These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability  

SciTech Connect

The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

1999-04-19

2

Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this

H. Aglan; A. Gibbons; T. M. McQueen; C. Morris; J. Raines; R. L. Wendt

1999-01-01

3

Municipal strategies for affordable housing : incenting an exacting public goods from private developers  

E-print Network

This thesis studies the next generation of municipal housing policy by asking, "How can cities effectively use the private-sector to promote affordable housing development?" In response, it looks at an array of public-sector ...

Goldstein, Ari Alowan

2007-01-01

4

Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

NONE

1995-07-01

5

New housing in old Chinatown : barriers and incentives to affordable housing development  

E-print Network

In the 1970s and 80s, the rapid development of San Francisco's Financial District encroached upon Chinatown's intimately-scaled neighborhood. Developers took whole city blocks that housed low-income immigrants to build the ...

Tan, Bryant

2008-01-01

6

A new affordable housing model in China : a case-based examination of a private developer's role  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the motivations behind Wanhuilou, the first affordable housing development to be initiated, constructed, and subsidized by a private developer--China Vanke. This case presents a pioneering firm and a ...

Stuchell, Claudine C. (Claudine Cecile)

2008-01-01

7

Beyond NIMBY and poverty deconcentration: reframing the outcomes of affordable rental housing development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and research around affordable rental housing remain stuck between the “rock” of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) fears and the “hard place” of deconcentrating poverty goals, leading to fragmented outcome measurement in contemporary project-based affordable rental housing programs. This article compares the motivations and results of existing research focused on NIMBY concerns around place to that of programs that promote the deconcentration

Corianne Payton Scally; Richard Koenig

2012-01-01

8

The role of the housing provident fund in financing affordable housing development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the adoption of the open door policy, the economy of China has been growing rapidly. Along with economic achievement, housing problems in major cities in China have remained largely unsolved. Under the traditional planned economy since 1949, all housing production was the responsibility of the State. Due to the lack of finance, new housing production has not been able

Stanley Chi-Wai Yeung; Rodney Howes

2006-01-01

9

'Make It Right.' A Case Study Exploring An Affordable Green Housing Development in New Orleans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the current efforts taking place to rebuild New Orleans, Louisiana and focuses specifically on the ‘Make It Right’ (MIR) Foundation’s model for rebuilding the Lower Ninth Ward with affordable green housing. The primary research question focused on the motivations, design implications, financial implications, advantages, and challenges found in the ‘Make It Right’ Foundation’s housing and community reconstruction

2010-01-01

10

24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible affordable housing activities. Eligible...

2011-04-01

11

24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible affordable housing activities. Eligible...

2014-04-01

12

24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible affordable housing activities. Eligible...

2013-04-01

13

24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible affordable housing activities. Eligible...

2012-04-01

14

Community opposition to affordable housing : jamming the system  

E-print Network

This thesis explores community opposition to affordable housing in the suburban communities of Massachusetts. In the twenty years since Chapter 774 was enacted, a significant amount of affordable housing has been developed. ...

Dash, Stuart David

1989-01-01

15

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General ...affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, if: (1) The...

2012-04-01

16

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General ...affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, if: (1) The...

2014-04-01

17

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General ...affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, if: (1) The...

2013-04-01

18

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General ...affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, if: (1) The...

2011-04-01

19

24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General ...affordable housing activities for Native Hawaiian families who are eligible to reside on the Hawaiian Home Lands, if: (1) The...

2010-04-01

20

Affordable Housing for Artists: A Sustainable Prototype  

E-print Network

Although many architects and builders feel that designing for both sustainability and affordability is impossible, I believe that the only way we can afford to live is sustainably. Through the design of housing for artists, this thesis...

Ness, M.

1998-01-01

21

Extending the physical and cultural boundaries of affordable housing : a reconfiguration of the Franklin Field Public Housing Development  

E-print Network

Public housing is in a state of revision. Changes in attitude and approach to housing low-income people, evident in housing reform, are challenging the standard which public housing has come to represent. After years of ...

Makuku, Owiso A. (Owiso Atsali), 1968-

1999-01-01

22

Affordable Housing and the Empty Nester Boom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the best ways to produce affordable housing is to address the needs of a group that has too much housing. A baby boom generation generates an empty nester boom. An empty nester boom means dramatic underutilization of the housing stock. If a small percentage of homeowners were to install an accessory apartment, they would have a significant…

Hare, Patrick H.

23

Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

1995-01-01

24

Affordable Housing Fact Book Chicago Rehab Network 3. Tightening  

E-print Network

population and unit loss and significant new development. This cluster overlaps Chicago's largest public. #12;Affordability Factor Key Affordable Housing Issues for Tightening Cluster Target available land in these neighborhoods is increasing, but many still have ample supplies of available land. Community land trusts

Illinois at Chicago, University of

25

Social housing: new demand, new tools : Affordable finance for affordable housing through real estate ethical funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In light of growing concerns on the scale of the housing affordability problem in Italy, and of the government's response in the form of a new Housing Plan, the purpose of this paper is to ask whether such new policy is a coherent and adequate strategy to address the alleged housing problems. In order to answer this core

Luisa Ingaramo; Stefania Sabatino

2011-01-01

26

DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

27

Nonprofit perceptions of local government performance in affordable housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how executive directors of nonprofit organizations perceive local government performance in affordable housing. It builds on a larger body of research concerning the affordable housing activities of government and community-based nonprofit housing organizations at the local level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This analysis is based on a national survey of neighborhood housing

Robert Mark Silverman

2009-01-01

28

7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352 Preservation of affordable housing. (a) Original purpose. During the period of...

2010-01-01

29

7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352 Preservation of affordable housing. (a) Original purpose. During the period of...

2011-01-01

30

7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352 Preservation of affordable housing. (a) Original purpose. During the period of...

2014-01-01

31

7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352 Preservation of affordable housing. (a) Original purpose. During the period of...

2012-01-01

32

7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352 Preservation of affordable housing. (a) Original purpose. During the period of...

2013-01-01

33

"Why Not in Our Community?": Removing Barriers to Affordable Housing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past decade or so has been a true "comeback" era for American cities. Once proclaimed to be rather dead and lifeless, many urban centers have been reinvigorated through massive capital investments in a number of mega-projects, including huge residential and retail developments. Unfortunately, a number of people are now unable to afford to live in the cities in which they work. This latest report from the Department of Housing and Urban Development looks at the regulatory barriers that impact the availability of affordable housing around the United States. Released in February 2005, the 31-page report finds that "outdated, exclusionary and unnecessary regulations continue to block the construction or rehabilitation of affordable housing in some parts of America". Some of these specific trends in today's housing markets include complex environmental regulations, "smart growth" principles, and various impact fees that may be assessed on such developments. The report will definitely be of interest to those with an interest in housing policy in the United States and in urban policies and trends more generally.

34

"Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible": Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence.  

PubMed

Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women's experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors' housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

2014-09-01

35

12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Affordable Housing Goal for the purchase or refinancing of existing seasoned portfolios of...meet such goal, and such purchases or refinancings support additional lending for housing...securitization of mortgages associated with the refinancing of an Enterprise's existing...

2010-01-01

36

The development and function of an affordable housing production ecosystem : Harlem, Hew York in the late 1990s and early 2000s  

E-print Network

In late 1990s and early 2000s Harlem, an affordable housing production "ecosystem" comprised of elected officials, city planners, civic advocates, builders, and financial institutions at the local, state, and national level ...

Dookchitra, Ben

2007-01-01

37

Dynamics of the Affordable Housing Stock: Microdata Analysis of Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies the factors that change the stock of market housing affordable to low-income households. During the past 15 years policy makers and academics have concentrated on the shortage of good-quality affordable housing for low-income households. Among the triggers of that interest are the increase in homelessness, the disappearance of rental units affordable to the least well off members

C. Tsuriel Somerville; Cynthia Holmes

2001-01-01

38

Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

2012-03-01

39

78 FR 73204 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Innovation in Affordable Housing Student...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Requirements and Registration for ``Innovation in Affordable Housing Student Design...announces the inaugural year of the Innovation in Affordable Housing Student Design...competition are: To encourage research and innovation in quality affordable housing...

2013-12-05

40

24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...securitization of mortgages associated with the refinancing of a GSE's existing mortgage or mortgage-backed...the Special Affordable Housing Goal. Refinancings that result from the wholesale exchange...toward the achievement of this goal. Refinancings of individual mortgages shall...

2010-04-01

41

America's affordable housing crisis: a contract unfulfilled.  

PubMed

For many poor Americans, having a decent home and suitable living environment remains a dream. This lack of adequate housing is not only a burden for many of the poor, but it is harmful to the larger society as well, because of the adverse effects of inadequate housing on public health. Not only is the failure to provide adequate housing shortsighted from a policy perspective, but it is also a failure to live up to societal obligations. There is a societal obligation to meet the housing needs of everyone, including the most disadvantaged. Housing assistance must become a federally-funded entitlement. PMID:11988431

Freeman, Lance

2002-05-01

42

Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

43

The transit oriented basis boost : adapting the LIHTC to finance affordable housing near transit  

E-print Network

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit is arguably the most successful and important program in American history for the creation of affordable housing. The program leverages private investment in affordable housing, through ...

Magliozzi, Alex (Alex T.)

2011-01-01

44

75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority AGENCY: Federal Housing...Finance Agency (FHFA) to permit the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010, to use Affordable Housing...

2010-05-28

45

Planning Policies and Affordable Housing: England as a Successful Case Study?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades England has been developing a system by which the majority of new affordable housing will be produced with the help of the land-use planning system. As such it provides an apparently successful example of a trend observable in many countries of using land regulation to achieve housing goals. This paper addresses both the conceptual basis

Christine M. E. Whitehead

2007-01-01

46

Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

2012-05-31

47

Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

Mazzolani, Federico M. [Department of Structural Engineering, University Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80 - 80125 Naples (Italy); Mandara, Alberto [Department of Civil Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy); Froncillo, Salvatore [Consulting Engineer, Via Michelangelo, 44 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

2008-07-08

48

Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

2014-03-01

49

C.A.S.H. - communal affordable singles housing : a platform for proactive affordability in Hong Kong  

E-print Network

In Hong Kong, young singles are left out of the affordable housing equation. They require much more space per person in comparison to those living in family housing, and the government is not willing to allocate a ...

Wang, Yan-Ping, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

50

An investigation into the use of REITs to finance affordable housing in Mainland China  

E-print Network

Mainland China's system of affordable housing provides housing for low and medium income groups. Housing for sale and housing for rent give residents two choices and also give two choices for municipal governments to provide ...

Huang, Yuxuan, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

51

HOUSES!an independent view of the property market Prices Affordability Lending Activity Supply The Economy  

E-print Network

recent European house price trends: An absence of continental drift? School of Architecture, Design: An absence of continental drift ­ Dean Garratt UK house prices ­ Dean Garratt Affordability of house prices

Evans, Paul

52

Holistic revitalization in small post-industrial cities : tools for urban housing development  

E-print Network

For generations, housing programs have sought to utilize redevelopment projects to accomplish broader community revitalization goals. Contemporary affordable housing practice embodies this idea in large housing development ...

Beam, Jeffrey (Jeffrey J.)

2009-01-01

53

Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA  

SciTech Connect

The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of heating needed from the gas-fired boilers. The flat-plate panels on the roof of the building heats the water using solar power. A heat exchanger transfers heat from water warmed by the panels to potable water for the units. The warmed potable water mixes with the tap water supply to create hot water for the buildings. This boost of water warmed by the solar panels reduces the heating costs for eh project by reducing the need to heat the water via gas-fired boilers. Both of these energy upgrades were chosen because they significantly improve the energy efficiency for the life of the building and are reducing monthly utility costs for both the residents and the owners. Since the owner is a not-for-profit dedicated to long-term ownership and serving households with very-low and low-incomes, the costs savings will ultimately benefit current and future residents as the dollars saved will either be realized directly by the resident or be invested in the project. Technically, the design of these systems is easily understood and the principles could be applied to other projects. The incremental costs depend largely on the existing market rate of the components-none of which are considered "cutting edge" so a market does currently exist.

Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

2012-04-30

54

Amidst housing market problems, municipalities seek to stem urban decay and affordable housing remains out of reach for many  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housing Rebound Unlikely Before 2009http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=a4nfoY47rBfo&refer=homeFEMA spends almost $3B on emergency housinghttp://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-08-25-katrina_N.htmAdvocates assail suburbs for fighting housing ruleshttp://www.courierpostonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080826/NEWS01/808260371/1006/news01gACORN Housing Corporation [pdf]http://www.acornhousing.org/index.phpU.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development [pdf]http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/affordablehousing/index.cfmEconomists and real estate experts reported this week that U.S. housing prices declined for a fourth straight month, and this news was most unwelcome to those still facing foreclosure on their homes and those who live in large urban areas hit hardest by the housing crisis. The New York Times reported this week that a number of cities (such as Boston and San Diego) are now utilizing both private funds and taxpayer money to buy foreclosed properties in economically isolated and depressed neighborhoods in order to prevent these areas from sliding into urban decay. Not surprisingly, the sale of foreclosed homes to municipalities, along with private investors and others, led to a 3.1 percent increase in home sales during the month of July. Municipalities believe that buying up these properties and rehabilitating them will breathe new life into neighborhoods riddled with foreclosed property and the consequences of urban decay are not lost on municipal leaders, as Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino commented, "Our job as the city government is to restore these neighborhoods. We can't let this cancer continue." Despite the continued decline in housing prices, affordable housing for low and middle-income families remains out of reach in a number of large cities across the United States, including Boston, Seattle, and New York. On a final note, it appears that there will be another type of housing crisis across the Gulf Coast in the coming months, as FEMA prepares to eliminate housing subsidies for thousands of persons displaced by Hurricane Katrina on March 1st. The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this past Monday that offers insight into the efforts of municipalities to purchase foreclosed properties in order to combat neighborhood deterioration. The second link leads to a piece of reporting from Bloomberg's Alison Vekshin that indicates that the housing market will most likely not rebound until the middle of 2009. Moving on, the third link leads to an USA Today article from this Tuesday that reports on FEMA's spending on emergency housing throughout the Gulf Coast region. The fourth link leads to a trenchant piece from this Tuesday's Courier-Post (Cherry Hill, NJ) about the efforts made by wealthier suburbs across New Jersey to keep affordable housing from being built in their communities. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the ACORN Housing Corporation, which works to build affordable housing across the United States. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) thematic policy program dedicated to creating and supporting new affordable housing developments.

2008-08-29

55

75 FR 52689 - Multifamily Housing Reform and Affordability Act: Projects Eligible for a Restructuring Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...UMRA. List of Subjects in 24 CFR Part 401 Grant programs--Housing and community development, Housing, Housing assistance payments, Housing standards, Insured loans, Loan programs-- Housing and community development, Low and...

2010-08-27

56

The Relationship between Urban Development and Housing Prices in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the relationship between urban development and housing prices in China. When comparing data from three recent consecutive years, with some exceptions, the result shows that in general, housing price is determined by urban development in most urban regions. The article summarizes strategies for affordable housing development and housing policy in China, and analyzes the implications of this

XIAOXIAO WANG; MINJIE XU

2009-01-01

57

In search of an affordable housing system for Shanghai, China  

E-print Network

In 1998, the Chinese government abandoned the danwei ("work-unit") housing allocation system and fully privatized the housing market. Since then, the residential price has never stopped increasing despite the past financial ...

Sun, Linyun

2011-01-01

58

From Section 8 to Starbucks: The Effects of Gentrification on Affordable Housing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines gentrification in Pittsburgh, PA to determine if the process is reducing the amount of affordable housing for low-income groups. There has been considerable debate regarding the merits and ...

Kozak, Stephanie L.

2014-05-31

59

24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...one-family house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction. To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After...

2012-04-01

60

24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction. (E) To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales, and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After...

2014-04-01

61

24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...one-family house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction. To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After...

2011-04-01

62

24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one-family house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction. To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After...

2010-04-01

63

24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...one-family house sales in the entire participating jurisdiction. To determine the median, take the middle sale on the list if an odd number of sales and if an even number, take the higher of the middle numbers and consider it the median. After...

2013-04-01

64

Health Outcomes and Green Renovation of Affordable Housing  

PubMed Central

Objective This study sought to determine whether renovating low-income housing using “green” and healthy principles improved resident health and building performance. Methods We investigated resident health and building performance outcomes at baseline and one year after the rehabilitation of low-income housing using Enterprise Green Communities green specifications, which improve ventilation; reduce moisture, mold, pests, and radon; and use sustainable building products and other healthy housing features. We assessed participant health via questionnaire, provided Healthy Homes training to all participants, and measured ventilation, carbon dioxide, and radon. Results Adults reported statistically significant improvements in overall health, asthma, and non-asthma respiratory problems. Adults also reported that their children's overall health improved, with significant improvements in non-asthma respiratory problems. Post-renovation building performance testing indicated that the building envelope was tightened and local exhaust fans performed well. New mechanical ventilation was installed (compared with no ventilation previously), with fresh air being supplied at 70% of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers standard. Radon was <2 picocuries per liter of air following mitigation, and the annual average indoor carbon dioxide level was 982 parts per million. Energy use was reduced by 45% over the one-year post-renovation period. Conclusions We found significant health improvements following low-income housing renovation that complied with green standards. All green building standards should include health requirements. Collaboration of housing, public health, and environmental health professionals through integrated design holds promise for improved health, quality of life, building operation, and energy conservation. PMID:21563714

Breysse, Jill; Jacobs, David E.; Weber, William; Dixon, Sherry; Kawecki, Carol; Aceti, Susan; Lopez, Jorge

2011-01-01

65

Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. The City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started a construction program in 2010 to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal of the program was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ?6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

Metzger, C.; Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

2013-11-01

66

Housing affordability and mental health: does the relationship differ for renters and home purchasers?  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence of a direct association between unaffordable housing and poor mental health, over and above the effects of general financial hardship. Type of housing tenure may be an important factor in determining how individuals experience and respond to housing affordability problems. This study investigated whether a relationship exists between unaffordable housing and mental health that differs for home purchasers and private renters among low-income households. Data from 2001 to 2010 of the longitudinal Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were analysed using fixed-effects linear regression to examine change in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) score of individuals aged 25-64 years, associated with changes in housing affordability, testing for an interaction with housing tenure type. After adjusting for age, survey year and household income, among individuals living in households in the lower 40% of the national income distribution, private renters in unaffordable housing experienced somewhat poorer in mental health than when their housing was affordable (difference in MCS = -1.18 or about 20% of one S.D. of the MCS score; 95% CI: -1.95,-0.41; p = 0.003) while home purchasers experienced no difference on average. The statistical evidence for housing tenure modifying the association between unaffordable housing and mental health was moderate (p = 0.058). When alternatives to 40% were considered as income cut-offs for inclusion in the sample, evidence of a difference between renters and home purchasers was stronger amongst households in the lowest 50% of the income distribution (p = 0.020), and between the 30th and 50th percentile (p = 0.045), with renters consistently experiencing a decline in mental health while mean MCS scores of home purchasers did not change. In this study, private renters appeared to be more vulnerable than home purchasers to mental health effects of unaffordable housing. Such a modified effect suggests that tenure-differentiated policy responses to poor housing affordability may be appropriate. PMID:23931950

Mason, Kate E; Baker, Emma; Blakely, Tony; Bentley, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

67

Who has housing affordability problems? Disparities in Housing Cost burden by Race, Nativity and Legal Status in Los Angeles.  

PubMed

Housing costs are a substantial component of U.S. household expenditures. Those who allocate a large proportion of their income to housing often have to make difficult financial decisions with significant short-term and long-term implications for adults and children. This study employs cross-sectional data from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) collected between 2000 and 2002 to examine the most common U.S. standard of housing affordability, the likelihood of spending thirty percent or more of income on shelter costs. Multivariate analyses of a low-income sample of U.S. born Latinos, Whites, African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants and unauthorized Latino immigrants focus on baseline and persistent differences in the likelihood of being cost burdened by race, nativity and legal status. Nearly half or more of each group of low-income respondents experience housing affordability problems. The results suggest that immigrants' legal status is the primary source of disparities among those examined, with the multivariate analyses revealing large and persistent disparities for unauthorized Latino immigrants relative to most other groups. Moreover, the higher odds of housing cost burden observed for unauthorized immigrants compared with their authorized immigrant counterparts remains substantial, accounting for traditional indicators of immigrant assimilation. These results are consistent with emerging scholarship regarding the role of legal status in shaping immigrant outcomes in the United States. PMID:24077641

McConnell, Eileen Diaz

2013-09-01

68

Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

Wallpe, Jordan P.

69

NAVIGATING HOUSING AFFORDABILITY BETWEEN TRANS-DISCIPLINARITY AND LIFE STYLE THEORIES THE CASE OF THE GULF STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical approach of affordable housing research and practice views cost reduction as one single determinant. Other crucial factors such as lifestyles of the targeted populations, people satisfaction of their current houses and residential environments, and their aspirations and preferences in future houses are always oversimplified or superficially addressed. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to argue for a

Ashraf M. Salama

2007-01-01

70

Building a Balance: Housing Affordability and Environmental Protection in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current trends in household formation and housing development in the United States are creating pressures on communities to provide adequate infrastructure services for a growing population. Homeownership rates are the highest in history. All indications suggest this rate will continue to increase over the next few years. Builders and developers respond to this need by constructing housing units in suburban

Joseph Laquatra

2005-01-01

71

Affordable housing and upward mobility : bridging the divide at The Community Builders, Inc.  

E-print Network

An increasing austerity at all levels of government has propelled a heightened focus on more efficient models of housing delivery, human service delivery and community development. One area of increased attention, with ...

Yadegar, Daniel Aziz

2012-01-01

72

Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

2014-01-01

73

Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

2014-08-01

74

Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study  

SciTech Connect

A trend towards ''green'' building with a focus on energy efficiency is sweeping the United States homebuilding industry. An integrated systems-design approach leads to homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices. Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the country are taking the lead on this approach to home building for affordable housing. This approach supports Habitat's goals of supplying quality housing and reducing the energy cost burden on families in Habitat homes--goals that are especially important in these days of increasing energy costs.

Norton, P.; Stafford, B.; Carpenter, B.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.; Kriescher, P.

2005-04-01

75

Affordable energy solutions for developing communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes efforts by the IEEE PES Community Solutions Initiative (CSI) to provide reliable electricity to the 1.6 billion low income people who do not have access to electric light. The Community Solutions Initiative is a virtual community of professionals from a wide variety of backgrounds who are providing largely pro-bono efforts to design, develop, deliver and promote sustainable

R. Podmore; Ray Larsen; Henry Louie; Brian Waldron

2011-01-01

76

Is asthma treatment affordable in developing countries?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess whether the therapeutic aspects of published international asthma management guidelines are practically applicable in developing countries. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to expatriate doctors working in developing countries. RESULTS: Forty one replies were received from 24 countries in Africa and Asia. Oral salbutamol was prescribed "usually" or "often" by 35 of the 41 respondents, theophyllines by 30, inhaled bronchodilators by 12, inhaled steroids by two, and cromoglycate by two. Theophyllines were locally available in all 41 cases, oral salbutamol in 40, inhaled bronchodilators in 34, and inhaled steroids (usually beclomethasone 50 micrograms) in only 15. Where they were available, the median (range) coat of a beclomethasone 50 micrograms inhaler was 20% (6.8-100%) of average local monthly income, salbutamol inhaler 13% (3.3-250%), 90 salbutamol 4 mg tablets 3.8% (0.8-75%), and 90 aminophylline 100 mg tablets 4.5% (0.5-70%). If they were available locally at a cheaper price, 34 (83%) respondents would prescribe more inhaled steroids and 37 (90%) would prescribe more inhaled bronchodilators. CONCLUSIONS: Many asthma patients in developing countries are not receiving adequate treatment because the required drugs are not available in their area or are prohibitively expensive. ??? PMID:9246130

Watson, J. P.; Lewis, R. A.

1997-01-01

77

Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

Not Available

2012-05-01

78

Bureau of Land Management Assists Drop in Housing Affordability The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) recently released the first quarter of  

E-print Network

Bureau of Land Management Assists Drop in Housing Affordability The National Association of Home the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land auctions as the primary culprit for plunging housing affordability contributed. Rising home prices -- reflecting land costs, construction costs, homebuilders' insurance costs

Ahmad, Sajjad

79

Technological innovation in community housing development: Barriers to energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Community housing developers produce affordable housing and jobs for many residents of low-income neighborhoods through the rehabilitation of existing single and multi-family buildings. Typically operating as small, not-for-profits or community-based organizations, the vast numbers of community housing developers creates high coordinating costs of operating jointly to acquire the shared learning needed to implement new techniques, such as those involving energy efficiency. This paper presents a model of technology adoption that suggests that new profitable technologies will be adopted only with low probability and that strategic interaction between potential adopters further reduces the likelihood of adoption. These features result from the ability of potential adopters to postpone the bearing the costs of adoption of new technologies and their ability to share the knowledge of others who have adopted new technologies. These features are particularly characteristic of community housing developers.

Cavallo, J.D.

1996-05-01

80

Besting the tract home : a software-based bricolage approach to affordable custom housing  

E-print Network

Tract housing has earned its position as the overwhelmingly dominant paradigm of home building and ownership in America because it's such an efficient and therefore cost-effective system. Custom-designed housing has provable ...

Plewe, Thomas Clayton

2008-01-01

81

Benchmarking Current Perceptions of General Contractors of Return on Investment on Affordable Rehabilitation Housing Projects: A Case Study in the State of Texas  

E-print Network

with Corporation X revealed that general contractors may elect to work on affordable rehabilitation housing to enhance their reputation with the general public. However, neglect of/or poor quality advertising by Corporation X can put off general contractors...

Diaz-Puentes, Pedro Augusto

2014-05-05

82

Affordable Housing: A Crisis for Wisconsin Families. A WisKids Count Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing up in poor quality, unsafe, and/or overcrowded housing magnifies all the other challenges and disadvantages that go along with poverty. Noting that as more and more families in Wisconsin and nationwide struggle to achieve sustainable housing, the connection between housing and child well-being is becoming increasingly obvious, this WisKids…

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

83

Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human missions to Mars within the next few decades.

Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

2013-01-01

84

Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability. Emphasis will be placed on small engines, since the smaller the NTP engine, the easier it is to transport, assemble/disassemble, and filter the exhaust during tests. A new ground test concept using underground bore holes (modeled after the underground nuclear test program) to filter the NTP engine exhaust is being considered. The NTP engine system design, development, test, and evaluation plan includes many engine components and subsystems, which are very similar to those used in chemical engines, and can be developed in conjunction with them Other less mature NTP engine components and subsystems (e.g., reactor) will be thoroughly analyzed and tested to acceptable levels recommended by the referenced standards and guidelines. The affordable development strategy also considers a prototype flight test, as a final step in the development process. Preliminary development schedule estimates show that an aggressive development schedule (without much margin) will be required to be flight ready for a 2033 human mission to Mars.

Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

2013-01-01

85

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) makes all of their published research reports, case studies, and guidebooks publicly available on this website. The documents are arranged thematically, and they include everything from "Affordable Housing" to "Zoning". Given the recent interest in building "green", many visitors will want to click on over to the "Housing Production and Technology" area. On the right hand side of the page, visitors will find the "Popular Picks" list. Some of the publications are intended for an audience with a more technical background, but many of the works deal quite broadly with urban policy matters. The site is rounded out by a direct link to "New Publications" area near the bottom of the homepage and social media functionality.

86

Affordable Housing: What You Need to Know before Buying a Manufactured Home 1  

E-print Network

to be a cost-effective approach to making home ownership a reality for families. According to Consumer Reports you should know to protect yourself and your investment. Find a reputable dealer by contacting your in June of 1976 to describe a type of house that is constructed in a factory to comply with a building

87

OPIA's Guide to Affordable Housing, Transportation, Food, and Fun in Major Cities for HLS Students  

E-print Network

New York #12;1 Table of Contents Introduction 1 Housing 2 Transportation 3 Food 5 Entertainment 21 experiences, law school career service offices, newspapers, the Internet, and especially Harvard Law School Voice (free in Manhattan, distributed throughout the city ­ look for it in newspaper boxes on corners

Wolfe, Patrick J.

88

Nonprofit housing development: Status, trends, and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relies on a national survey of community?based housing development organizations to profile production levels, spatial coverage, funding sources, and nondevelopmental roles of the nonprofit housing development sector. It also uses Urban Institute case study results and secondary data sources to examine continuing barriers to increased production in the sector and the evolution of institutional responses to those barriers.Nationwide,

Christopher Walker

1993-01-01

89

Affordable housing through energy conservation: A guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes  

SciTech Connect

PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. This data base was compiled using over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. This extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Regression techniques in PEAR permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to over 800 US locations based on climate parameters. PEAR is designed as a user-friendly program that can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts, and as a nontechnical energy calculation method by architects, homebuilders, homeowners, and others in the building industry. Technical documentation of the PEAR program and the database is given elsewhere (see References). 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01

90

78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...initiative in which multidisciplinary teams of graduate students will compete...practices; and to foster cross-cutting team-work within the design and community development...affected public): Graduate Student...

2013-07-09

91

Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit  

SciTech Connect

Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a 'base scope' retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a 'DER scope' which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

Lyons, J.; Moore, M.; Thompson, M.

2013-08-01

92

Perception–action development from infants to adults: Perceiving affordances for reaching through openings  

PubMed Central

Perceiving possibilities for action—affordances—requires sensitivity, accuracy, and consistency. In the current study, we tested children of different ages (16-month-olds to 7-year-olds) and adults to examine the development of affordance perception for reaching through openings of various sizes. Using a psychophysical procedure, we estimated individual affordance functions to characterize participants' actual ability to fit their hand through openings and individual decision functions to characterize attempts to reach. Decisions were less accurate in younger children (16-month-olds to 5-year-olds); they were more likely to attempt impossible openings and to touch openings prior to refusing, suggesting a slow developmental trend in learning to perceive affordances for fitting through openings. However, analyses of multiple outcome measures revealed that the youngest participants were equally consistent in their decision making as the oldest ones and that every age group showed sensitivity to changes in the environment by scaling their attempts to opening size. PMID:24149378

Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

2014-01-01

93

ON THE THRESHOLD OF NEW HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS: ZERO ENERGY HOUSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from the growing need for housing production in the world, the crucial problem is, as cited in literature, the quality of housing planning and design as well as the approach towards water usage and energy consumption. At this point, being on the threshold in terms of environmental sustainability and energy efficiency, zero energy housing(ZEH) concept, newly introduced to the

Merve Bedir

2007-01-01

94

24 CFR 1000.120 - May a recipient use Indian preference or tribal preference in selecting families for housing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.120 May a recipient use Indian preference or...

2014-04-01

95

24 CFR 1000.140 - May a recipient use grant funds to purchase insurance for privately owned housing to protect...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.140 May a recipient use grant funds to...

2013-04-01

96

Affordable Development of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. The foundation provided by development and utilization of a NCPS could enable development of extremely high performance systems. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

97

A New Inventory for Assessing "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development ("AHEMD-SR")  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contemporary view of motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. The intent of this communication is to introduce the "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development Self-Report" ("AHEMD-SR") to early childhood practitioners. The…

Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

2008-01-01

98

Factors Affecting Housing Developers' Readiness to Adopt Innovative Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To tackle the problem of abandoned housing projects and improve the quality of housing, the Malaysian Government has proposed a new housing delivery system known as Build Then Sell (BTS). To encourage BTS, the government has introduced a fast-track planning approval process, a waiver of a deposit for a developer's license and an exemption for low-cost houses. However, many developers

NorAini Yusof; Mohd Wira Mohd Shafiei

2011-01-01

99

House Energy and Water Development FY 2007 Appropriations Passed by House Appropriations Committee May 17, 2006, Status: sent to House  

E-print Network

House Energy and Water Development FY 2007 Appropriations Passed by House Appropriations Committee May 17, 2006, Status: sent to House Fusion Energy Sciences ­ Office of Science The Committee recommendation for fusion energy sciences is $318,950,000, the same as the budget request. The Committee

100

Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

2004-01-01

101

In-Space Operations: Developing a Path to Affordable, Evolutionary Space Exploration  

E-print Network

In-Space Operations: Developing a Path to Affordable, Evolutionary Space Exploration David L. Akin options for future human spaceflight programs which meet the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Alabama AIAA 2010-2293 #12;I. Introduction With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration

Akin, David

102

Understanding Affordances and Challenges of Three Types of Video for Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although researchers have reported positive effects on teacher learning from observing published video, teachers' own video, and their colleagues' video, very few professional development programs have integrated all three types of video to improve teacher learning. In this study, we examined the affordances and challenges of the three types of…

Zhang, Meilan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan

2011-01-01

103

Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

2014-01-01

104

Gibson's Affordances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

James J. Gibson (1954) viewed perception as a system that picks up information which supports coordination of the agent's actions with the systems the environment provides. This led him to develop the idea of affordances, characteristics of objects and the environment that support their contributions to interactive activity. (SLD)

Greeno, James G.

1994-01-01

105

Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

2008-01-01

106

Doing their part? : proactive planning and deliberate avoidance of affordable housing by Massachusetts communities in response to Chapter 40B  

E-print Network

Chapter 40B is an innovative Massachusetts law adopted in 1969 to expand the supply and distribution of subsidized housing throughout the state. The statute creates a streamlined permitting process through which municipalities ...

Frantz, Anna J. (Anna Jordan)

2005-01-01

107

The Affordability Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the basic economic changes and previous conservative policies that have resulted in the increase of homelessness and the decrease in the supply of affordable housing. Argues that the solution to homelessness lies with federally funded, nonprofit housing in various forms. (FMW)

Appelbaum, Richard P.

1989-01-01

108

Low-income housing in Kampala, Uganda : a strategy package to overcome barriers for delivering housing opportunities affordable to the urban poor  

E-print Network

The city of Kampala, Uganda, is struggling with a housing deficit that is compounding each year and creating market distortions that threaten to derail recent economic success and destabilize the social fabric of the ...

Mayer, Richard Campbell

2011-01-01

109

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering of Titanium: Current Capabilities Being Developed Under the Metals Affordability Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical review of the titanium model development programs currently funded under the Metals Affordability Initiative is presented. Progress of the "Advanced Titanium Alloy Microstructure and Mechanical Property Modeling" and "ICME of Microtexture Evolution and its Effect on Cold Dwell/High/Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Dual Phase Titanium Alloys" will be reviewed followed by a discussion of the future modeling needs of the aerospace industry.

Glavicic, M. G.; Venkatesh, V.

2014-07-01

110

Cutting energy costs in multifamily housing: Practical case studies for the builder and developer  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on an expert evaluation of nine existing and three proposed multifamily housing projects across the US. The existing buildings include three lowrise projects (three to four stories), six midrises (five to seven stories), and three highrise buildings (nine to thirty-nine stories). Two projects were designed and built in the late 1950's, two in the late 1960's, and five late in the ''energy-crisis'' of the 1970's. The existing projects range from municipally subsidized elderly housing, to HUD Section-8 suburban developments, to luxury urban highrise buildings. The three ''future'' buildings, designed by the NAHB research team, were based on trends anticipated in the multifamily industry by IREM and NAHB leaders, over the next five years. The key trends identified were: downsizing of units (by 10 to 20%); increased project size (in number of units), denser developments (more midrise and highrise projects), and increased amenities - all in the context of more affordable housing.

Whiddon, W.I.

1986-01-01

111

A Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) and the Small Satellite Market Development Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administr ation at Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center in Huntsville Alabama USA, are jointly developing a new class of science and technology mission small satellites. The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATell ite (FASTSAT) was designed and developed using a new collaborative and best practices approach. The FASTSAT development, along with the new class of low cost vehicles currently being developed, would allow performance of 30 kg payload mass missions for a cost of less than 10 million US dollars.

Boudreaux, Mark; Montgomery, Edward; Cacas, Joseph

2008-01-01

112

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2011-04-01

113

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2012-04-01

114

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2014-04-01

115

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2010-04-01

116

24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...activities under NAHASDA? Yes, lead-based paint requirements apply to housing...

2013-04-01

117

Development of an energy rating system for existing houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a new energy rating system for existing houses, combining the information from utility bills with on-site measurements and computer simulation. The proposed system was tested on a sample of 45 houses in Montreal, with the following main objectives: (i) to evaluate the quality of results given by the system (e.g., energy performance of houses,

Radu Zmeureanu; Paul Fazio; Sebastiano DePani; Robert Calla

1999-01-01

118

24 CFR 203.437 - Mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.437 Section 203.437 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

2010-04-01

119

24 CFR 203.437 - Mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.437 Section 203.437 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

2011-04-01

120

Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

2012-03-01

121

Affordable Development and Optimization of CERMET Fuels for NTP Ground Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CERMET fuel materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) are currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The work is part of NASA's Advanced Space Exploration Systems Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Project. The goal of the FY12-14 project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of an NTP system. A key enabling technology for an NCPS system is the fabrication of a stable high temperature nuclear fuel form. Although much of the technology was demonstrated during previous programs, there are currently no qualified fuel materials or processes. The work at MSFC is focused on developing critical materials and process technologies for manufacturing robust, full-scale CERMET fuels. Prototypical samples are being fabricated and tested in flowing hot hydrogen to understand processing and performance relationships. As part of this initial demonstration task, a final full scale element test will be performed to validate robust designs. The next phase of the project will focus on continued development and optimization of the fuel materials to enable future ground testing. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the CERMET fuel materials development plan. The overall CERMET fuel development path is shown in Figure 2. The activities begin prior to ATP for a ground reactor or engine system test and include materials and process optimization, hot hydrogen screening, material property testing, and irradiation testing. The goal of the development is to increase the maturity of the fuel form and reduce risk. One of the main accomplishmens of the current AES FY12-14 project was to develop dedicated laboratories at MSFC for the fabrication and testing of full length fuel elements. This capability will enable affordable, near term development and optimization of the CERMET fuels for future ground testing. Figure 2 provides a timeline of the development and optimization tasks for the AES FY15-17 follow on program.

Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Mireles, Omar R.

2014-01-01

122

Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments  

SciTech Connect

This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

Not Available

1991-10-01

123

Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments  

SciTech Connect

This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

Not Available

1991-10-01

124

Small Launch Vehicle Concept Development for Affordable Multi-Stage Inline Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study of two configurations of a three stage, inline, liquid propellant small launch vehicle concept developed on the premise of maximizing affordability by targeting a specific payload capability range based on current industry demand. The initial configuration, NESC-1, employed liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and rocket propellant grade kerosene as the fuel in all three stages. The second and more heavily studied configuration, NESC-4, employed liquid oxygen and rocket propellant grade kerosene on the first and second stages and liquid oxygen and liquid methane fuel on the third stage. On both vehicles, sensitivity studies were first conducted on specific impulse and stage propellant mass fraction in order to baseline gear ratios and drive the focus of concept development. Subsequent sensitivity and trade studies on the NESC-4 configuration investigated potential impacts to affordability due to changes in gross liftoff weight and/or vehicle complexity. Results are discussed at a high level to understand the severity of certain sensitivities and how those trade studies conducted can either affect cost, performance or both.

Beers, Benjamin R.; Waters, Eric D.; Philips, Alan D.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2014-01-01

125

Housing development as an application of ecological engineering on streamside  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper demonstrates housing development as an application of ecological engineering on streamside. The study site consists of terrestrial, riverbank and aquatic zones, on which their correlation and effects were investigated. Interdisciplinary methods involving ecology, hydrology, environment and landscape were applied to achieve maximum benefits for humans and nature. A technical scheme for housing development was

Yuansheng Pei; Zhaohui Tian; Zhifeng Yang; Kejiang Zhang

2009-01-01

126

Chinese housing mixology : considerations for the successful development of mixed-income housing  

E-print Network

In recent years, the Chinese government transformed their national system of housing provision and introduced market mechanisms. The consequent boom in residential real estate development and the emergence of speculative ...

Chan, Janelle (Janelle Jie-Ying)

2007-01-01

127

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

128

Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA’s Space Product Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved,

Franklin D. Schowengerdt

2005-01-01

129

Developing a User Guide to Integrating New Technologies in Science Teaching and Learning: Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of Their Affordances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports outcomes of a project in which five teachers developed a web-based user guide to integrating new technologies in secondary science teaching. The guide aimed to support the initial education of trainee teachers, and the professional development of mentors, in working with, and understanding the affordances of, new technologies.…

de Winter, James; Winterbottom, Mark; Wilson, Elaine

2010-01-01

130

Affordable Development and Demonstrationof a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE and Industry Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulation of Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy is Underway Involving NASA, DOE and Industry. In FY11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Joyner, C. R.

2014-01-01

131

24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...false Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating...Section 92.208 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

132

24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

133

24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion...Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

134

24 CFR 92.452 - Reallocation of community housing development organization set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Reallocation of community housing development organization set-aside. 92...Section 92.452 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

135

24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92...Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

136

24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2010-04-01

137

24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...false Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating...Section 92.208 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2011-04-01

138

24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2011-04-01

139

24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2011-04-01

140

24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92...Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2011-04-01

141

24 CFR 92.452 - Reallocation of community housing development organization set-aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Reallocation of community housing development organization set-aside. 92...Section 92.452 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary,...

2011-04-01

142

24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion...Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

143

Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit: Annapolis, Maryland. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

Not Available

2013-10-01

144

Affordable Housing Internship-LAANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summer I worked at Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy. LAANE?s vision has four major points: A real democracy ensures that workers have power over their own lives and a voice in the workplace All working people have living wages, healthcare, and dignity on the job People live in healthy communities where there are good jobs, safe and

Sarah Barton

2010-01-01

145

New Developments in Hog Houses and Equipment.  

E-print Network

that are nailed over the inside of the rear and side openings is another new feature on the Texas A-type house. .The slats prevent the pigs from crawling out of these openings, and the sows from going out over guard rails which could injure the sows udders. 8... ........... 72 16 1" x 4" x 16'-0" for bracing and slats .....,..................... 86 - TT---lware: Total ........................ 468 I door hooks 6 screw-eyes pair 6" strap hinges 16 feet tie chain, galvanized 6" hasp and stagle nails, 8-penny, and 16...

Hale, Fred; Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

1933-01-01

146

77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U...Currently, the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF...on lending to small businesses, consistent with...of credit for small businesses. This survey is not required by law, but the SBLF...

2012-07-20

147

77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U...Currently, the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF...on lending to small businesses, consistent with...of credit for small businesses. This survey is not required by law, but the SBLF...

2012-04-02

148

The "L" is for living : creating urban development linkages with affordable transit-oriented housing  

E-print Network

What is a city? Who is the city for? A citizen's answer to these questions is closely connected with her or his sense of political power or representation in the city. Harvey Molotch argues that politically influential ...

Davis, Omari Akil

2009-01-01

149

Influence of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Development of the Patient Centered Medical Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model of care incorporates many public health concepts. Some supporters of PCMH regard the Affordable Care Act (ACA) as legislation that will invigorate PCMH progress across the country. This policy analysis intends to understand the influence of the ACA on the development of PCMH. The policy analysis compares relevant sections of the ACA with

Anjali Rao

2012-01-01

150

Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The technical, engineering, and systems integration challenges that will be investigated are rocket design, launch platform design, communications, ignition systems, recovery systems, and stabilization methods. This will be done using rocket performance simulation software, computer-aided design software, and computational fluid dynamic analysis software. The business planning is also an important part of this research. Through detailed market analysis, the needs for the proposed product/services being developed will be assessed. Through the combination of detailed cost analysis and the market needs, the economic viability of this launch system will be determined.

Badders, Brian David

151

Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development  

SciTech Connect

The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

2013-02-01

152

Analyzing the flexibility of inclusionary zoning : should affordable units be built on-site or off-site?  

E-print Network

Inclusionarv zoning (IZ), a strategy first adopted by municipalities in the 1970S to create affordable housing, requires private developers of market-rate residential projects to set-aside a certain percentage of units as ...

Alonso, Rachel (Rachel Margaret)

2012-01-01

153

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2012-04-01

154

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2011-04-01

155

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2013-04-01

156

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2014-04-01

157

24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing...

2010-04-01

158

24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

2010-04-01

159

24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

2011-04-01

160

A review of the literature informing affordable, available wound management choices for rural areas of tropical developing countries.  

PubMed

Health professionals are often absent in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Current wound management in this environment is costly and largely ineffective. Achieving effective wound management in this setting will require educating the lay health providers who manage wounds in villages. Two extensive literature searches were conducted using CINAHL and Medline with no date, geographic, or language restrictions. The question, "What is the evidence base for topical wound treatments and dressings that are affordable and available in developing countries?" was addressed by critically evaluating all 18 identified clinical studies and reviews. The results suggest that a moist wound environment can be maintained using improvised dressings such as banana leaves, saline-soaked furniture foam, and food wrap, and that these choices are superior to many commercial dressings. Some varieties of honey, papaya pulp, EUSOL, and lubricating jelly are effective, affordable substances for treating and debriding wounds. Papaya pulp can be unsafe if not very closely monitored. No studies addressing the second question, "What are the topical wound management interventions currently being used in rural areas of tropical developing countries?" were found. However, 13 articles that could guide the design of research studies in this field were identified and are reviewed here. This literature describes a wide variety of wound prevention and management methods, some known to be deleterious for healing. These two literature reviews reveal the large gaps in the evidence base on available and affordable wound treatment options for rural patients in developing countries. Future research should address these gaps. PMID:24106254

Benskin, Linda L L

2013-10-01

161

Problems and prospects of housing development in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an analysis of the problems and prospects of housing development in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the city of Addis Ababa. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology employed here is a descriptive analysis where the source of the data is mainly secondary data. Basic statistical tools are employed in the analyses of

Abraham Tesfaye

2007-01-01

162

Enabling energy efficiency for low-income housing in Developing countries using MIT Design Advisor  

E-print Network

There is a great need to improve energy efficiency of low-income housing, since people who can afford it least have to pay a significant portion of their income to make their homes more habitable or else live with greater ...

Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

2009-01-01

163

The affordability of China's residential real estate market and opportunities for property developers  

E-print Network

China has the largest housing market in the world and the property market continues to advance at an astonishing pace. In 2009, 22.2% of China's RMB 19.3 trillion fixed asset investment and 17.9% of foreign direct investment ...

Lam, Terence T. (Terence Ting Yin)

2011-01-01

164

76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5300-FA-04...Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice of funding...

2011-02-18

165

Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.  

PubMed

House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium, poorly support larval development and are likely acquired in nature by adult flies during feeding. House fly larvae do not appear to be a suitable model organism for assessment of enterococcal virulence traits. PMID:24605454

Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

2014-01-01

166

A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

2012-01-01

167

Repellent Plants Provide Affordable Natural Screening to Prevent Mosquito House Entry in Tropical Rural Settings—Results from a Pilot Efficacy Study  

PubMed Central

Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana) around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28–0.68, p<0.0001); 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09–0.32, p<0.0001), and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38–0.67, p<0.0001) in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person). L. camara mode of action and suitability for mosquito control is discussed. PMID:22022471

Mng'ong'o, Frank C.; Sambali, Joseph J.; Sabas, Eustachkius; Rubanga, Justine; Magoma, Jaka; Ntamatungiro, Alex J.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Nyogea, Daniel; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Moore, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

168

Repellent plants provide affordable natural screening to prevent mosquito house entry in tropical rural settings--results from a pilot efficacy study.  

PubMed

Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana) around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.68, p<0.0001); 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.32, p<0.0001), and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.67, p<0.0001) in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person). L. camara mode of action and suitability for mosquito control is discussed. PMID:22022471

Mng'ong'o, Frank C; Sambali, Joseph J; Sabas, Eustachkius; Rubanga, Justine; Magoma, Jaka; Ntamatungiro, Alex J; Turner, Elizabeth L; Nyogea, Daniel; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Moore, Sarah J

2011-01-01

169

24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance...Section 972.209 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

170

24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance...Section 972.106 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

171

24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance...Section 972.106 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

172

24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance...Section 972.209 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

173

78 FR 38361 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community Development and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket Number FR-5600-FA-36...Rural Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of...

2013-06-26

174

An international analysis of cigarette affordability  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate how affordable cigarettes are in developed and developing countries, and to calculate by how much the affordability of cigarettes has changed between 1990 and 2001; and secondly, to investigate the relation between cigarette affordability and consumption. Design: Affordability was defined as the cost of cigarettes relative to per capita income. Trends in cigarette affordability, and affordability elasticities of demand, were estimated using regression techniques. Subjects: Seventy countries were investigated, of which 28 are categorised as high income developed countries, while 42 are categorised as developing countries. Cigarette prices were obtained for the main city/cities in the countries. Results: Despite the fact that cigarettes are more expensive in developed countries, the high levels of income make cigarettes more affordable in these countries vis-à-vis developing countries. Of the 28 developed countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 11 and less affordable in 17 countries during the 1990s. Of the 42 developing countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 24 and less affordable in 18 countries. Based on a cross sectional analysis, a 1% increase in the relative income price (the inverse of cigarette affordability) is expected to decrease cigarette consumption by between 0.49–0.57%. Conclusions: Cigarette affordability, more than just the price, determines cigarette consumption. While cigarettes have become more affordable in many developing countries, some developing countries (for example, South Africa, Poland, and Thailand) have implemented strong and effective tobacco control policies, and have been able to decrease cigarette consumption as a result. PMID:15564616

Blecher, E; van Walbeek, C P

2004-01-01

175

Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

2014-01-01

176

24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

2014-04-01

177

24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

2012-04-01

178

24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing...GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

2013-04-01

179

Annual Demographic Data for Migrant Family Housing Centers: 1985 Harvest Season.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California, largest employer of seasonal labor in the United States, employs an average of 119,600 seasonal farmworkers per year. To ease problems of housing this seasonal workforce, the State Department of Housing and Community Development's Office of Migrant Services contracts with local government agencies to provide decent/affordable housing

California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento.

180

Farmworker Housing in Crisis: How Rural Communities Can Learn from the Arvin Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how officials in Arvin, a small rural California community, developed a family housing project to reduce the housing shortage among agricultural workers. Suggested guidelines for similar programs include assessing area needs; matching housing types to needs; maintaining affordability; supervising construction; consulting with local…

Harrison, Patricia

1994-01-01

181

76 FR 30376 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5415-N-36] Announcement...Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice of funding...

2011-05-25

182

78 FR 14110 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket Number FR-5600-FA-14...Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of...

2013-03-04

183

76 FR 59152 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR 5500-FA-12] Announcement...Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice of funding...

2011-09-23

184

75 FR 5338 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5300-N-12] Announcement...Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal...Secretary for Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION: Notice of funding...

2010-02-02

185

Developing a Municipal Fair Housing and Land Use Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research focuses on the applicability of the federal Fair Housing Act to the practice of municipal land use planning and zoning and examines how this relationship can inform a curriculum intended for municipal authorities on their responsibilities under the Act. The purpose of the Fair Housing Act is to provide equal access to housing through desegregation and non-discrimination. Historically,

Ethan Parsons

2008-01-01

186

Affordable ASIC design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in design hardware, software, and prototypes that allow affordable ASIC design are discussed. The topics discussed include economics of ASIC use and fabrication, affordable design platforms, affordable design tools, traditional gate array and standard cell technologies, field programmable gate arrays, affordable prototypes through multi-project wafers, and affordable volume production

J. Tanner; A. Adke; D. H. Lipin

1990-01-01

187

Developing a primary health care management information system that supports the pursuit of equity, effectiveness and affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key set of goals of primary health care (PHC) includes equity, effectiveness and affordability. By equity, we mean universal coverage and care according to need; by effectiveness, that the system has a favorable impact on mortality and serious morbidity; by affordability, that the system is within the budgetary reach of government and communities. There are other requirements of PHC

Khatidja Husein; Olusoji Adeyi; John Bryant; Noorddin B. Cara

1993-01-01

188

Evaluating the Design and Construction Flexibility of Traditional Malay House  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitous terrace house is undeniably the most popular and affordable tihousing type in Malaysia. It has long been considered as one of the densest forms of property development and has become the common typology of accommodating the masses for this country. However, in Malaysia (like other third world countries), the design of a house has never grow from novelistic

Nangkula Utaberta; Nurhananie Spalie

2011-01-01

189

Usability evaluation of in-housed developed ERP system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the combination of different business IS (Information System) applications that are designed according to the organization requirements. Generally ERP systems are suffering from complex user interface issues. Recent research shows that there is a need for improvement concerning, the user interface from their perspectives. In order to design the software applications that are easy to use, memorize and apply to new problems, we must know the users philosophy and something about learning, reminiscence and problems solving. The Usability engineering is the only way to study the deeds of users while interacting with ERP (Enterprise Resource & Planning). This paper will focus on the users' experiences view of financial module in ERP system. The HCI research method, explicitly survey questionnaire method was adopted to gather users understanding in order to evaluate the selected modules for in-housed ERP system. The study involved group of users from two industries, the results can not be generalized as a whole. The study was first time successfully applied Usability evaluation on in-housed ERP in local industry (Masood Textile Mills, Interloop Ltd) in Pakistan. The results may hopefully opened-up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits to Industry in developments of Industrial information systems.

Faisal, Chaudhry Muhammad Nadeem; Shakeel Faridi, Muhammad; Javed, Zahid

2011-10-01

190

Low-income housing : alternative strategies for building construction and project control  

E-print Network

Housing low-income groups, who cannot afford even the most minimal shelter, remains a dominant issue in most developing countries. However, all the solutions advanced so far depend on large investments, either by the ...

Sultan, Javed

1982-01-01

191

Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

1995-01-01

192

Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs generated from these nonstandard requirements. Without industry standardization and acceptance, the programs are driven to shoulder the costs of determining design requirements, performance criteria, and then material qualification and certification. A significant investment that the industry could make to both reduce individual program development costs and schedules while expanding commercial space flight capabilities would be to invest in standardizing material performance properties for high temperature, cryogenic, and deep space environments for both metallic and nonmetallic materials.

Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

2011-01-01

193

76 FR 73988 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-08] Redelegation...Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987, the Fair Housing...

2011-11-29

194

Directory of Minority Housing and Community Development Researchers: A First Step Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a directory of minority researchers in the field of housing and community development. Summarizes data from the directory and calls for increased communication among minority urban researchers in order to develop neighborhood level self-help strategies for improving housing conditions in minority communities. (GC)

Abdul-Karim, Brian Z.; West, Emory J.

1982-01-01

195

HOUSE ENERGY AND WATER DEVELOPMENT SUBCOMMITTEE ACTION on FY 2009 Budget for fusion related items  

E-print Network

HOUSE ENERGY AND WATER DEVELOPMENT SUBCOMMITTEE ACTION on FY 2009 Budget for fusion related items June 23, 2008 Last week the House Energy and Water Development Subcommittee completed its action on their version of the FY09 Energy and Water Development bill. The draft report language is below. The full

196

ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment of wastewater from a subdivision in a physical-chemical treatment plant (screening, chemical coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, carbon adsorption, chlorination) was evaluated. The 190 cu m/day (50,000 gal/day) plant was housed in the shell of a standard house on a ...

197

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new  

E-print Network

Affordable Solar Energy Solar Powder is a solar-energy company that has developed an innovative technology that will set a new low cost point for solar energy. The company plans to manufacture and distribute high-efficiency, high yield, low cost solar panels. The company is making green energy more

Jawitz, James W.

198

Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

Song, Wang-Cheol

199

An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit/analogue-input and 16 bit/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage. A wireless interface was established for ease of use. The reset procedure consists of an internal circuit generating a local heating induced by an electrical current. Sensitivity has been investigated as a function of bias voltage (0-9 V) to the gate. Dosimetric properties have been evaluated for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams and in vivo benchmarking was performed against thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for conventional treatments (two groups of ten patients for each energy) and total body irradiation (TBI). MOSFETS were pre-irradiated with 20 Gy. Sensitivity of 0.08 mV cGy(-1) can be obtained for 200 cGy irradiations at 5 V bias voltage. Ten consecutive measurements at 200 cGy yield a SD of 2.08 cGy (1.05%). Increasing the dose in steps from 5 cGy to 1000 cGy yields a 1.00 Pearson correlation coefficient and agreement within 2.0%. Dose rate dependence (160-800 cGy min(-1)) was within 2.5%, temperature dependence within 2.0% (25-37 degrees C). A strong angular dependence has been observed for gantry incidences exceeding +/-30 degrees C. Dose response is stable up to 50 Gy (saturation occurs at approximately 90 Gy), which is used as threshold dose before resetting the MOSFET. An average measured-over-calculated dose ratio within 1.05 (SD: 0.04) has been obtained in vivo. TBI midplane-dose assessed by entrance and exit dose measurements agreed within 1.9% with ionization chamber in phantom, and within 1.0% with TLD in vivo. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET-based dosimetry system is proposed. The system has been validated and is currently used for in vivo entrance dose measurement in clinical routine for simple (open field) treatment configurations. PMID:20090184

Verellen, Dirk; Van Vaerenbergh, Sven; Tournel, Koen; Heuninckx, Karina; Joris, Laurent; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Gevaert, Thierry; Reynders, Truus; Van de Vondel, Iwein; Coppens, Luc; Depuydt, Tom; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

2010-02-21

200

Developing the Green House Nursing Care Team: Variations on Development and Implementation  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: A core component of the Green House nursing home model is an altered supervisory relationship between the nurse and direct care workers. Some have expressed concern that the Green House model might weaken professional nursing oversight, threatening the quality of clinical care. This qualitative research study explores the role of the nurse as implemented in the Green House model, focusing on how variations in the nursing team influence clinical care practices. Design and Methods: Dimensional analysis, a “second generation” grounded theory methodology, was used to conduct this study. Data were collected through observations and interviews with 37 nurses, 68 CNAs, and 11 Guides working at 11 Green House sites. Results: Implementation of the nursing role within the Green House model varied both within and across sites. Four nursing model types were identified: Traditional, Visitor, Parallel, and Integrated. Care processes, CNA/Shahbaz skill development, and worker stress varied with each nursing model. Implications: Government policies have been enacted to support culture change. However, there is currently little guidance for regulators, providers, or consumers regarding variability in how culture change practices are implemented and consequences of these variations. This article outlines the importance of understanding these practices at a level of detail that distinguishes and supports those that are most promising. PMID:24443606

Bowers, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

201

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE HOUSING MARKET IMPACTS OF SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES THE HOUSING MARKET IMPACTS OF SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT Lucija Muehlenbachs © notice, is given to the source. #12;The Housing Market Impacts of Shale Gas Development Lucija to control for confounding factors, we recover hedonic estimates of property value impacts from shale gas

Habib, Ayman

202

Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2012-01-01

203

Strategies to develop and preserve affordable housing along the Green Line extension for the Somerville Community Corporation  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the history and mission of the Somerville Community Corporation (SCC) within the context of the City of Somerville, and the factors that have contributed to its successes and failures in the past, ...

Gorewitz, Cali

2008-01-01

204

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Officer Office of Economic Resilience Community Planning and Development Office of Hearings and Appeals Congressional and Intergovernmental ... of Strategic Planning & Management Equal Employment Opportunity Policy Development and Research Fair Housing / Equal Opportunity Public Affairs ...

205

Cost and Affordability  

MedlinePLUS

... User Administration Sign Up Sign In Sign Out Cost & Affordability The cost of health care should be affordable to American ... expenses of the care they need and the cost of health care to American employers and governments ...

206

Affordable solar homes for sustainable communities  

SciTech Connect

With support from DOE, a team of design professionals, builders, and manufacturers have developed and begun marketing a series of factory-built integrated solar homes which are price competitive with ordinary homes and easy for prospective homeowners to obtain. These integrated solar homes combine passive solar design; highly insulated, airtight construction; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC; photovoltaic power; and solar hot water. In most cases, they can be built for less than the prevailing cost of comparable new homes in their neighborhoods. Currently these factory-built solar homes are being used in two sustainable community projects. The first is a co-housing community on Cape Cod featuring affordable solar homes, extensive common facilities, and community-supported, sustainable agriculture. The second is a low-income townhome project in Philadelphia aimed at revitalizing a struggling neighborhood.

Rawlings, L.K. [Fully Independent Residential Solar Technology, Inc., Hopewell, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31

207

House Appropriations Committee'Report FY04 Energy and Water Development Act  

E-print Network

House Appropriations Committee'Report FY04 Energy and Water Development Act Fusion with the recommendation of the House-passed National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004, the Committee on the NIF project and expects NNSA to focus on the core NIF projdct to maintain cost and schedule

208

Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action  

PubMed Central

Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

2002-01-01

209

The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas. PMID:24235779

Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

2013-01-01

210

Rental Housing Assistance: The Worsening Crisis: A Report to Congress on Worst Case Housing Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) released at the end of March a report to Congress on what it terms "the worsening crisis" in affordable rental housing. Surprisingly, in a period of unparalleled economic growth, the housing affordability crisis facing very-low-income renters continues to deepen as a record high 5.4 million renter households are "experiencing worst case needs for housing assistance." The number of available units is down while the number of working families and minority families affected is up. The report includes 28 "exhibits" (charts, graphs, and accompanying analysis) documenting the data as well as the text of the report itself, which offers an introduction, findings, policy implicationsand four appendices of data and analysis.

211

76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09] Redelegation...Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

2011-11-29

212

DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1996-06-01

213

Annual Demographic Data for Migrant Family Housing Centers: 1986 Harvest Season.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California, largest employer of seasonal labor in the United States, employs an average of 119,600 seasonal farmworkers per year. Since 1966 the State Department of Housing and Community Development's Office of Migrant Services has contracted with local government agencies to provide decent/affordable housing for approximately 50,220 families…

California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento.

214

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

215

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

216

Preparedness for infectious threats: public-private partnership to develop an affordable vaccine for an emergent threat: the trivalent Neisseria meningitidis ACW135 polysaccharide vaccine.  

PubMed

With the emergence of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis W135 meningitis in Burkina Faso during early 2002, the public health community was faced with the challenge of providing access to an appropriate and affordable vaccine in time for the upcoming 2003 epidemic season. Recognizing the implications of the emergent threat, the World Health Organization developed a strategy, established a public-private partnership to provide the needed vaccine, and then ensured that a stockpile was available for future use. The trivalent N meningitidis ACW135 polysaccharide vaccine that resulted is now one of the primary tools for epidemic response in African meningitis belt countries. It will remain so for the foreseeable future and until appropriate and affordable conjugate vaccines become part of national immunization programs in the region. PMID:17413077

Nelson, Christopher B; Birmingham, Maureen; Costa, Alejandro; Daviaud, Joelle; Perea, William; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Tarantola, Daniel

2007-04-01

217

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the issue of Thursday, June 24,...

2010-07-02

218

An evaluation of the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development's Moving to Work voucher program  

E-print Network

Since implementation nearly 10 years ago there has been limited research into the outcomes of the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development's Moving to Work rental subsidy program. The Congressionally ...

Mahdavi, Pedram

2009-01-01

219

DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC LAWN- APPLIED PESTICIDES IN HOUSE DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Many pesticides have been developed for residential outdoor application, particularly for lawn care. Residues from these applications may be tracked into the home, where they become incorporated with house dust and persist for long periods of time. Consequently, potential human...

220

Resident health advocates in public housing family developments.  

PubMed

Translation of research to practice often needs intermediaries to help the process occur. Our Prevention Research Center has identified a total of 89 residents of public housing in the last 11 years who have been working in the Resident Health Advocate (RHA) program to engage residents in improving their own and other residents' health status by becoming trained in skills needed by community health workers. Future directions include training for teens to become Teen RHAs and further integration of our RHA program with changes in the health care system and in the roles of community health workers in general. PMID:25739061

Bowen, Deborah J; Bhosrekar, Sarah Gees; Rorie, Jo-Anna; Goodman, Rachel; Thomas, Gerry; Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Smith, Eugenia

2015-01-01

221

NASA in-house Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) study report. Volume 1: Concept configuration definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a NASA in-house team effort to develop a concept definition for a Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) are presented. Science mission utilization definition scenarios are documented, the conceptual configuration definition system performance parameters qualified, benchmark operational scenarios developed, space shuttle interface descriptions provided, and development schedule activity was assessed with respect to the establishment of a proposed launch date.

Deryder, L. J.; Chiger, H. D.; Deryder, D. D.; Detweiler, K. N.; Dupree, R. L.; Gillespie, V. P.; Hall, J. B.; Heck, M. L.; Herrick, D. C.; Katzberg, S. J.

1989-01-01

222

Housing Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the variegated terrain of local and state housing policies is key for urban planners, geographers, and others with an interest in the built environment and public policy. This site was created by the Center for Housing Policy (the research affiliate of the National Housing Conference) in order to provide information for "expanding the availability of homes for working families and others in your community." The site was launched in 2008, and includes sections such as Toolbox, Building a Strategy, and Forum. The Getting Started area provides answers to basic questions such as "What is 'affordable housing'?" and "What is 'subsidized housing'?" Moving on, the Toolbox area includes documents and summaries on specific policy tools designed for a variety of reasons, from meeting the housing needs of older adults to improving residential energy efficiency. Visitors won't want to miss the Building a Strategy area. Here they will find information about how to create a successful housing strategy that will provide residential units for a range of community members.

2012-04-20

223

Affordable Care Act's Role in Preventing and Ending Homelessness  

MedlinePLUS

... Targeting 101 What is "sustainable" housing cost burden? Implications for HPRP Rapid Re-Housing Triage Tool Coordinated Assessment Toolkit Building the Permanent Supportive Housing Pipeline Toolkit for Advancing Systems Change Toolkit for Developing and Operating Supportive Housing ...

224

The Special Challenges of Offering Employment Programs in Culturally Diverse Communities: The Jobs-Plus Experience in Public Housing Developments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigration has made public housing populations increasingly diverse, a challenge met by administrators and staff at two housing developments participating in the Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families. Immigrants and refugees from Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America have settled beside native-born…

Kato, Linda Yuriko

225

Lesotho Housing and Land Development Corporation Order, 1988 (No. 12 of 1988).  

PubMed

This Order establishes the Lesotho Housing and Land Development Corporation, managed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Minister of the Interior, Chieftainship Affairs, and Rural Development. The objectives of the Corporation are the following: "1) implementing on a self-financing basis a broad array of schemes including self-help housing, sites and services, land development, and cooperative housing; 2) assisting private parties to develop land and deliver housing; 3) engaging in the development and management of rental housing schemes where it is deemed to be in the economic interest of the Corporation to manage the property; 4) assisting in the mobilization of capital available to the shelter sector by emphasizing in its activities efficiency and cost recovery programs to ensure a good return on investment; 5) developing a longterm capital program that will assure the Corporation's continuing financial viability and ability to remain a vital participant in Lesotho's shelter sector." Further provisions of the Order deal with administration and membership of the Board, financing, accounts, and annual reports, among other things. PMID:12289134

1988-01-01

226

Testing and Development Progress for the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) Testing Series in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS) at Marshall Space Flight Center  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 400 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. (authors)

Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California, US Department of Energy, PO Box 1663, MS J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salvail, Pat [ITT Research Institute, Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Ring, Peter [Advanced Methods and Materials, 510 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 203, Sunnyvale, California, 94086 (United States)

2002-07-01

227

Critical Pedagogy, Experiential Learning and Active Citizenship: A Freirean Perspective on Tenant Involvement in Housing Stock Transfers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key feature of housing policy in the UK is the transfer of affordable housing stock owned by local authorities to not-for-profit registered social landlords. Such transfers involve local authority tenants to varying degrees in the development and implementation of the transfer proposals. Reporting the findings of a series of interviews with…

McCormack, John

2008-01-01

228

Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health.  

PubMed

The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health. PMID:25461878

Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

2015-01-01

229

Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

2011-01-01

230

Developing Measures of Job Performance for Support Staff in Housing Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is an absence of research concerning the assessment of housing support worker job performance, particularly in the development of job performance measures that reflect the priorities of people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Method: A worker-oriented job analysis method was used to develop four short job…

Hatton, Chris; Wigham, Sarah; Craig, Jaime

2009-01-01

231

Edition Three, January 2010 Welcome to HOUSES!  

E-print Network

, interpretation and analysis of the residential property market: Editorial ­ page 3 We all know that house prices 13 Can households afford to buy the house of their dreams? Can households keep up with their mortgage

Evans, Paul

232

77 FR 37233 - Consolidated Delegation of Authority for the Office of Housing-Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of the National Affordable Housing Act of 1990, with respect to the provision of capital advances and rental housing assistance for supportive...the provision of capital advances and rental housing assistance for...

2012-06-20

233

Housing quality and access to material and learning resources within the home environment in developing countries.  

PubMed

This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials a little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI. PMID:22277008

Bradley, Robert H; Putnick, Diane L

2012-01-01

234

Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.  

PubMed

There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered. PMID:23271143

Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

2013-10-01

235

House doctor: curriculum development, training and application. Semi-annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Under the program, House doctor: curriculum development, training, and application, The Neighborhood Institute (TNI) is developing an energy auditor training curriculum package, training a three person team of energy auditors, and auditing/retrofitting 100 dwelling units. This program is utilizing the House Doctor energy auditing building retrofitting program which recommends what should be done to save energy and provides for the immediate correction of residential buildings' various energy problems. Making these corrections results in a 20% average savings on space heating costs. To fulfill the training needs and to provide the benefits of House Doctoring, the trained team of technicians will audit and remedy the energy defects of 100 South Shore (Chicago) dwelling units.

Not Available

1982-06-04

236

Risk Behavior and Perception Among Youths Residing in Urban Public Housing Developments  

PubMed Central

The scientific literature and popular media suggest that variations in housing structure and neighborhood influence risk behaviors among youths living in low-income urban communities. To explore the importance of these factors on early sexual intercourse, substance use, drug trafficking, and school truancy, data from a community-based survey, conducted in six public housing developments in a major eastern metropolis, were analyzed. The survey group consisted of 300 youths aged 9 through 15 years. There were minimal differences in three potential mediators of risk behaviors (e.g., perceived social support, parenting style, and perceived risk exposure) and in self-reported adolescent risk behaviors among youths residing in different housing developments and between youths residing in high-rise and in low-rise structures. These findings do not support the hypothesis that within a risk-dense low-income environment, variations in building structure or in neighborhood are associated with differences in adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:19313105

Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Black, Maureen M.; Romer, Daniel; Ricardo, Izabel; Kaljee, Linda

1994-01-01

237

Global affordability of fluoride toothpaste  

PubMed Central

Objective Dental caries remains the most common disease worldwide and the use of fluoride toothpaste is a most effective preventive public health measure to prevent it. Changes in diets following globalization contribute to the development of dental caries in emerging economies. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost and relative affordability of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The hypothesis is that fluoride toothpaste is not equally affordable in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Methods Data on consumer prices of fluoride toothpastes were obtained from a self-completion questionnaire from 48 countries. The cost of fluoride toothpaste in high-, middle- and low-income countries was compared and related to annual household expenditure as well as to days of work needed to purchase the average annual usage of toothpaste per head. Results The general trend seems to be that the proportion of household expenditure required to purchase the annual dosage of toothpaste increases as the country's per capita household expenditure decreases. While in the UK for the poorest 30% of the population only 0.037 days of household expenditure is needed to purchase the annual average dosage (182.5 g) of the lowest cost toothpaste, 10.75 days are needed in Kenya. The proportion of annual household expenditure ranged from 0.02% in the UK to 4% in Zambia to buy the annual average amount of lowest cost toothpaste per head. Conclusion Significant inequalities in the affordability of this essential preventive care product indicate the necessity for action to make it more affordable. Various measures to improve affordability based on experiences from essential pharmaceuticals are proposed. PMID:18554382

Goldman, Ann S; Yee, Robert; Holmgren, Christopher J; Benzian, Habib

2008-01-01

238

Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration architecture.

Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

2012-01-01

239

Key worker housing : a demographic analysis of working families in eastern Massachusetts  

E-print Network

As housing costs have soared nationwide, many policy makers have grown increasingly aware of working families' housing needs. Currently, having a full-time job does not guarantee decent and affordable housing. Many housing ...

Wagner, Margaret Fitzgerald

2005-01-01

240

FY06 Energy and Water Development Appropriations House Senate Conference Report  

E-print Network

FY06 Energy and Water Development Appropriations House Senate Conference Report Fusion Language of ITER. The GAO shall also evaluate the opportunities to leverage the National Nuclear Security of the National Ignition Facility if the project fails to achieve the ignition demonstration by 2011, or at any

241

Development of a Simultaneous Extraction and Cleanup Method for Pyrethroid Pesticides from Indoor House Dust Samples  

EPA Science Inventory

An ef¿cient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quanti¿cation of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) wi...

242

The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

Borich, Timothy O.

2001-01-01

243

Board Member Development in the Public, Voluntary and Social Housing Sectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Given a number of recent and ongoing changes to the role and responsibilities of executive and non-executive board members of UK social housing organisations, the paper aims to offer a literature review which explores the development provision for board members within such organisations. The paper's key question is: "How are executive and…

Ward, Carolyn; Preece, David

2012-01-01

244

Effects of low-density housing development on shrubland birds in western Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing development in rural areas is the fastest-growing type of land use in the U.S. For birds, development near natural habitats is a problem because it can reduce abundances and nesting success and increase brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In southern New England, populations of shrubland birds are declining rapidly while exurban development is widespread and increasing. We

Scott Schlossberg; David I. King; Richard B. Chandler

2011-01-01

245

Teaching solar energy applications using in-house developed testbench  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for energy from fossil fuel continues to increase, especially in countries such as China and some developing countries. However, known reserves of fossil fuel continue to decrease with resultant increase in the unit cost of oil. This economic consideration, coupled with environmental degradation has spurred renewed interest in alternative energy resources, especially solar energy and photovoltaic technology and

A. U. Chuku; B. Oni; F. Kuate; E. Overton

2005-01-01

246

Development of a program of financial support on enhancing apartment houses maintenance in Korea—Focused on the U.S. and Japanese financial programs for housing maintenance in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Korea has as large a housing stock as other developed countries hold, it has striven to focus on growth-oriented policies by creating new housing units rather than maintaining or rehabilitating existing ones, which has resulted in a few efforts to develop policies to maintain and rehabilitate existing apartment houses. In early 1990, there was a huge construction of 2

Sang-Hoon Park; Eun-Ho Oh

247

CONTROLLING HOUSE DUST MITES THROUGH VENTILATION: the development of a model of mite response to varying hygrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is clear evidence that house dust mite populations in many climatic regions can potentially be controlled by modifying temperature and humidity within dwellings. This paper describes a current multi-disciplinary UK funded research project to develop a predictive model of house dust mite response to varying hygrothermal conditions. The project involves the development of two component models, the first simulating

D Crowther; T Oreszczyn; S Pretlove; I Ridley; J Horwood; P Cox; B Leung

248

_________ _________ ___________Affordable Vocational Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

Marais 2011 © Mediclinic International Ltd. | Presentation for Dept Occupational Therapy US - 50 year reunion | 15-July -2011 #12;3 · Work setting · Burning questions re affordable occupational therapy. | Presentation for Dept Occupational Therapy US - 50 year reunion | 15-July -2011 #12;4 · An acute in

Geldenhuys, Jaco

249

The Problem with Affordance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the concept of "affordance", a term widely used in the literature on learning and technology to try and explain the properties technologies have. It is argued that the concept has drifted so far from its origins that it is now too ambiguous to be analytically valuable. In addition, it is suggested that its origins in…

Oliver, Martin

2005-01-01

250

Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

Mahfood, Denise Marcia

251

The Development of an Implementation Model for ICT in Education: An Example of the Interaction of Affordances and Multimodality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the development of a model targeted at non-specialist practitioners implementing innovations that involve information and communication technology (ICT) in education. It is based on data from a national evaluation of ICT-based projects in initial teacher education, which included a large-scale questionnaire survey and six…

Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

2014-01-01

252

Health in all policies: the role of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and present and future challenges.  

PubMed

The link between federal housing policy and public health has been understood since the nineteenth century, when housing activists first sought to abolish slums and create healthful environments. This article describes how the Obama administration-building on these efforts and those that followed, including the Great Society programs of President Lyndon Johnson-has adopted a cross-sector approach that takes health considerations into account when formulating housing and community development policy. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development fully embraces this "health in all policies" approach. Nonetheless, the administration's strategy faces challenges, including fiscal and political ones. Some of these challenges may be overcome by conducting quality research on how housing and community development policies affect health outcomes, and by developing a federal budget strategy that takes into account how investments in one sector contribute to cost savings in another. PMID:22914341

Bostic, Raphael W; Thornton, Rachel L J; Rudd, Elizabeth C; Sternthal, Michelle J

2012-09-01

253

A comprehensive approach to the formulation of capital projects in developing countries : finance and implementation. Case study, Edendale, Kwazulu (housing)  

E-print Network

This Thesis deals with capital project formulation in developing countries. The objective is to provide guidelines for the formulation of housing development projects, their implementation structures and financial plans ...

Davis, Trevor Paul

1983-01-01

254

Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.  

PubMed

Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to establish capacity to manufacture a vaccine. The Advanced Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines is a so-called pull mechanism that guarantees companies a supplement paid in addition to the purchase price for vaccines for a specific period. We compare these approaches, identifying key dimensions of each and considering their potential for replication. We also discuss issues that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) face now that these new vaccines are available. Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered. PMID:21664678

Hargreaves, James R; Greenwood, Brian; Clift, Charles; Goel, Akshay; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Smith, Richard; Heymann, David L

2011-11-26

255

Build and organize community maintained and managed gardens on the rooftops of state-owned affordable housing units to provide the com- munity unifying and useful space, a sense of empowerment, a source of healthy foods, and decreased energy costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities living in the large public housing projects of New York City live in concentrated poverty and face a battery of difficulties that go far beyond fi- nancial constraints. Higher than average rates of nutritional disease, depression, and feelings of isolation are just a few of the stresses felt by these communi- ties. These basic problems should be addressed so

Lindsey Gael

256

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development  

E-print Network

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011. Use of trade names is for identification only, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban

257

The project to design and develop an energy-related program for public housing residents: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This demonstration project studied how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilities indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

Not Available

1986-12-01

258

The evolution of ideas about the relationship between housing and economic development: Ghanaian policy in an international context, 1945--2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of housing as a tool of economic development is often underestimated. Whereas many policy-makers, economic development analysts, and international agencies have for a long time recognized the social importance of housing, few have typically recognized the utility of the sector in promoting and achieving economic development goals. And yet, the housing sector is a major force in the

Godwin Arku

2005-01-01

259

Arctic house  

E-print Network

Currently available housing in the Arctic is limited to solutions that have been adapted from designs for less severe climates. This thesis has developed a new manner of residential construction designed specifically for ...

Turkel, Joel A. (Joel Abram), 1969-

1999-01-01

260

Residential development in Massachusetts : chapter 40B and the Trojan Horse  

E-print Network

Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 40B, also known as the "anti-snob zoning law", has become one of the state's most prolific affordable housing development tools: in the years since its passage in 1969 its provisions have ...

Schwartzberg, Theodore E

2008-01-01

261

Capital for communities : connecting community development loan funds to individual investors  

E-print Network

Community development loan funds (CDLFs) play a critical role in financing affordable housing, small businesses, and non-profit organizations in low-income communities throughout the US. Since the 2008 financial crisis ...

Solomon, Ann DeMoss

2011-01-01

262

24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT...401(d) (space and security). (c) Facilities...982.401(b), and food preparation and...

2010-04-01

263

24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Where Family Can Live and Move § 982.352 Eligible housing. (a) Ineligible housing. The following types of housing may not be...

2010-04-01

264

Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments.  

PubMed

The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2 ?g/m3, higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 ?g/m3) compared with summer (8.0 ?g/m3). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m3 (mean 311 ng/m3). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared with summer (620 vs. 85 ng/m3; 95% CI: 72-998). Smoking-related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities that may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure and protect non-smokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

Arku, R E; Adamkiewicz, G; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D; Levy, D E

2015-02-01

265

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

266

24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... (1) The monthly expenditure for principal, interest, taxes, and insurance by an eligible family that is...

2011-04-01

267

24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... (1) The monthly expenditure for principal, interest, taxes, and insurance by an eligible family that is...

2010-04-01

268

76 FR 61150 - Enhanced-Use Lease (EUL) of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Real Property for the Development...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EUL development. As consideration for the lease, the lessee will be required to provide a new community-based outpatient clinic, profit sharing, and discounted rent to Veterans residing in the senior living retirement and affordable housing...

2011-10-03

269

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Assessing `Affordability' of Food at the University of British Columbia: Planning for the  

E-print Network

' of Food at the University of British Columbia: Planning for the Future of Food Security Margaret England `Affordability' of Food at the University of British Columbia: Planning for the Future of Food Security AGSC 450 Yuen #12;2 Abstract The economic aspect of food security at The University of British Columbia

270

Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for future risk reduction.

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Massada, Avi Bar; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

2013-01-01

271

Land Use Planning and Wildfire: Development Policies Influence Future Probability of Housing Loss  

PubMed Central

Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for future risk reduction. PMID:23977120

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

2013-01-01

272

Development of design & technology package for cost effective housing in Gujrat  

E-print Network

Purpose: Improve quality of life in rural areas through intervention of infrastructure and housing improvement. Provide methods of building better and cost-effective houses at a quicker pace. Devise strategies of withdrawing ...

Chaudhry, Rajive

1996-01-01

273

Rationalizing urban land utilization : guidelines for housing developments in greater Khartoum, Sudan  

E-print Network

The housing crisis in Greater Khartoum manifests itself in a very high demand for housing and a deficient supply mechanism. This unsatisfied demand is reflected in high rents and land prices, high occupancy rates, and ...

Hamid, Gamal Mahmoud

1986-01-01

274

Passive solar in the city : an energy conscious design for subsidized multi-family housing development  

E-print Network

Until now, passive solar energy has been overlooked as a viable alternative for home heating in urban subsidized housing. Rather ironically, in housing whose residents could most benefit from the use of solar energy, such ...

Duncan, Karen M

1981-01-01

275

Development of a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed mother-peer-reared infant rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Though cognitive testing of infant monkeys has been practiced for the past 40 years, these assessments have been limited primarily to nursery-reared infants due to the confounds of separating mother-reared infants for assessments. Here, we describe a pilot study in which we developed a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus macaques under 1 year of age (Macaca mulatta) that allowed the infants to freely return to their mothers for contact comfort. Infants aged 151.2?±?18.3 days (mean?±?SEM; n?=?5) were trained and tested on an object detour reach task. Infants completed training in 5.0?±?0.2 days, and completed testing in 6.2?±?0.9 days. Across 4 days of testing, infants improved to nearly errorless performance (Friedman test: ?(2) ?=?13.27, df?=?3, p?=?0.004) and learned to do the task more quickly (Friedman test: ?(2) ?=?11.69, df?=?3, p?=?0.009). These are the first cognitive data in group-housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus monkeys under 1 year of age, and they underscore the utility of this apparatus for studying cognitive development in a normative population of infant monkeys. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Dev Psychobiol :349-355, 2015. PMID:25782609

Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J

2015-04-01

276

Affordable attached homes  

SciTech Connect

The proposed design of a solar housing project for senior citizens in Roosevelt, NJ is described. The project has the ambience of a small village. There are eight residential dwellings: four one-bedroom duplexes, two two-bedroom duplexes, and two one-bedroom quadruplexes. The living/dining area receives heat and light from a skylight overhead and from the mass wall heated by s solarium. The south wall of each bedroom is a stagnant Trombe wall. Electrical resistance was chosen for back up instead of a central heating system. In the guise of a decorative cupola, a solar chimney is used to cool the residences. (MJF)

Holland, E.

1982-10-01

277

An Investigation of the Current Practices of In-House Employee Training and Development within Hotels in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an itlvestigation of in-house employee training and development practices within hotels in Scotland having 50 or more bedroonls front an operation\\/ management perspective. Issites pertaining to employee trainitzg and development practices are identified - reduction in st@ turnover; responsibility for staff traitzing and development, time constraints, variety of training methods and training frequency. III

Ian Buick; Ganesan Muthu

1997-01-01

278

Affordable In-Space Transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

1996-01-01

279

Family Housing Wysocki House  

E-print Network

Family Housing Wysocki House 911 North Pleasant Street University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA):________________________________________ STUDENT ENROLLMENT: Undergrad Graduate Are you a current Family Housing Tenant?_________ UMASS STAFF WOULD LIKE US TO KNOW? LIST REMARKS BELOW: SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR APARTMENT PREFERENCE SELECTION FAMILY

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

280

Advances in the development of FRIDA's mechanisms control system and house-keeping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FRIDA will be a near infrared imager and integral field spectrograph covering the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 microns. Primary observing modes are: direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy. This paper describes the main advances in the development of the electronics and control system for both the mechanisms and house-keeping of FRIDA. In order to perform several tests of mechanisms in both room and cryogenic environments, a set of programs had been developed. All variables of the vacuum control system were determined and the main control structure based on one Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) had been established. A key function of the FRIDA's control system is keeping the integrity of cryostat during all processes, so we have designed a redundant heating control system which will be in charge of avoiding cryostat inner overheating. In addition, some improvements of cryogenic and room temperature cabling structure are described.

Flores-Meza, R.; Garcés, J.; Lara, G.; Sánchez, B.; Espejo, C.; Keiman, C.; Cuevas, S.; Díaz, J. J.

2014-07-01

281

Affordances and the musically extended mind  

PubMed Central

I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

Krueger, Joel

2014-01-01

282

Affordances and the musically extended mind.  

PubMed

I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

Krueger, Joel

2014-01-01

283

In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production  

PubMed Central

[11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4?MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15?min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study. PMID:25244351

Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon

2015-01-01

284

Development and validation of a dynamic mathematical model of ammonia release in pig house.  

PubMed

A dynamic mathematical model of Carbon-dioxide Accelerated Ammonia Release (CAAR) was developed based on the known knowledge of the chemistry of ammonia (NH3) in liquid solution, mass transfer inside liquid and across liquid-gaseous interface, and a new concept of CAAR. It calculated the NH3 concentration, release and emission at transient and steady state conditions related to a mechanically ventilated pig house. One field experimental data set was used for estimating the proportionality coefficient in the model. Another field data set was used for model validation. The ammonia concentration and emission rate calculated in the model validation were compared with the field measurement values. R2 of 0.861 and 0.947 were obtained for NH3 concentration and emission rate, respectively. In the model validation, the pH in manure surface was found to increase from 8 at initial condition to 8.85 at dynamic equilibrium due to the co-release of CO2 from the manure. This pH change accelerated the NH3 release by 6.1-fold. The model provided a quantitative description of some new understanding of the mechanism of NH3 release in the pig house and entailed suggestions of two new techniques of NH3 emission abatement: the reduction of CO2 release and the new ventilation control strategy. PMID:11345731

Ni, J Q; Hendriks, J; Vinckier, C; Coenegrachts, J

2000-08-01

285

In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production.  

PubMed

[11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4?MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15?min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study. PMID:25244351

Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Min, Jung-Joon

2015-01-01

286

24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). 266.100 Section...HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED...AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100...

2010-04-01

287

HOUSING IN YOUR TOWN, WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ROLE OF THE UNION MEMBER IN REGARD TO HOUSING PROBLEMS WAS PRESENTED. DESPITE THE CLAIMS OF EXPERTS, AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT AFFORD A HOUSE COSTING THREE TIMES HIS ANNUAL INCOME, THERE IS NO PLACE IN THE COUNTRY WHERE HE CAN BUY A NEW, STANDARD HOUSE WITH THREE BEDROOMS FOR $7,680. THEREFORE, BECAUSE NEW HOUSES ARE SO EXPENSIVE, MOST PEOPLE LIVE…

CROSBY, ALEXANDER L.

288

Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

2006-01-01

289

Affordable WDM components: the polymer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced polymeric waveguide technology was developed for affordable WDM components that address the needs of both the Telecom and the Datacom industries. We engineered high- performance organic polymers that can be readily made into both multimode and single-mode optical waveguide structures of controlled numerical aperture and geometry. These materials are formed from highly-crosslinked acrylate monomers with specific linkages that

Louay A. Eldada; Shing Yin; Robert A. Norwood; James T. Yardley

1998-01-01

290

Affordable inactivated poliovirus vaccine: strategies and progress.  

PubMed

After polio eradication is achieved, the use of live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must be discontinued because of the inherent risk of the Sabin strains to revert to neurovirulence and reacquire greater transmissibility that could potentially result in the reestablishment of polio transmission. In 2008, the World Health Assembly mandated that the World Health Organization establish a strategy for developing more-affordable inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) options for low-income countries. In 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended universal IPV introduction as a risk-mitigation strategy before the phased cessation of OPV (starting with Sabin type 2) and emphasized the need for affordable IPV options. In 2013, SAGE reiterated the importance of attaining the long-term target price of IPV at approximately $0.5 per immunizing dose and encouraged accelerated efforts to develop lower-cost IPV options. This article outlines the 4-pronged approach that is being pursued to develop affordable options and provides an update on the current status and plans to make IPV affordable for developing-country use. PMID:25316868

Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W; Jafari, Hamid S; Takane, Marina; Aylward, R Bruce

2014-11-01

291

Satisfaction with Public Housing in Papua New GuineaThe Case of West Taraka Housing Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost everywhere, the need to increase the supply of conventional public housing especially for the low-income urban households at affordable cost has undoubtedly sacrificed indoor space living standards. This study reports the findings of an investigation of urban households' satisfaction with public housing in West Taraka, one of the low-income housing suburbs in the city of Lae. The results of

Sababu Kaitilla

1993-01-01

292

Project to design and develop an energy-related program: For public housing residents and renters: Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

This demonstration project was undertaken as a result of an unsolicited proposal submitted by THE ASSIGNMENT GROUP (TAG) to the Office of Minority Economic Impact, Department of Energy (DOE). The problem to which the proposal responded was how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The size and gravity of the problem necessitated a purpose or aim that had nationwide application, yet lent itself to a microscopic look. Consequently, the goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilitates indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

Not Available

1988-05-01

293

The impact of transit-oriented development on housing prices in San Diego, CA.  

PubMed

This research measures the influence of transit-oriented development (TOD) on the San Diego, CA, condominium market. Many view TOD as a key element in creating a less auto dependent and more sustainable transport system. Price premiums indicate a potential for a market-driven expansion of TOD inventory. A hedonic price model is estimated to isolate statistically the effect of TOD. This includes interaction terms between station distance and various measures of pedestrian orientation. The resulting model shows that station proximity has a significantly stronger impact when coupled with a pedestrian-oriented environment. Conversely, station area condominiums in more auto-oriented environments may sell at a discount. This indicates that TOD has a synergistic value greater than the sum of its parts. It also implies a healthy demand for more TOD housing in San Diego. PMID:21174895

Duncan, Michael

2011-01-01

294

76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...program work in subareas of their market; in such an instance, a PHA...adversely impacted. Such programs target affordable housing development...areas had FMRs set at below-market rents. Few commenters addressed...use of higher FMRs when local market conditions reduce program...

2011-04-20

295

Development of Energy-Efficient Housing for Low-Income Texas Residents  

E-print Network

and instrumenting a baseline Habitat for Humanity house. Monitoring of the 26 channels of 15-minute data began in March 1998 and has continued through December 1998. The energy and environmental data from the house will also be made available to faculty and students... or problem. Habitat for Humanity is a non-profit, Christian-affiliated ecumenical housing group that helps build low-income housing in the United States and other countries. Habitat aims at increasing the ability of families to buy a home by giving low...

Haberl, J. S.; Kootin-Sanwu, V.

1999-01-01

296

Creating an asset management model for Massachusetts state-aided public housing : a study of policies and practices to inform the Massachusetts Department of Housing and Community Development  

E-print Network

Local housing authorities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts currently manage over 50,000 state-aided public housing units on a consolidated, authority-wide level-a style of property management that does not allow for ...

Creeley, Hannah Highton

2009-01-01

297

Impacts of short-term food restriction on immune development in altricial house sparrow nestlings *.  

PubMed

Abstract Food limitation is a common ecological scenario for nestling altricial birds, and reductions in growth and maintenance have been observed in resource-limited nestlings. Substantial development of the immune system occurs during the nestling period, yet the resource dependence of this immune development is understudied. We examined constitutive immune system development as well as acute-phase responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection after 48 h of food restriction in house sparrows at 7 and 13 d posthatch. We also examined nestlings that were restricted early (5-7 d) but refed and tested at 13 d posthatch to determine whether altered immune function and growth early in the nestling period were recovered upon return to adequate resource supply. Induced acute-phase protein response was reduced in food-restricted birds, yet no lasting reductions in acute-phase protein levels were observed in previously restricted nestlings that were challenged with LPS after refeeding. Food restriction did not significantly impact constitutive levels of complement-mediated lysis or circulating IgY antibodies. As a comparator to immune measures, we found that organ and tarsus size, as well as muscle size and citrate synthase enzyme activity (an index of muscle cellular aerobic capacity), were significantly reduced in food-restricted nestlings. Reductions in flight muscle mass and function persisted in birds refed after early food restriction, which may have contributed to persistent body temperature reductions observed in refed birds. PMID:25730274

Killpack, Tess L; Carrel, Elijah; Karasov, William H

2015-01-01

298

Development and Validation of the University Student Housing Application and Student Matching and Placement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year, on-campus student housing at colleges and universities throughout the United States populates with over 2.6 million students, many of which are first-time freshmen. To students in housing, finding the right roommate can decrease the effects of homesickness, minimize roommate conflict, and help build long-lasting relationships. Research…

Dishno, Aaron Scott

2010-01-01

299

Agonistic onset during development differentiates wild house mouse males ( Mus domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild house mouse populations have been suggested to locally adapt to varying dispersal regimes by expressing divergent aggressivity phenotypes. This conjecture implies, first, genetic polymorphism for dispersive strategies which is supported by the finding of heritable variation for male dispersal tendency in feral house mice. Secondly, aggressivity is assumed to translate into dispersal rates. This speculation is reinforced by experimental

Sven Krackow

2005-01-01

300

An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

2012-01-01

301

24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds may be used for the...

2011-04-01

302

24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds may be used for the...

2012-04-01

303

24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds may be used for the...

2010-04-01

304

24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds may be used for the...

2014-04-01

305

Housing breeding mice in three different IVC systems: maternal performance and pup development.  

PubMed

A proper cage environment is essential for the welfare of laboratory mice, especially for females during the energy demanding lactation period and for pups during early development and growth. The most common housing system for laboratory mice is individually ventilated cages (IVCs) of which there are different layouts and ventilation strategies available on the market. The present study investigates the impact of cage environment in three different IVC types, on the maternal performance of females, and pup development and growth in C57BL/6NCrl and Crl:NMRI Foxn1 (nu) mice. The results show differences in in-cage climate, female body weight, pup growth, feed and water consumption, and nest quality between cage types. There was a distinct effect of genotype in these differences, with the main effects found in NMRI NU mice. The results indicate that IVC systems might need to be managed differently for mice of different types and/or different physiological status. Many of the differences seen between cage systems could be drawn to the physical construction of the cage, such as location of feed hopper and location of air inlet and outlet. In conclusion, IVC in-cage climate affects the maternal performance of female mice and pup growth, but with differences between the two strains tested. PMID:24759571

Spangenberg, Emf; Wallenbeck, A; Eklöf, A-C; Carlstedt-Duke, J; Tjäder, S

2014-04-23

306

A Meta-Impact Evaluation of Social Housing Programs: The Chilean Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chilean's housing policy and programs are one of the most copied amongst the Chilean policies. The homegrown policy was and is considered a vanguard way of approaching housing problems. This paper presents the findings of a meta-evaluation of Chile's Social Housing Programs. We found that, in terms of affordability and housing quality housing needs, the situation has improved overtime,

Inder J Ruprah; Luis T Marcano

2007-01-01

307

7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing...PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance Program Pt. 1948,...

2010-01-01

308

The flexible house.  

PubMed

SUMMARY "The Flexible House: A Fairy Tale" is a fictionalized account of a long-term lesbian relationship, which uses the metaphor of building a house for the development of the relationship. The narrator invites a mysterious third woman into their home, and then must live with the aftershocks the house goes through. PMID:24786044

Werhane, K

1999-01-01

309

24 CFR 1006.205 - Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the acquisition, new construction, reconstruction...affordable housing; (3) Financing acquisition of affordable...financial assistance (4) New construction of affordable...persons; and (iii) Energy-related improvements...persons; and (iii) Energy-related...

2013-04-01

310

24 CFR 1006.205 - Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for the acquisition, new construction, reconstruction...affordable housing; (3) Financing acquisition of affordable...financial assistance (4) New construction of affordable...persons; and (iii) Energy-related improvements...persons; and (iii) Energy-related...

2014-04-01

311

24 CFR 1006.205 - Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the acquisition, new construction, reconstruction...affordable housing; (3) Financing acquisition of affordable...financial assistance (4) New construction of affordable...persons; and (iii) Energy-related improvements...persons; and (iii) Energy-related...

2012-04-01

312

Abstract--We are developing robots for inspection of the under floor of houses. The developed robot system is reported in  

E-print Network

Abstract--We are developing robots for inspection of the under floor of houses. The developed robot for rescue purposes. As sensors, a pan-tilt-zoom camera, top-view camera and SOKUIKI sensor are used. We constructed a test field and verified the performance of the robot. I. INTRODUCTION HE inspection of under

Ohya, Akihisa

313

System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

2008-01-01

314

HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2 (1989 edition). Solar heating and domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1 were developed to provide a sound technical basis for housing under numerous programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These Intermediate Minimum Property Standards for Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems are intended to provide a companion technical basis for the planning and design of solar heating and domestic hot water systems. These standards have been prepared as a supplement to the Minimum Property Standards (MPS) and deal only with aspects of planning and design that are different from conventional housing by reason of the solar systems under consideration. The document contains requirements and standards applicable to one- and two-family dwellings, multifamily housing, and nursing homes and intermediate care facilities references made in the text to the MPS refer to the same section in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1.

Not Available

1989-12-01

315

7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this subpart. Each set of drawings will contain the design of the foundation system required for the soil and slope conditions...and the house is being erected or placed on the foundation, to determine compliance with the accepted...

2010-01-01

316

77 FR 22599 - Department of Housing and Urban Development Summary of Public Comments, Response to Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...where appropriate. Response: One of the goals...chronically homeless individuals, and homeless...efficiency standards. Response: HUD understands...of housing for individuals. Several initiatives...and programs. Response: HUD knows that...inextricably tied to individual health and...

2012-04-16

317

Sources of nitrate in ground water in a sewered housing development, Central Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate concentrations in ground water on Long Island, New York, have increased markedly in the last 30 years. A significant amount of this increase has been attributed to lawn and garden fertilizers in addition to cesspool and septic-tank discharges. The increase in nitrate concentration is of particular concern in the central and eastern part of the island, where ground water is the sole source of drinking water. Ground-water samples were collected from 14 wells screened near the water table in the sewered Twelve Pines housing development constructed in Medford, Suffolk County, in 1970. Samples were collected during 1972-79 and analyzed for total ammonium, organic nitrogen, and nitrate. Statistical analyses indicate that concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in water from 10 of the wells increased significantly during 1972-79; those in water from the other four wells did not. Nitrogen loads were estimated to be 2,300 kg/yr from fertilizers, less than 80 kg/yr from irrigation water, 200 kg/yr from animals, and less than 670 kg/yr from precipitation. Leakage from sewers was considered negligible. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope ratios also suggest that the greatest source of nitrogen is from cultivation sources (either mineralized soil nitrogen or fertilizers) rather than human or animal wastes.

Flipse, W.J., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Lindner, J.B.; Markel, R.

1984-01-01

318

Develop security architecture for both in-house healthcare information systems and electronic patient record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we presented a new security approach to provide security measures and features in both healthcare information systems (PACS, RIS/HIS), and electronic patient record (EPR). We introduced two security components, certificate authoring (CA) system and patient record digital signature management (DSPR) system, as well as electronic envelope technology, into the current hospital healthcare information infrastructure to provide security measures and functions such as confidential or privacy, authenticity, integrity, reliability, non-repudiation, and authentication for in-house healthcare information systems daily operating, and EPR exchanging among the hospitals or healthcare administration levels, and the DSPR component manages the all the digital signatures of patient medical records signed through using an-symmetry key encryption technologies. The electronic envelopes used for EPR exchanging are created based on the information of signers, digital signatures, and identifications of patient records stored in CAS and DSMS, as well as the destinations and the remote users. The CAS and DSMS were developed and integrated into a RIS-integrated PACS, and the integration of these new security components is seamless and painless. The electronic envelopes designed for EPR were used successfully in multimedia data transmission.

Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhuang, Jun; Jiang, Jianrong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, H. K.

2003-05-01

319

The Development of Improved Energy Efficient Housing for Thailand Utilizing Renewable Energy Technology  

E-print Network

strategies and renewable energy technologies using the annualized life-cycle cost analysis method described in ASHRAE Handbook (ASHRAE, 1999; Haberl, 1993). RESULTS Measured Space Temperatures in the Case-study House The living room, bedroom-3... could be accomplished with an additional modest investment. Results of Economic Analysis An annualized life-cycle cost analysis of the case-study house, which included energy efficiency strategies and the renewable energy technologies...

Rasisuttha, S.; Haberl, J.

320

Low Impact, Affordable, Low Income Houses for Mexico  

E-print Network

, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI). (2008a). II Conteo de Poblacion y Vivienda 2005. Mexico y sus Municipios. nol...). (2008c). Perfil Sociodemografico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. nol/bvinegi/productos/censos/conteo/2005/perfiles/Pe rfil_Soc_EUMX1.pdf> (30 September 2009) Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y...

Alcocer, J. L. B.; Haberl, J. S.

321

Thermo-structural development of the ITER ICRF strap housing module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since March 2010 the preliminary design of the ITER ICRF Antennas have been developed by CYCLE, a consortium consisting of IPP (Garching), CCFE (Culham), CEA (Cadarache), Politecnico di Torino (Torino) and LPPERM/KMS (Brussels). This paper describes the steps taken to develop the present geometry of the triplet pair Strap Housing Module from a thermal and structural perspective, and shows the critical areas of the structure. Key issues are the manufacturability, (achieved by HIPing - Hot Isostatic Pressing), the ability to handle the radiating plasma thermal flux of 0.35 MW/m2, the RF losses and the neutronic radiation. HIPing is necessary to achieve the complicated system of cooling channels inside the structure, which divides the coolant equally in order to supply each strap in the triplet with 1 l/s of water. The components have also to withstand the strong mechanical forces generated by plasma disruptions affecting all internal structures and the elevated design cooling water pressure of 5MPa. In order to maximise reliability, joints between different materials in the cooling water system have been kept to a minimum. Therefore, in the interests of fabricability and availability, the whole structure is manufactured out of stainless steel (316L(N)IG). The low conductivity of 316L(N)IG demands small wall thicknesses to avoid hot spots; however this reduces the mechanical strength. Consequently an in depth FEM analysis is presented, which was used to find and to improve the critical aspects of this important component and was the best means of finding the optimum between thermal and mechanical performance.

Winkler, K.; Shannon, M.; Lockley, D.

2014-02-01

322

An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter  

PubMed Central

Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

2014-01-01

323

Meeting the Need for Child Care: Problems and Progress. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hearing was held to identify problems and assess progress in the provision of affordable, high quality child care. Testimony concerned: (1) problems working parents have had in providing care for their young children; (2) day care initiatives and needs in California; (3) ways in which San Mateo County used its housing and community development

Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

324

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration through  

E-print Network

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Affordable Human Moon and Mars Exploration calls for the safe, affordable, and sustainable human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In order to achieve exploration affordability and sustainability, the Mars-back approach was developed

de Weck, Olivier L.

325

Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act. House of Representatives, 103d Congress, 1st Session. Report To Accompany H.R. 856.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The House Committee on Education and Labor reports on the bill (H.R. 856) to improve education in the United States by promoting excellence in research, development, and the dissemination of information. The committee reports favorably on the bill, with an amendment, and recommends that the House pass the bill as amended. Consideration of H.R. 856…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

326

Affordable Care Act and Women  

MedlinePLUS

... access to quality, affordable health coverage. Background on Women’s Health in America Women have unique, and sometimes costly, ... gov/health/reports/2011/individualmarket/ib.shtml . 6 Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Factsheet. http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/ ...

327

Japan's manufactured housing capability. A review of the industry and assessment of future impact on the US market  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese have what is generally recognized as the most advanced manufactured housing capability in the world. With heavy reliance on computerized design and inventory control systems, assembly-line production, robotics and sizable research and development budgets, Japan has developed a high-tech housing approach distinct from that found in the United States. Japan's manufactured housing capability and its benefits in producing high quality housing at an affordable price are surveyed. The housing market in Japan and the United States will be compared and the potential impact of Japanese manufactured housing on the United States assessed. Though Japan's manufactured housing capability offers great promise, there are several issues that limit the direct import of these technologies as currently practiced to the United States. Among these obstacles are: (1) inappropriate heating and cooling systems and levels of energy conservation for many areas of the US; (2) the high cost of capitalizing major new housing plants; (3) the design inflexibility of some manufactured housing products; and (4) the difficulty of marketing a mass-produced housing product in the US with its differing regional and local building codes.

Sackett, J.G.

1986-05-01

328

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit : HERA, ARRA and beyond  

E-print Network

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) has arguably been the most successful government subsidy to finance affordable housing. Since its creation in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 as Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 42, ...

Korb, Jason (Jason Bryan Patricof)

2009-01-01

329

75 FR 55891 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-entry Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...III Federal Housing Finance Agency...declining multifamily market fundamentals. 5. Availability of...state and local housing finance agencies (HFAs) through...prices and declining fundamentals in the market (e...than Freddie Mac to finance affordable units...

2010-09-14

330

Aaron House From: Aaron House  

E-print Network

1 Aaron House From: Aaron House Sent: Tuesday, January 28, 2014 3:27 PM To://finserv.uchicago.edu/award/benefits.shtml If you have questions, email finservhelp@lists.uchicago.edu Aaron House Training Manager

He, Chuan

331

Electric propulsion -- Fleet readiness at affordable costs  

SciTech Connect

The successful development and demonstration of the Al-AgO primary battery system dramatically demonstrated the viability of electric power plants for torpedo propulsion. Present efforts are focused on the development and demonstration of very low cost, quiet, high performance, safe, environmentally compatible, rechargeable batteries for heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes and tactical-sized UUVs. Electric power plants consisting of a rechargeable battery and a high reliability motor must be affordable to own and operate and enable turn around without teardown for today`s Fleet assets.

Orndorff, C.M.; Egan, C.J. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI (United States)

1996-11-01

332

Sustainable Housing Development in Urban Australia: exploring obstacles to and opportunities for ecocity efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic aspects of sustainable housing design such as increasing density, mixed use and proximity to public transport are being adopted increasingly in Australian cities. Sustainable building codes such as NSW's BASIX and Victoria's Green Star rating systems are also being implemented and advanced. More substantial improvements and endeavours such as onsite food production, energy generation and waste treatment, are being

Louise Crabtree

2005-01-01

333

DEVELOPMENT OF VOCALISATIONS IN NESTLING AND FLEDGLING HOUSE WRENS IN NATURAL POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a field study of the ontogeny of vocal signals in the house wren Troglodytes aedon during the nestling and fledgling phases of life. We did spectrographic analyses and quantification of the developmental changes that occurred in the acoustic features of the vocalisations. Evidence of progress to adult-like vocal patterns was of two types. First, nestling calls changed into

MALA H. SAWHNEY; MYRON C. BAKER; BRADLEY R. BISBEE

2006-01-01

334

Cinematic College: "National Lampoon's Animal House" Teaches Theories of Student Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study is to analyze how potential college-bound and current college students make meaning about the higher education experience from the legendary film that is pivotal in the American college culture, sets the trend for future college-themed films, and is a national phenomenon--"National Lampoon's Animal House"…

Tucciarone, Krista M.

2007-01-01

335

Optics learning through affordable kit  

SciTech Connect

An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

P, Anusha N, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Shaji, Chitra, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

2014-10-15

336

Houses for Dorchester  

E-print Network

The intent of this thesis is to develop a design for thirty units of housing responding to the development objectives of the Nuestra Comunidad Development Corporation (NCDC) in the Upham Corner district of Dorchester. It ...

Chalmers, Thomas C. (Thomas Clark)

1987-01-01

337

Development of sputter coatings for the gravity probe B gyroscope housings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cu/Ti coatings have been applied by sputter deposition to fused quartz housings to serve as the electrodes and lands of electrostatically supported gyroscopes. Niobium-coated fused quartz gyro rotors have been successfully suspended and spun up in those housings. The Cu/Ti bilayer coating and alternative multilayer coatings (Cu/Mo, Mo/Cu/Ti and Mo/Cu/Mo) with 2-micron thickness produced by sputter deposition on flat, fused quartz substrates have been examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and four-point resistivity measurement techniques. The multilayer coatings with a molybdenum bonding layer appear to produce smoother surfaces than those with a titanium bonding layer. All multilayer coatings survived thermal cycling to 77 K without adhesion failure.

Zhou, P.; Cheung, S.; Lydic, T.; Turneaure, J. P.

1988-01-01

338

The Role of the House Dust Mite-Induced Innate Immunity in Development of Allergic Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

House dust mite (HDM) represents one of the most common sources of aeroallergens worldwide and more than 50% of allergic patients are sensitized to these allergenic molecules. HDM allergy research in the past has been mainly focused on adaptive, mite allergen-dependent immune responses. In recent years it has become clear that, although the allergen-specific CD4+ Th2 cellsorchestrate HDM allergic response,the

Alain Jacquet

2011-01-01

339

Sustainable Urban Housing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As China is becoming more urbanized, about 3.5 million units of housing are built every year. It is very important to develop sustainable urban housing in China. A team of researchers and developers from the USA and China have worked together to develop several housing projects in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. These designs are neither \\

Qingyan CHEN; Leon GLICKSMAN; Juintow LIN; Andrew SCOTT

340

Technologies for affordable access to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans for advanced research and technology programs aimed at reducing operating costs and extending the capability of future space systems are described. The evolution of an almost entirely space-based mode is discussed, including the role of earth launch, servicing, fabrication and assembly and communications. The development of technology for affordable access to space is examined, taking into account progress in the areas of telerobotics, machine autonomy, human autonomy, space-based manufacturing and construction, electric power, and space-based propulsion.

Colladay, R. S.; Sadin, S. R.

1986-01-01

341

Preventive Care for Children (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Myspace Close Text Size: A A A Preventive Care for Children Many insurers are now required to ... Services Task Force Recommendations . Fact Sheet: The Affordable Care Act and Immunization Fact Sheet: The Affordable Care ...

342

Aaron House From: Aaron House  

E-print Network

1 Aaron House From: Aaron House Sent: Thursday, February 27, 2014 9:50 AM To the webinar. Aaron House Training Manager University Research Administration The University of Chicago House [mailto:ahouse@uchicago.edu] Sent: Friday, February 21, 2014 1:19 PM To: Grantsadmin

He, Chuan

343

Increasing the Supply of Quality, Accessible, Affordable Child Care: An Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Region. NCRCRD Policy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The child care industry has not been fully integrated into economic development activities despite its growing importance in the economy. This is, in large part, because child care is not usually thought of as an element of economic development. As a result, states in the North Central region are not maximizing the economic benefits from quality,…

Traill, Saskia; Brown, Brentt

2005-01-01

344

URBox : High tech energy and informal housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance.\\u000aFirst the award winning Solar City 2050 is described and already existing technology

Y. J. Cuperus; D. Smets

2011-01-01

345

Future perfect : reintegrating housing and production in the Berlin Block/  

E-print Network

The beginning of the 21st century has been marked by an apparently ubiquitous state of crisis, which transcends national boundaries and is reshaping global relationships. Financial meltdowns, the lack of affordable housing, ...

Wuttig, Mark Oliver

2011-01-01

346

Affordable Assisted Living: Surveying the Possibilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by Jenny Schuetz for Harvard University's Working Paper series and as part of the Joint Center for Housing Studies, this 112-page work explores the future of assisted living developments throughout the United States. For those unfamiliar with the notion of assisted living, these facilities offer a "combination of housing, supportive services, and personal care that enables frail seniors to maintain maximum independence while receiving the assistance they need." As Schuetz points out, there are more senior citizens who are seeking to maintain their independence, and that in recent years, a private market has developed to address these demands. Throughout her highly cogent work, Schuetz examines the private market developments in this sector, as well as the possibility of providing similar facilities to middle and lower income seniors.

Schuetz, Jenny.

2003-01-01

347

Affordable Care Act (ACA) & College Students  

E-print Network

$ Affordable Care Act (ACA) & College Students Basic Information You Should Know 1. Your Parents Insurance? The ACA Penalty Explained Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act mandates that most people offer an affordable health insurance plan for students from outside insurance companies.The plan helps

Tullos, Desiree

348

Affordable Care Act (ACA) & UCF Students  

E-print Network

$ Affordable Care Act (ACA) & UCF Students Basic Information You Should Know 1. Your Parents You, the Affordable Care Act mandates that most people have insurance. However, individuals who earn less than can remain on your parents insurance until age 26 (even if married). An affordable option that Health

Wu, Shin-Tson

349

Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

2008-01-01

350

The 880 Square Foot House: A small residential design that transforms to accommodate multiple household types  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist a multitude of problems within the United States housing market. First is a lack of affordability. Forty-two percent of Americans cannot afford to purchase a home (Savage, 2009). Many households devote more than 50% of their income to paying for housing (Quigley & Raphael, 2004). Also, families with lower incomes will pay a higher rate of interest to

Adrianne Wimberley Kautz

2011-01-01

351

EVALUATING ECOMOD: BUILDING PERFORMANCE MONITORING AND POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION OF AN ECOLOGICAL, MODULAR HOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many people in this country cannot afford well-built houses, much less the energy required to run them. Newly built low-income single-family homes tend to be trailers or some variant of manufactured housing. While they are affordable and easily installed in various location...

352

Development of a dynamic model to predict PM10 emissions from swine houses.  

PubMed

Influences on dust emissions from livestock operations are number, weight, and kind of animals and characteristics of the housing system. Differences between facilities cannot be explained solely by mechanistic input variables. The objective of this study was to characterize the main input variables for modeling emissions of particulate matter with a mass median diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10) from swine facilities using a data-based model. Investigations were performed in mechanically ventilated facilities for weaning, growing-finishing, and sows in Italy and Germany. The measurements included inside and outside concentration of airborne PM10 particles (scatter light photometry), ventilation rate (calibrated measuring fans), indoor air climate at a measuring frequency of 60 s, feeding times, and animal-related data such as weight and animal activity. Dust concentration and emission were simulated using a dynamic transfer function. The results indicated that the average PM10 emission rate was influenced considerably by housing system. The simulation of the PM10 emission rate resulted in a mean percentage error per data set of 21 to 39%, whereas the average simulated and measured emission rate per data set differed by about 4 to 19%. High prediction errors occurred especially during situations in which the absolute level and spatial location of the measured activity peaks did not correspond with the measured dust peaks. Further recommendations of the study were to improve continuous and accurate measurements of input variables, such as the activity level in animal houses, and to optimize the amount of measuring days in relation to the model accuracy. PMID:18396541

Haeussermann, Angelika; Costa, Annamaria; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Hartung, Eberhard; Jungbluth, Thomas; Guarino, Marcella; Berckmans, Daniel

2008-01-01

353

Assessing the Impact of Community Development  

E-print Network

; Carolina Espinosa of Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital; Mike Farley of the Unified Vailsburg Services, both within the community development field and across the non-profit sector more broadly. For the areas of affordable housing, early care, and charter school facilities, we also provide NJCC with model

Goodman, Robert M.

354

Housing circumstances are associated with household food access among low-income urban families.  

PubMed

Household food insecurity is a pervasive problem in North America with serious health consequences. While affordable housing has been cited as a potential policy approach to improve food insecurity, the relationship between conventional notions of housing affordability and household food security is not well understood. Furthermore, the influence of housing subsidies, a key policy intervention aimed at improving housing affordability in Western countries, on food insecurity is unclear. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of 473 families in market rental (n?=?222) and subsidized (n?=?251) housing in high-poverty urban neighborhoods to examine the influence of housing circumstances on household food security. Food insecurity, evident among two thirds of families, was inversely associated with income and after-shelter income. Food insecurity prevalence did not differ between families in market and subsidized housing, but families in subsidized housing had lower odds of food insecurity than those on a waiting list for such housing. Market families with housing costs that consumed more than 30% of their income had increased odds of food insecurity. Rent arrears were also positively associated with food insecurity. Compromises in housing quality were evident, perhaps reflecting the impact of financial constraints on multiple basic needs as well as conscious efforts to contain housing costs to free up resources for food and other needs. Our findings raise questions about current housing affordability norms and highlight the need for a review of housing interventions to ensure that they enable families to maintain adequate housing and obtain their other basic needs. PMID:21286826

Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Tarasuk, Valerie

2011-04-01

355

75 FR 26271 - Fair Housing Initiatives Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pages 26271-26272] [FR Doc No: 2010-11076...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-33] Fair Housing Initiatives Program AGENCY...applicants to receive funds under the Fair Housing Initiatives Program...

2010-05-11

356

Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from a commercial broiler house.  

PubMed

Complex variation in gas emissions from animal facilities has been shown in recent research reports. Uncertainties in these emission estimates are driving research activities concerning different animal species across the globe. Greenhouse gas (NO and CO) and NH concentrations were measured in a modern, tunnel-ventilated, commercial broiler house in Mississippi during five flocks (spanning approximately 1 yr). These were flocks 9 through 13 on reused pine shavings litter, representing litter reuse beyond 2 yr. Gas concentrations obtained from a photoacoustic multigas analyzer were coupled with ventilation measurements of air flow through the house to develop NH and NO emission rates. Ammonia emission during a flock (43 d) averaged approximately 14.8 ± 9.8 kg d in the commercial house (equivalent to 23.5 g bird marketed or 0.54 g bird d). Nitrous oxide emission averaged 2.3 ± 1.7 kg d in the house (equivalent to 3.64 g bird marketed or 0.085 g bird d). Emission rates increased with time from Day 1 to Day 43 and reached average values on Day 23 and 24 for NH and NO. Even with extended litter reuse, estimates of NH emissions from the broiler house agree well with recently published research that reused litter in eight or fewer flocks. This is important information for farmers who may not be able to afford to replace the litter with fresh bedding material annually. PMID:25603060

Miles, D M; Moore, P A; Burns, R T; Brooks, J P

2014-07-01

357

Affordability and other factors affecting the purchase of energy-efficient manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) conducted this study to evaluate the manufactured home owner`s purchase decision process and to provide Bonneville with a better understanding of how consumers view a manufactured home`s affordability and energy efficiency. This study addresses manufactured homes built under the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standards; these homes are sometimes referred to as HUD-code homes or mobile homes. Manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington were included in this analysis. This report adds to the information presented in Sandahl et al. (1992), which discussed the practices of lenders, appraisers, and dealers -- all of whom play a key role in the manufactured home market due to the impact their practices have on the overall affordability of manufactured homes. This report focuses exclusively on the most important, and probably least understood, player -- the home buyer. The primary data were collected via a mail survey sent to 1,550 manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in late 1992. A 71% response rate was achieved; 1,106 usable responses were received. This study focuses on the Pacific Northwest but presents information that may be relevant to other parts of the country.

Hattrup, M.P.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Onisko, S.A. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1993-06-01

358

Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes  

SciTech Connect

This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

2006-01-01

359

DOE-HUD initiative on energy efficiency in housing: A federal partnership  

SciTech Connect

A five-year initiative between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) demonstrated the feasibility of improving the energy efficiency of publicly-assisted housing. Twenty-seven projects and activities undertaken during 1990--95 involved research and field demonstrations, institutional and administrative changes to HUD policies and procedures, innovative financing and leveraging of federal dollars with non-federal money, and education, training, and technical assistance. With most of the 27 projects and activities completed, the two departments have initiated a five-year deployment effort, the DOE-Energy Partnerships for Affordable Homes, to achieve energy and water savings in public and assisted housing on a large scale throughout the country. A Clearinghouse for Energy Efficiency in Public and Assisted Housing managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), will offer hands-on energy assistance to housing providers to complement DOE`s assistance. This paper presents the findings of the DOE-HUD Initiative, with primary attention paid to those projects which successfully integrated energy efficiency into private and public single and multifamily housing. The paper includes examples of the publications, case-study reports, exhibits and videotapes developed during the course of the Initiative. Information on the new DOE Energy Partnerships and on the NCAT Clearinghouse is also presented. New Partnership projects with the Atlanta and Chicago Housing Authorities describe the technical assistance envisioned under the Partnership.

Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ternes, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Myers, M. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

360

Formal intervention in the urban landscape : designing a culturally-responsive framework for housing in Mexico City  

E-print Network

This thesis explores an alternate approach to designing affordable housing. Housing is presented not just as physical shelter but as part of a larger socio-economic and cultural context. Implicit in this thesis is the ...

Tan, Yew-Hoe

1989-01-01

361

Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development  

SciTech Connect

The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

2013-11-01

362

Sustainable housing for low?income communities: lessons for South Africa in local and other developing world cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa’s housing backlog continues to grow amid delivery focused more on quantum than on a consideration of the principles of sustainable construction. South Africa needs to move away from its existing poor environmental and housing conditions in the informal and low?income settlements and address its housing backlog by considering all the principles of sustainable construction. Using a case study

Nicole Ross; Paul Anthony Bowen; David Lincoln

2010-01-01

363

24 CFR 1006.215 - Housing management services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.215 Housing management services. NHHBG funds may be...

2010-04-01

364

24 CFR 1006.215 - Housing management services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.215 Housing management services. NHHBG funds may be...

2011-04-01

365

24 CFR 1006.215 - Housing management services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.215 Housing management services. NHHBG funds may be...

2014-04-01

366

Development and Evaluation of an Affordable Real-Time Qualitative Assay for Determining HIV-1 Virological Failure in Plasma and Dried Blood Spots  

PubMed Central

Virological failure (VF) has been identified as the earliest, most predictive determinant of HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Due to the high cost and complexity of virological monitoring, VF assays are rarely performed in resource-limited settings (RLS). Rather, ART failure is determined by clinical monitoring and to a large extent immunological monitoring. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost, dried blood spot (DBS)-compatible qualitative assay to determine VF, in accordance with current WHO guideline recommendations for therapy switching in RLS. The assay described here is an internally controlled qualitative real-time PCR targeting the conserved long terminal repeat domain of HIV-1. This assay was applied to HIV-1 subtypes A to H and further evaluated on HIV-1 clinical plasma samples from South Africa (n = 191) and Tanzania (n = 42). Field evaluation was performed in Uganda using local clinical plasma samples (n = 176). Furthermore, assay performance was evaluated for DBS. This assay is able to identify VF for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes with equal specificity and has a lower detection limit of 1.00E+03 copies/ml for plasma samples and 5.00E+03 copies/ml for DBS. Comparative testing yielded accurate VF determination for therapy switching in 89% to 96% of samples compared to gold standards. The assay is robust and flexible, allowing for “open platform” applications and producing results comparable to those of commercial assays. Assay design enables application in laboratories that can accommodate real-time PCR equipment, allowing decentralization of testing to some extent. Compatibility with DBS extends access of sampling and thus access to this test to remote settings. PMID:23596235

Kliphuis, Aletta; Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Balinda, Sheila; Stevens, Wendy; Spieker, Nicole; de Oliveira, Tulio; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob

2013-01-01

367

AFFORDANCES IN PRODUCT ARCHITECTURE: LINKING TECHNICAL FUNCTIONS AND USERS' TASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing usable and desirable products requires an understanding of how users build close relationships with objects and how these relationships can be controlled by developers. This paper discusses the importance of the concept of affordances as an instrument useful for understanding the relationships between technical functions and user tasks. The approach introduces a Function-Task Design Matrix to link technical functions

Adriano B Galvao; Keiichi Sato

2005-01-01

368

Building America Developments and Ground Breaking News: Aug. 2000 issue  

SciTech Connect

Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

Hendron, B.; Epstein, K.; Anderson, J.

2000-09-08

369

Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

Hendron, R.; Anderson, J.; Epstein, K.

2001-12-01

370

Sign Language House Program Directors  

E-print Network

Sign Language House Program Directors: Laura Curtin, 2014 lcurtin@uvm.edu Undecided Claire Mc Language House develop a grasp of the basics of American Sign Language as well as an understanding for Deaf will encourage members of the Sign Language House to become involved in some way with the Deaf community. We

Hayden, Nancy J.

371

People Caring about People--The Prairie Housing Cooperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Prairie Housing Cooperative has purchased 20 homes which provide 60 people (12 of whom are mentally retarded) with decent affordable housing in five neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Canada. Needed special services are provided by the non-handicapped members when possible or by outside contracts. (DB)

Kappel, Bruce; Wetherow, David

1986-01-01

372

Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

2010-01-01

373

The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

2015-01-01

374

Considerations When Housing  

E-print Network

to develop a facility that houses sick horses with behavioral problems. However, if you design a horse. The dominant horse usually only has to signal with laid back ears and exposed teeth to keep the rank and file

375

Village of Arlington Heights et al. v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp. et al. Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the Supreme Court decision in the law suit between the Village of Arlington Heights, Illinois, and the Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation (MHDC). MHDC, a nonprofit developer contracted to purchase a tract within the boundaries of the Village of Arlington Heights, Illinois in order to build racially integrated low…

Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

376

Student Housing and Residential Life: A Handbook for Professionals Committed to Student Development Goals. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book on student housing and residential life contains the following articles: (1) "New Challenges and Goals for Residential Life Programs" (Blimling); (2) "Student Development in the Residential Environment" (Winston and Anchors); (3) "Psychosocial Development in College" (White and Porterfield); (4) "Intellectual, Ethical, and Moral…

Winston, Roger B., Jr.; And Others

377

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

2014-03-10

378

Development and operation of NEW-KOTIS : In-house technical information database of Nippon Kokan Corp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this report is to describe how the activities for managing technical information has been and is now being conducted by the Engineering department of Nippon Kokan Corp. In addition, as a practical example of database generation promoted by the department, this book gives whole aspects of the NEW-KOTIS (background of its development, history, features, functional details, control and operation method, use in search operations, and so forth). The NEW-KOTIS (3rd-term system) is an "in-house technical information database system," which started its operation on May, 1987. This database system now contains approximately 65,000 information items (research reports, investigation reports, technical reports, etc.) generated within the company, and this information is available to anyone in any department through the network connecting all the company's structures.

Yagi, Yukio; Takahashi, Kaei

379

AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The American Housing Survey (AHS) collects data on the Nation's housing, including apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant housing units, household characteristics, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment and fuels, size of housing unit, a...

380

Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

2006-01-01

381

DOE\\/FEMP's New Program for: Affordable Distributed Energy Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Energy Resources (DER) technologies offer a promising opportunity for the federal government to lead by example—by developing more affordable energy resource portfolios at federal facilities. FEMP is helping federal agency facilities partner with industry to apply a wide array of DER technologies. The new DER program provides technical assistance, financing assistance, education, and outreach to these facilities to meet

Shawn Monique Herrera

2002-01-01

382

AHI V4 04/14 AFFORDABLE HEALTHCARE  

E-print Network

AHI V4 ­ 04/14 AFFORDABLE HEALTHCARE A Wellcome Trust scheme to support R&D in India Application Technology Transfer Officer/Business Officer Surname Forename(s) Title Employing organisation Contact address spaces) Q2 Please provide a summary of the technology to be further developed (no more than 200 words) Q3

Rambaut, Andrew

383

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development  

E-print Network

, or the National Center for Healthy Housing. For additional copies of this manual, download a PDF (http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books .........................................................................................................................12 Children's Play Areas

384

College Affordability: Implications for College Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…

Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan

2006-01-01

385

Maintaining Missouri's Tradition of Affordable Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides contextual background for the Missouri Commission on the Affordability of Higher Education, which was established in 1998 to engage students, parents, business, higher education, and public policy leaders in a systematic dialogue aimed at ensuring that an affordable college education stays within reach of Missouri citizens.…

Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

386

Afford TWO, Financial Inclusion in Rural Myanmar  

E-print Network

1 Afford TWO, Eat ONE Financial Inclusion in Rural Myanmar #12;2 #12;3 Introduction regulations, regional banking operations and technologies and, most importantly, individual needs. Our like bank loans and credit cards that many of us take for granted. Afford Two, Eat One aims to explain

Brody, James P.

387

24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...621 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED...placed on the site in a stable manner, and must...

2014-04-01

388

24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...621 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED...placed on the site in a stable manner, and must...

2012-04-01

389

24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...621 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED...placed on the site in a stable manner, and must...

2013-04-01

390

24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...621 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED...placed on the site in a stable manner, and must...

2010-04-01

391

24 CFR 982.621 - Manufactured home: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...621 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED...placed on the site in a stable manner, and must...

2011-04-01

392

24 CFR 982.605 - SRO: Housing quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT...982.401(c) (food preparation and refuse...401(d) (space and security). Since the...

2010-04-01

393

Using KIE To Help Students Develop Shared Criteria for House Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can students develop shared criteria for problems that have no "right" answer? Ill-structured problems of this sort are called design problems. Like portfolio projects, these problems are difficult to evaluate for both teachers and students. This investigation contrasts two methods for developing shared criteria for project evaluation.…

Cuthbert, Alex; Hoadley, Christopher M.

394

Development of an ASHRAE 152-2004 Duct Model for the Single-Family Residential House  

E-print Network

This paper presents the results of the development of the duct model based on ASHRAE standard 152-2004 (ASHRAE, 2004) using the DOE-2.1e building energy simulation program. To accomplish this, FUNCTION commands for DOE-2 were used to develop...

Kim, S.; Haberl, J.

395

Clay Houses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

Pedro, Cathy

2011-01-01

396

Affordable diagnostics--changing the paradigm in India.  

PubMed

A successful strategy for developing affordable diagnostics begins with a shift in viewpoint. Diagnostics is a tool for generating clinical information. Amassed experience in different parts of the globe has shown that this process of generating and utilizing clinical information is not only different among various countries but also different in microenvironments within the same country. The development of affordable diagnostics requires consideration not only of the component costs such as hardware and consumables but also other related costs that contribute to the generation and delivery of that information. It is important to recognize that these costs associated with public health in resource-poor settings cannot remain at the mercy of charitable contributions from western nations. Therefore, the challenge of technological innovation is to create solutions that are locally affordable and sustainable in the long run within the local macroeconomic constraints. The solutions should permit generation of local economic activity that will reinforce long-term economic sustainability. For this reason it is essential not only to analyze the diagnostic process but also to define a pathway by which local healthcare systems in recipient nations can be endowed with elements that empower them to acquire and practice up-to-date modern diagnostic skills. The objective of this paper is to provide a wider view of diagnostic cost components and to show how solutions developed and delivered locally have resulted in economically affordable as well as sustainable products. PMID:18271018

Manian, Bala S

2008-01-01

397

SAFETY, SUSTAINABILITY AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF MANUFACTURED HOUSING IN HOT, HUMID CLIMATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufactured housing has become a staple in the US affordable housing market in spite of a prevailing public opinion that such housing is unsafe. However, University of Florida research shows units constructed after 1994 US code changes survived an unprecedented 2004 hurricane season with little damage. Produced in one-fifth the time and at half the cost of site-built homes, manufactured

K. R. Grosskopf; David Cutlip; M. E. Rinker Sr

398

Solar House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work in teams to design and build a model of a solar house after researching several websites. Students will discover that a solar house takes advantage of solar energy to minimize the use of traditional energy sources and can include design elements that take advantage of the sun's rays to light and heat the house, to heat water, and to set up a favorable flow of air. They also learn that many solar houses contain a solar mass that will absorb the heat during the day and release it slowly at night and a passive solar house will also take into account the angle of the sun's rays, to maximize heating during the winter and shade during the summer. This site contains all of the specifications for planning, building, and testing the model and a rubric for grading the project.

Wendy Van Norden

399

Pathways to Housing: The Experiences of Sponsored Refugees and Refugee Claimants in Accessing Permanent Housing in Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to many new immigrants, refugees normally have limited financial resources upon arrival in a new country. Consequently,\\u000a most refugees need some form of assistance in accessing good-quality, safe and affordable housing. This paper evaluates the\\u000a assumption that refugee claimants in Toronto experience a much more difficult pathway to housing than sponsored refugees.\\u000a The housing trajectories of a sample

Robert A. Murdie

2008-01-01

400

ARAACtional exuberance : lessons and prospects for age-restricted active adult housing development in Massachusetts  

E-print Network

In the last fifteen years, Massachusetts and neighboring states have experienced explosive growth in a hitherto alien form of residential development to the region: the age-restricted active adult retirement community ...

Dawson, Sloan William

2010-01-01

401

If past traditions were building blocksA perspective on low income housing development in Nigerian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global millenial challenge of providing shelter for all by the year 2000 calls for a reevaluation of existing strategies for housing production and the charting of new courses. This paper examines one approach in which the wealth of meaning, knowledge, skill and experience in traditional Nigerian residential architecture may be useful in addressing contemporary urban low-income housing problems. It

Uche Ikejiofor

1998-01-01

402

Testimony on coal research needs to the House Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of this paper and interactions with the coal research community lead to the following conclusions on the future and needs for coal research: The coal resource in the USA is immense and a plan for optimum use of the peat to anthracite supplies should be developed and evolved. Coal research efforts in industry are rapidly decreasing and work at universities, technology centers and national laboratories is directly dependent on federal funding. Industrial emphases will shift to combustion and coal cleaning with limited development of gasification concepts. A cadre of scientists and engineers knowledgeable in coal processes needs to be maintained for evaluating environmental effects of coal use and for a design base in times of national emergencies. A major effort in understanding coal structure, chemistry and physics as related to behavior in processing is essential to developing environmentally acceptable processes and to identify revolutionary concepts for utilization of the national resource. Federal support of coal research is required to assure national needs of security, environmental protection and resource utilization are met. As the US energy base shifts from petroleum to coal, one can envision the development of a new coal refining industry. Evolution of such an industry can only occur if the data base on coal, coal properties and coal behavior is adequate to trigger the innovative thinking that has developed many US industries.

Traeger, R.K.

1982-01-01

403

House Manager Handbook -1 SORORITY LIFE  

E-print Network

House Manager Handbook - 1 & FRATERNITY SORORITY LIFE HOUSE MANAGER HANDBOOK 2013 OFFICE OF RESIDENTIAL PROGRAMS FRATERNITY & SORORITY LIFE AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT www.columbiagreeks.info #12;House Manager Handbook - 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL DUTIES 3 CHAPTER RESIDENCE EXPECTATIONS 4 HOUSING REVIEW 9

Hone, James

404

HOUSING DESCRIPTIONS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HOUSING  

E-print Network

HOUSING DESCRIPTIONS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HOUSING: Polyester Film Enclosures: Enclosures can come in many formats, including L-weld, match-book wrap, and pockets. Although polyester film enclosures polyester film enclosure flagged as a set. If the staple is secure and not rusty, leave it in place. Note

Mathis, Wayne N.

405

24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FAIR HOUSING DISCRIMINATORY...ownership; (6) A mobile home park; and...

2010-04-01

406

Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

2012-12-01

407

Development of a Calibration Methodology for Code-compliant Simulation of a Case Study House in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-print Network

This paper describes a comparison of the results between a code-compliant DOE-2 simulation and monthly utility bills for a case study house in College Station, Texas. The comparison of the results is a preliminary step toward the development...

Kim, K. H.; Haberl, J. S.

408

Umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell proliferative response to house dust mite does not predict the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs) have been found to proliferate when stimulated with food or inhalant allergens. The significance of this finding is not known. Objectives: We sought to determine the factors associated with proliferation of CBMNCs when stimulated with house dust mite (HDM) allergen and to determine whether proliferation of CBMNCs is associated with subsequent development of HDM

Moira Chan-Yeung; Alexander Ferguson; Henry Chan; Helen Dimich-Ward; Wade Watson; Jure Manfreda; Allan Becker

1999-01-01

409

National evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program: Study methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) undertook an evaluation of its Lead Hazard Control Grant Program between 1994 and 1999. The Evaluation is the largest study ever done on the effectiveness of lead hazard controls implemented in residential dwellings. The Evaluation had several major objectives: determining the effectiveness of various lead hazard controls in reducing residential dust

Warren Galke; Scott Clark; Pat McLaine; Robert Bornschein; Jonathan Wilson; Paul Succop; Sandy Roda; Jill Breysse; David Jacobs; JoAnn Grote; William Menrath; Sherry Dixon; Mei Chen; Ralph Buncher

2005-01-01

410

Report to the U.S. Agency for International Development on the Activities of Literacy House, Lucknow, India, July 1, 1964 - June 30, 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program of Literacy House in Lucknow, India includes training of personnel, preparation of materials, and sponsorship of a wide variety of programs. This report on their work, prepared to document the need for a budget request from the U.S. Agency for International Development, describes the achievement and prospects in programs relating to…

World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

411

A qualitative evaluation of a community development process within a housing co-operative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community development has been credited for numerous achievements since the turn of the century. Its premise and theory have been applied to a multitude of settings and cultures. Although the contexts are forever changing, the fundamental philosophy is still the same, to create in each individual a desire to work together for the overall good of the community. This thesis

Gwenith Page-Clemmer

1988-01-01

412

Social and Economic Trends in Rural America. The White House Rural Development Background Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing developmental problems caused by the rapid population and employment growth in rural America during the 1970's, this document describes social, economic, and governmental trends in rural America and suggests some federal policy choices that might be made in support of rural development. Problem areas and policy suggestions are…

Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

413

Youth and Development. Farm House Dialogue (3rd, Ota, Nigeria, February 24-26, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes discussions at an invitational workshop on youth development in Nigeria. Youth were defined as those between 18 and 40 years of age, with those who were between 30 and 40 years old considered to be "mature youth." The following broad issues were discussed: (1) the characteristics of youth, including their idealism and need…

Africa Leadership Forum.

414

Are Maternal Antibodies Really That Important? Patterns in the Immunologic Development of Altricial Passerine House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal antibodies are believed to play an integral role in protecting immunologically immature wild-passerines from environmental antigens. This study comprehensively examines the early development of the adaptive immune system in an altricial-developing wild passerine species, the house sparrow (Passer domestics), by characterizing the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma, the onset of de novo synthesis of endogenous antibodies by nestlings, and the timing of immunological independence, where nestlings rely entirely on their own antibodies for immunologic protection. Methodology/Principal Findings In an aviary study we vaccinated females against a novel antigen that these birds would not otherwise encounter in their natural environment, and measured both antigen-specific and total antibody concentration in the plasma of females, yolks, and nestlings. We traced the transfer of maternal antibodies from females to nestlings through the yolk and measured catabolisation of maternal antigen-specific antibodies in nestlings during early development. By utilizing measurements of non-specific and specific antibody levels in nestling plasma we were able to calculate the half-life of maternal antibodies in nestling plasma and the time point at which nestling were capable of synthesizing antibodies themselves. Based on the short half-life of maternal antibodies, the rapid production of endogenous antibodies by nestlings and the relatively low transfer of maternal antibodies to nestlings, our findings suggest that altricial-developing sparrows achieve immunologic independence much earlier than precocial birds. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first in depth analyses performed on the adaptive immune system of a wild-passerine species. Our results suggest that maternal antibodies may not confer the immunologic protection or immune priming previously proposed in other passerine studies. Further research needs to be conducted on other altricial passerines to determine if the results of our study are a species-specific phenomenon or if they apply to all altricial-developing birds. PMID:20300173

King, Marisa O.; Owen, Jeb P.; Schwabl, Hubert G.

2010-01-01

415

Aspects of the Development of Housing for the Spaceflight of Pregnant and Lactating Rats with Neonates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent and upcoming spaceflights are investigating the effect of weightlessness on developing neural and organ systems. Pregnant rats and dams with neonates have to be accommodated in cages that support the special requirements of these animals. Extensive ground testing of cage concepts, the effect of launch and landing stresses on the maintenance of pregnancy and maternal behavior at different neonatal ages, and techniques for monitoring adaptability to change are discussed. A spaceflight opportunity for the NlH.R3 payload of rat families at three different postnatal ages demonstrated that the survival of very young animals was not good but that older newborns could be returned to Earth in reasonably good health. The development of cages for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) to support the flight of neonates on Neurolab was continued and incorporated modifications that were demonstrated by the NIH.R3 flight. Other modifications to the RAHF are discussed. Data from biocompatibility and experiment verification testing are presented.

Hinds, William E.; Mayer, David J.; Evans, Juli; Spratt, Shahn; Lane, Philip K.; Rodriguez, Shari L.; Navidi, Meena; Armstrong, Rachel; Lemos, Bonnie; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

416

Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

1991-01-01

417

Balancing adequacy and affordability?: Essential Health Benefits under the Affordable Care Act.  

PubMed

The Essential Health Benefits provisions under the Affordable Care Act require that eligible plans provide coverage for certain broadly defined service categories, limit consumer cost-sharing, and meet certain actuarial value requirements. Although the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was tasked with the regulatory development of these EHB under the ACA, the department quickly devolved this task to the states. Not surprisingly, states fully exploited the leeway provided by HHS, and state decision processes and outcomes differed widely. However, none of the states took advantage of the opportunity to restructure fundamentally their health insurance markets, and only a very limited number of states actually included sophisticated policy expertise in their decisionmaking processes. As a result, and despite a major expansion of coverage, the status quo ex ante in state insurance markets was largely perpetuated. Decisionmaking for the 2016 revisions should be transparent, included a wide variety of stakeholders and policy experts, and focus on balancing adequacy and affordability. However, the 2016 revisions provide an opportunity to address these previous shortcomings. PMID:25316210

Haeder, Simon F

2014-12-01

418

EAP Reciprocity Housing Information International House  

E-print Network

EAP Reciprocity Housing Information International House Most EAP students choose to apply to live in the International House (http:// ihouse.ucsd.edu/), an on-campus living/learning community which is dedicated apply to the I-House program. The I-House application deadline is June 16, 2010. Other On-Campus Housing

California at San Diego, University of

419

House Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physical sciences activity, learners explore how passive solar design increases energy efficiency. Learners test paperboard models of different building designs to discover how the design affects the amount of heat that enters the house.

2014-01-27

420

American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs. PMID:25103573

Stain, Steven C; Hoyt, David B; Hunter, John G; Joyce, Geoffrey; Hiatt, Jonathan R

2014-09-01

421

Conversion of residential neighborhoods into affordable assisted age-in-place communities  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to develop a new senior housing and service product for the aging population of the next decade. The thesis starts with an overview of the senior housing industry in its current condition in ...

Getz Schoen, Yael

2011-01-01

422

Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... dollars on administrative costs and profits, including executive salaries, overhead, and marketing. The Affordable Care Act requires ... 2016 Application February 20, 2015 HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2016 February 20, 2015 ...

423

Brookhaven House  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven House is an energy conserving residence that employs thermal mass walls, a modified Trombe wall, a sunspace, and extensive weatherization. The principles of heat storage in thermal mass are briefly explained and siting of the house is discussed. Naturally circulated hot air from a central furnace, and a wood stove contribute to the heating requirements. Floor plans, elevations and sections are provided. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-08-01

424

Hood River Passive House  

SciTech Connect

The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

Hales, D.

2013-03-01

425

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally.  

PubMed

Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation. PMID:24074213

Lee, A; Mhurchu, C N; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Snowdon, W; Vandevijvere, S; Hawkes, C; L'abbé, M; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Walker, C

2013-10-01

426

24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to secure a loan made to finance the unpaid purchase price of a Corporate Certificate together...National Housing Act. (3) Corporate Certificate shall mean...corporation to each holder of a Corporate Certificate which...

2013-04-01

427

24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to secure a loan made to finance the unpaid purchase price of a Corporate Certificate together...National Housing Act. (3) Corporate Certificate shall mean...corporation to each holder of a Corporate Certificate which...

2012-04-01

428

24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to secure a loan made to finance the unpaid purchase price of a Corporate Certificate together...National Housing Act. (3) Corporate Certificate shall mean...corporation to each holder of a Corporate Certificate which...

2014-04-01

429

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Government-owned public buildings for housing...for acquiring leased space for Federal agency...sewer grants, open space, public facilities loans...area for location of public buildings or leased space, GSA will...

2010-07-01

430

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Government-owned public buildings for housing...for acquiring leased space for Federal agency...sewer grants, open space, public facilities loans...area for location of public buildings or leased space, GSA will...

2011-01-01

431

The Affordable Care Act: The Value of Systemic Disruption  

E-print Network

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT Health care absorbsAffordable Care Act Year Increase Coverage and Access to Health CareAffordable Care Act’s Expansions of Coverage in 2014 Through Medicaid and Health

Shaffer, Ellen R

2013-01-01

432

Allergen expression in the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus throughout development and response to environmental conditions.  

PubMed

House dust mites are a major source of allergy worldwide. While diagnosis and treatment based on mite extracts have remarkably advanced, little information exists on the expression of allergens in mites. We have studied gene expression of eight Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) allergens (Der p 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 21). All allergens showed higher transcription in nymphs compared with larvae or adults, with the only exception of Der p 10. The transcription of Der p 4 and Der p 10, together with the transcription and protein ratios Der p 1 to Der p 2, were higher in males than in females. One-week exposure of mite cultures to 16 or 35?°C (versus 24?°C) or low RH (44% versus 76%) significantly influenced the allergen gene transcription profile. Our results demonstrate that allergen expression is quantitatively and/or qualitatively influenced by mite development and sex, as well as by the environment. We suggest that monitoring allergen gene expression may be a useful tool to assist the optimization of mite cultures in the production of standardized allergenic extracts for clinical use. PMID:25565338

Vidal-Quist, J C; Ortego, F; Lombardero, M; Castañera, P; Hernández-Crespo, P

2015-06-01

433

Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest, Tacoma, Washington (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

Not Available

2014-03-01

434

Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

Gordon, A.; Lubliner, M.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Salzberg, E.

2014-04-01

435

Habitat Metro Denver -- Perfecting Award-Winning Affordable Homes Using Building America's Integrated Design Approach  

SciTech Connect

Habitat for Humanity's goal is to supply quality housing to poor families while reducing their energy cost burden, especially in light of ever-increasing energy prices. Habitat Metro Denver partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Project and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to improve their construction and design process to create an affordable home that is not only cost-effective and volunteer friendly to build but highly energy efficient and a comfortable place to live.

Not Available

2004-12-01

436

Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

2013-09-01

437

Control your mind, make affordance available.  

PubMed

Evaluating the affordance-control interpretation of the relationship between performance and object estimation has been proposed by psychophysical and psychonomic studies. This study examined the weight estimation-performance relationship. Individuals with visual impairment or blindness put shots that varied in weight among five scales. In Experiment 1, only the perceived weight was a significant performance constraint. In Experiment 2, the weight was perceived as heavier when the participants' actions were manipulated through cognitive interpretation. The increase in perceived weight appeared to be related to performance and intrinsically scaled to the action, even when the action was only mental rather than physical. The study's findings suggest that bodily experience and action are the basis for physical judgments and likely underlie other basic cognitive interpretations of sensory stimuli. This suggestion goes hand in hand with the biofunctional approaches which assume direct experience of the integrated wholeness of one's body is fundamental for developing other kinds of awareness. Different perspectives from oriental philosophy and psychology are also discussed. PMID:25741298

Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Zhu, Jin

2015-01-01

438

Control your mind, make affordance available  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the affordance–control interpretation of the relationship between performance and object estimation has been proposed by psychophysical and psychonomic studies. This study examined the weight estimation–performance relationship. Individuals with visual impairment or blindness put shots that varied in weight among five scales. In Experiment 1, only the perceived weight was a significant performance constraint. In Experiment 2, the weight was perceived as heavier when the participants’ actions were manipulated through cognitive interpretation. The increase in perceived weight appeared to be related to performance and intrinsically scaled to the action, even when the action was only mental rather than physical. The study’s findings suggest that bodily experience and action are the basis for physical judgments and likely underlie other basic cognitive interpretations of sensory stimuli. This suggestion goes hand in hand with the biofunctional approaches which assume direct experience of the integrated wholeness of one’s body is fundamental for developing other kinds of awareness. Different perspectives from oriental philosophy and psychology are also discussed. PMID:25741298

Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Zhu, Jin

2015-01-01

439

Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a

Jeffrey E Christian; Jacob Bonar

2011-01-01

440

Low income housing tax credit properties : non-profit disposition strategies in the Commonwealth  

E-print Network

This thesis examines how non-profit owners in Massachusetts have maintained affordability and ownership of Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) properties after the initial fifteen-year compliance period, at the lowest ...

Lew-Hailer, Lillian

2007-01-01

441

77 FR 53214 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Service Coordinators in Multifamily Housing Program, Fiscal Year...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A.C.T. Affordable Atlantic City 1330 Mediterranean Atlantic City........ 174 209,281 Housing, Inc...Community Haven COMMUNITY HAVEN...... 35 So. Virginia Atlantic City........ 246 176,271 Senior...

2012-08-31

442

The forgotten class : reconceptualizing contemporary middle-income housing in New York City  

E-print Network

New York City's costly real estate poses housing affordability challenges for not only low- or even moderate-income households, but also for the so-called "middle class." Because New York is predominantly a renter's market, ...

Milchman, Karina (Karina Faye)

2013-01-01

443

The Affordable Care Act 2010: educational needs of bedside nurses.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) significantly impacts bedside nurses who must participate in organizational change and provide resources to patients. A health reform educational needs assessment was distributed to nurses from a midsized community hospital located in an elevated-need and medically underserved area in New England. Many nurses indicated that more knowledge was needed and they lacked information about the educational incentives. Health policy professional development opportunities are required to inform bedside nursing practice. PMID:25203419

Hynds, Robin L; Hatch, Jessica L; Samuels, Joanne G

2014-01-01

444

Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

2006-01-01

445

Falmer Sports Falmer House  

E-print Network

Bramber House Fulton Mantell Falmer Sports Complex CISC Hastings Shawcross Meeting House Falmer House Library Square Sussex House BSMS Spo ts Centre r ACCA Library IDS Centre Sussex Innovation 21 Ashdown House 42 Attenborough Centre 56 Boiler House 31 Bramber House (under construction) 13 BSMS

Sussex, University of

446

Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and standard repairs need to be in-place as well as easily added. Many routine inspections and maintenance can be like an aircraft overhaul. Modifications and technology upgrades should be expected. Another factor affecting ground operations efficiency is trending. It is essential for RLV's, and also useful for ELV's which fly the same or similar models again. Good data analysis of technical and processing performance will determine fixes and improvements needed for safety, design, and future processing. Collecting such data on new or low-frequency vehicles is a challenge. Lessons can be learned from the Space Shuttle, or even the Concorde aircraft. For all of the above topics, efficient business systems must be established for comprehensive program management and good throughput. Drawings, specifications, and manuals for an entire launch vehicle are often in different formats from multiple vendors, plus they have proprietary constraints. Nonetheless, the integration team must ensure that all data needed is compatible and visible to each appropriate team member. Ground processing systems for scheduling, tracking, problem resolution, etc. must be well laid-out. The balance between COTS (commercial off the shelf) and custom software is difficult. Multiple customers, vendors, launch sites, and landing sites add to the complexity of efficient IT (Information Technology) tools.

Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

2011-01-01

447

U.S. Housing Patterns, Living Arrangements, and Life Chances  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment you will use U.S. census data to get an overview of housing patterns (ownership and types of housing) and living arrangements as a way of understanding more about one example of what Weber referred to as life chances (or, basically, the ability to access to resources we need to live a good life). As well, access to housing is considered one of the main features of the American Dream. Unfortunately, as the need for low-income housing units has doubled over the last three decades, the number of low-income housing units nationwide has been cut in half. Minneapolis and other cities have established annual goals for increasing the stock of affordable housing in response to a severe shortage of low-cost housing.

Kayongo-Male, Diane

448

The Importance of the Meaning and Measurement of “Affordable” in the Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the practical importance of a critical but under-explored interpretation of a provision in the Affordable Care Act (ACA): whether “affordable” refers to the cost of single coverage alone, or to family or single coverage as applicable to the worker, in determining the employer’s mandated coverage requirement and workers’ (and their dependents’) access to subsidized exchange coverage.

Richard V. Burkhauser; Sean Lyons; Kosali I. Simon

2011-01-01

449

The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

Chiappini, Giampaolo

2012-01-01

450

Congressional Calendar The House and Senate have returned from their Thanksgiving recess and  

E-print Network

extension of the 2009 rates for the next year. Health Care Reform: Affordable Health Care for America Act (HR 3962)/ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (HR 3590) On Saturday, November 21, the Senate health care reform. The House is working on estate tax reform. Budget and Appropriations Update To date

Escher, Christine

451

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan...serve the needs of the low-income Native Hawaiian families eligible to live on the Hawaiian Home Lands to be served by the DHHL;...

2011-04-01

452

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan...serve the needs of the low-income Native Hawaiian families eligible to live on the Hawaiian Home Lands to be served by the DHHL;...

2012-04-01

453

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan...serve the needs of the low-income Native Hawaiian families eligible to live on the Hawaiian Home Lands to be served by the DHHL;...

2014-04-01

454

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan...serve the needs of the low-income Native Hawaiian families eligible to live on the Hawaiian Home Lands to be served by the DHHL;...

2013-04-01

455

24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan...serve the needs of the low-income Native Hawaiian families eligible to live on the Hawaiian Home Lands to be served by the DHHL;...

2010-04-01

456

Anatomy of a Smart house  

SciTech Connect

The author describes the Gas Laboratory House in Bowie, MD. It is being built as a SMART HOUSE. This means it will contain a whole-house control system made up of communication chips, computer programs and microprocessor-based controllers. A single cable carries signals from the chips to many different types of appliances. Flexible gas piping forms a ''circulatory system'' that makes the house completely compatible with natural gas appliances. The SMART HOUSE is fully programmable so that appliances can be told when to turn on and off. It can also have a zoned space-conditioning system, allowing sections of the house to be heated or cooled independently. The authors explains how the system works and the project's development schedule.

Kennedy, L.

1988-07-01

457

Waiting in Line: Low Income Families and the Search for Housing. Watching Out for Children in Changing Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing housing crisis for Philadelphia's low income families has been exacerbated by a decrease in the real income of these families over the past 10 years, a shortage of affordable housing during the same period, and the deterioration of much of the existing housing stock. "Watching Out for Children in Changing Times," a joint effort…

Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

458

Yinyutang House  

E-print Network

furnishings--was shipped here to the Peabody Essex Museum and meticulously reassembled. Even a single chopstick was packed, unpacked and wedged into its original place between a column and a wall. Apparently, a house divided can stand. #boyd #ceas #china...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-08-21

459

Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.  

PubMed

This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves were all fed noncompetitively (2 buckets/pen in periods 1 and 3), calves previously fed CF had greater intakes in period 3 (4.87 vs. 4.44 kg/d) and a tendency for greater intake in period 1 (2.80 vs. 2.63 kg/d), greater rates of intake in period 3 (87.8 vs. 72.0 g/min) and a tendency for greater rates of intake in period 1 (44.3 vs. 38.9 g/min), and greater meal frequencies in both periods (11.1 vs. 9.9 meals/d). In the competitive challenge period (1 bucket/pen in period 2), intake, rates of intake, and meal frequencies were subject to treatment × week interactions: calves in NCF pens had lower intake and meal frequencies, but increased meal frequency, intake, and rate of intake over time to a greater extent than calves previously in CF pens. These results indicate that calves are able to adapt to moderate competition by increasing meal frequency and that behavioral responses to competition persist postweaning. PMID:25108872

Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

2014-10-01

460

No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

Pecher, Diane

2013-01-01

461

Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim

2014-01-01

462

The Affordable Care Act and orthopaedic trauma.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act has resulted in a dramatic governmental restructuring of the healthcare insurance market and delivery system. Orthopaedic traumatologists must be aware of the law's impact on their clinical practice, finances, and overall business model. This includes the effect of accountable care organizations, the Independent Payment Advisory Board, and the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier program, as well as the impact of the Affordable Care Act's grace period provision, medical device excise tax, and cuts to funding for the Disproportionate Share Hospital program. PMID:25229683

Issar, Neil M; Jahangir, A Alex

2014-10-01

463

Study on Countermeasures of Damp House Problems by Developing Drain-Less Cooling System in Hot and Humid Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hot and humid climates, dampness in buildings leads to significant respiratory symptoms and damage of building. A damp house can be recognized by one or more of the following characteristics: damp stains, mold growth, condensation, a musty smell or stuffy atmosphere, and insects such as silverfish and sow bugs. To improve the problem, reducing the humidity of living environment

Y Tsay; S Kato; R Ooka; M Koganei; N Shoda

464

The Philosophy of University Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

Wallace, James A.

2012-01-01

465

Design of Apartment House Incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to organize information concerning the design of apartment house incinerators and their emission standards for the training of and use by local officials concerned with development and enforcement of air pollution codes. The differences and similarities among many state and local air pollution ordinances concerning apartment house incinerators are graphically illustrated. The reasons for

James V. Feuss; Franklin B. Flower

1969-01-01

466

New Trends in Student Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of residence halls in supporting a college's admissions and recruiting process for attracting highly qualified students. It explores the trends in student housing needs and how a school can meet those needs, and examines possible funding solutions for dormitory renovations. Recommendations for developing housing strategies…

Koch, David; Wesse, David; Stickney, Robert

1999-01-01

467

Housing and inequalities in health: a study of socioeconomic dimensions of housing and self reported health from a survey of Vancouver residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To investigate the relation between housing, socioeconomic status, and self reported general and mental health. This study is an empirical investigation of social and economic dimensions of housing, specifically, demand, control, and material (affordability, dwelling type) and meaningful (pride in dwelling, home as a refuge) dimensions of everyday life as they occur in the domestic environment.Design: A cross

J R Dunn

2002-01-01

468

Can industry afford solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

1983-03-01

469

77 FR 26029 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of a New System of Records, Department of Housing and Urban...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5613-N-03] Privacy...Records, Department of Housing and Urban Development--Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing...Records, Department of Housing and Urban Development--Veterans Affairs Supportive...

2012-05-02

470

Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.  

PubMed

Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C. PMID:24518317

Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

2014-07-01

471

Medicare and the Affordable Care Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act made modest changes to improve Medicare and obtained a substantial share of funding for the Act's broader reforms from future spending reductions in the program. Drug benefits and preventive services were improved. While painful, the spending reductions will have only moderate impacts on beneficiaries and should help achieve the goals of

Marilyn Moon

2012-01-01

472

Can the US afford a lunar base  

SciTech Connect

Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

Keaton, P.W.

1986-01-01

473

Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily

Constance E. Walker; R. Sparks; S. Pompea

2006-01-01

474

Actions and Affordances in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 experiments, eye movements were monitored as participants followed instructions containing temporary syntactic ambiguities (e.g., "Pour the egg in the bowl over the flour"). The authors varied the affordances of task-relevant objects with respect to the action required by the instruction (e.g., whether 1 or both eggs in the visual workspace…

Chambers, Craig G.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Magnuson, James S.

2004-01-01

475

Are Selective Private and Public Colleges Affordable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine college affordability under the existing pricing and financial aid system that awards both non need-based and need-based aid. Using data of freshmen attending a large number of selective private and public colleges in the USA, we find that the prices students actually pay for college have increased over time. Need-based grant aid has…

Karikari, John A.; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem

2013-01-01

476

Social congestion in Shanghai : an urban housing project designed on its sections  

E-print Network

The new housing developments of Shanghai rely on high-rise building, demolishing the prevailing low-rise high-density housing, known as Lilong housing, built in the early 20th century, and known as Lilong housing. The ...

Ge, Wenjun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

477

Conformal House  

E-print Network

We investigate the gauge dynamics of nonsupersymmetric SU(N) gauge theories featuring the simultaneous presence of fermionic matter transforming according to two distinct representations of the underlying gauge group. We bound the regions of flavors and colors which can yield a physical infrared fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated conformal windows bounds when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms.

Thomas A Ryttov; Francesco Sannino

2009-06-01

478

Smart Houses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

1987-01-01

479

Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

2012-01-01

480

Freedom House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1941, Freedom House was organized by prominent Americans who were concerned with mounting threats to peace and democracy. Today, as in previous decades, their mission includes promoting "the growth of freedom by encouraging U.S. policymakers, international institutions, and the governments of established democracies to adopt policies that advance human rights and democracy around the world." First-time visitors may wish to begin by looking to the right-hand side of the homepage to the "Around the World" section. Here visitors can learn about the work that the Freedom House organization is doing in other parts of the world, and more importantly, they can read their in-house reports on democratic movements in different countries. Moving along, the left-hand side of the page includes links to their other publications, which include the "Nations In Transit" series. This particular series takes a long view on political reform in the former Communist states of Europe and Eurasia. To really get a full appreciation of the site's contents and scope requires several visits, but it should have no problem holding the attention of public policy types and scholars.

481

The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A human mission to Mars is the stated "ultimate" goal for NASA and is widely believed by the public to be the most compelling destination for America's space program. However, widely cited enormous costs - perhaps as much as a trillion dollars for a many-decade campaign - seem to be an impossible hurdle, although political and budget instability over many years may be equally challenging. More recently, a handful of increasingly detailed architectures for initial Mars missions have been developed by commercial companies that have estimated costs much less than widely believed and roughly comparable with previous major human space flight programs: the Apollo Program, the International Space Station, and the space shuttle. Several of these studies are listed in the bibliography to the workshop report. As a consequence of these new scenarios, beginning in spring, 2013 a multiinstitutional planning team began developing the content and invitee list for a winter workshop that would critically assess concepts, initiatives, technology priorities, and programmatic options to reduce significantly the costs of human exploration of Mars. The output of the workshop - findings and recommendations - would be presented in a number of forums and discussed with national leaders in human space flight. It would also be made available to potential international partners. This workshop was planned from the start to be the first in a series. Subsequent meetings, conferences, and symposia will concentrate on topics not able to be covered in December. In addition, to make progress in short meeting, a handful of ground rules were adopted by the planning team and agreed to by the participants. Perhaps the two most notable such ground rules were (1) the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion would be available during the time frame considered by the participants and (2) the International Space Station (ISS) would remain the early linchpin in preparing for Mars exploration over the coming decade. The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

2014-01-01

482

Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.  

PubMed

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 ?g/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. PMID:21641121

Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

2011-12-01

483

Mixed-Income Housing: Factors for Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewed emphasis has been placed on mixed-income housing through HUD's HOPE VI program and the bipartisan consensus to end the concentration of low- income people in public housing. Through an analysis of seven successful mixed- income housing developments, this article defines a research and learning agenda for academics and practitioners in the field. Preliminary analysis indicates that successful mixed-income

Paul C. Brophy; Rhonda N. Smith

484

New Mexico State University Housing Master Plan  

E-print Network

&D coordinated efforts with New Mexico State University Director of Housing and Residential Life, Julie Weber.......... Strategic Asset Value Analysis 3.......... Concept Development Focus Group Summary 4.......... Peer population in traditional units, suite style, greek and apartment style housing (table 1.1). Housing

Johnson, Eric E.

485

Between ‘Market’ and ‘Welfare’: Rent Restructuring Policy in the Housing Association Sector, England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically evaluates the market and welfare impacts of rent restructuring policy in the housing association (RSL) sector. The focus is on the financial viability of housing associations in the north of England, the affordability problems of tenants in the south, and the changes of turnover rates of RSL tenancies that have resulted. Using data from the Regulatory and

Connie P. Y. Tang

2008-01-01

486

Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees must be positioned. For a given occupant, the specific position along the path depends on the distance from the heel to the back of the knee. The application of the concept of parabolic adjustment of the hip-support structure caused the seat pan to also take on a parabolic shape, yielding the unanticipated additional benefit that the seat pan fits the occupant s buttocks and thighs more nearly conformally than do seat pans of prior design. This more nearly conformal fit effectively eliminates a void between the occupant s body and the seat pan, thereby helping to prevent what, in prior seat designs, was shifting of the occupant s body into that void during an impact.

Gohmert, Dustin

2009-01-01

487

Local leadership and the Affordable Care Act.  

PubMed

Local health departments are in key positions to lead in the education and implementation efforts to advance the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The first enrollment period is over, but the efforts to enroll the uninsured and advocate for expansion of Medicaid in the states that have not yet taken on this expansion will continue for years to come. Political climates may be unsupportive, but some actions may still be possible. PMID:25423062

Williams, Stephen L; Nichols, Beverly L; Barton, M Katherine; De LaCruz, Maria; Hernandez, Benjamin

2015-01-01

488

Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

2004-01-01

489

The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA. PMID:25121814

McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

2014-10-01

490

Local Leadership and the Affordable Care Act  

PubMed Central

Local health departments are in key positions to lead in the education and implementation efforts to advance the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The first enrollment period is over, but the efforts to enroll the uninsured and advocate for expansion of Medicaid in the states that have not yet taken on this expansion will continue for years to come. Political climates may be unsupportive, but some actions may still be possible. PMID:25423062

Williams, Stephen L.; Nichols, Beverly L.; Barton, M. Katherine; De LaCruz, Maria; Hernandez, Benjamin

2015-01-01

491

Modeling Responses to Respiratory House Dust Mite Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

House dust mite (HDM) is the most pervasive indoor aeroallergen source worldwide. Allergens derived from HDM are associated with sensitization and allergic asthma. Allergic asthma is an immunologically driven disease characterized by a Th2-polarized immune response, eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and remodeling. Animal models of asthma utilizing ovalbumin (OVA) exposure have afforded us considerable insight with respect to the mediators

E. Cates; R. Fattouh; J. Johnson; A. Llop-Guevara; M. Jordana

2007-01-01

492

Defend Dundee Council Housing The DTZ Pieda Report  

E-print Network

supervision and management costs · `Affordable rents' are being based on an annual increase investment, centred on improving existing housing stock. If Dundee residents individually owned all this property, and planned to destroy it or effectively give it away, we would be thought crazy. But, we do own

493

Student Housing & Residence Life UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH  

E-print Network

Student Housing & Residence Life UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH 1265 Military Trail Toronto carefully. You will be entering a legal contract with the University of Toronto Scarborough by agreeing that supports the academic mission of the University of Toronto at Scarborough. · To provide affordable, safe

Boonstra, Rudy

494

Poets House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Poets House is an organization that focuses on modern poetry and is a "national poetry library and literary center that invites poets and the public to step into the living tradition of poetry." The website of this New York-based treasure is now in Battery Park City, and houses a 50,000 volume poetry collection of varied media, including journals, audio, video, and digital media. The "News" tab offers a slideshow of "Poetry Hard-Hat Tours" that has almost two dozen photos of the progress of the building of the new Battery Park City location. The "Programs" tab on the left hand menu leads the visitors to a "Calendar of Events", as well as descriptions of the events on the calendar, such as "Seminars and Workshops", "Showcase Events" and "Conversations on Poetics". The "Directory" tab on the left hand menu offers a free 20,000 title online database of poetry titles published between 1990 and 2008, and is searchable by numerous criteria, as well as sortable by author, title, or publisher.

495

77 FR 14997 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prior written approval from an agency designee. HUD's experience demonstrates that in rare instances (e.g., Hurricane Katrina in 2005 or the 2008 flooding in Cedar Rapids, Iowa), there may be an extreme shortage of affordable housing...

2012-03-14

496

77 FR 16761 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Department of Housing and Urban...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prior written approval from an agency designee. HUD's experience demonstrates that in rare instances (e.g., Hurricane Katrina in 2005 or the 2008 flooding in Cedar Rapids, Iowa), there may be an extreme shortage of affordable housing...

2012-03-22

497

Maximising the net social benefit of the construction of post-disaster alternative housing projects.  

PubMed

The widespread destruction that follows large-scale natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, challenges the efficacy of traditional temporary housing methods in providing adequate solutions to housing needs. Recognising these housing challenges, the Congress of the United States allocated, in 2006, USD 400 million to the Department of Homeland Security to support Alternative Housing Pilot Programs, which are intended to explore the possibilities of providing permanent and affordable housing to displaced families instead of traditional temporary housing. This paper presents a new methodology and optimisation model to identify the optimal configurations of post-shelter housing arrangements to maximise the overall net socioeconomic benefit. The model is capable of quantifying and optimising the impacts of substituting temporary housing with alternative housing on the social and economic welfare of displaced families as well as the required additional costs of doing so. An application example is presented to illustrate the use of the model and its capabilities. PMID:23551231

El-Anwar, Omar

2013-07-01

498

Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

2014-01-01

499

Changing from the Marketplace to Medicare (Affordable Care Act)  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn more about Medicare and the Marketplace . Footer Health Insurance Marketplace Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory ... Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244 USA.gov Whitehouse.gov Health Insurance Marketplace Resources About the Affordable Care Act Regulatory ...

500

Hood River Passive House  

SciTech Connect

The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

Hales, D.

2014-01-01