice, housing supply and the influences of the larger metropolitan system on its constituent parts. We model this interplay as a system of reduced-form equations in order to examine the effects of a generous spatially targeted economic development program (the federal Empowerment Zone program) on neighborhood characteristics, especially housing values.

Douglas J. Krupka; Douglas S. Noonan

2009-01-01

159

The changing nature of financing low?income urban housing development in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor state of housing in the cities of developing countries has been the subject of numerous studies. Only a few published articles on the topic, however, emphasise the complexity and interrelatedness of the key components of housing such as land, finance, building materials, and construction technologies. This article examines one of these components, namely finance, and assesses its importance

Gervase Chris Macoloo

1994-01-01

160

Planning for Rural Housing in the Republic of Ireland: From National Spatial Strategies to Development Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of spatial planning as a policy framework for managing rural housing within an integrated territorial development strategy. The paper focuses on the Republic of Ireland, which provides a useful case for analysing spatial planning and rural housing relationships, due to the State's recent shift towards spatial planning (formalized with the publication of the Irish National

Menelaos Gkartzios; Mark Scott

2009-01-01

161

DOD Family Housing Requirements Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Family Housing Program was established to provide family housing for military families when the private sector is unable to provide adequate affordable housing, or when personnel must be housed on base to ensure military readiness. DoD's polic...

1997-01-01

162

Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action  

PubMed Central

Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing.

Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

2002-01-01

163

The Affordable Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces the Affordable Hypothesis, an idea suggesting that whites can afford to harbor violent beliefs in interpersonal and criminal justice system situations because of their generally vicarious involvement in such violence. Conversely, blacks do not foster violent beliefs (contrary to the black subculture of violence thesis) because their relationship with such violence is substantially more real based on

Matt DeLisi

2001-01-01

164

Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass

Aaron E. Craft; Jeffrey C. King

2009-01-01

165

Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI.

Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2011-01-01

166

Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle-

Ann S Goldman; Robert Yee; Christopher J Holmgren; Habib Benzian

2008-01-01

167

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the issue of Thursday, June 24,...

2010-07-02

168

Increasing the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Effectiveness through Improved Management. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first in a series of GAO reports evaluating management effectiveness at major federal departments. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is striving to better manage its programs and achieve its current objectives of (1) reduci...

1984-01-01

169

Research Needs and Guidelines on Women's Issues: Planning, Housing and Community Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report suggests new research guidelines for analyzing women's issues and their relation to planning, housing, and community development. The guidelines are based on factors that take into account differences in the circumstances of women, household o...

J. Leavitt

1979-01-01

170

DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1996-06-01

171

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

2009-04-01

172

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

2013-04-01

173

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

174

Immunogenicity and efficacy of an in-house developed cell-culture derived veterinarian rabies vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of an inactivated tissue culture rabies vaccine produced on BHK-21 cells, according to an in-house developed process, was evaluated and compared to a commercial cell-tissue culture vaccine (Rabisin). Fifteen experimental dogs from local common breed were duly conditioned during a quarantine period, then vaccinated via the subcutaneous route with 1ml of either the tissue culture vaccine developed in-house

Héla Kallel; Mohamed Fethi Diouani; Houssem Loukil; Khaled Trabelsi; Mohamed Ali Snoussi; Samy Majoul; Samia Rourou; Koussay Dellagi

2006-01-01

175

Psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAdolescents residing in low-income public housing developments in inner-city regions may be particularly vulnerable to a variety of risk factors associated with cigarette smoking.OBJECTIVETo elucidate the aetiology of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments.DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTSWe examined predictors of smoking from four domains: background characteristics, social influences, behavioural control, and psychosocial characteristics using a sample of

Jennifer A Epstein; Christopher Williams; Gilbert J Botvin; Tracy Diaz; Michelle Ifill-Williams

1999-01-01

176

The impact of social housing developments on nearby property prices: A Nelson Mandela Bay Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social housing projects often face substantial “Not-in-my-backyard†(NIMBY) sentiment and as a result are frequently plagued by local opposition from communities who argue that nearby property prices will be affected adversely by these developments. International hedonic pricing studies conducted have, however, produced mixed results with some concluding that social housing developments may in fact lead to an improvement in surrounding

M. Du Preez; M. C. Sale

2011-01-01

177

Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing  

SciTech Connect

The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1993-07-01

178

Prevention (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Beginning of content Prevention What are my preventive care benefits? Most health plans must cover a set ... private insurance plans. Email How does the Affordable Care Act help people like me? If you need ...

179

Get Affordable Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Get Affordable Health Care The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is ... care. Find a Health Center > Hospitals and Other Health Care Hospitals, nursing homes and other facilities are required ...

180

Floor Space per Person and Housing Development: An Urban Growth Approach to Estimate Housing Supply in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article estimates an empirical model of new housing supply in Hong Kong based on the urban growth approach. The article introduces a new factor, space usage per person (SPP), to this model reflecting the quality of housing, the demand and supply aspects of the housing market, along with prices and other standard variables. SPP may also be used as

Wadu Mesthrige Jayantha; Stephen Siu Yu Lau

2008-01-01

181

Testing and Development Progress for the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) Testing Series in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS) at Marshall Space Flight Center  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 400 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. (authors)

Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California, US Department of Energy, PO Box 1663, MS J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salvail, Pat [ITT Research Institute, Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Ring, Peter [Advanced Methods and Materials, 510 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 203, Sunnyvale, California, 94086 (United States)

2002-07-01

182

Towards a Microsimulation Residential Housing Market Model: Real Estate Appraisal and New Housing Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a mid-size industrial city in North America, the City of Hamilton has been increasingly experiencing urban sprawl in the past six decades coupled with population growth and economic development. The study of various interdependent processes driving the evolution of urban form requires the application of simulation models that offer urban planners and policy-makers an efficient means for evaluating urban

Xudong Liu

2011-01-01

183

Energy efficiency evaluation of the housing community plan developed for Shaw Air Force Base  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine if energy efficiency is adequately addressed in Housing Community Plans being developed for Air Force Tactical Air Command bases. Although renovation work specified in the plans generally complies with current Air Force regulations and is generally consistent with public energy standards an expected level of energy efficiency that should be readily attained following renovation will not necessarily be achieved. Design and construction flaws can exist in the housing that adversely affect energy consumption. These housing deficiencies are not completely addressed in the current Air Force regulations for guidelines and, thus, are not addressed in the Housing Community Plans. A four-fold plan is recommended to ensure that future plans address improvements in energy efficiency to the fullest extent possible. The recommendations include revising guidance documents, improving field inspections, and implementing monitoring programs.

Ternes, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Scully, S. [National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

1992-05-01

184

Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste  

PubMed Central

Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed.

Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

2008-01-01

185

Condensed tannins inhibit house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development in livestock manure.  

PubMed

Reducing chemical use for suppressing internal and external parasites of livestock is essential for protecting environmental health. Although plant condensed tannins are known to suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants, no research on the effects of tannins on external arthropod populations such as the house fly, Musca domestica L., have been conducted. We examined the impact of plant material containing condensed tannins on house fly development. Prairie acacia (Acacia angustissima (Mill.), Kuntze variety hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.) herbage, panicled tick-clover (Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.) herbage, and quebracho (Shinopsis balansae Engl.) extracts were introduced at rates of 1, 3 or 5% condensed tannins/kg beef cattle, dairy cattle, and goat manure, respectively. In a second experiment, we also introduce purified catechin at 1 or 3% of dairy manure dry matter and measured its impact on house fly development. For the house flies used in these experiments, the following was recorded: percent fly emergence (PFE), average daily gain (ADG), and average fly weight (AFW). No effects (P>0.05) in house fly development were measured in the caprine manure. Prairie acacia (20.9% condensed tannins) had no effect on house flies developing in either bovine manures. Tick clover (4.9% condensed tannins) had a negative effect on all three quantifiable variables of house fly development in the bovine manures, whereas quebracho extract (64.0% condensed tannins) at the 3 and 5% rate reduced fly emergence in beef manure and average daily gain in dairy manure. The application of purified catechin at 3%, but not 1%, reduced fly PFE, ADG, and AFW. PMID:22217775

Littlefield, Kimberly A; Muir, James P; Lambert, Barry D; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

2011-12-01

186

Relationship between Affordances in the Home Environment and Motor Development in Children Age 18-42 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Environmental stimulation plays a critical role in optimal human development during the early stages of life and an optimal level (of development) occurs with strong contextual support. It is well accepted among devel op mentalists that motor-perceptual-and cognitive development are fundamentally interrelate d. This suggests that status of motor development is an important factor in overall child well-being.

Alireza Haydari; Parviz Askari; Maryam Zarra Nezhad

2009-01-01

187

Radiation Shielding Options for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System  

SciTech Connect

The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) is a proposed power source for an outpost capable of housing six humans for up to six weeks on the lunar surface and emphasizes the design principles of low risk and affordability over high performance. The radiation shield is the most massive component of the reactor system and its effect on launch mass greatly affects the affordability of the AFSPS. Potential shielding materials include lithium hydride, enriched boron-10 carbide, water, borated water, beryllium, boron-doped beryllium and zirconium hydride. Zirconium hydride is the most effective neutron attenuator and also significantly attenuates gamma radiation, but at a significant mass penalty. The other neutron attenuating materials all require the addition of a tungsten layer to provide significant gamma attenuation. Based on neutron radiation alone, lithium hydride is the lightest of the potential attenuators, followed by water and borated water. When gamma radiation is also considered, the lithium hydride/tungsten shield is shown to be the lightest composite shield with a combined mass of 3246 kg, followed by the borated water/tungsten shield (3479 kg). The boron carbide/tungsten shield has a total mass of 4129 kg, but represents significantly less development risk.

Craft, Aaron E.; King, Jeffrey C. [Mining and Nuclear Engineering Department Missouri University of Science and Technology 222 Fulton Hall, 301 W. 14th Street Rolla, MO 65401(United States)

2009-03-16

188

Critical Pedagogy, Experiential Learning and Active Citizenship: A Freirean Perspective on Tenant Involvement in Housing Stock Transfers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key feature of housing policy in the UK is the transfer of affordable housing stock owned by local authorities to not-for-profit registered social landlords. Such transfers involve local authority tenants to varying degrees in the development and implementation of the transfer proposals. Reporting the findings of a series of interviews with…

McCormack, John

2008-01-01

189

SOUTH-EAST HOUSING DEVELOPMENT ? THE QUEST FOR SUSTAINABILITY: WATER AND SEWERAGE NEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2000, Draft Regional Planning Guidance for the South East was published with the primary purpose of providing a regional framework for the preparation of development plans to 2016. This paper discusses the potential effects for the water industry of SERPLAN's predicted levels of housing growth on water resources, sewage treatment and the environment. The need for sustainable development

S. G. Evans; P. B. Spillett; K. Colquhoun

2003-01-01

190

A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. By John Majewski  

Microsoft Academic Search

A House Dividing serves as much-appreciated example of how narrative political economy remains a persuasive format for historical research. John Majewski addresses the topic of divergence in economic development between antebellum North and South by looking inside the highly political process of infrastructure development. Using case studies of Albemarle County, Virginia, and Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, Majewski shows how competition between

Mary Eschelbach Hansen

2001-01-01

191

Spatial effects in housing price models. Do housing prices capitalize urban development policies in the agglomeration of Dijon (1999)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we suppose that the integration of accessibility and neighborhood variables in hedonic housing models doesn't allow to take into account the spatial effects between the housing prices. Using a sample of 1520 transactions of apartments in the urban area of Dijon, we focus on two types of location variables : the distance to the CBD and the

Catherine BAUMONT

2004-01-01

192

SPATIAL EFFECTS IN HOUSING PRICE MODELS DO HOUSING PRICES CA PITALIZE URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN THE AGGLOMERATION OF DIJON (1999) ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we suppose that the integration of accessibility and neighborhood variables in hedonic housing models doesn't allow to take into account the spatial effects between the housing prices. Using a sample of 1520 transactions of apartments in the urban area of Dijon, we focus on two types of location variables : the distance to the CBD and the

Catherine Baumont

2003-01-01

193

Psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Adolescents residing in low-income public housing developments in inner-city regions may be particularly vulnerable to a variety of risk factors associated with cigarette smoking.?OBJECTIVE—To elucidate the aetiology of cigarette smoking among adolescents living in public housing developments.?DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS—We examined predictors of smoking from four domains: background characteristics, social influences, behavioural control, and psychosocial characteristics using a sample of seventh graders (mean age 12.9 years) who reside in public housing developments in New York City (n = 624). The addresses of participants in a larger investigation of the aetiology and prevention of smoking were checked to determine if they lived in one of 335 public housing developments in New York City. All participants living in public housing developments were included in the current study.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—African-American and Hispanic students completed questionnaires about their cigarette use, social pressures to smoke, smoking attitudes, smoking knowledge, and smoking resistance skills. Students also provided information on demographic and behavioural control (such as church and school attendance).?RESULTS—Logistic regression analyses indicated that social influences from friends and family members predicted smoking. Psychosocial characteristics such as advertising resistance skills, anti-smoking attitudes, and refusal skills lowered the odds of smoking.?CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that smoking prevention approaches targeted at these young people should increase their awareness of social pressures to smoke, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of smoking among friends, and teach relevant psychosocial skills.???Keywords: smoking initiation predictors; smoking prevention; public housing developments; psychosocial risk factors

Epstein, J.; Williams, C.; Botvin, G.; Diaz, T.; Ifill-Williams, M.

1999-01-01

194

Perceiving Multiple Affordances for Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined whether the perception of one of an object's affordances affects the detection of another affordance. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with collections of artifacts, such that one third had only the Affordance 1 (OAFF 1, e.g., scoop-with), another third had only Affordance 2 (OAFF 2, e.g., pierce-with), and the remaining objects had both affordances (OAFF 1,2).

Lin Ye; Wilson Cardwell; Leonard S. Mark

2009-01-01

195

Promoting Health and Advancing Development through Improved Housing in Low-Income Settings.  

PubMed

There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered. PMID:23271143

Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

2013-10-01

196

Evaluating the greenhouse gas reduction benefits of compact housing development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional land use and transportation planning influences energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a number of ways, such as through its effect on vehicle miles travelled and the extension of municipal infrastructure to serve newly developed areas. Planning regulations also help to shape the density and form of residential development, which creates opportunities for energy savings, as more

Damian Pitt

2012-01-01

197

Housing '70.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report was prepared by the Ada Development Council under a comprehensive planning grant from the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, to meet the following needs: To provide a profile of the housing market in Ada County and to identify c...

1970-01-01

198

Teaching solar energy applications using in-house developed testbench  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for energy from fossil fuel continues to increase, especially in countries such as China and some developing countries. However, known reserves of fossil fuel continue to decrease with resultant increase in the unit cost of oil. This economic consideration, coupled with environmental degradation has spurred renewed interest in alternative energy resources, especially solar energy and photovoltaic technology and

A. U. Chuku; B. Oni; F. Kuate; E. Overton

2005-01-01

199

Evolutionary Product Development in Working-Class Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well?known economical product life cycle describes the typical pattern of a product’s turnover over time. Although it has become a central concept in product development and marketing, it has severe practical limitations. Probably one of the most important limitations is that it is a purely quantitative, descriptive relationship. It describes the most probable pattern over time in the relative

Arthur O. Eger

2009-01-01

200

Does Housing Finance Promote Economic and Social Development in Emerging Markets ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assisted by growing capital supply, declining interest rates and legal re- forms, in the past decade housing finance has grown dramatically in emerging markets. The study explores with evidence available from early emerging markets mainly from Latin America and Asia under which condi- tions the lending boom translated into a dynamic and sustainable eco- nomic and social development as measured

Hans-Joachim Dübel

201

Small is beautiful: a probit analysis of development control of small houses in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we apply the probit model, an econometric technique that has been used in urban economics to examine nonaggregate cross-sectional data, to investigate the development control (planning application) data regarding the so-called 'small houses' in Hong Kong with respect to two classes of statutory zones, namely the 'green belt' and 'unspecified uses' zones. Four refutable hypotheses relating to

Lawrence W C Lai; Winky K O Ho

2001-01-01

202

China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postreform landscape is characterised by the formation of a more market-oriented system and the ‘open-door’ policy. Economic globalisation and marketisation, especially in the arena of urban land and housing, are becoming the key variables determining the postreform urban development in China. Since China opened its door in 1978, foreign investment has continued to flow into the cities and played

Fulong Wu

2001-01-01

203

The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

Borich, Timothy O.

2001-01-01

204

Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Ecos: Neighborhood Housing Design Research and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an overview of a community-based teaching and learning project linking sustainability, working family housing, neighborhood social capital, and urban design research and development. The article foregrounds principles and protocols that can be used to measure community effectiveness and it highlights a basis for further…

Abell, John H.

2010-01-01

205

Board Member Development in the Public, Voluntary and Social Housing Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Given a number of recent and ongoing changes to the role and responsibilities of executive and non-executive board members of UK social housing organisations, the paper aims to offer a literature review which explores the development provision for board members within such organisations. The paper's key question is: "How are executive…

Ward, Carolyn; Preece, David

2012-01-01

206

Critical success criteria for mass house building projects in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project success is a complex and often illusory construct. Nonetheless, it is crucially contingent towards enabling appropriate and effective allocation of resources in project management practice. Mass house building projects (MHBPs) represent one of the largest and most established project-based sectors of the construction industry in most developing economies. Above all, the management skills required on these projects differ significantly

D. K. Ahadzie; D. G. Proverbs; P. O. Olomolaiye

2008-01-01

207

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development: Fiscal Year 2004 Budget Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 budget proposed by President Bush for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a budget of opportunity. It offers new opportunities for families and individuals to lift themselves toward selfsufficiency and a...

2003-01-01

208

Congressional justification for 1983 estimates, US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Part 2: Solar energy and conservation bank, community planning and development, new community development corporation, policy development and research, fair housing and equal opportunity  

SciTech Connect

HUD budget information for 1983 is presented for the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, Community Planning and Development, the New Community Development Corporation, Policy Development and Research, and Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Data relating to Community Planning and Development present figures on Community Development Grants, Urban Development Action Grants, rental rehabilitation, urban homesteading, and more. Administrative expenses and program outlays are noted for the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, the New Community Development Corporation, Policy Development and Research, and Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Included are summaries of budget requests, changes from 1981 estimates included in March 1982 budget estimates, an explanation of increases and decreases, and program descriptions. Data tables are provided.

Not Available

1982-03-01

209

Temperature and the energetics of development in the house cricket ( Acheta domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of rearing temperature on the energetics of development was investigated in house crickets (Acheta domesticus). Crickets raised at 25°C grew slower (0.51mgd?1, dry mass basis) and took longer to develop (119d) but obtained a greater adult body mass (61mg, dry mass) than crickets reared at 28°C (0.99mgd?1, 49d, 48mg). Total metabolic energy consumed during development at 25°C (1351J)

David T. Booth; Kirsty Kiddell

2007-01-01

210

Fair Housing and Latinos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latinos need the protection of the proposed Fair Housing Amendments of 1987 and the active support of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to overcome housing discrimination. Latinos are both disproportionately poor and inadequately housed, but low income alone cannot fully explain the poor housing conditions under which many…

Cubillos, Herminia L.

211

DETECTION OF URBAN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT USING MULTISENSOR SATELLITE DATA AND MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of land-cover \\/ land-use changes is an im portant process in monitoring and managing urban de velopment and natural resources, because it provides quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution in the popula tion of interest. A large number of change-detection techniques have been developed, but little has been done to detect detailed changes, such as urban housing development, using

Yun Zhang

1998-01-01

212

New Product Development and Design for Mass Customization using House of Quality Template  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explain a House of Quality (HoQ)-based approach that integrate technical needs and customer requirements as a useful procedure in mass customization and to demonstrate a HoQ template prototype, for the purpose of managing product design and development activities efficiently. HoQ is a procedure to determine the characteristics of new product development that combines technical requirements and

Hairulliza Mohamad Judi; Ng Kim Boon

2013-01-01

213

Land Cover Change Related to Residential Housing Development in the United States From 1990 to 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat loss from conversion to urban and agricultural uses is a major threat to biodiversity globally. In the U.S., habitat loss was identified by a majority of state fish and game departments as a primary concern and is a leading cause of species endangerment. Residential housing growth, commercial development, and associated road building are major sources of habitat loss in the U.S. From 1990 to 2000, almost 250,000 miles of paved road and over 13.5 million housing units were constructed nationwide. To understand how recent trends in housing development affect land cover, it is crucial to establish how rates of conversion to anthropogenic uses and types of lands affected vary across the U.S. and why. For example, while most of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in the Eastern U.S. is forested, agricultural lands were preferentially developed from 1990 to 2000. However, in the Piedmont ecoregion, which runs from the Chesapeake Bay southwest to Alabama, forested lands were disproportionately developed from 1992 to 2000. Several studies have assessed land use and land cover dynamics in various regions of the U.S. by combining satellite or aerial imagery with GIS data. However, because of a lack of consistent national land cover maps for more than one time period, assessments were either restricted to a single time period or change maps were independently developed for small areas. Recently, a nationally consistent map of Anderson Level I land cover change from 1992 to 2001 for the contiguous U.S. was made available through the United States Geological Survey National Land Cover Database (NLCD). We use geographically weighted regression (GWR) to compare changes in U.S. Census Bureau derived housing density with changes in NLCD derived land cover from 1990 to 2000 and assess how that relationship varies regionally due to heterogeneity in land cover, existing housing density, and other biophysical and economic variables. To characterize the NLCD map, we compare it with independently derived impervious surface change maps from three areas of the country. Results indicate that the NLCD change product provides conservative estimates of conversion to urban uses, with mapped changes corresponding to impervious surface cover increases of 20 to 40%. Scale variance analyses of housing and urban land use for commonly used analytical units (e.g. watersheds, Bailey divisions, counties) show that fine scale variation dominates, suggesting that the native scale of the data is the appropriate resolution at which to assess urbanization. GWR results show significant heterogeneity in parameter values of independent variables across the study area. As expected, larger increases in housing density are more strongly correlated with conversion to urban use than smaller increases. These results can be combined with census based projections of future housing density to assess possible changes in land cover and conversion to urban uses stemming from residential housing development.

Jantz, P.; Davis, F.

2008-12-01

214

Development of deciduous and permanent dentitions in the upper jaw of the house shrew (Suncus murinus).  

PubMed

The diphyodont tooth replacement in mammals is characterized by a single replacement of a deciduous dentition by a permanent dentition. Despite its significance in mammalian biology and paleontology, little is known about the developmental mechanisms regulating the diphyodont replacement. Because the mouse never replaces its teeth, this study used the house shrew, Suncus murinus, as a model to investigate the control of the diphyodont replacement of a deciduous dentition by successions and additions of permanent teeth. Using morphological and gene expression analyses of serial sections, we have demonstrated the development of the upper dentition of the house shrew. In this species, the deciduous tooth germs are formed but soon become vestigial, whereas the successional and accessional (molar) germs are subsequently formed and developed. There are distinct Shh expression domains in the deciduous, successional, and accessional tooth germs, and those of the latter two germs are identified from the appearance of their primary enamel knots. The developmental sequence of tooth germs in the house shrew indicates that two adjacent primary enamel knots of the successional and accessional germs do not develop simultaneously, but with a constant time lag. We suggest that this mode of tooth succession and accession can be explained by a sequential inhibitory cascade model in which the timing of initiation and the spacing of tooth development are determined by the inhibition from the primary enamel knots of developmentally preceding adjacent tooth germs. PMID:20303065

Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yasui, Kinya; Sonomura, Takahiro; Iwai, Haruki; Uemura, Masanori

2010-03-19

215

Investigating Housing Reform In Shanghai: A System Dynamics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing affordability issue has aroused exceedingly heated discussion in Shanghai Since the late 1990s. The boom of the market, however, attracts frantic speculation that generates some serious problems, especially the severe inflation of house price. There are great concerns that commercial housing price is too high and beyond the affordability of the average urban households. This paper investigates the

Jie Chen; Yongguang Zhong

2007-01-01

216

Analysis of Housing Partnerships using the Balanced Scorecard framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing Partnerships (HPs) are collaborative arrangements that assist communities in the delivery of affordable housing by combining the strengths of the public and private sectors. They emerged in several states, counties, and cities in the eighties as innovative solutions to the challenges in affordable housing resulting from changing dynamics of delivery and production. ^ My study examines HPs with particular

Zhayda Garzon

2011-01-01

217

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Housing And Urban Development And the General... The purpose of the memorandum...with the concepts of good management, to assure for its employees the availability of low- and moderate-income...consider the need for development and...

2009-07-01

218

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Housing And Urban Development And the General... The purpose of the memorandum...with the concepts of good management, to assure for its employees the availability of low- and moderate-income...consider the need for development and...

2010-07-01

219

Deterministic seismic hazard map for Taiwan developed using an in-house Excel-based program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard analyses, either in a deterministic (DSHA) or probabilistic (PSHA) framework, are both commonly adopted for evaluating earthquake risk. Although different in methodology, both approaches involving tedious calculation are certainly a computer-aided analysis. For Taiwan, a few PSHA studies have been conducted, but not a single comprehensive DSHA study is yet available for this region. As a result, this study aims to develop a DSHA seismic hazard map for Taiwan through an Excel-based program. In use of the in-house program, the result shows that the deterministic seismic hazards for Taiwan are comparable to those estimated by the recent PSHA; in particular the 50th PGA (mean motion) in this DSHA was found in a good agreement with the PSHA at 10% exceedance probability in 50 years. In addition to developing the DSHA map for Taiwan, this paper provides the details of the in-house, Excel-based tool for Excel applications in geosciences studies.

Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Yang, Zijiang

2012-11-01

220

Mixing it up? Evidence from planned housing developments - twenty years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper critically examines,the concept that the built environment,can help create mixed communities, a premise which has underpinned new towns from the garden villages of the 1960's through to contemporary,'new urbanism'. It reports on research into three planned mixed tenure housing developments,- twenty years on and focuses on the effect that the built environment,has on the lives of renters

Rionach Casey; Sarah Coward; Chris Allen; Ryan Powell

2005-01-01

221

Quantifying eelgrass habitat loss in relation to housing development and nitrogen loading in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change analysis of eelgrass distribution in Waquoit Bay demonstrated a rapid decline of eelgrass habitat between 1987 and\\u000a 1992. Aerial photography and ground-truth assessments of eelgrass distribution in the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research\\u000a Reserve documented progressive loss in eelgrass acreage and fragmentation of eelgrass beds that we relate to the degree of\\u000a housing development and associated nitrogen loading, largelyvia

Frederick T. Short; David M. Burdick

1996-01-01

222

Delivering on the Promise: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Self-Evaluation to Promote Community Living for People with Disabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD or the Department) is the Federal agency responsible for national policy and programs that address America's housing needs; that improve and develop the Nation's communities; and enforce fair housi...

2002-01-01

223

The project to design and develop an energy-related program for public housing residents: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This demonstration project studied how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilities indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

Not Available

1986-12-01

224

Influence of housing variables on the development of stress-sensitive behaviors in the rat.  

PubMed

Diverse environments early in mammalian life can have profound influences on the physiology and behavior of developing offspring. Environmental factors can influence offspring development directly or through perturbations in parental care. In the current study, we wished to determine if the influence of a single environmental variable, type of bedding material used in laboratory cages, is capable of altering physiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring. Female rats were housed in cages containing wood pulp or corncob bedding and allowed to mature. These rats, while housed on assigned bedding material, were bred and allowed to give birth. At weaning, male offspring were housed on one of the two bedding conditions and tested later in adulthood on stress-sensitive behavioral measures. Postmortem analysis of glucocorticoid receptor expression and CRH mRNA levels were also measured. Maternal care directed at the pups reared in the two different bedding conditions was also recorded. Rats reared from birth on corncob bedding exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior, as adults, in both open field and light-dark box tasks compared to wood pulp reared animals. Animals that received similar overall levels of maternal care, regardless of bedding condition, also differed in anxiety-like behaviors as adults, indicating that the bedding condition is capable of altering phenotype independent of maternal care. Despite observed behavioral differences in adult offspring reared in different bedding conditions, no changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression at the level of the hippocampus, frontal cortex, or corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus were observed between groups. These results highlight the importance of early life housing variables in programming stress-sensitive behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:23948671

Sakhai, Samuel A; Preslik, John; Francis, Darlene D

2013-08-12

225

Economy in energy through alternative sources of energy in mass-housing of developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Energy is an integral part of the development process and a major determinant for the improvement of the quality of life in human settlements. Skyrocketing oil price increases in recent years has made development increasingly difficult for at least two-thirds of the developing countries. An increasing number of developing countries are searching for new sources of energy and more efficient use of what is available. So, there is a need for well thought-out comprehensive energy saving program. There is a need for radical thinking in devising new and innovative energy policies, which should be dynamic, technologically flexible, and responsive to the needs and aspirations of people. There is large percentage of energy used in buildings which can be economised in the planning of new settlements. The paper discusses and recommends the adoption of some of the straight-forward technology through which there is a full scope for minimizing the usage of energy in housing. Moving ahead, the paper also makes suggestions to developing countries how to develop and adopt alternative sources of energy in housing; especially solar energy, for cooling and heating purposes, because in solar energy most of the developing countries are very rich. Further, the paper strongly recommends that Universities, Colleges, and Schools should teach the latest concepts of energy conservation and use of alternative energy sources. However, the largest savings in energy consumption would arise from a real desire and economy consciousness on the part of the individual in the community to limit energy usage.

Sinha, I.B.

1980-12-01

226

12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied...AffordabilityâIncome level definitionsâfamily size and income known (owner-occupied...affordable where income information (and family size, for rental housing) is...

2012-01-01

227

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION AFFORDED BY TYPICAL OAK RIDGE HOMES AGAINST DISTRIBUTED SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection afforded against simulated fall-out radiation has been ;\\u000a evaluated for several typical homes in the Oak Ridge area. Nine houses were ;\\u000a chosen to represent a variety of construction materials, topographical ;\\u000a conditions and sizes; they included three types of Oak Ridge Cemesto houses, one ;\\u000a concrete-block house with a basement fall-out shelter, and two wood-frame houses. ;

T. D. Strickler; J. A. Auxier

1960-01-01

228

Housing Development Canals in the Coastal Zone of the Gulf of Mexico: Ecological Consequences, Regulations, and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three types of housing development canals (bayfill, inland, and intertidal) are described, and their effects on estuarine flora, water and sediment quality, and species composition and abundance of fauna are discussed. Varying only in degree, all three ty...

W. N. Lindall L. Trent

1975-01-01

229

Development of Economic House Types Based Upon Passive Solar Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation for High Density Urban Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project develops house types and their corresponding nesting patterns for high density, low-rise urban neighborhoods having the following characteristics: utilizing the sun for warming in winter, self-cooling in summer, energy conserving, low building...

1980-01-01

230

Planning and User Interface Affordances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper takes a first step toward formalizing the concept of affordance in user interfaces. Using a simple example of an AI planning domain, we show how different types of affordance can be described in terms of the costs associated with plan execution...

R. St. Amant

1999-01-01

231

California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students…

Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

2007-01-01

232

Maintenance of solar systems--Housing and urban development demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) residential solar heating and cooling demonstration program provided funding support for over 600 solar projects. These projects provide the largest single data base of solar heating and cooling experience now available. These data suggest that maintenance and system operation have been mixed even though system configurations are similar throughout the program. HUD has been involved in the upgrading of one-third of the 600 solar projects and now can report that projects can be maintained with a more uniform level of effort.

Freeborne, W.E.

1983-06-01

233

Temperature and the energetics of development in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus).  

PubMed

The influence of rearing temperature on the energetics of development was investigated in house crickets (Acheta domesticus). Crickets raised at 25 degrees C grew slower (0.51 mg d(-1), dry mass basis) and took longer to develop (119 d) but obtained a greater adult body mass (61 mg, dry mass) than crickets reared at 28 degrees C (0.99 mg d(-1), 49 d, 48 mg). Total metabolic energy consumed during development at 25 degrees C (1351 J) was twice that at 28 degrees C (580 J) primarily because of the longer development period, and as a consequence the specific net cost of growth was much greater for crickets reared at 25 degrees C (22.1 kJ g(-1)) than 28 degrees C (11.9 kJ g(-1)). PMID:17481649

Booth, David T; Kiddell, Kirsty

2007-03-30

234

An Inherently Healthier Home? -- Investigating A Package of Ventilation, Dehumidification, and Filtration in High Performance Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to damp indoor environments and the allergens that thrive in damp environments has been associated with asthma development, exacerbation, and wheeze and respiratory complications. This paper describes a study that is currently underway to test whether a protocol for building a moisture-managed house with dedicated dehumidification, filtration, and ventilation can reliably and affordably maintain indoor relative humidity levels below

Melissa Malkin-Weber; Jonathan Coulter; Ben Hannas; Adam Stetten

235

ADVANCED THERMAL SOLAR SYSTEM WITH HEAT STORAGE FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSE SPACE HEATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy for residential housing has to be a priority. Designing energy efficient and affordable dwellings located in harsh climate regions like Canada, present significant challenges. This paper presents

Kazimierz Szymocha

236

Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and…

Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

2010-01-01

237

Affordable WDM components: the polymer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced polymeric waveguide technology was developed for affordable WDM components that address the needs of both the Telecom and the Datacom industries. We engineered high- performance organic polymers that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that

Louay A. Eldada; Shing Yin; Robert A. Norwood; James T. Yardley

1998-01-01

238

Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for future risk reduction. PMID:23977120

Syphard, Alexandra D; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E

2013-08-14

239

Land Use Planning and Wildfire: Development Policies Influence Future Probability of Housing Loss  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for future risk reduction.

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

2013-01-01

240

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

241

Housing policy for persons with mental illness in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Ontario Ministry of Housing's effort to provide permanent, adequate, and affordable housing for persons with mental illness. The Ministry's approach is part of a continuum of housing options independent of program requirements. Integration of mental health consumers into housing communities is through the aid of the Ministry's senior advisor of mental health, who is responsible for

Sheri Weisberg

1994-01-01

242

Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

243

Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in developed countries: can developing countries afford and learn from this experience?  

PubMed

Use of illicit substances of abuse is a major public health problem in developed countries like the US. However, this problem of illicit substance use has spread like a tumor to include currently developing countries where most of its youths and adolescents are actively engaged in this illegal practice. This problem is even more worse in poor resource countries, as use of these substances is accompanied with a lot of HIV- risk behaviours, and for cocaine and heroin drug injectors often share injecting equipments hence increasing the chances of contracting and spreading HIV infection. Apart from HIV infection, other infections include hepatitis B, C, abscesses and other ill-health problems such as drug dependence manifested with complex set of behaviours related to mental illnesses. For non-drug injectors, the chances of contracting and spreading HIV through their unsafe/unprotected sexual behaviours especially those having multiple partners is there. Use of these illicit substances have other consequences like compromising the dosing schedule or adherence / poor compliance to ARTs/ARVs among those enrolled. Furthermore, use of illicit substances may be accompanied with domestic sexual violence which is done without using any protective (condoms) measures) leading to HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancies. However, various studies and preventive approaches have been tried in the US on drug abusers in order to prevent the associated adverse health outcomes. There are many reasons why people use drugs. In many situations, drugs are being used as artificial problem-solvers such as frustrations, stress or tiredness. Drugs can often make a problem disappear for a short time but not usually the answer for solving the problem. They just help to remove it temporarily. Other people choose to use drugs to enjoy the feelings or for recreational purposes which many drugs produce. For example, many people, especially young people, experiment with using drugs to find out more about the sensations they produce. Drug use is a problem to users when it begins to cause some damage to their physical health, mental health and social well-being. These include mental illness, diseases caused by or related to use of drugs e.g. practice of sharing needles or syringes among drug injectors and also non-drug injectors may acquire HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis, crimes and violence. However, the number of harm associated with the use of drugs is increasing in Tanzania and other developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and globally in developed nations like the US and many others. PMID:21413573

Nsimba, Stephen E D

2010-03-01

244

The Past and Future of Housing Policy Innovation: The Case of US State Housing Trust Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

State governments are increasingly expected to help fill the gap between the demand and supply of affordable housing within the US. Little systematic attention has been paid to state housing strategies over the years, despite a lengthening record of policy innovation. This paper asks what factors influence state adoption of housing trust funds (HTFs), and if these factors differ based

Corianne Payton Scally

2012-01-01

245

Student-Initiated Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

Feild, Robert M.

1973-01-01

246

Project to design and develop an energy-related program: For public housing residents and renters: Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This demonstration project was undertaken as a result of an unsolicited proposal submitted by THE ASSIGNMENT GROUP (TAG) to the Office of Minority Economic Impact, Department of Energy (DOE). The problem to which the proposal responded was how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The size and gravity of the problem necessitated a purpose or aim that had nationwide application, yet lent itself to a microscopic look. Consequently, the goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilitates indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

Not Available

1988-05-01

247

Dynamic cycles of unsold new housing stocks, investment in housing, and housing supply–demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsold new housing stocks may be closely related to housing market fluctuation, especially the difference between housing supply and demand, which is influenced by macroeconomic conditions. These factors simultaneously influence developers’ investment decisions and, thus, housing supply over time. However, previous research on the housing market has focused on explaining the statistical relationships among factors with reduced-form equations rather than

Min-Ji Kwoun; Sang-Hyo Lee; Ju-Hyung Kim; Jae-Jun Kim

248

US Bureau of Mines. Conservation and development in-house and contract research in fiscal year 1984  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the in-house and contract research projects programmed for fiscal year 1984 by the Bureau of Mines under its Conservation and Development activity. The document provides a mechanism for interested parties to gain insight into projects of the Bureau's conservation and Development research program

Not Available

1984-01-01

249

24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent of the total number of home purchase...metropolitan areas which count toward the Special...percent of the total number of home purchase...metropolitan areas which count toward the Special...total units that count to the total number of units in...

2013-04-01

250

Development of a simultaneous extraction and cleanup method for pyrethroid pesticides from indoor house dust samples.  

PubMed

An efficient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quantification of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Various adsorbents and combinations of extraction solvents and temperatures were evaluated to achieve a high-throughput sample preparation that eliminates the post-extraction cleanup step. The final method used sulfuric acid-impregnated silica (acid silica) and neutral silica together in the extraction cell with the dust sample to provide both extraction and cleanup simultaneously. The optimal ratio of dust/acid silica/silica was 1:0.8:8. The extraction was performed at 2000 psi, at 100°C with DCM for 5 min in three cycles. Method precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of triplicate aliquots of the dust samples and the samples fortified with the target PYRs. The accuracy measured as the recoveries of the PYRs in the fortified samples ranged from 85% to 120%. The precision measured as the relative standard deviation of replicate samples was within ±25%. The SPLE method was applied to 20 house dust samples collected from households that participated in two field studies regarding exposures to pesticides and other pollutants. Similar concentrations of target PYRs were obtained for the SPLE and a stepwise extraction/cleanup procedure. The SPLE procedure reduces organic solvent consumption and increases the sample throughput when compared with a traditional stepwise extraction and cleanup procedure. This study demonstrates that the SPLE procedure can be applied to complex dust matrices for analysis of PYRs for large scale exposure or environmental monitoring studies. PMID:22938604

Van Emon, Jeanette M; Chuang, Jane C

2012-07-27

251

Guide to Federal Housing and Community Development Programs for Small Towns and Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is meant to serve as a tool for rural communities to help identify public resources that may be used to meet the housing needs of low-income rural populations. It was first published by the Housing Assistance Council (HAC) in 1989, and has been...

A. Collings J. Pinder M. Stover S. Davidson

2003-01-01

252

Regional Housing Needs Analysis, Part II, for McIntosh Trail Area Planning and Development Commission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the various factors that affect areawide housing. Housing needs are determined for the coming three to five-year period. This study consists of an analysis of past, present, and expected future trends and an estimate of expected change...

E. Kufeldt

1973-01-01

253

Prototype Solar House. Study of the Scientific Evaluation and Feasibility of a Research and Development Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary study was undertaken before a large scale project for construction and survey of about a hundred solar houses was launched. The notion of solar house was defined and the use of solar energy (hot water preparation, heating of rooms, heating o...

V. Bundschuh J. W. Grueter M. Kleemann M. Melis H. J. Stein

1982-01-01

254

The growth and development of public housing with special regard to the city of Atlanta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades civilized society in the general line of welfare included low rent housing. Public housing is one of the social actions necessary for the attainment of material requisites of well-being because individual actions in the ordinary business of life will not satisfy the needs of men in this direction. Although some strides have been made along these lines,

George W Dodd

1961-01-01

255

Changing roles, changing rules: procedural development and difference in Australian State upper houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status and potential of Australian State upper houses have been enhanced, to a greater or lesser degree from State to State, by electoral system change over the past half century. The purpose of this article is to determine the extent to which those changes have been accompanied by efforts on the part of the upper houses to improve performance

Bruce Stone

2005-01-01

256

Effects of hazardous wastes on housing and urban development and mitigation of impacts  

SciTech Connect

This report determines the nature and scope of the hazardous waste problem affecting HUD programs and community development and redevelopment activities. It defines the problem and develops categories of hazardous wastes most applicable to HUD. The report identifies sources of hazardous waste and gives examples of their impacts. The role of HUD and other agencies in controlling hazardous waste is reviewed, and recommendations are made for mitigating known and potential impacts. Three case studies -- in Dover Township and Elizabeth, N.J., and in Richmond, Va., illustrate the wide range of impacts made possible because of improper handling of or lack of appreciation for hazardous substances. The report suggests that a Hazard Identification Guidebook be developed, similar to others addressing housing safety and noise assessment, that would require HUD personnel to carry out a number of investigations on and around a site. This process is briefly described here and could serve as a basis for a guidebook. Flow charts illustrate this process. Tables and 23 references are supplied.

Boyer, K.R.; Conrad, E.T.; Kane, P.F.; McLaughlin, M.W.; Morgan, J.T.

1980-10-10

257

NOTE: An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit/analogue-input and 16 bit/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage. A wireless interface was established for ease of use. The reset procedure consists of an internal circuit generating a local heating induced by an electrical current. Sensitivity has been investigated as a function of bias voltage (0-9 V) to the gate. Dosimetric properties have been evaluated for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams and in vivo benchmarking was performed against thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for conventional treatments (two groups of ten patients for each energy) and total body irradiation (TBI). MOSFETS were pre-irradiated with 20 Gy. Sensitivity of 0.08 mV cGy-1 can be obtained for 200 cGy irradiations at 5 V bias voltage. Ten consecutive measurements at 200 cGy yield a SD of 2.08 cGy (1.05%). Increasing the dose in steps from 5 cGy to 1000 cGy yields a 1.00 Pearson correlation coefficient and agreement within 2.0%. Dose rate dependence (160-800 cGy min-1) was within 2.5%, temperature dependence within 2.0% (25-37° C). A strong angular dependence has been observed for gantry incidences exceeding ±30° C. Dose response is stable up to 50 Gy (saturation occurs at approximately 90 Gy), which is used as threshold dose before resetting the MOSFET. An average measured-over-calculated dose ratio within 1.05 (SD: 0.04) has been obtained in vivo. TBI midplane-dose assessed by entrance and exit dose measurements agreed within 1.9% with ionization chamber in phantom, and within 1.0% with TLD in vivo. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET-based dosimetry system is proposed. The system has been validated and is currently used for in vivo entrance dose measurement in clinical routine for simple (open field) treatment configurations.

Verellen, Dirk; Van Vaerenbergh, Sven; Tournel, Koen; Heuninckx, Karina; Joris, Laurent; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Gevaert, Thierry; Reynders, Truus; Van de Vondel, Iwein; Coppens, Luc; Depuydt, Tom; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

2010-02-01

258

Funding Opportunities for Social Work Doctoral Students through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article introduces the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) as a potential funding source for social work doctoral students. HUD's two doctoral research grant programs (i.e., the Early Doctoral Students Research Grant and the Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant) are nontraditional, largely untapped funding sources for social…

Grinstein-Weiss, Michal

2006-01-01

259

Evaluation of social services in a HOPE VI housing development: resident and staff perceptions of successes and barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a formative evaluation of social services programming conducted at a HOPE VI housing development in Boston. In the paper we describe the implementation of the program, the utilization of services by residents, resident satisfaction, and early outcome data. Based on these data we discuss the successes and barriers of the program thus far. Several

Mary Elizabeth Collins; Alexandra M. Curley; Cassandra Clay; Rita Lara

2005-01-01

260

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Housing Provision in Lagos Megacity Region, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in housing provision in Nigeria is intended to increase urban housing stock and address housing affordability and accessibility challenges. However, to date, very little is known about how PPP housing schemes have addressed these challenges. This paper therefore explores the extent to which PPP in housing provision has so far contributed to solving the

Eziyi Offia Ibem

2011-01-01

261

Analysis of Housing Partnerships Using the Balanced Scorecard Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing Partnerships (HPs) are collaborative arrangements that assist communities in the delivery of affordable housing by combining the strengths of the public and private sectors. They emerged in several states, counties, and cities in the eighties as innovative solutions to the challenges in affordable housing resulting from changing dynamics of delivery and production.\\u000aMy study examines HPs with particular emphasis

Zhayda L Garzon

2011-01-01

262

Developer Supply, Investor Demand, and Multifamily Housing Production: A Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the implementation of a model that simulates the effects of the Federal income tax on the production of subsidized multifamily housing. The project consisted of data collection, computer programming, sensitivity analysis, and tax pol...

C. D. MacRae M. A. Turner G. Anderson

1981-01-01

263

Detailed Analysis of Multi-leaf Collimator Movement during Radiation Delivery Using an In-house-developed Program.  

PubMed

Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) are used to modulate intensity during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Evaluation of MLC movement in IMRT is important, since the accuracy of MLC movements affects the dose distribution. This evaluation is conventionally performed using an attached Dynalog File Viewer (DFV). However, due to its being an overall evaluation, it is not possible to discover significant errors. In this study, we developed software that permits easy analysis of MLC movements that can be used to retrospectively evaluate MLC movement during irradiation. We also evaluated the usefulness of our in-house program and confirmed its potential for use in clinical scenarios. We created a program that can read MLC logfiles using Visual Basic 6.0 and visualize the temporal changes and movements of the MLC. To evaluate our in-house program's efficacy in analyzing dynamic MLC-QA (quality assurance), we compared the numerical results yielded by our in-house program and the DFV. The results showed that our in-house program was able to reveal errors below the error root mean square (RMS) values obtained using the DFV. Using irregular surface compensator (ISC) irradiation conditions in a clinical context, we compared our in-house program with the DFV and, using RMS analysis, identified cases that showed excessive error. Our in-house program can also be used to investigate whether unacceptable errors are present, as well as their cause, when using the MLC, as it allows easy real-time observation and evaluation of MLC movements. An additional benefit is that collecting the MLC logfile during actual treatment also allows it to be evaluated retrospectively after continuous MLC operation. PMID:24140901

Adachi, Yumiko; Hayashi, Naoki; Kato, Hideki; Ehara, Isao; Yada, Ryuichi; Matsunaga, Takuma; Muraki, Yuta

2013-01-01

264

Levels and Predictors of HIV Risk Behavior Among Women in Low-Income Public Housing Developments  

PubMed Central

THE PREVALENCE OF increases in human immunodeficiency virus infection and illness rates among urban disadvantaged women underscore the urgent need for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention interventions for high-risk women. Few studies, however, have examined the factors contributing to risk in this population or predictors of risk taking and risk reduction. A total of 148 women, most of them of racial minorities, living in low-income public housing developments completed measures designed to assess risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection and to analyze factors related to risk taking, including knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, behavior change self-efficacy, intention to use condoms, and social norm perception about safer sex practices. History of sexually transmitted diseases, low rates of condom use, and relationships with men who were injection drug users or who were not sexually exclusive were commonly reported. Women were divided into high- or low-risk categories based on behavior during the two preceding months. Women at low risk believed more strongly in personal efficacy of behavior change, were more committed to using condoms, and perceived risk reduction steps as more socially normative than high-risk women. Culturally tailored human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions that address these dimensions are needed.

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Koob, Jeffrey J.; Cargill, Victoria C.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Desiderato, Laurie L.; Roffman, Roger A.; Norman, Ann D.; Shabazz, Michelle; Copeland, Crystal; Winett, Richard A.; Steiner, Susan; Lemke, Audie L.

1995-01-01

265

Perceiving and interacting affordances: a new model of human-affordance interactions.  

PubMed

This article introduces a new affordance framework for humans and human design. Based on previous important concepts in product design-affordance, signifier, and product semantics, the authors propose three new concepts to illustrate how people perceive affordance. According to the model, perceptual probability of affordance is the probability that the public can perceive a certain affordance; perceptual threshold of affordance is the threshold at which affordance can be perceived by a person and changed by perceptual information; and situations, in which interactions between affordances and people exist, are crucial influences on human-affordance interactions. An illustration of the model and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:22648749

Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Lehua

2013-03-01

266

Affordances of instrumentation in general chemistry laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate measuring tool for general chemistry labs. They see the probeware as easy to use, portable, and able to interact with computers. Students find that the PASCO(TM) probeware system is useful in their general chemistry labs, more advanced chemistry labs, and in other science classes, and can be used in a variety of labs done in general chemistry. Students learn the affordances of the probeware through the lab manual, the laboratory teaching assistant, by trial and error, and from each other. The use of probeware systems provides lab instructors the opportunity to focus on the concepts illustrated by experiments and the opportunity to spend time discussing the results. In order to teach effectively, the instructor must know the correct name of the components involved, how to assemble and disassemble it correctly, how to troubleshoot the software, and must be able to replace broken or missing components quickly. The use of podcasts or Web-based videos should increase student understanding of affordances of the probeware.

Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

267

Object affordance influences instruction span.  

PubMed

We measured memory span for assembly instructions involving objects with handles oriented to the left or right side. Right-handed participants remembered more instructions when objects' handles were spatially congruent with the hand used in forthcoming assembly actions. No such affordance-based memory benefit was found for left-handed participants. These results are discussed in terms of motor simulation as an embodied rehearsal mechanism. PMID:22972449

Apel, Jens K; Cangelosi, Angelo; Ellis, Rob; Goslin, Jeremy; Fischer, Martin H

2012-09-13

268

24 CFR 906.24 - Protections available to non-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Program Administration § 906.24 Protections...residents of housing other than public housing. Residents...

2013-04-01

269

Exploring the potential of Product Service Systems to achieve household waste prevention on new housing developments in the UK.  

PubMed

Product service systems (PSS) are cleaner product concepts which have been developed to achieve improvements in resource productivity which may be realized from modern trends in service delivery. However, there is a paucity of research on the waste prevention performance of PSS in UK household markets. This paper reports the findings of exploratory research which begins to address this gap in knowledge. An exploratory waste prevention assessment was completed on four experimental PSS which were developed in conjunction with a major UK house-builder for delivery on their new housing developments. The results of the assessment show that the selected PSS concepts have potential to prevent high value and harmful Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) arising in UK household waste streams. Consistent with the canon of exploratory research, the assessment also identifies a number of factors which are thought to influence PSS waste prevention performance. It is recognized that further research is needed to gain an in-depth understanding of these factors as well as to define policy measures which enable the conditions in which PSS prevent household waste on new housing developments in the UK to be created. PMID:19470530

Gottberg, Annika; Longhurst, Philip J; Cook, Matthew B

2009-05-26

270

Situations, Interactions, Processes and Affordances: A Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this response to commentaries provided on their original paper, "Beyond Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Situations, Interactions, Processes and Affordances," the authors elaborate on the aims of their conceptualization, focusing on the nature of affordances and situations. (AEF)

Akhras, Fabio N.; Self, John A.

2002-01-01

271

Preventive Care for Children (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Myspace Close Text Size: A A A Preventive Care for Children Many insurers are now required to ... Services Task Force Recommendations . Fact Sheet: The Affordable Care Act and Immunization Fact Sheet: The Affordable Care ...

272

The Impact of Direct Public Funding for Private Developers on Non-Profit Housing Networks in England: Exploring a Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforms to the funding of new social housing in England in 2004 enabled private sector firms to compete with existing non-profit providers for grant. These reforms are at an early stage, but already around 4 per cent of new social housing is being constructed through direct funding of private developers. Expectations of increased efficiency were partially confirmed by the competitive

David Mullins; Bruce Walker

2009-01-01

273

Towards a holistic perspective of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation: A case study of the Housing and Development Board, Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance of managing customer relationships, and many organizations are turning to customer relationship management,(CRM) to better serve customers and facilitate closer relationships with them. This paper examines,the implementation,of CRM at the Housing and Development,Board (HDB) in Singapore. The CRM architecture (comprising operational CRM, collaborative CRM and analytical CRM) deployed at HDB reflects a holistic

Thompson S. H. Teo; Paul Raj Devadoss; Shan Ling Pan

2006-01-01

274

Japan's manufactured housing capability. A review of the industry and assessment of future impact on the US market  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese have what is generally recognized as the most advanced manufactured housing capability in the world. With heavy reliance on computerized design and inventory control systems, assembly-line production, robotics and sizable research and development budgets, Japan has developed a high-tech housing approach distinct from that found in the United States. Japan's manufactured housing capability and its benefits in producing high quality housing at an affordable price are surveyed. The housing market in Japan and the United States will be compared and the potential impact of Japanese manufactured housing on the United States assessed. Though Japan's manufactured housing capability offers great promise, there are several issues that limit the direct import of these technologies as currently practiced to the United States. Among these obstacles are: (1) inappropriate heating and cooling systems and levels of energy conservation for many areas of the US; (2) the high cost of capitalizing major new housing plants; (3) the design inflexibility of some manufactured housing products; and (4) the difficulty of marketing a mass-produced housing product in the US with its differing regional and local building codes.

Sackett, J.G.

1986-05-01

275

Sustainable Housing Development in Urban Australia: exploring obstacles to and opportunities for ecocity efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aspects of sustainable housing design such as increasing density, mixed use and proximity to public transport are being adopted increasingly in Australian cities. Sustainable building codes such as NSW's BASIX and Victoria's Green Star rating systems are also being implemented and advanced. More substantial improvements and endeavours such as onsite food production, energy generation and waste treatment, are being

Louise Crabtree

2005-01-01

276

Development of Unique House Mouse Resources Suitable for Evolutionary Studies of Speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus, form a hybrid zone in Europe and represent a suitable model for inferring the genes contributing to isolation barriers between parental taxa. Despite long-term intensive studies of this hybrid zone, we still know relatively little about the causes and mechanisms maintaining the 2 taxa as separate subspecies; therefore, to

JAROSLAV PIALEK; M ARTINA VYSKOCÿ ILOVA ´; J ANA PIALKOVA ´; PETRA DUFKOVA; L' UDOVIT; Dÿ UREJE; H EIDI C. HAUFFE; P AVEL MUNCLINGER; R ADKA STORCHOVA; A LENA ZAJICOVA; JIRÿI ´ FOREJT; Zajõ ´ cova

2008-01-01

277

Cinematic College: "National Lampoon's Animal House" Teaches Theories of Student Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative study is to analyze how potential college-bound and current college students make meaning about the higher education experience from the legendary film that is pivotal in the American college culture, sets the trend for future college-themed films, and is a national phenomenon--"National Lampoon's Animal House"…

Tucciarone, Krista M.

2007-01-01

278

Case Study on HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Processing of Title 8 Complaints,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The case study reviews HUD Regional Office processing of housing discrimination cases filed under Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968. Outcomes of these complaints are also analyzed. The period studied-fiscal years 1978 through 1983-spans the trans...

J. E. Wallace T. S. Lane

1985-01-01

279

Conceptualizing design affordances from a cognitive perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term affordance carries multiple meanings for designers. Traditionally, affordances were discussed within a Gibsonian framework as arising from direct perception of physical constraints. However, some authors extended the meaning to include learned cultural constraints, leading to a theoretical debate about whether designers should draw a distinction between perceptual affordances and learned cultural conventions. In this dissertation it is suggested

Jeremiah D. Still

2009-01-01

280

Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

2008-01-01

281

Myths and Realities: Testing Your Elderly Housing and Housing Policy I.Q.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

HUD's mission is to assist Americans in their quest to live in decent, affordable housing that is safe and secure. For the elderly, direct assistance is available through HUD in the forms of public housing and Section 8 certificates and vouchers. Local ho...

1999-01-01

282

Mammography dosimetry using an in-house developed polymethyl methacrylate phantom.  

PubMed

Phantom-based measurements in mammography are well-established for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures involving equipment performance and comparisons of X-ray machines. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is among the best suitable materials for simulation of the breast. For carrying out QA/QC exercises in India, a mammographic PMMA phantom with engraved slots for keeping thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) has been developed. The radiation transmission property of the developed phantom was compared with the commercially available phantoms for verifying its suitability for mammography dosimetry. The breast entrance exposure (BEE), mean glandular dose (MGD), percentage depth dose (PDD), percentage surface dose distribution (PSDD), calibration testing of automatic exposure control (AEC) and density control function of a mammography machine were measured using this phantom. MGD was derived from the measured BEE following two different methodologies and the results were compared. The PDD and PSDD measurements were carried out using LiF: Mg, Cu, P chips. The in-house phantom was found comparable with the commercially available phantoms. The difference in the MGD values derived using two different methods were found in the range of 17.5-32.6 %. Measured depth ranges in the phantom lie between 0.32 and 0.40 cm for 75 % depth dose, 0.73 and 0.92 cm for 50 % depth dose, and 1.54 and 1.78 cm for 25 % depth dose. Higher PSDD value was observed towards chest wall edge side of the phantom, which is due to the orientation of cathode-anode axis along the chest wall to the nipple direction. Results obtained for AEC configuration testing shows that the observed mean optical density (O.D) of the phantom image was 1.59 and O.D difference for every successive increase in thickness of the phantom was within±0.15 O.D. Under density control function testing, at -2 and -1 density settings, the variation in film image O.D was within±0.15 O.D of the normal density setting '0' and at +2 and +1 density setting, it was observed to be within±0.30 O.D. This study indicates that the locally made PMMA TLD slot phantom can be used to measure various mammography QC parameters which are essentially required for better outcomes in mammography. PMID:22232773

Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Mayya, Y S; Chourasiya, G

2012-01-09

283

Development and Application of an In-house Line Probe Assay for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of chronic liver disease. HCV is a single stranded positive sense RNA of approximately 9.6 Kb. Because of high conservativeness of 5?untranslated region of HCV genome, it is widely used for virus genotyping. Different methods are used for the virus genotyping, but all involve some difficulties. Objectives The aim of the present study was to develop an in-house reverse hybridization method as a line probe assay, for HCV genotyping. Materials and Methods Sixty serum samples were collected with newly diagnosis of HCV infection. Genotyping process had already been performed for the samples using RT-PCR RFLP method. After total RNA extraction from the samples and cDNA synthesis, nested PCR method was applied for amplification of the target sequence on the 5?UTR. In the nested PCR, biotinylated oligonucleotides were used as inner primers. Optimized concentrations of the biotinylated inner primers (as positive control), two universal and seven specific probes were spotted onto nylon membrane stripes in a defined pattern. Hybridization process was conducted between the probes and the denaturized biotin labeled PCR products. Finally, the stripes were developed by using streptavidin conjugated alkaline phosphate as a signal generating agent. To determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the home made LiPA, a panel containing 60 confirmed sera with positive results for HCV (and PCR-RFLP genotyped) was subjected to evaluate. Results Agarose gel electrophoresis of the nested PCR products using the outer and inner primers showed 305 and 234 bp fragments respectively. After performing hybridization and detection processes on the prepared strips, the colored bands were formed for the positive control, universal probes and the corresponding genotypes. HCV genotype results were found to be in 100% concordance through studying 60 sera that were successfully typed by the two methods. P-value of 0.045 conveys that the two methods were the same and had no significant difference. Conclusions The most common genotyping method in Iran is RT-PCR RFLP. Given the results and advantages of this homemade technique, such as high specificity and sensitivity, ability for detection of most genotypes, it provides possibility of evaluating much of the isolates without needing electrophoresis stage.

Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Morovvati, Abbas; Soleimani, Mohammad; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalianchi; Merat, Shahin; Jabbari, Hossain

2013-01-01

284

Perceiving affordances in rugby union.  

PubMed

To succeed in competitive environments, players need to continuously adjust their decisions and actions to the behaviour of relevant others. Players' interactions demand ongoing decisions that are constrained by what is previously defined (e.g., coaches' prescriptions that establish 'what' to do) and by information that is available in the context and specifies not only 'what' the player should do, but also 'how', 'when' and 'where'. We describe what affordances emerge to the ball carrier as a consequence of changes in kinematic variables, such as interpersonal distances or distances to the nearest sideline. Changes in these variables determine whether and when different actions are possible. The ball carrier tended to perform a pass when the tackler was farthest from the sideline and the velocity of approach to the tackler did not seem to effect the ball carrier's decision. In the few episodes where the ball carrier moved forward instead of passing the ball, he was mainly influenced by contextual information, such as the variability of the players' distance to the nearest sideline. In sum, actors must be aware of the affordances of others that are specified by particular variables that become available just before decision-making. PMID:22681567

Passos, Pedro; Cordovil, Rita; Fernandes, Orlando; Barreiros, João

2012-06-11

285

Planar protein arrays in microtiter plates: development of a new format towards accurate, automation-friendly and affordable (a(3)) diagnostics.  

PubMed

A technology for protein microarrays in 96 well microplates has been developed as a widely adoptable platform for multiplexed protein based diagnostics. Procedures for protein microarray manufacturing, immobilization, assay optimization and optical detection methods were developed. Using a clever combination of state of the art technologies, a versatile platform that works with peptides, proteins and antibodies as capture agents in a scalable format for planar arrays is described. PMID:23197373

Eickhoff, Holger; Malik, Arif

2013-01-01

286

Housing and Urban Development in a Post-Soviet City: A Case Study of Vilnius, Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2001-2002 survey designed and implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, the Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Survey (LARES), provides data on the number of households that had engaged in “do-it-yourself” home improvements within a one year period prior to December 2002 in several European cities. In this research, I use

Terence M. Milstead

2008-01-01

287

Systems Development as Iterative Organizational Learning: Lessons from the St Christopher House Community Learning Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of St Christopher House (SCH), a community-based organization (CBO) that undertook an ambitious project to create a community learning network (CLN) based on a 'home-cooked' free\\/open source software (FOSS) content management system (CMS). The primary purpose of the CLN project was to provide adult learners with digital skills needed to secure employment in the

Susan MacDonald; Andrew Clement

288

US Housing Market Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development has made available the full text of this periodical publication. US Housing Market Conditions is a quarterly publication that contains national and regional housing information, as well as historical data tables. Issues from the 1st two quarters of 1997 are available in HTML format, while previous issues are available in text and .pdf formats. Older tables are available in .pdf format only.

1998-01-01

289

Modelling regional house prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a panel model for regional house prices, for which both the cross-section and the time series dimension is large. The model allows for stochastic trends, cointegration, cross-equation correlations and, most importantly, latent-class clustering of regions. Class membership is fully data-driven and based on the average growth rates of house prices, and the relationship of house prices with economic

Bram van Dijk; Philip Hans Franses; Richard Paap; Dick van Dijk

2011-01-01

290

Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes  

SciTech Connect

This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

2006-01-01

291

Limited analytical capacity for cyanotoxins in developing countries may hide serious environmental health problems: simple and affordable methods may be the answer.  

PubMed

In recent years, the international demand for commodities has prompted enormous growth in agriculture in most South American countries. Due to intensive use of fertilizers, cyanobacterial blooms have become a recurrent phenomenon throughout the continent, but their potential health risk remains largely unknown due to the lack of analytical capacity. In this paper we report the main results and conclusions of more than five years of systematic monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in 20 beaches of Montevideo, Uruguay, on the Rio de la Plata, the fifth largest basin in the world. A locally developed microcystin ELISA was used to establish a sustainable monitoring program that revealed seasonal peaks of extremely high toxicity, more than one-thousand-fold greater than the WHO limit for recreational water. Comparison with cyanobacterial cell counts and chlorophyll-a determination, two commonly used parameters for indirect estimation of toxicity, showed that such indicators can be highly misleading. On the other hand, the accumulated experience led to the definition of a simple criterion for visual classification of blooms, that can be used by trained lifeguards and technicians to take rapid on-site decisions on beach management. The simple and low cost approach is broadly applicable to risk assessment and risk management in developing countries. PMID:23220602

Pírez, Macarena; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto; Sienra, Daniel; Ferrari, Graciela; Last, Michael; Last, Jerold A; Brena, Beatriz M

2012-12-04

292

Computerization of M712 155mm Projectile (Copperhead) Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) and Development of In-House Cost Estimate Modeling Capability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The products of this contractual effort have been a computerized M712 155mm Projectile (Copperhead) program Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) model (delivered separately), an operating personal computer system and an in-house capability to develop and use t...

1983-01-01

293

Immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in vitro.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested a lack of correlation between sunscreen sun protection factor and protection of the skin immune system, potentially allowing greater damage to the skin by removing the natural protective erythemal response to sun exposure. Despite this, routine testing of immune protection afforded by sunscreens is not performed by industry. Current laboratory methods for investigating the efficacy of sunscreen protection of epidermal immune function use the induction of contact hypersensitivity or epidermal cell alloantigen presentation. Animal models, cell culture systems, and in vivo human studies are commonly employed, but all these systems have significant drawbacks for use in routine testing. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro system for testing the immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in human skin. Five test sunscreens plus a vehicle control were tested in a "blind" fashion for their in vitro level of immune protection. Creams were applied in a standard manner to human whole skin explants and were irradiated over a range of physiologic doses using an Oriel solar simulator. A mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction was used to quantify epidermal alloantigen-presenting capacity, in the presence or absence of test cream, for five explants. Results consistently demonstrated that all the test sunscreens protected beyond their designated sun protection factors, whereas the vehicle conferred no protection. The explant-mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction system gave consistent, reproducible results and may prove useful for the allocation of an immune protection factor to all sunscreens. PMID:9182811

Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Chu, A C

1997-06-01

294

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...its annual grant allocation that are measurable...3) Financial resources. An operating...affordable housing resources currently available...with access to resources to assist in obtaining...DHHL and local law enforcement officials;...

2013-04-01

295

Smart Growth for Sustainable Design and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

How and where communities locate, design, and develop affordable housing affects their overall approach to growth as much as it does the household budgets of their residents. Communities that seek to grow and develop more sustainably can begin by asking t...

2009-01-01

296

Development and evaluation of an affordable real-time qualitative assay for determining HIV-1 virological failure in plasma and dried blood spots.  

PubMed

Virological failure (VF) has been identified as the earliest, most predictive determinant of HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Due to the high cost and complexity of virological monitoring, VF assays are rarely performed in resource-limited settings (RLS). Rather, ART failure is determined by clinical monitoring and to a large extent immunological monitoring. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost, dried blood spot (DBS)-compatible qualitative assay to determine VF, in accordance with current WHO guideline recommendations for therapy switching in RLS. The assay described here is an internally controlled qualitative real-time PCR targeting the conserved long terminal repeat domain of HIV-1. This assay was applied to HIV-1 subtypes A to H and further evaluated on HIV-1 clinical plasma samples from South Africa (n = 191) and Tanzania (n = 42). Field evaluation was performed in Uganda using local clinical plasma samples (n = 176). Furthermore, assay performance was evaluated for DBS. This assay is able to identify VF for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes with equal specificity and has a lower detection limit of 1.00E+03 copies/ml for plasma samples and 5.00E+03 copies/ml for DBS. Comparative testing yielded accurate VF determination for therapy switching in 89% to 96% of samples compared to gold standards. The assay is robust and flexible, allowing for "open platform" applications and producing results comparable to those of commercial assays. Assay design enables application in laboratories that can accommodate real-time PCR equipment, allowing decentralization of testing to some extent. Compatibility with DBS extends access of sampling and thus access to this test to remote settings. PMID:23596235

Aitken, Susan C; Kliphuis, Aletta; Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Balinda, Sheila; Stevens, Wendy; Spieker, Nicole; de Oliveira, Tulio; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

2013-04-17

297

Affordability and other factors affecting the purchase of energy-efficient manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) conducted this study to evaluate the manufactured home owner`s purchase decision process and to provide Bonneville with a better understanding of how consumers view a manufactured home`s affordability and energy efficiency. This study addresses manufactured homes built under the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standards; these homes are sometimes referred to as HUD-code homes or mobile homes. Manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington were included in this analysis. This report adds to the information presented in Sandahl et al. (1992), which discussed the practices of lenders, appraisers, and dealers -- all of whom play a key role in the manufactured home market due to the impact their practices have on the overall affordability of manufactured homes. This report focuses exclusively on the most important, and probably least understood, player -- the home buyer. The primary data were collected via a mail survey sent to 1,550 manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in late 1992. A 71% response rate was achieved; 1,106 usable responses were received. This study focuses on the Pacific Northwest but presents information that may be relevant to other parts of the country.

Hattrup, M.P.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Onisko, S.A. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1993-06-01

298

Affordable solar home retrofit design and initial evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design construction and initial testing for a low cost live-in solar porch retrofit that has been developed by the Rural Housing Research Unit. The system was effective providing all the heat needed to keep the house warm during clear sunny winter days and it was effective in keeping the sun's energy out during summer periods.

Newman, J.O.; Newman, R.

1985-01-01

299

EVALUATING ECOMOD: BUILDING PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION OF AN ECOLOGICAL, MODULAR HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many people in this country cannot afford well-built houses, much less the energy required to run them. Newly built low-income single-family homes tend to be trailers or some variant of manufactured housing. While they are affordable and easily installed in various location...

300

Housing for Graduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that housing administrators must develop close cooperation with their institution's graduate school, be sensitive to the needs of international graduate students, and engage in thoughtful deliberation about issues related to domestic partners, health care, spouses, and children. Profiles housing's mission and philosophy, organizational…

Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

1995-01-01

301

Housing circumstances are associated with household food access among low-income urban families.  

PubMed

Household food insecurity is a pervasive problem in North America with serious health consequences. While affordable housing has been cited as a potential policy approach to improve food insecurity, the relationship between conventional notions of housing affordability and household food security is not well understood. Furthermore, the influence of housing subsidies, a key policy intervention aimed at improving housing affordability in Western countries, on food insecurity is unclear. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of 473 families in market rental (n?=?222) and subsidized (n?=?251) housing in high-poverty urban neighborhoods to examine the influence of housing circumstances on household food security. Food insecurity, evident among two thirds of families, was inversely associated with income and after-shelter income. Food insecurity prevalence did not differ between families in market and subsidized housing, but families in subsidized housing had lower odds of food insecurity than those on a waiting list for such housing. Market families with housing costs that consumed more than 30% of their income had increased odds of food insecurity. Rent arrears were also positively associated with food insecurity. Compromises in housing quality were evident, perhaps reflecting the impact of financial constraints on multiple basic needs as well as conscious efforts to contain housing costs to free up resources for food and other needs. Our findings raise questions about current housing affordability norms and highlight the need for a review of housing interventions to ensure that they enable families to maintain adequate housing and obtain their other basic needs. PMID:21286826

Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Tarasuk, Valerie

2011-04-01

302

Dopamine, affordance and active inference.  

PubMed

The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level. PMID:22241972

Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

2012-01-05

303

Dopamine, Affordance and Active Inference  

PubMed Central

The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level.

Friston, Karl J.; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M.; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J.; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

2012-01-01

304

In house development of (99m)Tc-Rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles for sentinel lymph node detection.  

PubMed

In this study, rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles were developed as radiopharmaceutical for sentinel lymph node detection. We directly used rhenium sulfide as a starting material for the preparation of colloidal nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrophotometry was used for characterization of in house developed colloidal particles. The size distribution of radioactive particles was studied by using membrane filtration method. The percentage of radiolabeled colloidal nanoparticles was determined by paper chromatography (PC). The study also includes in vitro stability, protein binding in human blood and bioevaluation in a rabbit model. The results indicate that 77.27 ± 3.26 % particles of size less than 20nm (suitable for lymphoscintigraphy) were radiolabeled. (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide labeling efficacy with the radiometal is 98.5 ± 0.5%, which remains considerably stable beyond 5h at room temperature. Furthermore, it was observed that 70.2 ± 1.3% radiolabeled colloid complex showed binding with the blood protein. Bioevaluation results show the remarkable achievement of our radiopharmaceutical. The in house prepared (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles reached the sentinel node within 15 min of post injection. These results indicate that (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide colloid nanoparticles kit produced by a novel procedure seems of significant potential as a feasible candidate for further development to be used in clinical practice. PMID:23455209

Dar, Ume-Kalsoom; Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Hyder, Syed Waqar; Murad, Sohail; Anwar, Jamil

2013-03-01

305

A study of Chinese strategies for energy-efficient housing developments from an architect's perspective, combined with Swedish experiences and game theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy issue is always an important factor in sustainable housing developments. Over the years, a number of energy-saving techniques have been developed to reduce consumption of primary energy and utilise renewable energy in architectural designs. However, the real situation regarding energy-efficient buildings has improved rather slowly during the recent decades, both in the developing and developed countries. Hammarby Sjöstad

Zhenhong Gu; Dick Urban Vestbro; Ronald Wennersten; Getachew Assefa

2009-01-01

306

24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...Housing Goals § 81.17 AffordabilityâIncome level definitionsâfamily size and income known...

2009-04-01

307

24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...Housing Goals § 81.17 AffordabilityâIncome level definitionsâfamily size and income known...

2010-04-01

308

Social and structural housing conditions influence the development of a depressive-like phenotype in the learned helplessness paradigm in male mice.  

PubMed

Structural and social factors are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of depression. Since animal models of depression are a major tool to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of this disease it is important not only to exploit but also to be aware of factors that may affect these models. As housing represents a fundamental external factor, which is controversially debated to affect the animals' emotionality, this study aimed to investigate the impact of different social and structural housing conditions on the development of a depressive-like syndrome in the learned helplessness paradigm. Group housing in an impoverished environment led to an increased vulnerability in the learned helplessness paradigm. Groups that were housed enriched, however, were less helpless. Furthermore impoverished conditions did not increase the vulnerability in single housed animals. Regarding emotionality in the animals, basal anxiety was reduced and the exploration was enhanced by group housing and enriched environment. These results suggest that housing conditions significantly influence the outcome of learned helplessness studies. PMID:16046006

Chourbaji, Sabine; Zacher, Christiane; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Spanagel, Rainer; Gass, Peter

2005-10-14

309

Can housing rights be applied to modern housing systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline and examine the growing corpus of housing rights and assess their relevance and applicability to complex contemporary housing systems across the world. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper sets out the principal instruments and commentaries on housing rights developed by the United Nations, regional and other bodies. It assesses their relevance in

Padraic Kenna

2010-01-01

310

Impacts of housing development on nutrients flow along canals in a peri-urban area of Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Change of nutrients load and flow according to land-use change induced by housing development was investigated in Bang Yai, Nonthaburi, Thailand, which located in the peri-urban area of Bangkok. Each house in the newly developed residential community was regulated to be equipped with a septic tank to collect night soil. However, greywater and leachate from the septic tank was collected by a community sewage system and discharged into the canals with insufficient treatment, while the canals still function as infrastructure for irrigation and transportation. In the study area, built-up area became 1.4 times and agricultural fields decreased by 13% from 2003 until 2007. Total nutrients load to the canals was increased by 25% as nitrogen and 14% as phosphorus according to the increase of built-up area. Net nutrients load from agricultural fields was largely set off when we evaluated nutrients inflow from the canals to the agricultural field through irrigation. Consequently, nutrients load from domestic wastewater accounted most of net nutrients load into the canal. PMID:20182088

Honda, R; Hara, Y; Sekiyama, M; Hiramatsu, A

2010-01-01

311

Maintaining Missouri's Tradition of Affordable Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides contextual background for the Missouri Commission on the Affordability of Higher Education, which was established in 1998 to engage students, parents, business, higher education, and public policy leaders in a systematic dialogue aimed at ensuring that an affordable college education stays within reach of Missouri citizens.…

Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

312

The affordances of media spaces for collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss the affordances offered by media spaces for collaboration, contrasting their properties with those of the everyday medium and exploring the implications for perception and interaction. Collaboration is situated in a physical environment which supports or constrains the various forms social interactions might take. An analysis of the affordances of the environment - the properties that

William W. Gaver

1992-01-01

313

College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

2006-01-01

314

Homelessness and Housing: A Human Tragedy, A Moral Challenge. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development of the Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Catholic charities and church groups have been actively engaged in providing basic shelter needs for homeless people long before the issue of homelessness came to the national attention. The purpose of this hearing was to allow the U.S. Catholic Conference and its Domestic Policy Committee to present its report, "Homelessness and Housing: A Human…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs.

315

Dynamic Residential Housing Cycles Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops and tests a theoretical model for residential housing market cyclical dynamics. The model employs an interactive\\u000a supply and demand framework to engender housing price dynamics. Under our set of assumptions, the two equation system is econometrically\\u000a identified: the first equation, housing demand, relates rent, property values, and capitalization rates with demand fundamentals.\\u000a The second equation, housing supply,

Robert H. Edelstein; Desmond Tsang

2007-01-01

316

Affordable Care Act's Role in Preventing and Ending Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... a Community Strategic Plan Steps 1-3: Organizing Leadership Developing a Community Strategic Plan Steps 4-7: ... Homelessness and Using Housing First Rapid Lease-Ups Case ... Studies Studies on Prevalence, Incidence, and Risk Factors Access ...

317

The Large Poor Family-a Housing GAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the seven cities studied, 103,000 large families had incomes so low that they were unable to afford decent private housing. Public programs provide housing for only 20,000 of these families, leaving a shortage of 83,000 units. If all 12,000 units now p...

W. Smart W. Rybeck H. E. Shuman

1968-01-01

318

Clay Houses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.|

Pedro, Cathy

2011-01-01

319

Battery housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention comprises a battery housing suitable for holding a battery which may generate a dangerously high level of internal pressure. The housing includes a receptacle having a vent passage covered by a rupture disc, the rupture disc in turn covered by a diffuser head having a longitudinal bore therein extending from the rupture disc to a blind end,

1985-01-01

320

Solar House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Van Norden, Wendy

321

Public Relations Guide for Rural Housing Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is aimed at organizations small or not so small, private, public, or nonprofit that are working to increase the stock of affordable housing in the rural United States. The consistent dedication and hard work such organizations bring to bear aga...

L. R. Strauss P. Cleman

2005-01-01

322

Development of TRITN : In-house technical information network of Technical Research Institute in The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in information amount, progress in information network, diversified technology and change in in-house organization the Technical Research Institute has necessitated to shift the conventional technical database processing by use of personal computers into new system promised for future use. It enables to; provide classification system which meets the needs of the institute; execute distributed processing using workstations; make the low cost processing using commercial softwares; make networks using LAN, WAN personal computer communication, and provide primary materials (text data) on facsimiles using optical disks. Such features are those of technical information database system "TRITN" which is available to any persons and at any time. This paper describes how TRITN was developed and the system outline.

Ebara, Hisao

323

Affordable Care Act: Implications for Behavioral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... 32 million Americans who are now uninsured. It reforms insurance markets to make them more competitive and ... residency training. Find out more information about health reform and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ...

324

The risk of falling house prices in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that Italian house market is less exposed to price shocks than the American one. Variations in the house\\u000a price index in real terms have been studied along with the affordability ratio and the relation between house prices and rent\\u000a levels for the period 1995–2004 in Italian provinces. Comparison with US data reveals greater overpricing in the US

Tiziana Caliman

2009-01-01

325

Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

Hendron, R.; Anderson, J.; Epstein, K.

2001-12-01

326

Building America Developments and Ground Breaking News: Aug. 2000 issue  

SciTech Connect

Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

Hendron, B.; Epstein, K.; Anderson, J.

2000-09-08

327

Modeling regional house prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a parsimonious panel model for quarterly regional house prices, for which both the cross-section and the time series dimension is large. The model allows for stochastic trends, cointegration, cross-equation correlations and, most importantly, latent-class clustering of regions. Class membership is fully data-driven and based on (i) average growth rates of house prices, (ii) the propagation of shocks to

A. van Dijk; Philip Hans Franses; Richard Paap; Dick van Dijk

2007-01-01

328

Culture and Development. Farm House Dialogue (8th, Ota, Nigeria, February 2-4, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on the role of culture in development in Nigeria. The discussion centered on encouraging those elements of traditional African culture that contribute to the national development and on identifying a national Nigerian culture. The following broad topics were discussed: (1) the…

Africa Leadership Forum.

329

Using KIE To Help Students Develop Shared Criteria for House Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can students develop shared criteria for problems that have no "right" answer? Ill-structured problems of this sort are called design problems. Like portfolio projects, these problems are difficult to evaluate for both teachers and students. This investigation contrasts two methods for developing shared criteria for project evaluation.…

Cuthbert, Alex; Hoadley, Christopher M.

330

House price uncertainty, timing of development, and vacant land prices: Evidence for real options in Seattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical work suggests that land development exercises a real option. This paper utilizes a rich data set of parcel characteristics and real property transactions for the Seattle area to tests two predictions of real options with respect to land markets: greater price uncertainty should delay the timing of development and raise land prices. I find evidence in support of

Christopher R. Cunningham

2006-01-01

331

Using KIE To Help Students Develop Shared Criteria for House Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can students develop shared criteria for problems that have no "right" answer? Ill-structured problems of this sort are called design problems. Like portfolio projects, these problems are difficult to evaluate for both teachers and students. This investigation contrasts two methods for developing shared criteria for project evaluation.…

Cuthbert, Alex; Hoadley, Christopher M.

332

SAFETY, SUSTAINABILITY AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF MANUFACTURED HOUSING IN HOT, HUMID CLIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufactured housing has become a staple in the US affordable housing market in spite of a prevailing public opinion that such housing is unsafe. However, University of Florida research shows units constructed after 1994 US code changes survived an unprecedented 2004 hurricane season with little damage. Produced in one-fifth the time and at half the cost of site-built homes, manufactured

K. R. Grosskopf; David Cutlip; M. E. Rinker Sr

333

Keeping to the Private Market: The Evolution of Canadian Housing Policy: 1900-1949  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation traces the evolution of Canadian housing policy from 1935 to 1949 and examines the origins of the housing problems which promoted government programs. Housing problems, defined as a gap between affordability and an acceptable minimal standard of shelter, reached major proportions in rapidly expanding Canadian urban cities from 1900-1913. Exacerbation of these disparities by World War One, contributed

John C. Bacher

1985-01-01

334

KEEPING TO THE PRIVATE MARKET: THE EVOLUTION OF CANADIAN HOUSING POLICY: 1900-1949  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissertation traces the evolution of Canadian housing policy from 1935 to 1949 and examines the origins of the housing problems which promoted government programs. Housing problems, defined as a gap between affordability and an acceptable minimal standard of shelter, reached major proportions in rapidly expanding Canadian urban cities from 1900-1913. Exacerbation of these disparities by World War One, contributed

JOHN CHRISTOPHER BACHER

1985-01-01

335

Housing the Elderly: Alternative Approaches. Reprint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of the official magazine of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is written to stimulate nationwide interest in solving housing and urban problems by dealing with housing alternatives available to the elderly, e.g., shared housing and small group homes. HUD policies which help the elderly to maintain or upgrade…

Ervin, Evon H., Ed.

1980-01-01

336

Aging in Place in Multifamily Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of people age 60 or older are living, and aging in place, in age-integrated multifamily housing developments. Multifamily housing is a major but largely unacknowledged and unexplored retirement housing choice of older people. Findings from a descriptive, exploratory study of one segment of multifamily housing are reported on (1) the extent of aging in place in multifamily

Vera Prosper

337

Estelle Plantation Partnership. Municipal Golf Facility and Housing Development. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an investigative study conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a champion quality, regulation play 18-hole municipal golf course in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. The study evaluates the market potential of golf in the Jefferson ...

1996-01-01

338

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.  

PubMed

Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

339

Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

2013-09-01

340

Testimony on coal research needs to the House Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of this paper and interactions with the coal research community lead to the following conclusions on the future and needs for coal research: The coal resource in the USA is immense and a plan for optimum use of the peat to anthracite supplies should be developed and evolved. Coal research efforts in industry are rapidly decreasing and work at universities, technology centers and national laboratories is directly dependent on federal funding. Industrial emphases will shift to combustion and coal cleaning with limited development of gasification concepts. A cadre of scientists and engineers knowledgeable in coal processes needs to be maintained for evaluating environmental effects of coal use and for a design base in times of national emergencies. A major effort in understanding coal structure, chemistry and physics as related to behavior in processing is essential to developing environmentally acceptable processes and to identify revolutionary concepts for utilization of the national resource. Federal support of coal research is required to assure national needs of security, environmental protection and resource utilization are met. As the US energy base shifts from petroleum to coal, one can envision the development of a new coal refining industry. Evolution of such an industry can only occur if the data base on coal, coal properties and coal behavior is adequate to trigger the innovative thinking that has developed many US industries.

Traeger, R.K.

1982-01-01

341

Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States  

PubMed Central

We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities.

Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

2007-01-01

342

The Design of Housing and Shelter Programs: The Social and Environmental Determinants of Inequalities  

PubMed Central

Both developed and less developed countries are becoming increasingly urbanized. The earlier industrialized countries have developed more infrastructure to support the building of healthy housing, in neighborhoods that are strongly linked to municipal and global health initiatives, but to some degree housing and neighborhood issues vary only in degree between the developing and developed worlds. Overall, a billion people, a third of people living in urban areas, live in slums, where environmental determinants lead to disease. Although communicable diseases predominate in the developing world and have reemerged in the developed world, noncommunicable diseases are also growing disproportionately in the developing world. At a global level, the Millennium Development Goals explicitly focus on an integrated approach to slum upgrading. The per capita cost of slum upgrading is almost twice the cost of providing new affordable housing at the outset. It is argued that to improve health and well-being in the slums we need to have interventions that reduce urban poverty in the broadest sense and improve the deficiencies associated with slums. There is an urgent need to scale up the best-practice interventions. Examples are given of successful local community initiatives that have been set up under national strategies in Tanzania and by Indian women’s collectives that are globally linked and have helped develop housing and sanitation improvements. The unit costs for such interventions are within the reach of all the key stakeholders. Global commitment is the only missing link.

Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Patel, Sheela

2007-01-01

343

Leadership for Development. Farm House Dialogue (1st, Ota, Nigeria, May 13-14, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on leadership for development in Nigeria. The following views on the essence of leadership were expressed: (1) the majority of current leaders tend to be selfish, self-centered, and incapable of performing their jobs effectively; (2) most current leaders have impeded the growth of…

Africa Leadership Forum.

344

Labour and Development. Farm House Dialogue (5th, Ota, Nigeria, July 7-9, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on labor development in Nigeria. The discussion centered on the need to promote an individual work ethic and to improve the quality of life of the average worker. The following broad topics were discussed: (1) the negative effect of colonialism on individual productivity and the…

Africa Leadership Forum.

345

Communication and Development. Farm House Dialogue (4th, Ota, Nigeria, May 12-14, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on the role of communication in the development process in Nigeria. Discussion centered on the need to democratize the mass electronic and print news media. The following broad issues were discussed: (1) the problems of providing accurate, high quality information to a largely…

Africa Leadership Forum.

346

Development of High-Precision Monitoring Technology for Green House Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-precision monitoring technology has been developed to monitor the production of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in the vicinity of industrial plants and in the general atmosphere. This technology is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and, in combination with proprietary wavelength modulation and laser wavelength stabilization technologies, offers superior sensitivity, responsiveness, and stability.

MASAKI IIJIMA; KENJI MUTA; TOMOYUKI KIKUGAWA; MASAZUMI TANOURA; KO NAKAYA

347

Individual Development Accounts for Housing Policy: Analysis of Individual and Program Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeownership is a desirable goal for most Americans and is considered an integral part of the American Dream. Empirical studies indicate homeownership has many positive outcomes. However, homeownership is not prevalent among low-income populations. Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are matched savings accounts designed to help the working poor save for a home or other assets. This paper examines the savings

Michal Grinstein-Weiss; Gina A. N. Chowa; Adriane M. Casalotti

2010-01-01

348

Women in Development. Farm House Dialogue (7th, Ota, Nigeria, November 17-19, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on women in Nigeria. The discussion centered on overcoming sex bias and discrimination in all areas of life so that women could contribute to the national development effort. The following broad topics were discussed: (1) cultural attitudes that discourage the education of women; (2)…

Africa Leadership Forum.

349

Towards process mapping the development of sustainable housing projects in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK the focus on design and planning processes has been strongly influenced by the need for decision-makers to respond to government policy regarding community involvement, the development of sustainable communities and transparency. The Consideration of sustainability alongside the financial impacts of the construction projects calls for the focus during the pre- construction stage of a life cycle of

Ranya Essa

350

Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

351

Women in Development. Farm House Dialogue (7th, Ota, Nigeria, November 17-19, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on women in Nigeria. The discussion centered on overcoming sex bias and discrimination in all areas of life so that women could contribute to the national development effort. The following broad topics were discussed: (1) cultural attitudes that discourage the education of women;…

Africa Leadership Forum.

352

Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation  

SciTech Connect

This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for SBIs, but it doesn't appear to require all of the capabilities built into the current SBIs at the outset. The SBIs that are needed now could be no more than cheap burros that were amenable to joint development and robust command for the protection of all. Their deployment for (GPALs) Global Protection Against Limited Strikes should not adversely impact the arms control or crisis stability of the strategic balance with the Soviet Union in any rational, concrete calculus, including that used by the Soviet Union. Deployment at low latitudes should give them adequate capability against theater launches but none against Soviet (ICMBs) International Ballist Missiles and only marginal, residual impact on (SLBMs) Submarine-Launched Ballistics Missiles. They should not either leave hot production capability of anything threatening or provoke untoward responses. We have a hot production line on Chevrolets that would pose more of a threat to the Soviet Union. Their inability to overcome even crude Soviet countermeasures would be an asset in this light. A companion effort could develop the brilliant eyes needed to guide them. A similar logic is possible with DEWs, but they are less developed and hence less at issue. 57 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1992-05-01

353

Basic Education in Developing Countries. Hearing before the International Task Force of the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responsibility of the U.S. House of Representatives Task Force on Hunger is to investigate the causes and dimensions of world hunger and to develop legislative recommendations addressing the issues raised. At this hearing, the issue discussed was of basic education as a crucial link in expanding opportunities for poor and hungry people to…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

354

Habitat Metro Denver -- Perfecting Award-Winning Affordable Homes Using Building America's Integrated Design Approach  

SciTech Connect

Habitat for Humanity's goal is to supply quality housing to poor families while reducing their energy cost burden, especially in light of ever-increasing energy prices. Habitat Metro Denver partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Project and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to improve their construction and design process to create an affordable home that is not only cost-effective and volunteer friendly to build but highly energy efficient and a comfortable place to live.

Not Available

2004-12-01

355

Are Maternal Antibodies Really That Important? Patterns in the Immunologic Development of Altricial Passerine House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics), by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. Methodology/Principal Findings In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs to be conducted on other altricial passerines to determine if the results of our study are a species-specific phenomenon or if they apply to all altricial-developing birds.

King, Marisa O.; Owen, Jeb P.; Schwabl, Hubert G.

2010-01-01

356

The development and redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, like many other developing countries, has seen a huge influx of population into its cities coupled with urban expansion. The presence of massive numbers of rural migrants in cities does not result in slums or squatters due to institutional constraints. In the absence of government help, urban villages have evolved in many cities to provide adequate and affordable housing

Pu Hao; Richard Sliuzas; Stan Geertman

2011-01-01

357

Evaluation of Four Rural Housing Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to provide the Office of Economic Opportunity with an evaluation of four rural housing programs: Rural Development Corporation (RDC) in California; the rural component of the Low-Income Housing Development Corporation (LIHDC) ...

1970-01-01

358

Choosing a house: the effect of cost constraints on single-family house design and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Rapoport's concept of choice and game theory was used in order to understand the trade-offs home buyers make when choosing an affordable house. Cost is a constraint on a home buyer's choices. When people have constraints on their choices, what is most critical is what they eliminate and in what order. The attributes eliminated first are the

L Day

1995-01-01

359

The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

Chiappini, Giampaolo

2012-01-01

360

The Importance of the Meaning and Measurement of “Affordable” in the Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the practical importance of a critical but under-explored interpretation of a provision in the Affordable Care Act (ACA): whether “affordable” refers to the cost of single coverage alone, or to family or single coverage as applicable to the worker, in determining the employer’s mandated coverage requirement and workers’ (and their dependents’) access to subsidized exchange coverage.

Richard V. Burkhauser; Sean Lyons; Kosali I. Simon

2011-01-01

361

Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research: Mixed-Income Housing, Volume 3, Number 2, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume of Cityscape contains a set of articles that will compel clearer thinking about the principle and practical realities necessary to achieve mixed-income housing. The ideas and analysis presented here will set the framework for policy discussions...

P. A. Leonard

1997-01-01

362

Creating Their Own Success: How Two Rural Iowa Towns Foster Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Iowa Community Betterment (ICB) program provides support to communities attempting to maximize their own resources and create development. In two ICB projects, Edgewood citizens developed badly needed affordable housing and built a golf course, and Greene residents boosted tourism by building a paddlewheel riverboat and supporting local…

Fleming, Cory; Knapp, Rich

1990-01-01

363

[October 4: World Housing Day].  

PubMed

World Housing Day will be celebrated October 4th, 1993. Its theme this year is women and housing development. Its purpose is to promote the recognition of women as active partners in the development of human establishments. World Housing Day is celebrated every year on the first Monday of October. The UN's Organization for Human Establishments, based in Nairobi, Kenya, organizes this day. The objective of this annual presentation is to attract the attention of the entire world to the importance of housing, which plays a determining role in health, productivity, and the feeling of social well-being. PMID:12318648

1993-08-01

364

Robust and affordable mobile communications for emergency management  

Microsoft Academic Search

During any emergency reliable communications can be a matter of life-and-death. First-responder communications are widely seen as a critical emergency management issue identified by Hurricane Katrina in the USA, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004. In cooperation with national, regional, and local emergency management organisations a US research consortium has developed and demonstrated robust and affordable mobile communications systems

Michael Bowman; James H. Graham Jr.; James Gantt

2007-01-01

365

Building A Sustainable, In-house System Dynamics Capability How an internal System Dynamics group can develop a distinctive service and become an enduring component of the company's operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As consultants we have worked with our clients over many years to develop their in-house System Dynamics capabilities. Clearly, there are many advantages for our clients to continue the work with internal resources that we have often started. Despite strong agreement by both consultants and clients on the benefits of developing an in house capability, these efforts generally last for

Adolfo Canovi; Sharon Els; Alan Graham; Alexander Voigt

366

No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

Pecher, Diane

2013-01-01

367

Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

2004-01-01

368

Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

2013-01-01

369

Medicare and the Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act made modest changes to improve Medicare and obtained a substantial share of funding for the Act's broader reforms from future spending reductions in the program. Drug benefits and preventive services were improved. While painful, the spending reductions will have only moderate impacts on beneficiaries and should help achieve the goals of

Marilyn Moon

2012-01-01

370

Current Affordability Policies: Status of Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents policies to enhance academic preparation and progress, assist needy students, and keep college costs affordable in Illinois, and indicates the implementation status of these policies. These policies are designed to heighten awareness among students and families of the effect of academic preparation and sustained academic…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

371

Can the US afford a lunar base  

SciTech Connect

Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

Keaton, P.W.

1986-01-01

372

Open House  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the US housing market collapsed in 2008, so did the dreams of many middle- and lower-class Americans. Florida, California, Nevada, and Arizona were hit particularly hard, and not by a force of nature, but by the abstract and invisible hand of the market. Prior to the collapse, the movement of global capital seemed like a distant reality to most

Jack Stenner; Patrick LeMieux

2011-01-01

373

Housing Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

Schmalz, Georgann

1985-01-01

374

House Arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overcrowded correctional systems transfer thousands of prison inmates to community-based correctional programs - some to residential centers and most others to nonresidential programs. This study compared 63 community treatment center residents with 156 house arrestees in tems of their characteristics and their rates of success\\/failure both during the program and for one year after release from the program. The

Harjit S. Sandhu; Richard A Dodder; Minu Mathur

1993-01-01

375

12 CFR 1700.1 - Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS ORGANIZATION...independent office within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. OFHEO was created by the Federal Housing...

2012-01-01

376

American Housing Survey for the Baltimore Metropolitan Area in 1998. Current Housing Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the American Housing Survey (AHS) to obtain up-to-date housing statistics for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). This book presents data on apartment; single-family homes; mobile homes; vacant housing un...

2000-01-01

377

Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a

Jeffrey E Christian; Jacob Bonar

2011-01-01

378

Poverty, Housing Deprivation and Housing Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines three aspects of the relationship between the permanence of poverty and the housing situation of poor households: whether permanent poverty is a good predictor of housing deprivation; the relation between permanency of housing deprivat...

S. Newman R. Struyk D. Manson

1982-01-01

379

U.S. Housing Patterns, Living Arrangements, and Life Chances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment you will use U.S. census data to get an overview of housing patterns (ownership and types of housing) and living arrangements as a way of understanding more about one example of what Weber referred to as life chances (or, basically, the ability to access to resources we need to live a good life). As well, access to housing is considered one of the main features of the American Dream. Unfortunately, as the need for low-income housing units has doubled over the last three decades, the number of low-income housing units nationwide has been cut in half. Minneapolis and other cities have established annual goals for increasing the stock of affordable housing in response to a severe shortage of low-cost housing.

Kayongo-Male, Diane

2009-04-22

380

Egypt: Overview of the Housing Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Housing investment is a key component of economic development, both because housing is a basic social need and because private home ownership is often an important source of capital for entrepreneurship at the grass roots level. A fully functioning housin...

D. Erb S. Everhart

2005-01-01

381

The end of public housing as we know it: public housing policy, labor regulation and the US city  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I argue that the US public housing policy, as codified by the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 (QHWRA), is helping to reconfigure the racial and class structure of many inner cities. By promoting the demolition of public housing projects and replacement with mixed-income housing developments, public housing policy is producing a gentrified inner-city landscape

Jeff R. Crump

2003-01-01

382

Housing Management: Cooperative Food Store.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program investigated and developed tenant financing and private bank lending to develop a cooperative food store employing tenants and improving Authority-tenant rel...

1976-01-01

383

Simulation of Housing Market Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed over the past decade by the Urban Studies Croup of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the NBER Urban Simulation Model is primarily a model of the urban housing market. It represents other urban phenomena such as industrial location, transportation systems, and changes in the demographic structure of the population, but the behavior of the housing \\

John F. Kain; William C. Apgar

1979-01-01

384

Behavioral dynamics of the affordance "graspable".  

PubMed

On a daily basis, one perceives whether an object affords grasping with one hand or with both hands. In experiments in which differently sized objects of a fixed type have been presented, the transition from using one manual mode to the other has depended on both the ratio of object size to hand span and the presentation sequence-that is, size increasing versus decreasing. The transitions and their observed hysteresis (i.e., a transition ratio larger for the increasing sequence) can be accommodated by the order parameter dynamics typifying self-organizing systems. Here, we show that hysteresis magnitude depends on (a) the interaction between the attractors (one hand vs. two hands) and (b) the strength of the two-hands attractor. Through modeling and experimental results, we extend the investigation of affordance perception within dynamical-systems theory. PMID:21691904

Lopresti-Goodman, Stacy M; Turvey, Michael T; Frank, Till D

2011-08-01

385

Postural and locomotor contributions to affordance perception.  

PubMed

The authors sought to evaluate the relative importance of locomotor control and postural control in the perception of affordances. While seated in a stationary wheelchair, participants made a series of judgments about the minimum lintel height under which they could roll in the wheelchair. Prior to making judgments, participants were given brief (?2 min) experience with wheelchair locomotion. They expected that this practice would influence the accuracy of subsequent affordance judgments. During practice, participants moved under their own power (using their hands on the wheels) or with an experimenter pushing the wheelchair. Also during wheelchair locomotion the participant's head was restrained, or was not. Results revealed that head restraint during the practice session had no effect on the accuracy of subsequent judgments. By contrast, the judgments of participants who controlled locomotion during practice were significantly more accurate than the judgments of participants who had not controlled their locomotion during practice. PMID:22934630

Yu, Yawen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

2012-08-30

386

Housing Management: Maintenance Incentives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is part of the Public Housing Management Improvement Program. This part of the program developed an incentive program which rewards employees and tenants in such areas as: 'men-of-the-month,' 'suggestion program,' 'winning yard program,' and 'r...

1976-01-01

387

People with Disabilities (Housing)  

MedlinePLUS

Content current as of 24 March 2011 Back to top FOIA Privacy Web Policies and Important Links Home U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 451 7th Street S.W., Washington, DC 20410 Telephone: (202) 708-1112 TTY: (202) 708-1455 Find the address of a HUD office near ...

388

Burros: Simple, affordable, effective space transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note argues that space is the best place to put not only the sensors, but also the SBIs Spare Based Interceptors and DEWs Directed-Energy Weapons needed to address long-range, intra- and inter-theater missiles efficiently. There are real threats; they are likely to worsen. Ground-based defenses cannot handle them all affordably. Mixes are generally appropriate. There is a role for

Canavan

1992-01-01

389

Study on Countermeasures of Damp House Problems by Developing Drain-Less Cooling System in Hot and Humid Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hot and humid climates, dampness in buildings leads to significant respiratory symptoms and damage of building. A damp house can be recognized by one or more of the following characteristics: damp stains, mold growth, condensation, a musty smell or stuffy atmosphere, and insects such as silverfish and sow bugs. To improve the problem, reducing the humidity of living environment

Y Tsay; S Kato; R Ooka; M Koganei; N Shoda

390

The Development of an Hourly Thermal Simulation Program for Use in the Australian Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of residential building envelopes. The technical basis of the scheme is a multi-zone hourly thermal simulation program, which will be used to calculate annual heating and cooling energy requirements and temperatures in the building to be rated, from which a star rating is derived. This paper

Angelo Delsante

391

The Winners in China's Urban Housing Reform  

PubMed Central

Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China’s transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation.

Logan, John R.; Fang, Yiping; Zhang, Zhanxin

2013-01-01

392

Spatial Dependence, Housing Submarkets, and House Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the impacts of alternative models of spatial dependence on the accuracy of house price predictions in a mass appraisal context. Explicit modeling of spatial dependence is characterized as a more fluid approach to defining housing submarkets. This approach allows the relevant “submarket” to vary from house to house and for transactions involving other dwellings in each submarket

Steven C. Bourassa; Eva Cantoni; Martin Hoesli

2005-01-01

393

24 CFR 906.23 - Protections available to non-purchasing public housing residents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Program Administration § 906.23 Protections available to non-purchasing public housing residents....

2013-04-01

394

Spatial Autoregressive Models for House Price Dynamics in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates a Spatial Autoregressive and Spatial Error Model (SAR-SE Model) to investigate the Italian house price dynamics. House prices in real terms have been modelled for the period 1995-2008 in all the 103 Italian provinces along with affordability ratio, persistency term, some social-economic variables and credit market variables. One of the key results of this paper, is the

Tiziana Caliman; Enrico di Bella

2011-01-01

395

Human resource management and learning based on in-house R&D in a developing country context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the influence of human resource management practices on the likelihood that a firm performs in-house R&D. The latter is broadly interpreted as learning---a mechanism promoting absorptive capacity and supporting technology capability-building in latecomer firms. The use of distinct definitions of R&D implies different knowledge requirements that firms need to fulfil in order to innovate. The analysis assumes

Fernando Santiago; Ludovico Alcorta

396

The role of attention in the affordance effect: can we afford to ignore it?  

PubMed

It has been established that the task-irrelevant orientation of an object's graspable handle produces a stimulus-response compatibility effect, resulting in faster reaction times when the location of the response corresponds to that of the object's handle. There is ongoing debate whether to attribute this affordance effect to motoric or to attentional components. In an attempt to reconcile these two viewpoints, we employed a novel experimental approach for investigating the relationship between attention and affordance. Using 3-D positional sound, auditory spatial attention was manipulated in order to explore its effects on affordance. Subjects were presented images of everyday graspable objects and had to respond bimanually (left or right) whether the object (featuring a leftward or rightward handle) was presented upright or upside-down. Prior to each affording object, sound localization cues were manipulated so as to orient auditory attention to the left, or to the right of the interaural axis (control). We obtained a peculiar pattern of results, which not only appears to provide support for an attention-shift account of affordance but does so in a cross-modal context. PMID:22806650

Kostov, Kiril; Janyan, Armina

2012-08-01

397

On Factors of Housing Prices Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes the mechanisms, which influence housing prices dynamics in Russia. The relations between the national mortgage system and peculiarities of housing development procedures on the one hand and demand for investment in housing on the other hand are studied.

V. MINTS

2007-01-01

398

Urban villages and housing values in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of urban villages is a unique product of China's urbanization. In this article, we explore the effects of urban villages on the formal housing market. For this purpose, we develop a hedonic housing price model to investigate whether the proximity to urban villages affects the selling price of urban housing units. Controlling for the structure and other characteristics

Yan Song; Yves Zenou

2012-01-01

399

Homeless Housing: HUD's Shelter Programs. Updated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly discusses new housing programs for the homeless sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the funding provided by the 100th Congress, and two additional HUD programs to aid the homeless. The following four programs are discussed: (1) the Emergency Shelter Program; (2) the Transitional Housing Program,…

Vanhorenbeck, Susan M.

400

Successes from Rebuild America's housing partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Rebuild America is partnering with public and private housing organizations throughout the nation to make building improvements and provide solutions to housing needs while saving energy and reducing utility costs. This paper describes the partnership development, technical assistance, and other types of support Rebuild America offers that excites housing organizations to form Rebuild America partnerships.

Mark P. Ternes; J. D. Cavallo; C. Applegate

2000-01-01

401

Mixed-Income Housing: Factors for Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewed emphasis has been placed on mixed-income housing through HUD's HOPE VI program and the bipartisan consensus to end the concentration of low- income people in public housing. Through an analysis of seven successful mixed- income housing developments, this article defines a research and learning agenda for academics and practitioners in the field. Preliminary analysis indicates that successful mixed-income

Paul C. Brophy; Rhonda N. Smith

402

Homeless Housing: HUD's Shelter Programs. Updated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper briefly discusses new housing programs for the homeless sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the funding provided by the 100th Congress, and two additional HUD programs to aid the homeless. The following four programs are discussed: (1) the Emergency Shelter Program; (2) the Transitional Housing Program,…

Vanhorenbeck, Susan M.

403

Participatory management: Maintaining staff performance in a university housing cooperative  

PubMed Central

To apply behavior analysis to normal adults in non institutional settings, we may have to encourage their participation in the design and implementation of behavioral technology. This study evaluates a technology by which the members of a student housing cooperative manage their own staff with a minimum of supervision by one of the program designers. This staff management system consisted of prompts, self-reports, spot checks, and contingent rent reductions. Six resident staff members performed substantially more of their assigned tasks when this system was used. In addition, the management system was acceptable to the members, was affordable, and maintained high levels of staff performance during a 5-year follow-up. Participation by the members in the design and implementation of this system appears to have been useful in helping the behavior analysts to develop an unusually durable management system.

Johnson, Steven P.; Welsh, Thomas M.; Miller, L. Keith; Altus, Deborah E.

1991-01-01

404

Questions and Answers: Affordable Care Act (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... pre-existing medical conditions, or seniors finally find affordable health care coverage. But can these new laws benefit my ... Voice in Health Care Decisions How to Find Affordable Health Care Finding Your Way in the Health Care System ...

405

Explaining house price changes in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an equilibrium model for the Greek housing market that incorporates both macroeconomic and country-specific variables that affect demand for and supply of houses. In the overall upward phase of the 26-year period examined (1985Q1–2010Q4), our investigation of short-term fluctuations in real house prices and stock prices confirms the inverse relationship between movements in the housing price index

Dimitrios Gounopoulos; Andreas G. Merikas; Anna A. Merika; Anna Triantafyllou

2012-01-01

406

Situated language understanding as filtering perceived affordances.  

PubMed

We introduce a computational theory of situated language understanding in which the meaning of words and utterances depends on the physical environment and the goals and plans of communication partners. According to the theory, concepts that ground linguistic meaning are neither internal nor external to language users, but instead span the objective-subjective boundary. To model the possible interactions between subject and object, the theory relies on the notion of perceived affordances: structured units of interaction that can be used for prediction at multiple levels of abstraction. Language understanding is treated as a process of filtering perceived affordances. The theory accounts for many aspects of the situated nature of human language use and provides a unified solution to a number of demands on any theory of language understanding including conceptual combination, prototypicality effects, and the generative nature of lexical items. To support the theory, we describe an implemented system that understands verbal commands situated in a virtual gaming environment. The implementation uses probabilistic hierarchical plan recognition to generate perceived affordances. The system has been evaluated on its ability to correctly interpret free-form spontaneous verbal commands recorded from unrehearsed game play between human players. The system is able to "step into the shoes" of human players and correctly respond to a broad range of verbal commands in which linguistic meaning depends on social and physical context. We quantitatively compare the system's predictions in response to direct player commands with the actions taken by human players and show generalization to unseen data across a range of situations and verbal constructions. PMID:21635295

Gorniak, Peter; Roy, Deb

2007-03-01

407

Dignity for all: affordable assisted living.  

PubMed

In 2026, the first of the baby boomers, including Presidents Clinton and Bush, will reach the age of 80, the average age of residents currently in assisted living facilities. In her book The Denial of Aging: Perpetual Youth, Eternal Life, and Other Dangerous Fantasies, Muriel Gillick proposes that the baby boomers will seek assisted living as an alternative to nursing home care. But what about that portion of the population not able to afford the high cost of private assisted living? What option will be available to the low-asset/low-income population in lieu of nursing home care? PMID:17214248

Janeski, James F; Pruchnicki, Alec

2006-01-01

408

Motorcycle Helmets in Vietnam: Ownership, Quality, Purchase Price, and Affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam.Method. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal

Dang Viet Hung; Mark R. Stevenson; Rebecca Q. Ivers

2008-01-01

409

Affordance analysis – matching learning tasks with learning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of “affordances” is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology for designing e?learning experiences by matching the affordance requirements of

Matt Bower

2008-01-01

410

Are Different Affordances Subserved by Different Neural Pathways?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper questions whether affordances are allied exclusively to dorsal stream processing within the visual system, or whether in fact different affordances are subserved by functionally independent neural pathways. Using case study evidence from patients with various visual pathologies, I argue that affordances can be categorised into type…

Young, Garry

2006-01-01

411

Affordance theory: a framework for graduate students' information behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to apply ecological psychology's concept of “affordance” to graduate students' information behavior in the academic library, and to explore the extent to which the affordances experienced by graduate students differed from the affordances librarians were attempting to provide. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth, qualitative interviews with graduate students and academic librarians explored how the students perceived and

Lisa M. Given

2007-01-01

412

Auditing System Development: Constructing the Meaning of “Systematic and Rational” in the Context of Legacy Code Migration for Vendor Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This simulation affords an opportunity for learning to audit system devel- opment for an accounting application. The simulation responds to the growing em- phasis on controlling system development for complying with the internal control as- surance requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (U.S. House of Representatives). Because of the lack of detailed accounting standards for vendor

A. Faye Borthick; Paul L. Bowen

2008-01-01

413

Housing Needs of the Handicapped.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines several Federal, State, and local data collection efforts which provide information on housing needs and conditions of the handicapped. Innovative State and local officials have developed data collection methods suitable for their nee...

1982-01-01

414

Faculty Housing Assistance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the creative financing programs currently used to provide faculty housing assistance in California and elsewhere in the United States are described. Generally, the programs fall into one of four categories: rental housing, owner housing, mortgage assistance, and housing stipends. Institutions with a comprehensive housing program often…

Fink, Ira

1982-01-01

415

Housing, Design, and Furnishings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

416

Happy Birthday White House!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An integrated elementary teaching package offers interesting facts about presidents and the White House. Cross-curricular activities focus on architecture, presidential birthplaces, portraits, communications, science, technology, touring the White House, children in the White House, a day in the life of the White House, and a White House birthday…

Dillon, Doris; And Others

1992-01-01

417

Perceptions of Nonprofit Funding Decisions: A Survey of Local Public Administrators and Executive Directors of Community-Based Housing Organizations (CBHOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares how local public administrators and executive directors of community-based housing organizations (CBHO)\\u000a perceive nonprofit funding decisions. The article’s findings suggest that both groups shared perceptions about the scope of\\u000a affordable housing and factors influencing its funding. Yet, important differences existed. Public administrators were ambivalent\\u000a about nonprofit capacity and affordable housing outcomes. They also underestimated the importance of

Robert Mark Silverman

2009-01-01

418

Housing and Mortgage Markets in the SEACEN Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the current development of housing and mortgage market in the SEACEN region; identifies factors influencing housing prices and rents as well as the mortgage markets; and attempts to better understand the interactions among housing and mortgage markets with other economic variables and with respect to financial stability. The study also recommmends measures to develop the housing and

Bambang Kusmiarso

419

Superinsulated houses  

SciTech Connect

Superinsulation is a direct response to the fast-rising cost of home heating. Of the many kinds of responses, superinsulation is proving to be the simplest and most cost-effective. Until the oil embargo of 1973 there was little interest in saving heat. When the oil shortage arrived and fuel costs doubled and redoubled, many architects responded, at first, by invoking solar energy. They examined the designs of existing solar-heated houses and proposed a great variety of new designs, most of which appeared - to the uninitiated - to have great promise. Most of the early designs were of the active type; some were of the passive type; a few were of the hybrid design.

Shurcliff, W.A.

1986-01-01

420

Regional market size and the housing market: insights from a new economic geography model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased availability of information about housing and labour markets at finer spatial scales opens up possibilities for applied research to model various types of spatial relationships associated with housing affordability. The aim of this paper is to encourage empirical research to estimate the type of spatial relationships described by new economic geography (NEG) models. NEG models were designed to

Mark Andrew

2012-01-01

421

With Real Estate Prices Sky-High, More Colleges Offer Housing-Assistance Plans to Professors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of colleges and universities are using housing-assistance plans to recruit faculty. Programs range from offering affordable on-campus condominiums to lending money for a house down payment. Faculty recruitment in the 1990s is predicted to be heavily competitive. (MSE)

Mangan, Katherine S.

1988-01-01

422

Blueprint to End Homelessness. An Initiative of the Indianapolis Housing Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Homelessness can be ended, but not unless a much greater effort is mounted to help homeless people find and maintain safe, decent housing they can afford. This Blueprint calls for a 'housing first' approach that emphasizes placing homeless people in affor...

2002-01-01

423

Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.  

PubMed

Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families. PMID:21785010

Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

2011-07-22

424

Europe's Housing Squeeze Puts Students in Tight Spots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Affordable housing is an elusive commodity for students in Paris and much of the rest of Europe. Many European universities are in cities where property values have soared in recent years--along with higher-education enrollment figures and the number of students vying for rooms. Few of the universities have dormitories, and students are left…

Labi, Aisha

2008-01-01

425

Exploring Cube Affordance: Towards A Classification Of Non-Verbal Dynamics Of Physical Interfaces For Wearable Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current input technologies for wearable computers are difficult to use and learn and can be unreliable. Physical interfaces offer an alternative to traditional input methods. In this paper we propose that developing a well-designed physical interface requires an exploration of the psychological idea of affordance. We present our findings from a design study in which we explore the natural affordance

Jennifer Sheridan; Ben Short; Gerd Kortuem; Kristof Van Laerhoven; Nicolas Villar

2003-01-01

426

Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

2006-07-01

427

76 FR 47224 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Public and Indian Housing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Housing and Urban Development, 490 L'Enfant...Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (42...Tribes, Alaska Native Villages, Native Hawaiians...Tribes and Alaska Native Villages. [[Page 47225...Department of Housing and Urban Development Act,...

2011-08-04

428

76 FR 47231 - Redelegation of Authority to the Deputy Assistant Secretaries for Public and Indian Housing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act, as amended...Department of Housing and Urban Development, 490 L'Enfant...the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S...Indian Tribes, Alaska Native Villages, Native Hawaiians,...

2011-08-04

429

24 CFR 1006.205 - Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 1006.205 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING...

2013-04-01

430

24 CFR 904.103 - Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 904.103 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOW RENT HOUSING...

2013-04-01

431

Extending the extended family for homeless and marginally housed African American women.  

PubMed

Young homeless African American women and elderly marginally housed African American women have health, housing, and personal concerns specific to their age cohort, yet they also have parallel and complementary needs. The young struggle to find affordable housing, while the old may have difficulty in maintaining their homes. This article reports select findings from a pilot study designed to describe these two groups of women. The preliminary study was conducted preparatory to the development of a larger study to explore factors that would facilitate or hinder linking the two groups of women for mutual assistance in housesharing arrangements. Interviews and housing history findings revealed contrasts and similarities among the women and between both cohorts that reflected individual differences, common yet divergent life courses, and collective responses to family life situations, societal trends, and policies. Advantages and disadvantages of housesharing were delineated with 56.3% of the homeless women and 81.3% of the elderly women viewing coresidential living as an option worth considering. Housesharing arrangements should be further investigated by nurses and colleagues. Findings from this study are foundational for establishing alliances that may be a means to promote health and strengthen "family" in both populations. PMID:11012997

Killion, C M

432

Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO2-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important ``affordability'' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F.

2008-01-01

433

Reference Reactor Module for the Affordable Fission Surface Power System  

SciTech Connect

Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The requirements of many surface power applications allow the consideration of systems with much less development risk than most other space reactor applications, because of modest power (10s of kWe) and no driving need for minimal mass (allowing temperatures <1000 K). The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. This paper describes the reference AFSPS reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based, UO{sub 2}-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. One of the important 'affordability' attributes is that the concept has been designed to minimize both the technical and programmatic safety risk.

Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.; Marcille, Thomas F. [Nuclear Systems Design Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States)

2008-01-21

434

When left feels right: asymmetry in the affordance effect.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated the existence of the so-called affordance effect (faster response when the visual affordance of a graspable object (e.g., a pan) corresponds to the response location). It has been argued that the effect is due to abstract spatial coding of the position of the handle relative to the object instead of the grasping affordance. Our experiment tested the hypothesis that the affordance effect is not caused solely by abstract spatial coding but also by specific motor activation in response to the visual affordance. We assumed that, in the case of abstract spatial codes, response location and not hand distinction would be the critical factor for producing an affordance effect. In our experiment, bi-manual crossed/uncrossed responses to left/right symbols superimposed on a picture of a pan were used. The task was to attend to the symbol and to press a corresponding left/right button. Affordances of the pan were manipulated. A three-way interaction between side of affordance (left/right), mode of response (crossed/uncrossed hands), and response-affordance correspondence (corresponding/non-corresponding) showed a correspondence effect in the right affordance condition with hands uncrossed and no correspondence effect with hands crossed. The correspondence effect was obtained in the left affordance condition across hand positions that differed only by their magnitude. Overall, the results suggest that both mechanisms (grasping affordance and spatial codes) differentially contribute to the processing of an object with a graspable handle, depending on the affordance side and response hand. PMID:22806648

Janyan, Armina; Slavcheva, Gergana V

2012-08-01

435

Racial\\/ethnic differences in housing outcomes for first?time, low?income home buyers: Findings from a National homeownership education program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal housing policies aimed at making homeownership more accessible through education and affordable lending have been successful in raising the homeownership rate among minorities. By marketing homeownership to underserved populations and helping them overcome financial and informational obstacles, such programs might be expected to promote equality in housing outcomes, including housing quality, neighborhood composition, and neighborhood conditions, for minority homeowners.This

Shannon Van Zandt

2007-01-01

436

3 CFR 13507 - Executive Order 13507 of April 8, 2009. Establishment of the White House Office of Health Reform  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the White House Office of Health Reform By the authority...all Americans access to affordable and high-quality health care, it is hereby ordered...provision of high-quality, affordable, and accessible health care and to slow the...

2010-01-01

437

Standard Operating Procedure for In-house Preparation of 131I-rituximab for Radioimmunotherapy of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) has been formulated for in-house preparation, quality control, dispensing and administration of 131I-rituximab appropriate for the safe, effective, radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A decade of experience of semi-automated radioiodination of rituximab in our hospital radiopharmaceutical laboratory was analysed. The methodology was then refined for safe, practical, affordable application to radioimmunotherapy of lymphoma in departments of nuclear medicine in developing countries. This SOP has the potential to be incorporated into good laboratory practice conditions appropriate for local regulatory agency requirements.

Pickford, Matthew D.; Turner, J. Harvey

2012-01-01

438

Whole-House Design and Commissioning in the Project Home Again Hot-Humid New Construction Community  

SciTech Connect

BSC has been working with Project Home Again since 2008 and has consulted on the design of around 100 affordable, energy efficient new construction homes for victims of hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This report details the effort on the final two phases of the project: Phases V and VI which resulted in a total of 25 homes constructed in 2011. The goal of this project was to develop and implement an energy efficiency package that will achieve at least 20% whole house source energy savings improvement over the B10 Benchmark.

Kerrigan, P.

2012-09-01

439

Resolving the radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of the 10 houses received an intensive radon diagnostic evaluation before a house-specific radon reduction plan was developed. Before

M OSBORNE

1989-01-01

440

Science House: Countertop Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a collection of more than 30 experiments for elementary and secondary science classrooms, all culled from teacher training workshops by The Science House. Each lab introduces a topic in a real-world context: for example, students make ice cream as they experiment with adding solutes to lower the freezing point of a solvent. Topics include conservation of mass, chemical reactions, density, radioactive decay, chromatography, gas properties, and more. The Science House is a project based at North Carolina State University. It sponsors teacher training programs, curriculum development, web-based experiments for use in K-12 classrooms, long-term loans of laboratory equipment, summer student research programs, and community outreach.

2011-04-29

441

The affordability of homeownership to middle-income Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1971 through mid-2007, the nominal national sales price of housing grew almost eightfold. Controlling for inflation, this represented a near doubling in the relative price of housing. The retrenchment in prices that began in 2007 has so far remained small compared to the earlier increase. ; As house prices climbed, many people complained that housing had become unaffordable to

Jordan Rappaport

2008-01-01

442

Housing Submarkets in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the hypothesis that in a segmented housing market, housing price structure is different in each segment and whole market area price structure does not reflect a realistic housing price structure effectively. Submarket existence is tested in order to average household income in neighbourhoods in the Istanbul housing market. Whether the consequential variations in prices in each segment

Elif Alkay

2008-01-01

443

Comment--defining health insurance affordability: unobserved heterogeneity matters.  

PubMed

Affordability is a vague concept. Bundorf and Pauly [Bundorf, M.K., Pauly, M.V., 2006. Is health insurance affordable for the uninsured? Journal of Health Economics 25 (4), 650-673] address this problem by establishing clear working definitions of affordability, and they use these definitions to estimate the percent of the uninsured who can afford insurance. When they establish their definitions of affordability, they use a microeconomic model that omits essential characteristics of the health insurance market. This comment suggests alternative definitions that better incorporate the structure of the health insurance market, discusses both endogeneity and specification problems that might occur when implementing their econometric model to estimate the fraction of "uninsured afforders," and then recommends ways to reduce omitted variable bias and endogeneity bias. PMID:18359526

Bradley, Ralph

2008-02-17

444

Comment-Defining health insurance affordability: unobserved heterogeneity matters.  

PubMed

Affordability is a vague concept. Bundorf and Pauly [Bundorf, M.K., Pauly, M.V., 2006. Is health insurance affordable for the uninsured? Journal of Health Economics 25 (4), 650-673] address this problem by establishing clear working definitions of affordability, and they use these definitions to estimate the percent of the uninsured who can afford insurance. When they establish their definitions of affordability, they use a microeconomic model that omits essential characteristics of the health insurance market. This comment suggests alternative definitions that better incorporate the structure of the health insurance market, discusses both endogeneity and specification problems that might occur when implementing their econometric model to estimate the fraction of "uninsured afforders," and then recommends ways to reduce omitted variable bias and endogeneity bias. PMID:19150535

Bradley, Ralph

2009-01-01

445

75 FR 60482 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Affordable...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affordable Care Act Rescission Notice; Affordable Care Act Patient Protections Notice; Affordable Care Act Enrollment Opportunity Notice...Administration, Department of Labor. Title: Affordable Care Act Patient Protection Notice. Type of Review:...

2010-09-30

446

Can hospitals afford digital storage for imagery?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital medical images (scanned x-ray photographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imagery, ...) will consume 2 - 3 orders of magnitude more space then similar numbers of other images managed by digital storage subsystems. We investigate what a hospital will have to pay for a Picture Acquisition and Communication System (PACS). Assuming that tangible displaced costs--the costs of creating, storing, and managing film-- define the upper bound of what hospitals will be willing to pay for workstations, network, and digital storage, we find the EDP solution to be affordable today and attractive in two years. The archival medium currently favored by PACS researchers in optical disk technology. Performance and cost characteristics are likely to make magnetic tape juke box technology a better choice. The published literature teaches much of what is needed for optimal data compression. Uncertainty about liability will persuade some radiologists to save data beyond the noise-determined limits. A practical system will charge for data stored and transmitted and allow each user to balance cost and risk.

Cody, W. F.; Gladney, Henry M.; Heritage, Marcus B.; Hildebrand, D. B.; Reinke, J. D.

1994-05-01

447

The paired-object affordance effect.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that right-handed participants make speeded classification responses to pairs of objects that appear in standard co-locations for right-handed actions relative to when they appear in reflected locations. These effects are greater when participants "weight" information for action when deciding if 2 objects are typically used together, compared with deciding if objects typically occur in a given context. The effects are enhanced, and affect both types of decision, when an agent is shown holding the objects. However, the effects are eliminated when the objects are not viewed from the first-person perspective and when words are presented rather than objects. The data suggest that (a) participants are sensitive to whether objects are positioned correctly for their own actions, (b) the position information is coded within an egocentric reference frame, (c) the critical representation involved is visual and not semantic, and (d) the effects are enhanced by a sense of agency. The results can be interpreted within a dual-route framework for action retrieval in which a direct visual route is influenced by affordances for action. PMID:20695701

Yoon, Eun Young; Humphreys, Glyn W; Riddoch, M Jane

2010-08-01

448

75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-...

2010-01-26

449

GSE'S Funding of Affordable Loans: A 1996 Update. Housing Finance Working Paper Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the borrower and neighborhood characteristics of mortgages purchased by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the two major Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) in the conventional secondary mortgage market. The GSEs' mortgage purchases are c...

H. L. Bunce R. M. Scheesele

1999-01-01

450

76 FR 5584 - Valley Affordable Housing Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...foot-wide intake in place of a 60-foot-long section of the spillway that would be removed; (5) new 10-foot-long, 12-foot-wide...6) a new 30-foot-tall (extending 20 feet above the spillway), 60-foot-wide powerhouse adjacent to the training...

2011-02-01

451

Choreographic buttons: promoting social interaction through human movement and clear affordances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used human movement as the basis for designing a collaborative aesthetic design environment. Our intention was to promote social interaction and creative expression. We employed off-the-shelf computer vision technology. Movement became the basis for the choreography of gestures, the development of gesture recognition, and the development of imagery and visualization. We discovered that the design of clear affordances is

Andrew Webb; Andruid Kerne; Eunyee Koh; Pranesh Joshi; Youngjoo Park; Ross Graeber

2006-01-01

452

Housing the Region: A Plan/Program for Southeast Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The housing plan document is designed to complement other elements in the Southeast Michigan General Development Plan. It contains problem statements and strategy proposals relating to three central housing concerns-current patterns of residential develop...

1975-01-01

453

24 CFR 971.7 - Plan for removal of units from public housing inventories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...development shall be removed from the public housing inventory; informing...for consultation with applicable public housing tenants of the affected development and the unit of local government where the public housing is located, as set...

2013-04-01

454

Assessment of residents' satisfaction with public housing in Abuja, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal government of Nigeria developed large-scale public housing to provide living spaces for federal employees in the recently created capital, Abuja. The paper examines the resident satisfaction with public housing and the relationship of satisfaction with specific housing features to overall housing satisfaction. The sample of 1,089 households was randomly selected from residents in 19,863 public housing units in

Onyekwere M. Ukoha; Julia O. Beamish

1997-01-01

455

24 CFR 941.404 - Completion of development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 941.404 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT...

2013-04-01

456

24 CFR 941.102 - Development methods and funding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Section 941.102 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT...

2013-04-01

457

Land Management Practices Associated with House Loss in Wildfires  

PubMed Central

Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (wildfires) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction—clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing—to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone regions. But how effective are these measures? Severe wildfires in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%–97%, which would translate to considerably fewer wildfire-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from wildfires on peri-urban communities.

Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A. Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J.; Driscoll, Don A.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A.; Stephens, Scott L.; Lindenmayer, David B.

2012-01-01

458

Land management practices associated with house loss in wildfires.  

PubMed

Losses to life and property from unplanned fires (wildfires) are forecast to increase because of population growth in peri-urban areas and climate change. In response, there have been moves to increase fuel reduction--clearing, prescribed burning, biomass removal and grazing--to afford greater protection to peri-urban communities in fire-prone regions. But how effective are these measures? Severe wildfires in southern Australia in 2009 presented a rare opportunity to address this question empirically. We predicted that modifying several fuels could theoretically reduce house loss by 76%-97%, which would translate to considerably fewer wildfire-related deaths. However, maximum levels of fuel reduction are unlikely to be feasible at every house for logistical and environmental reasons. Significant fuel variables in a logistic regression model we selected to predict house loss were (in order of decreasing effect): (1) the cover of trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses, (2) whether trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses was predominantly remnant or planted, (3) the upwind distance from houses to groups of trees or shrubs, (4) the upwind distance from houses to public forested land (irrespective of whether it was managed for nature conservation or logging), (5) the upwind distance from houses to prescribed burning within 5 years, and (6) the number of buildings or structures within 40 m of houses. All fuel treatments were more effective if undertaken closer to houses. For example, 15% fewer houses were destroyed if prescribed burning occurred at the observed minimum distance from houses (0.5 km) rather than the observed mean distance from houses (8.5 km). Our results imply that a shift in emphasis away from broad-scale fuel-reduction to intensive fuel treatments close to property will more effectively mitigate impacts from wildfires on peri-urban communities. PMID:22279530

Gibbons, Philip; van Bommel, Linda; Gill, A Malcolm; Cary, Geoffrey J; Driscoll, Don A; Bradstock, Ross A; Knight, Emma; Moritz, Max A; Stephens, Scott L; Lindenmayer, David B

2012-01-18

459

Inventing the low-energy house  

SciTech Connect

Housing trends evolve and develop ingenious responses to the changing energy situation. Housing energy is used for heating space and water, for appliances, and, indirectly, for transportation. Energy-conserving house design has passed through three distinct stages during the past 15 years: active solar and passive solar stages, both based on supply, and the superinsulation stage based on using less energy by blocking heat loss through the building shell, windows, and air exchange. Future development will include ventilation heat and waste hot water heat recovery, daylighting, and total energy systems. Improvements to existing housing stock are slow, but the effects of retrofit incentives are showing up in national statistics. (DCK)

Sinden, F.W.

1983-11-01

460

The genetic architecture of house fly mating behavior.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes several experimental approaches used to identify the effects of dominance, epistasis, and genotype-by-environment interactions in the genetic architecture of the mating behavior of the common house fly (Musca domestica L.). Quantitative genetic investigations of mating behavior hold special intrigue for unraveling the complexities of fitness traits, with applications to theory on sexual selection and speciation. Besides being well suited to large-scale quantitative genetic protocols, the house fly has a remarkably complex courtship repertoire, affording special opportunities for studies on communication, social interactions, and learning. Increased additive genetic variances for the courtship repertoire of experimentally bottlenecked populations provided evidence for the presence of dominance and/or epistasis. Negative genetic variances in these populations suggested genotype-by-environment interactions, where the environment is the mating partner. Line cross assays of populations that had been subjected to selection for divergent courtship repertoire confirmed that both dominance and epistasis have significant effects. These crosses also showed more directly that the expression of the male's genotype is dependent upon the preferences of his mating partner. Repeatability studies also detailed how males alter their courtship performances with successive encounters within and across females, such that the males learn to improve their techniques in securing copulations. A review of 41 animal behavior studies found that a wide range of traits and taxa have dominance, epistasis, and genotype-y-environment interactions, although house fly courtship may remain a unique model where learning is an intersexually selected trait. Future development of more sophisticated molecular techniques for the M. domestica genome will help unravel the underlying biochemical and developmental pathways of these quantitative genetic interactions for a more complete understanding of the processes of inbreeding depression, outbreeding depression, and pleiotropy. PMID:15797454

Meffert, Lisa M; Hagenbuch, Kara L

2005-01-01

461

HUD Publishes Proposed Indian Housing Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposed regulations, drafted by an interdepartmental working group from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Services, and HUD, are applicable to rental programs, homeownership (Mutual Help) and all housing developed under the Housing and Community Development Act which authorized $15 million for fiscal year 1975 and 1976. (Author/NQ)|

Berkey, Curtis; Lehman, Loretta

1975-01-01

462

Privatized Housing Moves On-Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the financial strengths universities possess that can help them provide privatized on-campus housing that benefits the school and students while allowing a profit to the developer. Georgia's success in establishing a financial structure to develop apartment-style student housing that would allow no recourse against the state or affect…

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

463

Expressive AI: A Semiotic Analysis of Machinic Affordances  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Expressive AI is a hybrid practice, combining artificial intelligence (AI) research and art making, that simultaneously focuses on the ,negotiation of meaning,mediated,by an art object and the ,internal structure of AI systems. These two apparently disparate views are unified through the concept of affordance: negotiation of meaning is conditioned by interpretive affordances while the internal structure of the ,AI

Michael Mateas

464

What's the Issue about Affordability of Public Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared and contrasted data reports of two national policy centers on the affordability of public higher education. The study examined cost findings of the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) and the major affordability findings of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education (NCPPHE). Both policy centers…

Goff, Donald Gary

465

What Are the Affordances of Information and Communication Technologies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991) and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51) can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these…

Conole, Grainne; Dyke, Martin

2004-01-01

466

Affordance Analysis--Matching Learning Tasks with Learning Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a design methodology for matching learning tasks with learning technologies. First a working definition of "affordances" is provided based on the need to describe the action potentials of the technologies (utility). Categories of affordances are then proposed to provide a framework for analysis. Following this, a methodology…

Bower, Matt

2008-01-01

467

An Affordance-Based Model of Place in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

People deal with places in their everyday lives. Interactions with places are based on the meaning people a ssign to them. In o rder to integrate the c oncept of place into g eographic information systems (GIS), places have to be modeled. This paper presents a methodology to model places with affordances. Affordances are what objects or things offer people

Troy Jordan; Martin Raubal; Bryce Gartrell; Max J. Egenhofer

1998-01-01

468

The expressive and conversational affordances of mobile messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the popularity of mobile messaging as a social medium. Using data from an Internet questionnaire (N = 635) on the use of the short message service (SMS) for mobile phone text messaging (‘texting’), we examine two components of an affordance pathways hypothesis of SMS uptake: (1) mobile phone users must first discover and make use of hidden social affordances

Fraser J. M. Reid; Donna J. Reid

2010-01-01

469

Back to the future: Continuity Affordances in interactive TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the following hypothesis is proposed: could affordances derived from well- known and widely used media technologies encourage a more proactive use of new media and, particularly, of the interactive TV (iTV)? In this case affordance stands for the elements mainly embodied in the user interfaces which suggest how a technology may be interacted with; a concept first

Roberto Montanari; Gisella Gallenca; Stefano Marzani; Rossana Simeoni; Monica Perrero; Agnese Vellar

470

Affordances Revisited: Articulating a Merleau-Pontian View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article takes a renewed look at the concept of "affordance." It points out that the concept is being used within the CSCL community in ways which signify an underlying disagreement concerning the exact ontological nature and epistemological status of an "affordance." Such disagreement, it is argued, is a problem for both design and empirical…

Dohn, Nina Bonderup

2009-01-01

471

One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation.…

Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

2012-01-01

472

Housing in a Neoclassical Growth Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that in the U.S., the relative price of house exhibits secular growth and that its growth rate is a stationary series. The ratio of the value of house stock to either consumption or GDP is also stationary. We then develop a two-sector neoclassical growth model with housing that is consistent with these facts. Among the long-run determinants

Lichao Cheng; Zhixiong Zengz

2009-01-01

473

24 CFR 1006.335 - Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements...experienced in the planning and development of affordable housing for Native Hawaiians to carry out affordable housing activities with...

2013-04-01

474

Pharmaceutical pricing: a review of proposals to improve access and affordability of prescription drugs.  

PubMed

This article discusses how pharmaceutical innovation achieves remarkable improvements in human health but a significant portion of the U.S. population cannot afford prescription drugs. The author examines ways that patent protection, generics, supply chain complexity, and the cost of innovation and promotion affect access and affordability. The author then looks at the influences of marketing strategies and industry trends such as the patent cliff and pipeline for new drugs, innovations in biotechnology and genomics, comparative effectiveness analysis, and payor and employer strategies on drug prices. An analysis of reform proposals in the context of industry trends suggests that promoting generic drug use and availability through education, prohibiting authorized generics, and restricting the practice of developing follow-on drugs and discontinuing the original formulations upon patent expiration could improve access and affordability most quickly and significantly. PMID:21443147

Tironi, Paula

2010-01-01

475

91. LOCKS CONTROL HOUSE & CRANE MACHINERY HOUSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. LOCKS -- CONTROL HOUSE & CRANE MACHINERY HOUSE -- UPPER WEST WALL-- PLANS, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS & VENT PLAN M-L 27 70/19. Lock and Dam No. 27 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

476

iNsTiTuTiONaL chaLLeNGes iN aDDressiNG heaLThy LOW-cOsT hOusiNG FOr aLL: LearNiNG FrOm PasT POLicy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in how New Zealand might address the policy issue of providing good-quality affordable housing in the future. A crucial part of this is dealing with the quality of existing dwellings, particularly residential housing built prior to the Building Code 1991, which makes up the bulk of the housing stock. Present housing standards for existing dwellings have

Sarah Bierre; Philippa Howden-Chapman; Louise Signal; Chris Cunningham

477

Healthy Housing Inspection Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Healthy Housing Inspection Manual completes the foundation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Healthy Homes Initiative. The manual reflects the ongoing commitment of both CDC and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develo...

2008-01-01

478

Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-Primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hong Kong launched the "Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme" (PEVS) in 2007 to promote the "3A's" of early childhood education (ECE): affordability, accessibility, and accountability. The PEVS has three unique features: discriminating against profit kindergartens, promoting teacher professional development, and limiting parents' choice to only…

Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

2010-01-01

479

Understanding Enactivism: A Study of Affordances and Constraints of Engaging Practicing Teachers as Digital Game Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is intended to deepen our understanding of enactivism, an emergent theoretical paradigm, through empirical exploration of teacher undertakings as digital game creators. Specifically, it explores the affordances and constraints, two important enactivism concepts, of practicing teachers' experiences in designing and developing games for…

Li, Qing

2012-01-01

480

A route for qualifying\\/certifying an affordable structural prognostic health management (SPHM) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in developing affordable SPHM systems that use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and existing flight parameters to track how each individual aircraft is used and to quantify the damaging effects of usage. Over the past four years, Smiths and BAE systems have launched collaboration work to evolve a practical SPRM system. The collaborative work has built

H. Azzam; Frank Beaven; Louis Gill; M. Wallace

2004-01-01

481

Thermal Protection Afforded by Two Anti-Exposure Coveralls When Worn in Cold Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) was contracted by U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters to evaluate the thermal protection afforded by two prototype aircrew anti exposure coveralls when worn in cold water. The coveralls were developed by t...

N. A. Pimental B. A. Avellini

1988-01-01

482

WyCoalGas development feasibility study: site evaluations. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project; Converse County, Wyoming; employee housing possibilities  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a preliminary assessment of the land development opportunities available to WyCoalGas, Inc. which arise as a consequence of the construction of its proposed Coal Gasification Facility near Douglas, Wyoming. Present thinking indicates that the facility's construction labor force will peak at approximately 3400 workers and permanent work force at approximately 1000 workers, an influx of personnel which will generate significant demands for housing and related support services within Converse County. As part of the permitting process a number of studies are being prepared which identify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts likely to occur as a consequence of the development. The purpose of the following analysis is to recognize that these probable impacts - and the steps necessary to mitigate them - constitute important real estate investment opportunities for WyCoalGas, Inc. In effect, the successful planning and management of these forces represents, at a minimum, the possibility for reduction of total investment costs for the facility; at a maximum, the opportunity for the generation of significant profits from a well-conceived land development program. Several sites are considered from the point of view of planning, ease of development, acquisition possibilities, etc.

Not Available

1981-10-01

483

Insulator for laser housing  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1992-01-01

484

Insulator for laser housing  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

Duncan, D.B.

1992-12-29

485

We all want it, but we don't know what it is: toward a standard of affordability for health insurance premiums.  

PubMed

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148), or ACA, requires that U.S. citizens either purchase health insurance or pay a fine. To offset the financial burden for lower-income households, it also provides subsidies to ensure that health insurance premiums are affordable. However, relatively little work has been done on how such affordability standards should be set. The existing literature on affordability is not grounded in social norms and has methodological and theoretical flaws. To address these issues, we developed a series of hypothetical vignettes in which individual and household sociodemographic characteristics were varied. We then convened a panel of eighteen experts with extensive experience in affordability standards to evaluate the extent to which each vignette character could afford to pay for one of two health insurance plans. The panel varied with respect to political ideology and discipline. We find that there was considerable disagreement about how affordability is defined. There was also disagreement about what might be included in an affordability standard, with substantive debate surrounding whether savings, debt, education, or single parenthood is relevant. There was also substantial variation in experts' assessed affordability scores. Nevertheless, median expert affordability assessments were not far from those of ACA. PMID:21785011

Muennig, Peter; Sampat, Bhaven; Tilipman, Nicholas; Brown, Lawrence D; Glied, Sherry A

2011-07-22

486

Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating  

SciTech Connect

During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

2004-10-15

487

The contribution of ecological footprinting to planning policy development: using REAP to evaluate policies for sustainable housing construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the sustainable-development policy goal is such that policy makers are searching for tools to enable them to evaluate and develop policy directions. To date, ecological footprinting has been used mainly for raising awareness of environmental impacts but it also has considerable potential as a policy tool, enabling policy makers in their strategic work. The paper presents an

Michael Nye; Yvonne Rydin

2008-01-01

488

Universal Design in Housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal design in housing is a growing and beneficial concept. It is subtle in its differences from barrier-free, accessible, and industry standard housing. Accessibility standards and codes have not mandated universal design and do not apply to most housing. Universal design exceeds their minimum specifications for accessible design and results in homes that are usable by and marketable to almost

Ronald L. Mace

1998-01-01

489

Housing and ethopolitics: constructing identities of active consumption and responsible community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in social housing policy, including large-scale stock transfers, have been proclaimed as marking ‘the death of council housing’ in the UK. The decline of public housing and new techniques for the governance of social housing provision are symbolic of the transformation of welfarist social regimes in advanced liberal democracies. This paper explores recent social housing policy in the

John Flint

2003-01-01

490

Rejoinder: Alex Schwartz's critique of 'The end of public housing as we know it'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I argue that the US public housing policy, as codified by the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 (QHWRA), is helping to reconfigure the racial and class structure of many inner cities. By promoting the demolition of public housing projects and replacement with mixed-income housing developments, public housing policy is producing a gentrified inner-city landscape

Jeff R. Crump

2003-01-01

491

Continuing Housing Element, Attalla, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a continuation of the Initial Minimum Housing Element for the City of Attalla published in June 1970. This Continuing Housing Element reviews the past housing element and re-evaluates the housing situation in Attalla. (Author)

1971-01-01

492

Social Housing Policy in Belgium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the aspects of public housing with emphasis on encouraging low-income groups to buy houses, building more houses for middle income groups, instituting a national housing fund, fighting against slums.

1970-01-01

493

Energy demand management and study on energy information system development for establishing policy of reducing green-house gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of energy statistics system should precede ahead of drafting rational energy saving or carbon dioxide emission policy. The energy efficiency index can be used as energy policy index by estimating the change of energy use and connecting the...

H. C. Park

1998-01-01

494

Indian Reservation Housing: Progress Since the "Stanton Report"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reiterates and summarizes the main findings of an assessment report prepared by Thomas Stanton on commitments and failures in HUD's (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) Indian housing programs. (ERB)|

Stea, David

1982-01-01

495

24 CFR 576.105 - Housing relocation and stabilization services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SOLUTIONS GRANTS PROGRAM Program Components and Eligible Activities...vi) Assessment of housing for compliance with Emergency Solutions Grant (ESG) requirements for habitability,...

2013-04-01

496

Indian Reservation Housing: Progress Since the "Stanton Report"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reiterates and summarizes the main findings of an assessment report prepared by Thomas Stanton on commitments and failures in HUD's (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) Indian housing programs. (ERB)

Stea, David

1982-01-01

497

7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Growth management and housing planning projects...Development Assistance Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be...

2009-01-01

498

24 CFR 213.275 - Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund. 213...Management Housing Insurance and Distributive Shares § 213.275 Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund....

2013-04-01

499

78 FR 56127 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 5 CFR Part 7501 [Docket No...the Department of Housing and Urban Development; Correction to Standards Governing...Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW.,...

2013-09-12

500

Performance evaluation of an in-house human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease-reverse transcriptase genotyping assay in Cameroon.  

PubMed

Most commercial HIV-1 genotyping assays are hampered by high cost in resource-limited settings. Moreover, their performance might be influenced over time by HIV genetic heterogeneity and evolution. An in-house genotyping protocol was developed, and its sequencing performance and reproducibility were compared to that of ViroSeq™. One hundred ninety plasma samples from HIV-1-infected subjects in Cameroon, a resource-limited setting with a high HIV genetic variability, were processed for pol gene sequencing with an in-house protocol, ViroSeq™, or both. Only non-B subtypes were found. The in-house sequencing performance was 98.7% against 92.1% with ViroSeq™. Among 36 sequence pairs obtained using both assays, the overall rate of discordant amino acid positions was negligible (0.24%). With its high sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as its affordable cost (about half of ViroSeq™: 92 euros vs. 217 euros), this in-house assay is a suitable alternative for HIV-1 genotyping in resource-limited and/or in high-genetic-diversity settings. PMID:21465085

Fokam, J; Salpini, R; Santoro, M M; Cento, V; D'Arrigo, R; Gori, C; Perno, C F; Colizzi, V; Nanfack, A; Gwom, L C; Cappelli, G; Takou, D

2011-04-05