Science.gov

Sample records for affordable housing developed

  1. Development of Basic Housing Systems for Maximum Affordability

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.; Gibbons, A.; McQueen, T.M.; Morris, C.; Raines, J.; Wendt, R.L.

    1999-04-19

    The ability to provide safe, habitable, comfortable housing for very low income residents within the target budget of $10,000 presents unique design and construction challenges. However, a number of preliminary conclusions have been inferred as being important concepts relative to the study of affordable housing. The term affordable housing can have many meanings and research is needed to define this explicitly. As it is most often used, affordable housing refers to an economic relationship between the price of housing, household income and current interest rates available from a lending institution. There is no direct relationship between architectural style, construction technology or user needs and the concept of affordability. For any home to be affordable, the home owner must balance the combination of housing needs and desires within the limits of an actual budget. There are many misconceptions that affordable housing must be defined as housing for those who cannot afford the free-market price. The concept of affordable housing must also include a component that recognizes the quality of the housing as an important element of the design and construction. In addition, responses to local climate impacts are necessary and are always part of a regional expression of architectural design. By using careful planning and design it may be possible to construct a limited dwelling unit today for a sum of approximately $10,000. Since the organization of the construction process must involve the owner/occupants as well as other volunteers, the project must not only be well conceived, but well developed and coordinated.

  2. 77 FR 19750 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Office of Domestic Finance, Small... be directed to the Office of Domestic Finance, Small Business Lending Fund; Daniel Rourke;...

  3. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to the Office of Domestic...

  4. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  5. 24 CFR 1000.156 - Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards? 1000.156 Section 1000.156 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY...

  6. Achieving Sustainable Construction in Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.K.; Creech, D.B.; Ternes, M.P.

    1998-12-07

    An energy-efficient design and construction checklist and information sheets on energy-efficient design and construction are two products being developed. These products will help affordable housing providers take the first steps toward a whole-house approach to the design and implementation of energy-efficient construction practices. The checklist presents simple and clear guidance on energy improvements that can be readily addressed now by most affordable housing providers. The information sheets complement the checklist by providing installation instructions and material specifications that are accompanied by detailed graphics. The information sheets also identify benefits of recommended energy-efficiency measures and procedures including cost savings and impacts on health and comfort. This paper presents details on the checklist and information sheets and discusses their use in two affordable housing projects.

  7. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. 92.254 Section 92.254 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.254 Qualification as affordable...

  8. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  9. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for affordable housing activities. 1006.20 Section 1006.20 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE...

  10. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand exposure lowered, and smokers more likely ... residents of eight affordable housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also ...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  12. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that submission... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing... Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. (a) Acquisition with or without rehabilitation. Housing...

  13. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 1006.201 - Eligible affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.201 Eligible... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible affordable housing activities. 1006.201 Section 1006.201 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  18. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  19. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  20. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  1. 12 CFR 1807.400 - Affordable housing-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-general. 1807.400 Section 1807.400 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.400 Affordable...

  2. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  3. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  4. 12 CFR 1807.402 - Affordable housing-homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable housing-homeownership. 1807.402 Section 1807.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Qualification as Affordable Housing § 1807.402 Affordable...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  8. 24 CFR 1006.20 - Grants for affordable housing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM General § 1006.20 Grants for affordable housing activities. (a) Annual grant. Each fiscal year, HUD will make a grant (to the extent that amounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for affordable...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.156 - Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation of affordable housing and homebuyer assistance) and model activities. Acquisition includes assistance to a family to buy housing. Units with the same number of bedrooms must be comparable with...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.156 - Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rehabilitation of affordable housing and homebuyer assistance) and model activities. Acquisition includes assistance to a family to buy housing. Units with the same number of bedrooms must be comparable with...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.156 - Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rehabilitation of affordable housing and homebuyer assistance) and model activities. Acquisition includes assistance to a family to buy housing. Units with the same number of bedrooms must be comparable with...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.156 - Is affordable housing developed, acquired, or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rehabilitation of affordable housing and homebuyer assistance) and model activities. Acquisition includes assistance to a family to buy housing. Units with the same number of bedrooms must be comparable with...

  13. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  14. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  15. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 81.14 Section 81.14 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION...

  16. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Zone or Enterprise Community application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership. 92.254 Section 92.254 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department...

  17. Section 8: Affordable Housing for Exceptional Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wesley E.

    2009-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need. Unfortunately, affordable housing is a need that low income families who are caring for children and adults with disabilities can rarely afford without assistance. Because participating families generally pay rent of no more than 30 percent of their adjusted monthly income, the Section 8 program can provide…

  18. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  19. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  20. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  1. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  2. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  3. 12 CFR 1291.12 - Affordable Housing Reserve Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. 1291.12 Section 1291.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.12 Affordable Housing Reserve Fund. (a) Deposits. If...

  4. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ – the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities.

  5. DOE-HUD Initiative: Making Housing Affordable Through Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A new collaborative program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a significant step toward making HUD-aided housing more comfortable and affordable through greater energy efficiency. The initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing combines DOE's technical capabilities and HUD's experience in housing assistance. Over the next decade, the energy savings potential of this initiative is estimated to be 150 trillion Btu (0.15 quad) per year, or nearly $1.5 billion in annual energy costs.

  6. Providing Affordable Housing: Small Communities Benefit from Upgrading Dilapidated Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestekin, Kay

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Affordable Housing Opportunities Program (AHOP) created by the Eau Claire County Housing Authority in Wisconsin. The AHOP buys, renovates, and sells homes for prices below fair market value. This provides safe, sanitary housing for families who could not otherwise afford it. Describes the purchase, renovation, and sale of four…

  7. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  9. "Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible": Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence.

    PubMed

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women's experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors' housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  10. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing...: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition. OMB Approval Number: N/A. Type of Request: New. Form Number: N/A. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Innovation...

  11. 12 CFR 1282.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance Fund; and (C) Subject to, and have received at least a satisfactory performance evaluation rating... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Affordable Housing Goal. 1282.14 Section 1282.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION...

  12. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  13. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  14. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  17. Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

    2012-03-01

    The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

  18. 24 CFR 1000.240 - When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a local cooperation... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.240 When is a local cooperation agreement required for affordable housing activities? The requirement for a local cooperation agreement applies only to rental and...

  19. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  20. 24 CFR 81.14 - Special Affordable Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.14 Special..., as a Special Affordable Housing Home Purchase Subgoal, 17 percent of the total number of home purchase mortgages in metropolitan areas financed by each GSE's mortgage purchases shall be home...

  1. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  2. Friendly protection of houses by affordable isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzolani, Federico M.; Mandara, Alberto; Froncillo, Salvatore

    2008-07-08

    The paper deals with a case of seismic isolation carried out in Campania (Italy), referring to the construction of a house building. The concerned case is a three-storey reinforced concrete frame building, in which the isolation system has been applied between the basement top and the first floor deck. The paper reports the main steps of this work, starting from the design, carried out according to the latest Italian seismic code, going throughout the construction stage, up to the extensive on-site testing program performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the building. Relevant technological solutions are illustrated and discussed. Both theoretical calculation and experimental measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution adopted, not only from the technical point of view, but also in an economic perspective.

  3. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  4. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  5. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  6. Developing Strategies for Affordable Bandwidth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educause Quarterly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Written by Educause's Net@EDU Broadband Pricing Working Group, this article discusses what institutions of higher education can do to develop good partnerships with broadband vendors in order to negotiate affordable pricing for increased bandwidth. Describes problems with the marketplace, examples from a few universities, and points to remember…

  7. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities under NAHASDA? 1000.40 Section 1000.40 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND...

  8. “Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible”: Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E.; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women’s experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors’ housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  9. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  10. Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing (WA) - YWCA

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, Vincent; DeRobbio, Wendy; Hall, Linda

    2012-04-30

    The YWCA Family Village at Issaquah, Net Zero Energy Approach Project provides a compelling model for how the nation can seriously respond to the critical need for affordable housing while advancing environmental standards and reducing economic inequities. Affordable housing developments for vulnerable members of the community and in today's workforce cannot overlook issues, such as climate impact, energy security and water conservation. This project's advanced building design was based on the goal of creating a 100 year building that could achieve net zero energy usage if funding had been available to support the final pieces of energy generation. The team worked closely with community stakeholders to ensure the baseline components of high quality and efficient building envelopes along with efficient systems were in place to set the stage for future incorporation of energy generating systems such as solar panels. As built, these 146 homes, large child care center and community services areas are proving the value of investing upfront for the benefit of future generations by reducing ongoing utility and maintenance costs with an eye toward environmental stewardship and community/resident education. The DOE award helped fund two critical energy conservation features for the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah campus: 1) super-insulated roof assembly with a continuous air barrier and 2) domestic hot water preheat system. The roof system at the YWCA Family Village at Issaquah project was built to include 6" of Polyiso rigid insulation (R-38) on top of the roof sheathing to provide a super-insulated roof in line with the other green features of the project. Placing the rigid insulation on top of the roof sheathing allows the building to have a continuous layer of insulation and provides a continuous air barrier. The domestic hot water preheat system includes flat panel arrays on roofs of the buildings that heat the water using solar power, which reduces the amount of

  11. 24 CFR 954.307 - Homeownership: qualification as affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with 24 CFR 203.18b; and (ii) Has an estimated appraised value at acquisition, if standard, or after... appealed in accordance with 24 CFR 203.18b; and (2) The housing is the principal residence of an owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homeownership: qualification...

  12. Affordable housing through energy efficiency: The Northgate story

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; McAllister, J.A.; Feustel, H.E.; Patullo, C.; Buckley, T.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate a comprehensive retrofit and rehabilitation effort to improve the comfort, affordability, and energy efficiency of 336 low-income housing units. The units had complete shell retrofits, including new siding, air-infiltration barriers, new windows and doors, and both roof and foundation insulation. In addition, the existing electric-baseboard heating system was replaced with a new gas-fired boiler for each apartment. New programmable thermostats, refrigerators, and tenant education were also included in the retrofit package. The evaluation of the project included pre- and post-retrofit utility bill analysis, computer simulation to evaluate the cost and saving of the individual measures, and a comprehensive survey of the residents regarding their comfort, behavior, and satisfaction with the retrofits. The analysis has shown energy savings of more than 20% for the shell measures, with a reduction in utility bills of nearly 50% from the combined measures. The resident survey shows high tenant satisfaction with the retrofits.

  13. Affording Housing at the Expense of Health: Exploring the Housing and Neighborhood Strategies of Poor Families

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Low-income families often simultaneously encounter housing and neighborhood problems pertaining to safety, affordability, and quality issues that necessitate strategies to maximize limited budgets and ensure safety. Such constrained decisions regarding inadequate housing and poor neighborhood conditions, however, may themselves create or exacerbate health risks. Building on the survival strategies literature, this article offers rich and detailed accounts of coping and management strategies on the part of vulnerable families facing housing and neighborhood hardships. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 72 respondents and ethnographic observations in an urban community. The results illustrate how low-income women avoid neighborhood danger by relegating family life to the home environment, thereby increasing exposure to health risks such as stress, depression, and asthma. The discussion focuses on public health literature linking housing and health and proposes the use of legal strategies and community engagement as resources to complement current approaches to housing and neighborhood problems. PMID:27057078

  14. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  15. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  16. The Affordable Housing Crisis: Residential Mobility of Poor Families and School Mobility of Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    Helping poor families increase their residential stability can have direct bearing on school stability and student academic achievement. Discusses the role of housing in child and family wellbeing; residential mobility and school performance; residential mobility and housing problems; housing affordability; (federal housing policy); homeownership;…

  17. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Multifamily special affordable housing goal and subgoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Multifamily special affordable housing goal and... 2010 and 2011, the goal for each Enterprise's purchases of mortgages on multifamily residential housing... low-income housing subgoal. For the years 2010 and 2011, the subgoal for each Enterprise's...

  18. 24 CFR 954.306 - Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of family participation under 24 CFR part 882 (rental certificate program) or a rental voucher under 24 CFR part 887 (rental voucher program) or to the holder of a comparable document evidencing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental housing: qualification...

  19. 24 CFR 1000.242 - When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? 1000.242 Section 1000.242 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Indian Housing Plan (IHP) § 1000.242 When does the requirement for exemption from taxation apply to affordable housing activities? The requirement for exemption from taxation applies only to...

  20. Local Perspectives on Rural Housing Affordability and Implications for the Localism Agenda in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallent, Nick; Robinson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on consultation meetings with eight community groups across rural England, this paper examines local perspectives on housing affordability, and the consequences of low levels of "within area" housing access for rural economies and communities, contrasting the reflective understanding of residents with normative and established perspectives…

  1. Health Outcomes and Green Renovation of Affordable Housing

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Jill; Jacobs, David E.; Weber, William; Dixon, Sherry; Kawecki, Carol; Aceti, Susan; Lopez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether renovating low-income housing using “green” and healthy principles improved resident health and building performance. Methods We investigated resident health and building performance outcomes at baseline and one year after the rehabilitation of low-income housing using Enterprise Green Communities green specifications, which improve ventilation; reduce moisture, mold, pests, and radon; and use sustainable building products and other healthy housing features. We assessed participant health via questionnaire, provided Healthy Homes training to all participants, and measured ventilation, carbon dioxide, and radon. Results Adults reported statistically significant improvements in overall health, asthma, and non-asthma respiratory problems. Adults also reported that their children's overall health improved, with significant improvements in non-asthma respiratory problems. Post-renovation building performance testing indicated that the building envelope was tightened and local exhaust fans performed well. New mechanical ventilation was installed (compared with no ventilation previously), with fresh air being supplied at 70% of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers standard. Radon was <2 picocuries per liter of air following mitigation, and the annual average indoor carbon dioxide level was 982 parts per million. Energy use was reduced by 45% over the one-year post-renovation period. Conclusions We found significant health improvements following low-income housing renovation that complied with green standards. All green building standards should include health requirements. Collaboration of housing, public health, and environmental health professionals through integrated design holds promise for improved health, quality of life, building operation, and energy conservation. PMID:21563714

  2. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. In 2010, the City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started construction to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ×6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  3. Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. The City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started a construction program in 2010 to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal of the program was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ?6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  4. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Multifamily special affordable housing goal and subgoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Multifamily special affordable housing goal and... least 215,000 such dwelling units. (3) For the year 2014, the goal for each Enterprise's purchases of... dwelling units. (3) For the year 2014, the subgoal for each Enterprise's purchases of mortgages...

  5. 26 CFR 1.42-3 - Treatment of buildings financed with proceeds from a loan under an Affordable Housing Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). (a) Treatment under sections 42(i) and 42(b). A below market loan funded in whole or in part with... reason of the Affordable Housing Program funds, a below market Federal loan as defined in section 42(i)(2... Treatment of buildings financed with proceeds from a loan under an Affordable Housing Program...

  6. Who has housing affordability problems? Disparities in Housing Cost burden by Race, Nativity and Legal Status in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Housing costs are a substantial component of U.S. household expenditures. Those who allocate a large proportion of their income to housing often have to make difficult financial decisions with significant short-term and long-term implications for adults and children. This study employs cross-sectional data from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) collected between 2000 and 2002 to examine the most common U.S. standard of housing affordability, the likelihood of spending thirty percent or more of income on shelter costs. Multivariate analyses of a low-income sample of U.S. born Latinos, Whites, African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants and unauthorized Latino immigrants focus on baseline and persistent differences in the likelihood of being cost burdened by race, nativity and legal status. Nearly half or more of each group of low-income respondents experience housing affordability problems. The results suggest that immigrants’ legal status is the primary source of disparities among those examined, with the multivariate analyses revealing large and persistent disparities for unauthorized Latino immigrants relative to most other groups. Moreover, the higher odds of housing cost burden observed for unauthorized immigrants compared with their authorized immigrant counterparts remains substantial, accounting for traditional indicators of immigrant assimilation. These results are consistent with emerging scholarship regarding the role of legal status in shaping immigrant outcomes in the United States. PMID:24077641

  7. Who has housing affordability problems? Disparities in Housing Cost burden by Race, Nativity and Legal Status in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-09-01

    Housing costs are a substantial component of U.S. household expenditures. Those who allocate a large proportion of their income to housing often have to make difficult financial decisions with significant short-term and long-term implications for adults and children. This study employs cross-sectional data from the first wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS) collected between 2000 and 2002 to examine the most common U.S. standard of housing affordability, the likelihood of spending thirty percent or more of income on shelter costs. Multivariate analyses of a low-income sample of U.S. born Latinos, Whites, African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants and unauthorized Latino immigrants focus on baseline and persistent differences in the likelihood of being cost burdened by race, nativity and legal status. Nearly half or more of each group of low-income respondents experience housing affordability problems. The results suggest that immigrants' legal status is the primary source of disparities among those examined, with the multivariate analyses revealing large and persistent disparities for unauthorized Latino immigrants relative to most other groups. Moreover, the higher odds of housing cost burden observed for unauthorized immigrants compared with their authorized immigrant counterparts remains substantial, accounting for traditional indicators of immigrant assimilation. These results are consistent with emerging scholarship regarding the role of legal status in shaping immigrant outcomes in the United States. PMID:24077641

  8. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  9. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  10. Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

    2006-10-01

    Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

  11. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... market rent for existing housing for comparable units in the area as established by HUD under 24 CFR 888... are not required to pay as rent an amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable,...

  12. Predictors of Smoke-Free Policies in Affordable Multiunit Housing, North Carolina, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Suttie, Janet; Baker, Laura; Agans, Robert; Xue, Wei; Bowling, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoke-free policies can effectively protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in multiunit housing. We surveyed all affordable multiunit housing properties in North Carolina to determine the statewide prevalence of smoke-free policies and to identify predictors of smoke-free policies. Methods Representatives of affordable housing properties in North Carolina completed a mailed or online survey during June through October 2013. The primary outcome measure was presence of a smoke-free policy, defined as prohibiting smoking in all residential units. We used χ2 analysis and multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of smoke-free policies. Results Of 1,865 eligible properties, responses were received for 1,063 (57%). A total of 16.5% of properties had policies that prohibited smoking in all residential units, while 69.6% prohibited smoking in indoor common areas. In multivariate analysis, an increase in the number of children per unit was associated with a decrease in the odds of having a smoke-free policy at most properties. Newer properties across all company sizes were more likely to have smoke-free policies. Accessing units from interior hallways predicted smoke-free policies among medium-sized companies. Conclusion More smoke-free policies in affordable multiunit housing are needed to protect vulnerable populations, particularly children, from SHS exposure. Public health professionals should continue to educate housing operators about SHS and the benefits of smoke-free policies at all properties, including older ones and ones where units are accessed from outside rather than from an interior hallway. PMID:25974143

  13. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  14. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  15. Achieving Challenge Home in Affordable Housing in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Winter, B.; Allnutt, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with two builders as they work through the Challenge Home certification process (now Zero Energy Ready Home) in one test home each. The builder partners participating in this cost-shared research are Southeast Volusia County Habitat for Humanity near Daytona, Florida and Manatee County Habitat for Humanity near Tampa, Florida. Both are affiliates of Habitat for Humanity International, a non-profit affordable housing organization. This research serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the CH criteria for other builders in the region. A further objective of this research is to identify gaps and barriers in the marketplace related to product availability, labor force capability, code issues, cost effectiveness, and business case issues that hinder or prevent broader adoption on a production scale.

  16. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Stafford, B.; Carpenter, B.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.; Kriescher, P.

    2005-04-01

    A trend towards ''green'' building with a focus on energy efficiency is sweeping the United States homebuilding industry. An integrated systems-design approach leads to homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices. Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the country are taking the lead on this approach to home building for affordable housing. This approach supports Habitat's goals of supplying quality housing and reducing the energy cost burden on families in Habitat homes--goals that are especially important in these days of increasing energy costs.

  17. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  18. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P < .001) and no change in outdoor exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  19. Manufactured Homes as Affordable Housing in Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Robert, Comp.

    This bibliography includes citations of approximately 60 books and articles pertaining to manufactured housing or "mobile homes," an important segment of the national housing industry. The availability of manufactured homes for low and moderate income groups is significant in light of skyrocketing new-housing costs. The South leads the nation with…

  20. Affordable Housing: A Crisis for Wisconsin Families. A WisKids Count Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

    Growing up in poor quality, unsafe, and/or overcrowded housing magnifies all the other challenges and disadvantages that go along with poverty. Noting that as more and more families in Wisconsin and nationwide struggle to achieve sustainable housing, the connection between housing and child well-being is becoming increasingly obvious, this WisKids…

  1. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent assessments have confirmed the results of several earlier studies that Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a leading technology for human exploration of Mars. It is generally acknowledged that NTP provides the best prospects for the transportation of humans to Mars in the 2030's. Its high Isp coupled with the high thrusts achievable, allow reasonable trip times, thereby alleviating concerns about space radiation and "claustrophobia" effects. NASA has embarked on the latest phase of the development of NTP systems, and is adopting an affordable approach in response to the pressure of the times. The affordable strategy is built on maximizing the use of the large NTP technology base developed in the 1950's and 60's. The fact that the NTP engines were actually demonstrated to work as planned, is a great risk reduction feature in its development. The strategy utilizes non-nuclear testing to the fullest extent possible, and uses focused nuclear tests for the essential qualification and certification tests. The perceived cost risk of conducting the ground tests is being addressed by considering novel testing approaches. This includes the use of boreholes to contain radioactive effluents, and use of fuel with very high retention capability for fission products. The use of prototype flight tests is being considered as final steps in the development prior to undertaking human flight missions. In addition to the technical issues, plans are being prepared to address the institutional and political issues that need to be considered in this major venture. While the development and deployment of NTP system is not expected to be cheap, the value of the system will be very high, and amortized over the many missions that it enables and enhances, the imputed costs will be very reasonable. Using the approach outlined, NASA and its partners, currently the DOE, and subsequently industry, have a good chance of creating a sustained development program leading to human

  2. Landowners and the Structure of Affordable Housing Provision in Rural Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satsangi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at the behaviour of private landowners in rural Scotland in relation to housing supply, particularly renting and low-cost housing. The theme is one that has received relatively little research. In consequence, the paper is set in the context of two rather broader traditions in the literature of examining investor/developer…

  3. Technological innovation in community housing development: Barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    Community housing developers produce affordable housing and jobs for many residents of low-income neighborhoods through the rehabilitation of existing single and multi-family buildings. Typically operating as small, not-for-profits or community-based organizations, the vast numbers of community housing developers creates high coordinating costs of operating jointly to acquire the shared learning needed to implement new techniques, such as those involving energy efficiency. This paper presents a model of technology adoption that suggests that new profitable technologies will be adopted only with low probability and that strategic interaction between potential adopters further reduces the likelihood of adoption. These features result from the ability of potential adopters to postpone the bearing the costs of adoption of new technologies and their ability to share the knowledge of others who have adopted new technologies. These features are particularly characteristic of community housing developers.

  4. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  6. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply..., subparts A, B, H, J, K, M and R of this title, which implement the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning...

  8. Progress in Housing and Urban Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several community development programs have gained federal funding through the Housing and Community Development Act. These activities include the development of property tax relief measures for the elderly and a housing modernization program. Rules governing the funding have been proposed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).…

  9. Development of a Measure of Housing and Housing Services.

    PubMed

    Clark, Colleen; Young, M Scott; Teague, Gregory; Rynearson-Moody, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Housing Program Measure (HPM) was designed to document critical elements of a range of housing program types and associated services. Qualitative methods, including literature review and open-ended interviews, were used to determine pertinent HPM domains and to develop the pool of items. The measure was pre-tested, and reliability and validity analyses were applied to revise and strengthen the measure. The resulting measure furthers homelessness research by providing a tool that can be used to define housing and housing services interventions across diverse projects and disciplines, to facilitate program management by matching housing resources to the needs of homeless individuals, and to support model development by measuring progress to goals. PMID:26643528

  10. 24 CFR 401.408 - Affordability and use restrictions required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.408 Affordability and use restrictions required....

  11. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that stable and affordable housing is an essential component of an effective strategy for the prevention, treatment, and care of human immunodeficiency virus, and that the United States should make a commitment to providing adequate funding for the development of housing as a response to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2011-05-04

    05/04/2011 Referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2692) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. 75 FR 9033 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Affordable Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-Entry Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...\\ See 74 FR 39873 (Aug. 10, 2009). The Safety and Soundness Act, as amended by HERA, requires the... continuing in effect for 2004), and in the 2004 housing goals rule for 2005-08. \\13\\ See 58 FR 53048 (Oct. 13, 1993) and 58 FR 53072 (Oct. 13, 1993). \\14\\ See 60 FR 61846 (Dec. 1, 1995). \\15\\ See 65 FR 65044...

  13. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  14. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  15. Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

    2010-08-27

    In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

  16. Identifying perceived barriers and benefits to reducing energy consumption in an affordable housing complex using the Community-Based Social Marketing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaves, Daniel

    Energy production and consumption has a negative impact on both environmental and human health. Energy consumption can be directly impacted by human behavior, especially in the residential sector. As a result, this sector has been studied significantly; however, energy reducing behavior change research focusing on the affordable housing sector has not been studied thoroughly to date. This study seeks to implement the first two phases of the Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) framework in an affordable housing setting. The goals were to identify the optimal behaviors for energy reduction based on phase one survey results and to identify the perceived benefits and barriers associated with those behaviors. Additionally, this study identified nuances in the CBSM process that researchers should take into consideration when implementing CBSM in an affordable housing environment.

  17. Affordable housing through energy conservation: A guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. This data base was compiled using over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. This extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Regression techniques in PEAR permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to over 800 US locations based on climate parameters. PEAR is designed as a user-friendly program that can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts, and as a nontechnical energy calculation method by architects, homebuilders, homeowners, and others in the building industry. Technical documentation of the PEAR program and the database is given elsewhere (see References). 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit, Annapolis, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, the BA-PIRC research team evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This case study summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete.

  19. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James; Moore, Mike; Thompson, Margo

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit (DER) at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  20. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.; Moore, M.; Thompson, M.

    2013-08-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a 'base scope' retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a 'DER scope' which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  1. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Affordability standards. 572.120...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.120 Affordability standards. (a) Initial... annual incomes of eligible families using reasonable standards and procedures consistently applied.)...

  2. Conservation value of clustered housing developments.

    PubMed

    Lenth, Buffy A; Knight, Richard L; Gilgert, Wendell C

    2006-10-01

    Traditionally, exurban lands in Colorado have been subdivided into a grid of parcels ranging from 2 to 16 ha. From an ecological perspective, this dispersed pattern of development effectively maximizes the individual influence of each home on the land. Clustered housing developments, designed to maximize open space, are assumed to benefit plant and wildlife communities of conservation interest. They have become a popular alternative for rural development despite the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating their conservation benefits. To better inform rural land-use planning, we evaluated clustered housing developments by comparing their spatial pattern with that of dispersed housing developments and by comparing their conservation value with that of both dispersed housing developments and undeveloped areas in Boulder County, Colorado. We used four indicators to assess conservation value: (1) densities of songbirds, (2) nest density and survival of ground-nesting birds, (3) presence of mammals, and (4) percent cover and proportion of native and non-native plant species. Clustered and dispersed housing developments did not differ on the majority of variables we examined. Both types of housing development had significantly higher densities of non-native and human-commensal species and significantly lower densities of native and human-sensitive species than undeveloped areas. More rigorous ecological guidelines and planning on a regional scale may help create clustered developments with higher conservation value. PMID:17002762

  3. Cardiovascular health outcomes of Latinos in the Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) study: a study of rental assistance use.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2014-06-01

    Studies have shown that households subsidized with vouchers live in higher quality units and exhibit fewer physical, mental, and social problems than do their peers living in public housing. However, none of these studies have included cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess if use/type of rental assistance is independently associated with poor cardiovascular health among Latino adults (ages ≥ 18) who are eligible for federal low-income rental assistance and living in the Bronx, NY. Data from the cross-sectional, Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment study, collected over 18 months (January 2011 to August 2012) were used. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes was determined by measured high blood pressure and self-reported heart attack and/or stroke. Type of housing status was defined as: public housing units, units subsidized by section 8 vouchers, and units unassisted by either federal program. Statistical techniques used were analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among public housing residents than unassisted participants even in the presence of all individual level covariates. Public housing residents also have higher levels of CVD than do section 8 participants. The prevalence of CVD was similar for unassisted and section 8 participants. These findings point to the potential for health benefits arising from housing voucher use even within a fairly delimited geographic area. PMID:24190105

  4. Affordable Development of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. The foundation provided by development and utilization of a NCPS could enable development of extremely high performance systems. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  5. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the U.S. are taking the lead on an integrated systems-design approach to building homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices.

  6. Energy costs, urban development, and housing

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, A.; Bradbury, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Six revised and edited papers from a conference held by the Brookings Institute in 1981 assess the effects of higher energy costs on various aspects of urban development and housing, including industrial location and regional development. Comments and discussion from public-agency participants follow each of the papers. Following an introductory summary of the policy findings and the conference papers, the six papers are: Home Energy Costs and the Housing of the Poor and Elderly, Energy Prices and Urban Decentralization, Energy and the Existing Stock of Housing, New Residential Construction and Energy Costs, Energy and the Location of Industry, and Energy and Regional Development. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and one was processed separately.

  7. Affordable housing through energy conservation: a guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes. Data base for simplified energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The DOE-2.1a data base for the five residential prototypes has been analyzed by means of a computer program and reduced to a set of matrices that cover 45 locations. The matrix method for calculating the heating and cooling loads for residential buildings was developed by analyzing the data base load results and running test models to determine the effect of each building component independently of the rest of the building. All of the residential data that we have produced by doing DOE-2.1a computer simulations, including the window sensitivity data, was processed through the matrix program and was broken down into six basic components for each prototype: 1) ceiling insulation, 2) wall insulation, 3) foundation insulation, 4) infiltration (in air changes per hour), 5) window pane, sash type, gap, and area, and 6) the floor area of the house. These six components were manipulated separately for heating and cooling.

  8. A New Inventory for Assessing "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development ("AHEMD-SR")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo

    2008-01-01

    A contemporary view of motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. The intent of this communication is to introduce the "Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development Self-Report" ("AHEMD-SR") to early childhood practitioners. The…

  9. Developing In-House Tutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of bibliographic instruction for users of CD-ROM products highlights computer-based tutorials (CBT) that were developed at the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Western Ontario. Structured searching is described, and problems created by the lack of commercial CD-ROM tutorials and adequate training videos are…

  10. Prepreg and Melt Infiltration Technology Developed for Affordable, Robust Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Petko, Jeannie F.

    2004-01-01

    Affordable fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with multifunctional properties are critically needed for high-temperature aerospace and space transportation applications. These materials have various applications in advanced high-efficiency and high-performance engines, airframe and propulsion components for next-generation launch vehicles, and components for land-based systems. A number of these applications require materials with specific functional characteristics: for example, thick component, hybrid layups for environmental durability and stress management, and self-healing and smart composite matrices. At present, with limited success and very high cost, traditional composite fabrication technologies have been utilized to manufacture some large, complex-shape components of these materials. However, many challenges still remain in developing affordable, robust, and flexible manufacturing technologies for large, complex-shape components with multifunctional properties. The prepreg and melt infiltration (PREMI) technology provides an affordable and robust manufacturing route for low-cost, large-scale production of multifunctional ceramic composite components.

  11. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  12. Understanding Affordances and Challenges of Three Types of Video for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Meilan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers have reported positive effects on teacher learning from observing published video, teachers' own video, and their colleagues' video, very few professional development programs have integrated all three types of video to improve teacher learning. In this study, we examined the affordances and challenges of the three types of…

  13. Learning from the Past--Preparing for the Future: Addressing Fair and Affordable Housing Issues in the Chicago Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    This conference paper discusses the current situation of racial differences in housing in the Chicago (Illinois) area with regard to the ramifications of the "Miliken v. Bradley" (1974) case. The Miliken case closed the door on busing and school desegregation plans crossing school district lines and in many cases, crossing municipal boundaries. It…

  14. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  15. A Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATellite (FASTSAT) and the Small Satellite Market Development Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boudreaux, Mark; Montgomery, Edward; Cacas, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administr ation at Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Space Science and Technology Center in Huntsville Alabama USA, are jointly developing a new class of science and technology mission small satellites. The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology SATell ite (FASTSAT) was designed and developed using a new collaborative and best practices approach. The FASTSAT development, along with the new class of low cost vehicles currently being developed, would allow performance of 30 kg payload mass missions for a cost of less than 10 million US dollars.

  16. Space and energy conservation housing prototype unit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunshine, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Construction plans are discussed for a house which will demonstrate the application of advanced technology to minimize energy requirements and to help direct further development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water systems with building configuration and construction materials. Housing unit designs are provided and procedures for the analysis of a variety of housing strategies are developed.

  17. Cutting energy costs in multifamily housing: Practical case studies for the builder and developer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiddon, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on an expert evaluation of nine existing and three proposed multifamily housing projects across the US. The existing buildings include three lowrise projects (three to four stories), six midrises (five to seven stories), and three highrise buildings (nine to thirty-nine stories). Two projects were designed and built in the late 1950's, two in the late 1960's, and five late in the ''energy-crisis'' of the 1970's. The existing projects range from municipally subsidized elderly housing, to HUD Section-8 suburban developments, to luxury urban highrise buildings. The three ''future'' buildings, designed by the NAHB research team, were based on trends anticipated in the multifamily industry by IREM and NAHB leaders, over the next five years. The key trends identified were: downsizing of units (by 10 to 20%); increased project size (in number of units), denser developments (more midrise and highrise projects), and increased amenities - all in the context of more affordable housing.

  18. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  19. National and Rural Housing Policy. Historical Development and Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William J.; And Others

    This report traces the historical development of federal housing policy that has promoted a 40% decline in substandard housing and a 20% increase in homeownership over the past 50 years. It presents emerging national and rural housing policy concerns: the proper role of federal, state, and local governments in the mortgage credit and insurance…

  20. Spatial analysis on future housing markets: economic development and housing implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Lizhe

    2014-01-01

    A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. PMID:24892097

  1. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  2. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  3. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  4. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  5. 24 CFR 266.100 - Qualified housing finance agency (HFA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified housing finance agency... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.100 Qualified housing finance agency (HFA). (a)...

  6. Affordable Development and Optimization of CERMET Fuels for NTP Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Mireles, Omar R.

    2014-01-01

    CERMET fuel materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) are currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The work is part of NASA's Advanced Space Exploration Systems Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Project. The goal of the FY12-14 project is to address critical NTP technology challenges and programmatic issues to establish confidence in the affordability and viability of an NTP system. A key enabling technology for an NCPS system is the fabrication of a stable high temperature nuclear fuel form. Although much of the technology was demonstrated during previous programs, there are currently no qualified fuel materials or processes. The work at MSFC is focused on developing critical materials and process technologies for manufacturing robust, full-scale CERMET fuels. Prototypical samples are being fabricated and tested in flowing hot hydrogen to understand processing and performance relationships. As part of this initial demonstration task, a final full scale element test will be performed to validate robust designs. The next phase of the project will focus on continued development and optimization of the fuel materials to enable future ground testing. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the CERMET fuel materials development plan. The overall CERMET fuel development path is shown in Figure 2. The activities begin prior to ATP for a ground reactor or engine system test and include materials and process optimization, hot hydrogen screening, material property testing, and irradiation testing. The goal of the development is to increase the maturity of the fuel form and reduce risk. One of the main accomplishmens of the current AES FY12-14 project was to develop dedicated laboratories at MSFC for the fabrication and testing of full length fuel elements. This capability will enable affordable, near term development and optimization of the CERMET fuels for future ground testing. Figure 2 provides a timeline of the

  7. Small Launch Vehicle Concept Development for Affordable Multi-Stage Inline Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, Benjamin R.; Waters, Eric D.; Philips, Alan D.; Threet, Grady E. Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study of two configurations of a three-stage, inline, liquid propellant small launch vehicle concept developed on the premise of maximizing affordability by targeting a specific payload capability range based on current industry demand. The initial configuration, NESC-1, employed liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and rocket propellant grade kerosene as the fuel in all three stages. The second and more heavily studied configuration, NESC-4, employed liquid oxygen and RP-1 on the first and second stages and liquid oxygen and liquid methane fuel on the third stage. On both vehicles, sensitivity studies were first conducted on specific impulse and stage propellant mass fraction in order to baseline gear ratios and drive the focus of concept development. Subsequent sensitivity and trade studies on the NESC-4 concept investigated potential impacts to affordability due to changes in gross liftoff weight and/or vehicle complexity. Results are discussed at a high level to understand the impact severity of certain sensitivities and how those trade studies conducted can either affect cost, performance, or both.

  8. Small Launch Vehicle Concept Development for Affordable Multi-Stage Inline Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, Benjamin R.; Waters, Eric D.; Philips, Alan D.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study of two configurations of a three stage, inline, liquid propellant small launch vehicle concept developed on the premise of maximizing affordability by targeting a specific payload capability range based on current industry demand. The initial configuration, NESC-1, employed liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and rocket propellant grade kerosene as the fuel in all three stages. The second and more heavily studied configuration, NESC-4, employed liquid oxygen and rocket propellant grade kerosene on the first and second stages and liquid oxygen and liquid methane fuel on the third stage. On both vehicles, sensitivity studies were first conducted on specific impulse and stage propellant mass fraction in order to baseline gear ratios and drive the focus of concept development. Subsequent sensitivity and trade studies on the NESC-4 configuration investigated potential impacts to affordability due to changes in gross liftoff weight and/or vehicle complexity. Results are discussed at a high level to understand the severity of certain sensitivities and how those trade studies conducted can either affect cost, performance or both.

  9. Small Launch Vehicle Concept Development for Affordable Multi-Stage Inline Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, Benjamin R.; Waters, Eric D.; Philips, Alan D.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study of two configurations of a three-stage, inline, liquid propellant small launch vehicle concept developed on the premise of maximizing affordability by targeting a specific payload capability range based on current and future industry demand. The initial configuration, NESC-1, employed liquid oxygen as the oxidizer and rocket propellant grade kerosene as the fuel in all three stages. The second and more heavily studied configuration, NESC-4, employed liquid oxygen and rocket propellant grade kerosene on the first and second stages and liquid oxygen and liquid methane fuel on the third stage. On both vehicles, sensitivity studies were first conducted on specific impulse and stage propellant mass fraction in order to baseline gear ratios and drive the focus of concept development. Subsequent sensitivity and trade studies on the NESC-4 concept investigated potential impacts to affordability due to changes in gross liftoff mass and/or vehicle complexity. Results are discussed at a high level to understand the impact severity of certain sensitivities and how those trade studies conducted can either affect cost, performance, or both.

  10. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G.; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY11, NASA formulated a plan for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development that included Foundational Technology Development followed by system-level Technology Demonstrations The ongoing NTP project, funded by NASAs Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program, is focused on Foundational Technology Development and includes 5 key task activities:(1) Fuel element fabrication and non-nuclear validation testing of heritage fuel options;(2) Engine conceptual design;(3) Mission analysis and engine requirements definition;(4) Identification of affordable options for ground testing; and(5) Formulation of an affordable and sustainable NTP development program Performance parameters for Point of Departure designs for a small criticality-limited and full size 25 klbf-class engine were developed during FYs 13-14 using heritage fuel element designs for both RoverNERVA Graphite Composite (GC) and Ceramic Metal (Cermet) fuel forms To focus the fuel development effort and maximize use of its resources, the AES program decided, in FY14, that a leader-follower down selection between GC and cermet fuel was required An Independent Review Panel (IRP) was convened by NASA and tasked with reviewing the available fuel data and making a recommendation to NASA. In February 2015, the IRP recommended and the AES program endorsed GC as the leader fuel In FY14, a preliminary development schedule DDTE plan was produced by GRC, DOE industry for the AES program. Assumptions, considerations and key task activities are presented here Two small (7.5 and 16.5 klbf) engine sizes were considered for ground and flight technology demonstration within a 10-year timeframe; their ability to support future human exploration missions was also examined and a recommendation on a preferred size is provided.

  11. Emergences and affordances as opportunities to develop teachers' mathematical content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julie, Cyril

    2014-04-01

    Teachers' mathematical content knowledge has been under scrutiny for some time. This development is in the wake of learners' unsatisfactory performance in national examinations and international achievement tests. A widely held belief is that one, if not the most important, of the efforts to improve and enhance the performance and achievement in mathematics of learners is addressing teachers' mathematical content and pedagogical content knowledge through continuous professional development initiatives. The focus of this article is on the former. It describes how emergent and affording opportunities are brought to the fore from classroom observations and interactions in workshops and institutes with practising teachers. It concludes that this in situ dealing with mathematical content knowledge holds much promise for buy-in by teachers because it addresses an immediate need related to their practice.

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  13. 24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... housing developments subject to required conversion. 972.124 Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development... INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Identifying Developments Subject to...

  14. 24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... housing developments subject to required conversion. 972.124 Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development... INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Identifying Developments Subject to...

  15. 24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... housing developments subject to required conversion. 972.124 Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development... INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Identifying Developments Subject to...

  16. 24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... housing developments subject to required conversion. 972.124 Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development... INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Identifying Developments Subject to...

  17. 24 CFR 972.124 - Standards for identifying public housing developments subject to required conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... housing developments subject to required conversion. 972.124 Section 972.124 Housing and Urban Development... INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Identifying Developments Subject to...

  18. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  19. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  20. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit: Annapolis, Maryland. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  1. Development of a new class of satellites: a composite lightweight affordable spacecraft structure

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Parietti, L.

    1996-06-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) has successfully designed and tested a Composite Lightweight Affordable Structure (CLASS). The use of advanced composites in space applications is well developed, but the application of an all-composite satellite structure has not been achieved until now. The development of this low-cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in small satellite structures, in this case, for the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORT{acute E}) satellite mission will make a considerable contribution to the advanced spacecraft community. A common practice for constructing small spacecraft structures is to use an all-aluminum spacecraft bus. Compared to a composite structure, this reduces the payload capacity significantly; however, the cost of the aluminum structure has historically been lower than one of that uses lightweight components. LANL mission requirements dictate the need for a long term solution that substantially increased the ratio of payload to structural mass while maintaining a low-risk low-cost approach. LANL intends to use the concept developed for FORT{acute E} on future missions requiring similar enhanced payload capacities. 1 fig.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND MONITORING OF A SUSTAINABLE AFFORDABLE HOUSING COMMUNITY IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA GULF COAST UNIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planet will be improved due to less energy and therefore lowered carbon production, less water use in yards, greater use of native plant species in yards, and less runoff pollution from yards.

  3. Developing a User Guide to Integrating New Technologies in Science Teaching and Learning: Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of Their Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, James; Winterbottom, Mark; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports outcomes of a project in which five teachers developed a web-based user guide to integrating new technologies in secondary science teaching. The guide aimed to support the initial education of trainee teachers, and the professional development of mentors, in working with, and understanding the affordances of, new technologies.…

  4. Affordable Development and Demonstrationof a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Joyner, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Formulation of Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy is Underway Involving NASA, DOE and Industry. In FY11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program.

  5. 24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92.300 Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Community Housing Development Organizations §...

  6. 24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92.300 Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Community Housing Development Organizations §...

  7. 19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST PROPERTY LINE ADJACENT TO TREE AND RUNS ALONG SIDE OF SHED. LOOKING NORTH AND SLIGHTLY EAST FROM ADJOINING PROPERTY. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  8. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  9. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  10. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  11. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  12. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  13. 24 CFR 1000.158 - How will a NAHASDA grant recipient know that the housing assisted under the IHBG program meets...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will a NAHASDA grant recipient... Section 1000.158 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.158 How will a...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.158 - How will a NAHASDA grant recipient know that the housing assisted under the IHBG program meets...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will a NAHASDA grant recipient... Section 1000.158 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.158 How will a...

  15. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  16. Toward Sustainable and Affordable Space Exploration: The Role of NASA's Space Product Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, Franklin D.

    2005-02-01

    The National Vision for Space Exploration calls for sustainable and affordable human and robotic missions to explore the solar system. Sustainability requires that the program produce visible benefits to the public, along with scientific and technological advances in support of exploration that would be expected from a program of this magnitude. Affordability requires that the private sector be heavily involved, not just as contractors to NASA, but as sources of investment and direct beneficiaries of returns; in short, full participants in a long-term program that can transform the future of mankind. In order to make the vision both sustainable and affordable, true partnerships involving industry, academia and government must exist to create Earth benefits while working on needed exploration technologies and, at the same time, provide the added investments that will inevitably be required in extended periods of fiscal restraint. Such partnership programs, embodied in the Research Partnership Centers, have long existed within NASA. They have recently been realigned to more fully support the exploration vision and brought into the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This program and its past and potential contributions to the exploration vision will be described in detail at the conference.

  17. Getting Back on Tract: Developer Housing Re-energized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeatman, Andrea

    The problems of the suburban condition have been documented over the past few decades by urban planners and architects alike. However it is clear that demand for car-oriented developments remains high, and expansion of the suburbs with single family houses continues. Given this reality, this thesis focuses on the importance of developing a comprehensive design approach to tract housing that is more responsive to site, more energy efficient and less damaging to the environment. The work builds upon research that is being conducted through the Carleton Research & Innovation in Sustainable Energy Project (C-RISE). In collaboration with Urbandale Developers, C-RISE is studying the potential for making single family houses more energy efficient through passive solar design, building envelope, seasonal storage of solar thermal energy, hybrid passive-active storage of solar thermal energy, and passive and solar cooling. In light of this work, this thesis proposes a series of single family house designs that incorporate the C-RISE energy technologies and also address larger architectural issues around tract house and lot design.

  18. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  19. 24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., e.g., grant or loan, that the community housing development organization receives and whether any... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92.300 Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...

  20. 24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92.300 Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Community...

  1. 24 CFR 92.300 - Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., e.g., grant or loan, that the community housing development organization receives and whether any... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Set-aside for community housing development organizations (CHDOs). 92.300 Section 92.300 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...

  2. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. 92.208 Section 92.208 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program...

  3. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. 92.208 Section 92.208 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program...

  4. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. 92.208 Section 92.208 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program...

  5. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  6. 24 CFR 1000.142 - What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income homebuyer housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the âuseful lifeâ during which low-income rental housing and low-income homebuyer housing must remain affordable as required in... Activities § 1000.142 What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and...

  7. Repellent Plants Provide Affordable Natural Screening to Prevent Mosquito House Entry in Tropical Rural Settings—Results from a Pilot Efficacy Study

    PubMed Central

    Mng'ong'o, Frank C.; Sambali, Joseph J.; Sabas, Eustachkius; Rubanga, Justine; Magoma, Jaka; Ntamatungiro, Alex J.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Nyogea, Daniel; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Moore, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana) around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28–0.68, p<0.0001); 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09–0.32, p<0.0001), and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38–0.67, p<0.0001) in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person). L. camara

  8. Housing and urban development research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

  9. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible community housing... community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. (a) Up to 5... expenses of community housing development organizations (CHDOs). This amount is in addition to amounts...

  10. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible community housing... community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. (a) Up to 5... expenses of community housing development organizations (CHDOs). These funds may not be used to...

  11. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  12. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  13. 24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.106 Section 972.106 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Required...

  14. 24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.106 Section 972.106 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Required...

  15. 24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.209 Section 972.209 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Voluntary Conversion of Public Housing Developments...

  16. 24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.209 Section 972.209 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Voluntary Conversion of Public Housing Developments...

  17. 24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.209 Section 972.209 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Voluntary Conversion of Public Housing Developments...

  18. 24 CFR 972.209 - Procedure for voluntary conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.209 Section 972.209 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Voluntary Conversion of Public Housing Developments...

  19. 24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance. 972.106 Section 972.106 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Required...

  20. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  1. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  2. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters.

  3. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  4. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  5. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  6. 24 CFR 92.301 - Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... option contract to acquire the property), a preliminary financial commitment, and a capable development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project-specific assistance to community housing development organizations. 92.301 Section 92.301 Housing and Urban Development Office...

  7. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program...) for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement contains the names of the.... Williams, PhD, Director, Office of Rural Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning...

  8. An international analysis of cigarette affordability

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, E; van Walbeek, C P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how affordable cigarettes are in developed and developing countries, and to calculate by how much the affordability of cigarettes has changed between 1990 and 2001; and secondly, to investigate the relation between cigarette affordability and consumption. Design: Affordability was defined as the cost of cigarettes relative to per capita income. Trends in cigarette affordability, and affordability elasticities of demand, were estimated using regression techniques. Subjects: Seventy countries were investigated, of which 28 are categorised as high income developed countries, while 42 are categorised as developing countries. Cigarette prices were obtained for the main city/cities in the countries. Results: Despite the fact that cigarettes are more expensive in developed countries, the high levels of income make cigarettes more affordable in these countries vis-à-vis developing countries. Of the 28 developed countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 11 and less affordable in 17 countries during the 1990s. Of the 42 developing countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 24 and less affordable in 18 countries. Based on a cross sectional analysis, a 1% increase in the relative income price (the inverse of cigarette affordability) is expected to decrease cigarette consumption by between 0.49–0.57%. Conclusions: Cigarette affordability, more than just the price, determines cigarette consumption. While cigarettes have become more affordable in many developing countries, some developing countries (for example, South Africa, Poland, and Thailand) have implemented strong and effective tobacco control policies, and have been able to decrease cigarette consumption as a result. PMID:15564616

  9. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  10. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  11. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  12. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  13. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353...

  14. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  15. Emergences and Affordances as Opportunities to Develop Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julie, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' mathematical content knowledge has been under scrutiny for some time. This development is in the wake of learners' unsatisfactory performance in national examinations and international achievement tests. A widely held belief is that one, if not the most important, of the efforts to improve and enhance the performance and…

  16. Pedagogical Reasoning and Action: Affordances of Practice-Based Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pella, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    A common theme has been consistently woven through the literature on teacher professional development: that practice-based designs and collaboration are two components of effective teacher learning models. In addition to collaboration and practice-based designs, inquiry cycles have been long recognized as catalysts for teacher professional…

  17. Developing Technological and Pedagogical Affordances to Support Collaborative Inquiry Science Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifarre, Manoli; Wegerif, Rupert; Guiral, Alba; del Barrio, Merce

    2012-01-01

    One key feature of scientific community is collaborative shared enquiry and problem solving mediated by electronic networks. We report on the development and evaluation of an ICT tool to support learning how to learn together (L2L2) in Science Education as part of an EC funded project called "Metafora" (FP7-ICT-2009.4.2/257872). Through literature…

  18. Educational Affordances That Support Development of Innovative Thinking Skills in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowlin, Julaine; Amelink, Catherine; Scales, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    Innovative thinking skills are among the top characteristics that employers look for when hiring engineers. Universities are therefore charged with investigating and providing the type of learning environments that will foster the development of innovative thinking especially in large classes. This involves considering multiple factors such as the…

  19. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  20. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  1. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  2. The Community Development Block Grant Program and Unmet Urban Housing Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sue A.

    1981-01-01

    Criticizes the performance of the Community Development Block Grant Program and claims that it has failed to provide adequate housing for low income groups in urban areas. Advocates an increase in Federal funds for housing. (APM)

  3. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  4. DOE ZERH Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation, Patchogue, NY

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that got HERS 40 without PV, -3 with PV, with 2x4 16: on center walls with R-13.5 dense packed cellulose and 1.5” polyiso rigid; basement with 2.5: polyiso on interior; unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil.

  5. 24 CFR 972.106 - Procedure for required conversion of public housing developments to tenant-based assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for required conversion... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing Developments Required...

  6. Solarization/conservation technology development for existing housing. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdick, W.

    1981-06-01

    The project objectives are: to develop a method for evaluationg existing residences for their energy solarization/conservation potential as well as carrying out the solarization/conservation work within context of the Community Development program; and to demonstrate appropriate methods of utilizing solar energy in existing Ann Arbor residences beyond that obtainable in a good conservation program. A general progress update is presented covering tasks related to community solarization/conservation characteristics and community system analysis and development. The process of selection and technical evaluation of houses for solarization/conservation project directed retrofit is described. A detailed report on the survey of utility data and a report on the solarization/conservation site audits are included. A detailed comparison of the audit data for both the audit and control group are appended. (LEW)

  7. Intra-dermal administration of rabies vaccines in developing countries: at an affordable cost.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Prinja, Shankar; Rajput, Meena

    2011-07-01

    Rabies is a virtually 100% fatal acute viral encephalitis. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. Globally there are 17.4 million animal bite cases and more than 55,000 deaths annually. India's 20,000 deaths accounts for 36% of global and 65% of the Asian (31,000) deaths. The Intradermal Rabies Vaccine (IDRV) was first started in Thailand in 1984. In 1992, World Health Organization approved it for use in developing countries which face a shortage of rabies vaccine due to paucity of funds. Vaccines like Purified Vero cell vaccine (PVRV), Purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) and Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) that can be injected by the intradermal route for Post Exposure Prophylaxis as approved by WHO. The regimen approved by the WHO/DCGI India is the Updated Thai Red Cross Regimen, which involves injection of 0.1 mL of reconstituted vaccine per ID site and on two such ID site per visit on Days 0, 3, 7 and 28 (2-2-2-0-2). All reconstituted vaccine unused at the end of 6-8 h must be discarded. The ID route is ideal in terms of economic benefits, safety and efficacy. This reduces the cost of vaccination by about 68%, which is clearly an attractive option for resource-starved countries like India. PMID:21734465

  8. Usability evaluation of in-housed developed ERP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Chaudhry Muhammad Nadeem; Shakeel Faridi, Muhammad; Javed, Zahid

    2011-10-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the combination of different business IS (Information System) applications that are designed according to the organization requirements. Generally ERP systems are suffering from complex user interface issues. Recent research shows that there is a need for improvement concerning, the user interface from their perspectives. In order to design the software applications that are easy to use, memorize and apply to new problems, we must know the users philosophy and something about learning, reminiscence and problems solving. The Usability engineering is the only way to study the deeds of users while interacting with ERP (Enterprise Resource & Planning). This paper will focus on the users' experiences view of financial module in ERP system. The HCI research method, explicitly survey questionnaire method was adopted to gather users understanding in order to evaluate the selected modules for in-housed ERP system. The study involved group of users from two industries, the results can not be generalized as a whole. The study was first time successfully applied Usability evaluation on in-housed ERP in local industry (Masood Textile Mills, Interloop Ltd) in Pakistan. The results may hopefully opened-up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits to Industry in developments of Industrial information systems.

  9. Dissecting Stages of Human Kidney Development and Tumorigenesis with Surface Markers Affords Simple Prospective Purification of Nephron Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pode-Shakked, Naomi; Pleniceanu, Oren; Gershon, Rotem; Shukrun, Rachel; Kanter, Itamar; Bucris, Efrat; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Tam, Gal; Tam, Hadar; Caspi, Revital; Pri-Chen, Sara; Vax, Einav; Katz, Guy; Omer, Dorit; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Kalisky, Tomer; Dekel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    When assembling a nephron during development a multipotent stem cell pool becomes restricted as differentiation ensues. A faulty differentiation arrest in this process leads to transformation and initiation of a Wilms’ tumor. Mapping these transitions with respective surface markers affords accessibility to specific cell subpopulations. NCAM1 and CD133 have been previously suggested to mark human renal progenitor populations. Herein, using cell sorting, RNA sequencing, in vitro studies with serum-free media and in vivo xenotransplantation we demonstrate a sequential map that links human kidney development and tumorigenesis; In nephrogenesis, NCAM1+CD133− marks SIX2+ multipotent renal stem cells transiting to NCAM1+CD133+ differentiating segment-specific SIX2− epithelial progenitors and NCAM1−CD133+ differentiated nephron cells. In tumorigenesis, NCAM1+CD133− marks SIX2+ blastema that includes the ALDH1+ WT cancer stem/initiating cells, while NCAM1+CD133+ and NCAM1−CD133+ specifying early and late epithelial differentiation, are severely restricted in tumor initiation capacity and tumor self-renewal. Thus, negative selection for CD133 is required for defining NCAM1+ nephron stem cells in normal and malignant nephrogenesis. PMID:27020553

  10. 24 CFR 203.437 - Mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights... right of permanent possession of the dwelling unit. (e) In lieu of the types of title evidence...

  11. Farmworker Housing in Crisis: How Rural Communities Can Learn from the Arvin Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examines how officials in Arvin, a small rural California community, developed a family housing project to reduce the housing shortage among agricultural workers. Suggested guidelines for similar programs include assessing area needs; matching housing types to needs; maintaining affordability; supervising construction; consulting with local…

  12. Solarization/conservation technology development program for existing housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberdick, W.

    1981-02-01

    A four month period of project organization, data file examination, development of concepts and technical study of S/C components is covered. At the start of the project 188 residences were considered appropriate for studying this program. All of these houses in the course of three years have had code update assistance. This included some conservation retrofit. The city of Ann Arbor was selected for a pilot study of the RCS Audit program. As of this date an initial 200 audits have been completed. Also, the C D office is presently undertaking the conservation retrofit of several residences in accordance with RCS recommendations. Available aerial photographs proved to be inadequate for solar site evaluation. The conservation updates and the RCS audits present an opportunity for evaluation and comparisons.

  13. An in-house developed annular bright field detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Leonardo; Wright, Ian; Pingstone, Daniel; Steward, Jonathan; Gilks, Daniel; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2014-06-01

    Annular bright field (ABF) detectors have been developed in the last few years allowing the direct imaging of low-Z atoms from oxygen down to hydrogen. These types of detectors are now available as standard attachments for the latest generation of top-end electron microscopes. However these systems cannot always be installed in previous generation microscopes. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an in-house implementation of a ABF detection system on a CEOS aberration corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM. This has been obtained by exploiting the standard BF detector coupled with a high vacuum compatible, X-ray tight and retractable shadowing mechanism. This results in the acquisition of near zero-angle scattered electrons with inner collection semi-angle from 2.0 mrad to 23 mrad and outer semi-angle in the range from 3.0 mrad to 35 mrad. The characteristics and performances of this ABF detection system are discussed.

  14. Development and evaluation of an affordable lift device to reduce musculo-skeletal injuries among home support workers.

    PubMed

    Heacock, Helen; Paris-Seeley, Nancy; Tokuno, Craig; Frederking, Sara; Keane, Brian; Mattie, Johanne; Kanigan, Ryan; Watzke, James

    2004-07-01

    Home support workers (HSWs) work in clients' homes assisting with rehabilitation and activities of daily living. Like all health-care professionals, HSWs are at an increased risk for developing back injuries. Lift devices have been shown to reduce injuries to the worker. Presently, there are few lifting devices for home use that cost under $4000 CDN. Our study involved designing a safe and affordable lift device (retail cost under $2000 CDN) to be used by HSWs in the home and evaluating it in a typical bathroom. Thirty-eight HSWs and three seniors evaluated the BCIT lift, a commercially available lift (BHM Medical Inc.) and the manual method of transfer and lift. Results indicated that the BCIT lift was an improvement over the manual method of transferring, and approximated the more expensive, automatic lift in terms of perceived exertion, ease of use and safety. Feedback provided to the researchers has been incorporated into a new, ergonomically sound and marketable lift device. PMID:15159204

  15. The Other Housing Crisis: Sheltering the Poor in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.; And Others

    This report discusses the growing shortage of affordable housing in the rural United States. The data, released in February 1989, come from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The data show that most of the 3.9 million poor households in nonmetropolitan areas pay high percentages of their limited…

  16. ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT FOR HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of wastewater from a subdivision in a physical-chemical treatment plant (screening, chemical coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, carbon adsorption, chlorination) was evaluated. The 190 cu m/day (50,000 gal/day) plant was housed in the shell of a standard house on a ...

  17. Housing Well-Being: Developing and Validating a Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzeskowiak, Stephan; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Lee, Dong-Jin; Claiborne, C. B.

    2006-01-01

    Housing well-being refers to the home resident's cumulative positive and negative affect associated with the purchase, preparation, ownership, use, and maintenance of the current home, and the selling of the previous home. Housing well-being is assumed to occur when the home is bought with the least amount of effort ("purchase"), the home is…

  18. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  19. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  20. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  1. 24 CFR 203.43c - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a cooperative housing development. 203.43c Section 203.43c Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

  2. 77 FR 37233 - Consolidated Delegation of Authority for the Office of Housing-Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Disposition Reform Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103-233, 12 U.S.C. 1701 note); (9) The Housing Development Grant...- 116); and all provisions of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act (MAHRA) (42... requirement contained in section 941(b) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act...

  3. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Verellen, Dirk; Van Vaerenbergh, Sven; Tournel, Koen; Heuninckx, Karina; Joris, Laurent; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Gevaert, Thierry; Reynders, Truus; Van de Vondel, Iwein; Coppens, Luc; Depuydt, Tom; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

    2010-02-21

    The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit/analogue-input and 16 bit/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage. A wireless interface was established for ease of use. The reset procedure consists of an internal circuit generating a local heating induced by an electrical current. Sensitivity has been investigated as a function of bias voltage (0-9 V) to the gate. Dosimetric properties have been evaluated for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams and in vivo benchmarking was performed against thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for conventional treatments (two groups of ten patients for each energy) and total body irradiation (TBI). MOSFETS were pre-irradiated with 20 Gy. Sensitivity of 0.08 mV cGy(-1) can be obtained for 200 cGy irradiations at 5 V bias voltage. Ten consecutive measurements at 200 cGy yield a SD of 2.08 cGy (1.05%). Increasing the dose in steps from 5 cGy to 1000 cGy yields a 1.00 Pearson correlation coefficient and agreement within 2.0%. Dose rate dependence (160-800 cGy min(-1)) was within 2.5%, temperature dependence within 2.0% (25-37 degrees C). A strong angular dependence has been observed for gantry incidences exceeding +/-30 degrees C. Dose response is stable up to 50 Gy (saturation occurs at approximately 90 Gy), which is used as threshold dose before resetting the MOSFET. An average measured-over-calculated dose ratio within 1.05 (SD: 0.04) has been obtained in vivo. TBI midplane-dose assessed by entrance and exit dose measurements agreed within 1.9% with ionization chamber in phantom, and within 1.0% with TLD in vivo. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET-based dosimetry system is proposed. The system has been validated

  4. Silver bullet or trojan horse? The effects of inclusionary zoning on local housing markets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Jenny; Meltzer, Rachel; Been, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, panel data on IZ in the San Francisco metropolitan area and suburban Boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how IZ affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ has been modest and depends primarily on how long IZ has been in place. Results from suburban Boston suggest that IZ has contributed to increased housing prices and lower rates of production during periods of regional house price appreciation. In the San Francisco area, IZ also appears to increase housing prices in times of regional price appreciation, but to decrease prices during cooler regional markets. There is no evidence of a statistically significant effect of IZ on new housing development in the Bay Area. PMID:21275196

  5. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... financing, refinancing or other debt if the PHA determines that the debt is unaffordable, or if the PHA... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeownership option: Financing...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for...

  6. 76 FR 59152 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Development and Affordable Housing grants program. This announcement contains the names of the awardees and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary...

  7. 76 FR 30376 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Development and Affordable Housing grants program. This announcement contains the names of the awardees and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary...

  8. 78 FR 14110 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Development and Affordable Housing grants program. This announcement contains the names of the award... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Development and Affordable Housing Program Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary...

  9. House Poor in Los Angeles: Examining Patterns of Housing-Induced Poverty by Race, Nativity, and Legal Status*

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Housing affordability in the United States is generally operationalized using the ratio approach, with those allocating more than thirty percent of income to shelter costs considered to have housing affordability challenges. Alternative standards have been developed that focus on residual income, whether income remaining after housing expenditures is sufficient to meet non-housing needs. This study employs Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data to consider racial/ethnic, nativity and legal status differences in one residual income standard. Logistic regression analyses of housing-induced poverty focus on whether there are differences among five distinct groups: U.S.born Latinos, Non-Hispanic Whites, and African Americans, authorized Latino immigrants, and unauthorized Latino immigrants. Results suggest that: 1) Latino natives are significantly more likely to be in housing-induced poverty than African Americans and Latino immigrants, and 2) unauthorized Latino immigrants are not more likely to experience the outcome than other groups. The present work extends previous research. First, the results provide additional evidence of the value of operationalizing housing affordability using a residual income standard. Alternatives to the ratio approach deserve more empirical attention from a wider range of scholars and policymakers interested in housing affordability. Second, housing scholarship to date generally differentiates among Latinos by ethnicity, nativity, and citizenship. The present study contributes to emerging research investigating heterogeneity among Latinos by nativity and legal status. PMID:23585711

  10. Health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester‐George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health‐care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health‐care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage‐point increases relative to comparison conditions in 6–12‐month continuous abstinence rates. This was combined with analysis and evidence from ‘real world’ studies to form a judgement on the probable effectiveness of each intervention in different settings. The affordability of each intervention was assessed for exemplar countries in each World Bank income category (low, lower middle, upper middle, high). Based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, an intervention was judged as affordable for a given income category if the estimated extra cost of saving a life‐year was less than or equal to the per‐capita gross domestic product for that category of country. Results Brief advice from a health‐care worker given opportunistically to smokers attending health‐care services can promote smoking cessation, and is affordable for countries in all World Bank income categories (i.e. globally). Proactive telephone support, automated text messaging programmes and printed self‐help materials can assist smokers wanting help with a quit attempt and are affordable globally. Multi‐session, face‐to‐face behavioural support can increase quit success for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco and is affordable in middle‐ and high‐income countries. Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline, varenicline and cytisine can all aid quitting smoking when given with at least some behavioural support; of these, cytisine and nortriptyline are affordable globally. Conclusions Brief

  11. Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

  12. Affordable Housing Regulation Simplification Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2012-09-13

    10/01/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Lake Hill Administrative Site Affordable Housing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Mark [D-CO

    2013-07-16

    11/20/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands, Forests, and Mining. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-342. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2337, which became Public Law 113-141 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  15. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  16. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  17. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  18. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public...

  19. Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wang-Cheol

    Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

  20. Developing the Green House Nursing Care Team: Variations on Development and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A core component of the Green House nursing home model is an altered supervisory relationship between the nurse and direct care workers. Some have expressed concern that the Green House model might weaken professional nursing oversight, threatening the quality of clinical care. This qualitative research study explores the role of the nurse as implemented in the Green House model, focusing on how variations in the nursing team influence clinical care practices. Design and Methods: Dimensional analysis, a “second generation” grounded theory methodology, was used to conduct this study. Data were collected through observations and interviews with 37 nurses, 68 CNAs, and 11 Guides working at 11 Green House sites. Results: Implementation of the nursing role within the Green House model varied both within and across sites. Four nursing model types were identified: Traditional, Visitor, Parallel, and Integrated. Care processes, CNA/Shahbaz skill development, and worker stress varied with each nursing model. Implications: Government policies have been enacted to support culture change. However, there is currently little guidance for regulators, providers, or consumers regarding variability in how culture change practices are implemented and consequences of these variations. This article outlines the importance of understanding these practices at a level of detail that distinguishes and supports those that are most promising. PMID:24443606

  1. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. ); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. ); Cropp, J.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  2. In-house developed methodologies and tools for decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Detilleux, Michel; Centner, Baudouin

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes different methodologies and tools developed in-house by Tractebel Engineering to facilitate the engineering works to be carried out especially in the frame of decommissioning projects. Three examples of tools with their corresponding results are presented: - The LLWAA-DECOM code, a software developed for the radiological characterization of contaminated systems and equipment. The code constitutes a specific module of more general software that was originally developed to characterize radioactive waste streams in order to be able to declare the radiological inventory of critical nuclides, in particular difficult-to-measure radionuclides, to the Authorities. In the case of LLWAA-DECOM, deposited activities inside contaminated equipment (piping, tanks, heat exchangers...) and scaling factors between nuclides, at any given time of the decommissioning time schedule, are calculated on the basis of physical characteristics of the systems and of operational parameters of the nuclear power plant. This methodology was applied to assess decommissioning costs of Belgian NPPs, to characterize the primary system of Trino NPP in Italy, to characterize the equipment of miscellaneous circuits of Ignalina NPP and of Kozloduy unit 1 and, to calculate remaining dose rates around equipment in the frame of the preparation of decommissioning activities; - The VISIMODELLER tool, a user friendly CAD interface developed to ease the introduction of lay-out areas in a software named VISIPLAN. VISIPLAN is a 3D dose rate assessment tool for ALARA work planning, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN. Both softwares were used for projects such as the steam generators replacements in Belgian NPPs or the preparation of the decommissioning of units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP; - The DBS software, a software developed to manage the different kinds of activities that are part of the general time schedule of a decommissioning project. For each activity, when relevant

  3. 76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ..., to the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. On December 17, 2007 (72 FR 71429... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of... Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO) has been delegated authority under Section 3 of the Housing and...

  4. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lydia N.

    2015-01-01

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn’t know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA. PMID:25798077

  5. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  6. Quantifying the Impoverishing Effects of Purchasing Medicines: A Cross-Country Comparison of the Affordability of Medicines in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Cameron, Alexandra; Van de Poel, Ellen; Ewen, Margaret; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Laing, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing attention is being paid to the affordability of medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) where medicines are often highly priced in relation to income levels. The impoverishing effect of medicine purchases can be estimated by determining pre- and postpayment incomes, which are then compared to a poverty line. Here we estimate the impoverishing effects of four medicines in 16 LICs and MICs using the impoverishment method as a metric of affordability. Methods and Findings Affordability was assessed in terms of the proportion of the population being pushed below US$1.25 or US$2 per day poverty levels because of the purchase of medicines. The prices of salbutamol 100 mcg/dose inhaler, glibenclamide 5 mg cap/tab, atenolol 50 mg cap/tab, and amoxicillin 250 mg cap/tab were obtained from facility-based surveys undertaken using a standard measurement methodology. The World Bank's World Development Indicators provided household expenditure data and information on income distributions. In the countries studied, purchasing these medicines would impoverish large portions of the population (up to 86%). Originator brand products were less affordable than the lowest-priced generic equivalents. In the Philippines, for example, originator brand atenolol would push an additional 22% of the population below US$1.25 per day, whereas for the lowest priced generic equivalent this demographic shift is 7%. Given related prevalence figures, substantial numbers of people are affected by the unaffordability of medicines. Conclusions Comparing medicine prices to available income in LICs and MICs shows that medicine purchases by individuals in those countries could lead to the impoverishment of large numbers of people. Action is needed to improve medicine affordability, such as promoting the use of quality assured, low-priced generics, and establishing health insurance systems. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20824175

  7. The new affordances in the home environment for motor development - infant scale (AHEMD-IS): Versions in English and Portuguese languages

    PubMed Central

    Caçola, Priscila M.; Gabbard, Carl; Montebelo, Maria I. L.; Santos, Denise C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The home environment has been established as a crucial factor for motor development, especially in infants. Exploring the home environment can have significant implications for intervention, as it is common practice in physical therapy to have professionals advise patients on home activities. Since 2010, our group has been working on the development of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS), a parental self-reporting instrument designed to assess the quality and quantity of factors (affordances) in the home environment. In Brazil, the instrument has been translated as "Affordances no Ambiente Domiciliar para o Desenvolvimento Motor - Escala Bebê", and it has been extensively used in several studies that address infant development. These studies in Brazil and other parts of the world highly recommended the need for a normative sample and standardized scoring system. A description of the study that addressed that need, along with the English version of the questionnaire and score sheets, was recently published in the well-known and respected journal Physical Therapy. Our intent with the present short communication is to notify Brazilian investigators and clinicians of this latest update so they can download the new instrument, as well as present the Brazilian (Portuguese) version of the AHEMD-IS along with its scoring system. PMID:26647753

  8. The new affordances in the home environment for motor development - infant scale (AHEMD-IS): Versions in English and Portuguese languages.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila M; Gabbard, Carl; Montebelo, Maria I L; Santos, Denise C C

    2015-01-01

    The home environment has been established as a crucial factor for motor development, especially in infants. Exploring the home environment can have significant implications for intervention, as it is common practice in physical therapy to have professionals advise patients on home activities. Since 2010, our group has been working on the development of the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS), a parental self-reporting instrument designed to assess the quality and quantity of factors (affordances) in the home environment. In Brazil, the instrument has been translated as "Affordances no Ambiente Domiciliar para o Desenvolvimento Motor - Escala Bebê", and it has been extensively used in several studies that address infant development. These studies in Brazil and other parts of the world highly recommended the need for a normative sample and standardized scoring system. A description of the study that addressed that need, along with the English version of the questionnaire and score sheets, was recently published in the well-known and respected journal Physical Therapy. Our intent with the present short communication is to notify Brazilian investigators and clinicians of this latest update so they can download the new instrument, as well as present the Brazilian (Portuguese) version of the AHEMD-IS along with its scoring system. PMID:26647753

  9. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  10. Child Development and the Housing Environment. Volume 1: Statistical Design and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Systems Research and Engineering, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The first part of a three-volume study, this report presents and justifies a research design for investigation of the relationship between the housing environment and the range of child development and family measures. The recommended design is nonexperimental in nature and focuses on comparisons of residents in selected housing programs (publicly…

  11. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units. 1924.8 Section 1924.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM...

  12. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship

  13. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas. PMID:24235779

  14. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas. PMID:24235779

  15. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  18. 12 CFR 1807.401 - Affordable housing-rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unit cannot refuse to lease the unit to a Section 8 Program certificate or voucher holder (24 CFR Part... at 24 CFR 5.609 (except that when determining the income of a homeowner for an owner-occupied..., in order to calculate adjusted income, exclusions from income set forth at 24 CFR 5.611 shall...

  19. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  20. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  1. Resident Health Advocates in Public Housing Family Developments

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Deborah J; Bhosrekar, Sarah Gees; Rorie, Jo-Anna; Goodman, Rachel; Thomas, Gerry; Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Smith, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Translation of research to practice often needs intermediaries to help the process occur. Our Prevention Research Center has identified a total of 89 residents of public housing in the last 11 years who have been working in the Resident Health Advocate (RHA) program to engage residents in improving their own and other residents’ health status, by becoming trained in skills needed by Community Health Workers. Future directions include training for teens to become Teen RHAs and further integration of our RHA program with changes in the health care system and in the roles of community health workers in general. PMID:25739061

  2. The Influence of Affordability in Strategic Enrollment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    In state houses around the country, one of the common higher education themes is affordability. As tuition costs have increased at rates exceeding that of inflation, students and families have pressed their legislative representatives to examine these increases. Affordability is a term used by various constituent groups, and its definition varies…

  3. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration... Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration Concerning Low- And... Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d) requires all Executive departments and agencies...

  4. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration... Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration Concerning Low- And... Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d) requires all Executive departments and agencies...

  5. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration... Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration Concerning Low- And... Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d) requires all Executive departments and agencies...

  6. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration... Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration Concerning Low- And... Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d) requires all Executive departments and agencies...

  7. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration... Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration Concerning Low- And... Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d) requires all Executive departments and agencies...

  8. 76 FR 73988 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ....104(a)). On December 17, 2007 (72 FR 71425), the Assistant Secretary for FHEO redelegated certain... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority Under Section 561 of the Housing and Community Development... Programs, Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, Department of Housing and Urban Development,...

  9. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SPECIFIC LAWN- APPLIED PESTICIDES IN HOUSE DUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many pesticides have been developed for residential outdoor application, particularly for lawn care. Residues from these applications may be tracked into the home, where they become incorporated with house dust and persist for long periods of time. Consequently, potential human...

  11. 1999-2002 Public Housing Partnership: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    2003-06-18

    In December 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) entered into an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its Rebuild America Program to promote conservation and reduce utility costs in public housing through forums, research, demonstration, and evaluation. The IAA was effectively implemented from November 2000 to December 2002. Under the IAA, Rebuild America established 31 new partnerships with public housing authorities, started 6 new partnerships with organizations that focus on public housing, and initiated new projects with 6 existing Rebuild America public housing partnerships. These 43 partnerships directly involved 51 public housing authorities in 77 energy-related projects (several of the 43 partnerships involved multiple housing authorities and projects). Rebuild America assistance on these projects encompassed a wide range of activities, including planning assistance on energy management and capital investment, reviews of utility consumption and metering options, assistance in implementing HUD's energy incentives, design reviews and energy analyses, and assistance in the development of energy projects and resident programs. In addition, Rebuild America made presentations to housing authorities on energy efficiency opportunities and solutions and provided energy training on selected topics at 23 conferences and workshops that impacted many more housing authorities. This report provides an overview of the accomplishments achieved under the IAA; describes the 77 projects that have been completed, are under way, or are planned; and summarizes the presentations and training provided.

  12. [Development and perspectives of gerontological research: the sample case of housing research].

    PubMed

    Wahl, H-W

    2005-04-01

    The present work addresses the historical development of environmental gerontology and housing research. Emphasis is placed on the development of ecological perspectives in gerontology as a research program, its scientific reception and acknowledgment in gerontology, the unfolding of housing-related theories and housing studies. Furthermore, the situation in Germany is juxtaposed against the situation in the US. As is found, between the 1930s and 1960 housing research gained substantial importance predominantly in the US as a consequence of the emergence of the field of social gerontology. There was however not much theoretical impetus from housing research on social and behavioral gerontology at large. In the time period between the 1960s and the mid 1980s many large-scale studies focused on housing in old age. At the same time, grand theories related to housing were introduced with the Ecological Theory of Aging (Lawton) as its flagship conception, able to have an impact on gerontology and its research guiding fundamental ideas (person-environment view of aging). Germany's social and behavioral gerontology saw during this time period the profound discussion of, as was frequently said, social-ecological approaches, while empirical studies tended to concentrate on institutions for the aged. Since the beginning of the 1990s dementia-related themes have largely been taken over as a driving force of North American housing research. In some contrast, gerontological housing research in Germany has strongly addressed the diversity of aging in the private household situation. In conclusion, housing research was important for gerontology in terms of the promotion of a person-environment perspective of aging on the conceptual and empirical level. This function should continue into the future. PMID:15868351

  13. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  14. DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Brinch, J.

    1996-06-01

    One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

  15. Annual Demographic Data for Migrant Family Housing Centers: 1985 Harvest Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento.

    California, largest employer of seasonal labor in the United States, employs an average of 119,600 seasonal farmworkers per year. To ease problems of housing this seasonal workforce, the State Department of Housing and Community Development's Office of Migrant Services contracts with local government agencies to provide decent/affordable housing…

  16. Annual Demographic Data for Migrant Family Housing Centers: 1986 Harvest Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento.

    California, largest employer of seasonal labor in the United States, employs an average of 119,600 seasonal farmworkers per year. Since 1966 the State Department of Housing and Community Development's Office of Migrant Services has contracted with local government agencies to provide decent/affordable housing for approximately 50,220 families…

  17. NASA in-house Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) study report. Volume 1: Concept configuration definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.; Chiger, H. D.; Deryder, D. D.; Detweiler, K. N.; Dupree, R. L.; Gillespie, V. P.; Hall, J. B.; Heck, M. L.; Herrick, D. C.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a NASA in-house team effort to develop a concept definition for a Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) are presented. Science mission utilization definition scenarios are documented, the conceptual configuration definition system performance parameters qualified, benchmark operational scenarios developed, space shuttle interface descriptions provided, and development schedule activity was assessed with respect to the establishment of a proposed launch date.

  18. A planning support system to optimize approval of private housing development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussnain, M. Q.; Wakil, K.; Waheed, A.; Tahir, A.

    2016-06-01

    Out of 182 million population of Pakistan, 38% reside in urban areas having an average growth rate of 1.6%, raising the urban housing demand significantly. Poor state response to fulfil the housing needs has resulted in a mushroom growth of private housing schemes (PHS) over the years. Consequently, only in five major cities of Punjab, there are 383 legal and 150 illegal private housing development projects against 120 public sector housing schemes. A major factor behind the cancerous growth of unapproved PHS is the prolonged and delayed approval process in concerned approval authorities requiring 13 months on average. Currently, manual and paper-based approaches are used for vetting and for granting the permission which is highly subjective and non-transparent. This study aims to design a flexible planning support system (PSS) to optimize the vetting process of PHS projects under any development authority in Pakistan by reducing time and cost required for site and documents investigations. Relying on the review of regulatory documents and interviews with professional planners and land developers, this study describes the structure of a PSS developed using open- source geo-spatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, PHP, and PostgreSQL. It highlights the development of a Knowledge Module (based on regulatory documents) containing equations related to scheme type, size (area), location, access road, components of layout plan, planning standards and other related approval checks. Furthermore, it presents the architecture of the database module and system data requirements categorized as base datasets (built-in part of PSS) and input datasets (related to the housing project under approval). It is practically demonstrated that developing a customized PSS to optimize PHS approval process in Pakistan is achievable with geospatial technology. With the provision of such a system, the approval process for private housing schemes not only becomes quicker and user-friendly but also

  19. 77 FR 22599 - Department of Housing and Urban Development Summary of Public Comments, Response to Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Department of Housing and Urban Development Summary of Public Comments, Response to... Development, 451 Seventh Street SW., Room 10180, Washington, DC 20410, telephone number 202-402-6011 (this is... consider environmental justice impacts of major federal actions affecting the environment. Response:...

  20. Condensed tannins inhibit house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) development in livestock manure.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Kimberly A; Muir, James P; Lambert, Barry D; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-12-01

    Reducing chemical use for suppressing internal and external parasites of livestock is essential for protecting environmental health. Although plant condensed tannins are known to suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants, no research on the effects of tannins on external arthropod populations such as the house fly, Musca domestica L., have been conducted. We examined the impact of plant material containing condensed tannins on house fly development. Prairie acacia (Acacia angustissima (Mill.), Kuntze variety hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob.) herbage, panicled tick-clover (Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.) herbage, and quebracho (Shinopsis balansae Engl.) extracts were introduced at rates of 1, 3 or 5% condensed tannins/kg beef cattle, dairy cattle, and goat manure, respectively. In a second experiment, we also introduce purified catechin at 1 or 3% of dairy manure dry matter and measured its impact on house fly development. For the house flies used in these experiments, the following was recorded: percent fly emergence (PFE), average daily gain (ADG), and average fly weight (AFW). No effects (P>0.05) in house fly development were measured in the caprine manure. Prairie acacia (20.9% condensed tannins) had no effect on house flies developing in either bovine manures. Tick clover (4.9% condensed tannins) had a negative effect on all three quantifiable variables of house fly development in the bovine manures, whereas quebracho extract (64.0% condensed tannins) at the 3 and 5% rate reduced fly emergence in beef manure and average daily gain in dairy manure. The application of purified catechin at 3%, but not 1%, reduced fly PFE, ADG, and AFW. PMID:22217775

  1. The Special Challenges of Offering Employment Programs in Culturally Diverse Communities: The Jobs-Plus Experience in Public Housing Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Linda Yuriko

    Immigration has made public housing populations increasingly diverse, a challenge met by administrators and staff at two housing developments participating in the Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing Families. Immigrants and refugees from Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Latin America have settled beside native-born…

  2. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION...

  3. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  4. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  5. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION...

  6. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  7. Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Rak, Sofija; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA), although a subject of much debate in the Unites States, was enacted on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court on June 28, 2012. This act advocates that "healthcare is a right, not a privilege." The main goals of PPACA are to minimize the number of uninsured Americans and make healthcare available to everyone at an affordable price. The Congressional Budget Office has determined that 94% of Americans will have healthcare coverage while staying under the $900 billion limit that President Barack Obama established by bending the healthcare cost curve and reducing the deficit over the next 10 years. PMID:23767130

  8. Genetic counselors and health literacy: the role of genetic counselors in developing a web-based resource about the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sylvia; Mui, Pauline; Boomsma, Jennifer; Hasegawa, Lianne

    2015-06-01

    The Western States Genetic Services Collaborative (WSGSC) recognized the need for clear and understandable information about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for families throughout the life course. The genetic counselors working in the WSGSC developed, tested, and implemented a web resource ( http://www.westernstatesgenetics.org/ACA_home.htm ) to help families navigate information about the ACA tailored to their life situation. The training and experience of genetic counselors provide the skills needed to translate complicated information, like that of the ACA, into formats that the general public can comprehend. The website went public in October 2013, and it has been positively received. The development of this website is a good case study in how genetic counseling skills can be applied to public health education and improving health literacy. PMID:25502406

  9. Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health. PMID:25461878

  10. Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health. PMID:25461878

  11. Developing a goal programming model for ideal/mutual house price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiddin, Nor Syuhadah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah

    2015-12-01

    One cannot deny the importance of a house as a living need. Unfortunately, the unreasonable house price makes it approximately impossible to be owned, mostly for middle income group. Nowadays, the middle income house buyers have two alternatives, whether to buy it from a private developer or through PR1MA and My First Home scheme, since both parties have their own advantages. Goal programming has been employed to resolve the multi objective problem among parties. Due to the complex decision making in house price determination between the parties, this study purposely modeled the problem using interval goal programming approach. Goal programming and interval goal programming can be differ based on their goal (i.e. the aspire level) which is in the form of interval. This study employed primary data and secondary data, which primary data is acquired from semi-structured interview with private developer, while secondary data is the data obtained from literature review. Initial result shows the satisfactory house price over preferences and needs of the decision makers, which are RM454, 050.00 for the private developer, RM322, 880.00 for the government and range of RM2380.95 to RM245, 100.00 for the house buyer. This suggests the house price range that is satisfied by all parties which is about RM238, 000.95 to RM460, 000.00.The satisfaction might occurred when they are all cooperating, which the way could enlighten the impact of collaboration between the parties. This could be the limitations for this study.

  12. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  13. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  14. Managing In-House Development of a Campus-Wide Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; Williams, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To show how a combination of hard and soft project and change management methodologies guided successful in-house development of a campus-wide information system. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of the methodologies and management structures that guided the development is presented. Findings: Applying a combination of the…

  15. The Impact of University Housing Construction Type on Psychosocial Development of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Justin Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of university housing construction type on psychosocial development of first-year students. Data were collected at a large, four-year, public, research university in the Southeast using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment. The population considered for this study consisted of…

  16. 75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the...

  17. Developing Measures of Job Performance for Support Staff in Housing Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Wigham, Sarah; Craig, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is an absence of research concerning the assessment of housing support worker job performance, particularly in the development of job performance measures that reflect the priorities of people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Method: A worker-oriented job analysis method was used to develop four short job…

  18. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  19. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Andy; Bruce, Nigel; Cairncross, Sandy; Davies, Michael; Greenland, Katie; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve; Lindsay, Tom; Satterthwaite, David; Wilkinson, Paul

    2013-10-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme weather, household air pollution, injuries or burns, the ingress of disease vectors and lack of clean water and sanitation. Collaborative action between public health professionals and those involved in developing formal and informal housing could advance both health and development by addressing risk factors for a range of adverse health outcomes. Potential trade-offs between design features which may reduce the risk of some adverse outcomes whilst increasing the risk of others must be explicitly considered. PMID:23271143

  20. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were consistently tied to HDI; the availability of formal and informal learning materials little less so. Gross domestic product (GDP) tended to show a stronger independent relation with housing quality and material resources than life expectancy and education. Formal learning resources were independently related to the GDP and education indices, and informal learning resources were not independently related to any constituent indices of the overall HDI. PMID:22277008

  1. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY'11, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was identified as a key propulsion option under the Advanced In-Space Propulsion (AISP) component of NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) program A strategy was outlined by GRC and NASA HQ that included 2 key elements -"Foundational Technology Development" followed by specific "Technology Demonstration" projects. The "Technology Demonstration "element proposed ground technology demonstration (GTD) testing in the early 2020's, followed by a flight technology demonstration (FTD) mission by approx. 2025. In order to reduce development costs, the demonstration projects would focus on developing a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 -16.5 klb(f)) engine that utilizes a "common" fuel element design scalable to the higher thrust (approx. 25 klb(f)) engines used in NASA's Mars DRA 5.0 study(NASA-SP-2009-566). Besides reducing development costs and allowing utilization of existing, flight proven engine hard-ware (e.g., hydrogen pumps and nozzles), small, lower thrust ground and flight demonstration engines can validate the technology and offer improved capability -increased payloads and decreased transit times -valued for robotic science missions identified in NASA's Decadal Study.

  2. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  3. The Development of an Implementation Model for ICT in Education: An Example of the Interaction of Affordances and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Jopling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a model targeted at non-specialist practitioners implementing innovations that involve information and communication technology (ICT) in education. It is based on data from a national evaluation of ICT-based projects in initial teacher education, which included a large-scale questionnaire survey and six…

  4. The Affordances of Blogging as a Practice to Support Ninth-Grade Science Teachers' Identity Development as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Rebello, Carina; Sinha, Somnath; Muslu, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher leadership is being recognized as an essential ingredient in education reforms; however, few teachers consider themselves leaders. Becoming a leader is not just acquiring knowledge and skills for leadership, but developing a new "professional identity." As teachers become leaders, however, this identity might put…

  5. Critical Pedagogy, Experiential Learning and Active Citizenship: A Freirean Perspective on Tenant Involvement in Housing Stock Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, John

    2008-01-01

    A key feature of housing policy in the UK is the transfer of affordable housing stock owned by local authorities to not-for-profit registered social landlords. Such transfers involve local authority tenants to varying degrees in the development and implementation of the transfer proposals. Reporting the findings of a series of interviews with…

  6. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  7. Development of a Simultaneous Extraction and Cleanup Method for Pyrethroid Pesticides from Indoor House Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quantification of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) wi...

  8. Board Member Development in the Public, Voluntary and Social Housing Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn; Preece, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given a number of recent and ongoing changes to the role and responsibilities of executive and non-executive board members of UK social housing organisations, the paper aims to offer a literature review which explores the development provision for board members within such organisations. The paper's key question is: "How are executive and…

  9. Developing Your Own Individualized Instruction: In-House Production of Super-8 Mediated Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, John J.; Clifford, Christine P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes steps for in-house production of Super-8 mediated learning packages for automotive and life science courses. The individualized instructional format of the packages encourages student interaction, provides hands-on experience in skill development, allows students to proceed at their own pace, and enables students to enter a course at any…

  10. The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borich, Timothy O.

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

  11. Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Ecos: Neighborhood Housing Design Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, John H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of a community-based teaching and learning project linking sustainability, working family housing, neighborhood social capital, and urban design research and development. The article foregrounds principles and protocols that can be used to measure community effectiveness and it highlights a basis for further…

  12. 75 FR 36245 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...This notice announces the availability of funding and requests proposals for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (``HUD's'') Community Challenge Planning Grants (``Community Challenge Planning Grants'') in conjunction with a portion of the Department of Transportation's (``DOT's'') National Infrastructure Investments Grants that can be used for transportation planning grants. On......

  13. Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Greenwood, Brian; Clift, Charles; Goel, Akshay; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Smith, Richard; Heymann, David L

    2011-11-26

    Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to establish capacity to manufacture a vaccine. The Advanced Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines is a so-called pull mechanism that guarantees companies a supplement paid in addition to the purchase price for vaccines for a specific period. We compare these approaches, identifying key dimensions of each and considering their potential for replication. We also discuss issues that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) face now that these new vaccines are available. Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered. PMID:21664678

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: 56th and Walnut: A Philly Gut Rehab Development, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Load-bearing brick-masonry multifamily buildings are prevalent in urban areas across much of the Northeast and mid-Atlantic. In most instances, these buildings are uninsulated unless they have been renovated within the past two decades. Affordable housing capital budgets typically limit what can be spent and energy improvements often take a back seat to basic capital improvements such as interior finish upgrades and basic repairs. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) is researching cost-effective solution packages for significant energy efficiency and indoor air-quality improvements in these urban buildings.

  15. Land contestation in Karachi and the impact on housing and urban development

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Karachi is one of the world’s fastest growing large cities. This paper describes the complex processes by which land is (formally and informally) made available for housing (and for commercial development), as well as who benefits – and how the low-income majority of Karachi citizens lose out. It also describes what underpins this – especially the political complications in a city that has grown so rapidly, has had fundamental changes in its ethnic composition (and thus also in its politics) and has attracted so many illegal immigrants. The paper describes the changes in formal and informal land markets over the last 50 years and the changing responses by government agencies to housing (and land for housing) issues. Also explored are the connections among land, housing and transport (which include different processes of densification) and the complex politics involved. The paper ends with recommendations for land titling, for changes in transport policies, for better use of land already owned by government agencies, for cross-political party agreement on how to address serious security issues (that are leading to loss of investment) and for increased political effectiveness of Karachi’s active civil society organizations. PMID:26321797

  16. Housing, urban development and health in Latin America: contrasts, inequalities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Comarú, Francisco de Assis; Westphal, Marcia Faria

    2004-01-01

    Since the outset of the 20th century, growing urbanization and its contingent waxing populations in Latin America, including Brazil, have come to have alarming effects on the conditions of life, especially in the areas of housing and healthcare for such populations. In this paper, we present data describing and qualifying the process of urbanization and its consequences for Latin American countries and certain Brazilian cities. Arguments are presented about the effects of the urbanization process and the development of low-income human settlements (slums known as favelas and squatting in tenement housing) on health conditions, diseases, and the death rate. The first part of the paper is based on secondary and quantitative data about urbanization, housing, and health in Brazilian and other Latin American cities. Governmental and nongovernmental data are used to structure the problematic landscape of the Latin American region. In the second part of the paper, we focus on a case study of a Brazilian coast city that has registered an intense population growth. This study demonstrates that urban policy (housing, environmental, sanitation, and urban transportation) requires an integration of health and environmental public policy and demonstrates the importance of the role of popular participation in urban public policy-making, and the potential importance of the Bertiioga Healthy City Project from the perspective of a better integration of actions, policies, and programs. PMID:15742677

  17. Early focus development effort, ultrasonic inspection of fixed housing metal-to-adhesive bondline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, John K.; Hoskins, Brad R.; Karner, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique was developed for the fixed housing metal-to-adhesive bondline that will support the Flight 15 time frame and subsequent motors. The technique has the capability to detect a 1.0 inch diameter unbond with a 90 percent probability of detection (POD) at a 95 percent confidence level. The technique and support equipment will perform within the working envelope dictated by a stacked motor configuration.

  18. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432

  19. A bill to assist the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in stabilizing the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage program.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2013-03-06

    06/18/2013 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on Housing, Transportation, and Community Development. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-61. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Developing an online orientation resource for users of institutional animal housing facilities.

    PubMed

    Dryman, Amy L; Alworth, Leanne C

    2015-08-01

    Institutions can share information and orientation materials easily and effectively using modern media and communications technology. For this reason the Office of Animal Care and Use at the University of Georgia developed an online orientation resource for users of its animal housing facilities. Here the authors describe the resource and the planning and project management that accompanied its development. The authors explain the rationale behind each of their decisions and describe select organizational methods that contributed to the success of the project. They describe their own experience, in the context of their institutional circumstances, for the benefit of other institutions that might consider developing a similar resource. PMID:26200086

  1. 24 CFR 1000.144 - Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of section 205(a)(2)? 1000.144 Section 1000.144... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.144 Are Mutual Help homes developed...

  2. 24 CFR 1000.144 - Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of section 205(a)(2)? 1000.144 Section 1000.144... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.144 Are Mutual Help homes developed...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.145 - Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of section 205(a)(2)? 1000.145 Section 1000.145... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.145 Are Mutual Help homes developed...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.145 - Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of section 205(a)(2)? 1000.145 Section 1000.145... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.145 Are Mutual Help homes developed...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.144 - Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are Mutual Help homes developed under the 1937 Act subject to the useful life provisions of section 205(a)(2)? 1000.144 Section 1000.144... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.144 Are Mutual Help homes developed...

  6. Influence of housing variables on the development of stress-sensitive behaviors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sakhai, Samuel A; Preslik, John; Francis, Darlene D

    2013-08-15

    Diverse environments early in mammalian life can have profound influences on the physiology and behavior of developing offspring. Environmental factors can influence offspring development directly or through perturbations in parental care. In the current study, we wished to determine if the influence of a single environmental variable, type of bedding material used in laboratory cages, is capable of altering physiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring. Female rats were housed in cages containing wood pulp or corncob bedding and allowed to mature. These rats, while housed on assigned bedding material, were bred and allowed to give birth. At weaning, male offspring were housed on one of the two bedding conditions and tested later in adulthood on stress-sensitive behavioral measures. Postmortem analysis of glucocorticoid receptor expression and CRH mRNA levels were also measured. Maternal care directed at the pups reared in the two different bedding conditions was also recorded. Rats reared from birth on corncob bedding exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior, as adults, in both open field and light-dark box tasks compared to wood pulp reared animals. Animals that received similar overall levels of maternal care, regardless of bedding condition, also differed in anxiety-like behaviors as adults, indicating that the bedding condition is capable of altering phenotype independent of maternal care. Despite observed behavioral differences in adult offspring reared in different bedding conditions, no changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression at the level of the hippocampus, frontal cortex, or corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus were observed between groups. These results highlight the importance of early life housing variables in programming stress-sensitive behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:23948671

  7. Economy in energy through alternative sources of energy in mass-housing of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, I.B.

    1980-12-01

    Energy is an integral part of the development process and a major determinant for the improvement of the quality of life in human settlements. Skyrocketing oil price increases in recent years has made development increasingly difficult for at least two-thirds of the developing countries. An increasing number of developing countries are searching for new sources of energy and more efficient use of what is available. So, there is a need for well thought-out comprehensive energy saving program. There is a need for radical thinking in devising new and innovative energy policies, which should be dynamic, technologically flexible, and responsive to the needs and aspirations of people. There is large percentage of energy used in buildings which can be economised in the planning of new settlements. The paper discusses and recommends the adoption of some of the straight-forward technology through which there is a full scope for minimizing the usage of energy in housing. Moving ahead, the paper also makes suggestions to developing countries how to develop and adopt alternative sources of energy in housing; especially solar energy, for cooling and heating purposes, because in solar energy most of the developing countries are very rich. Further, the paper strongly recommends that Universities, Colleges, and Schools should teach the latest concepts of energy conservation and use of alternative energy sources. However, the largest savings in energy consumption would arise from a real desire and economy consciousness on the part of the individual in the community to limit energy usage.

  8. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.18 Affordability—Income...

  9. A review of the use of lateritic soils in the construction/development of sustainable housing in Africa: A geological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyelami, C. A.; Van Rooy, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Lateritic soils have been described as highly weathered tropical or sub-tropical residual soils with varying proportions of particle sizes ranging from clay size to gravel, usually coated with sesquioxide rich concretions. It is sometimes referred to as brick earth based on its use. The use of laterite and lateritic soils have been found to promote the realization of decent housing and bridging the housing deficit, especially in Africa. The author has attempted to review available information on the recent trends in building bricks and housing development with the aim of identifying a suitable soil material that will meet the present challenge of sustaining the environment without costing too much and maintaining a high standard of strength, durability and aesthetics. A critical review of laterite and lateritic soils from a geological point of view indicated these soils to be one of the best natural materials used in the production of compressed earth bricks. Lateritic soils are mostly well graded, comprising both cohesive (silt and clay) and cohesionless (sands and gravels) soil fraction, it contains sesquioxides and clay minerals which are very useful in the natural binding process as well as in the presence of most chemical binders. Compressed earth bricks are mainly composed of raw earth materials (soil) with their cohesion due principally to the clay fraction present in both humid and dry states. CEB's promote building in a 'sustainable' way and offers a good prospect to using our resources in an efficient manner while creating dwellings that improve human health, well-being and preserving a better environment, with an affordable and natural alternative.

  10. Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments.

    PubMed

    Arku, R E; Adamkiewicz, G; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D; Levy, D E

    2015-02-01

    The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2 μg/m3, higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 μg/m3) compared with summer (8.0 μg/m3). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m3 (mean 311 ng/m3). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared with summer (620 vs. 85 ng/m3; 95% CI: 72-998). Smoking-related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities that may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure and protect non-smokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

  11. Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments

    PubMed Central

    Arku, Raphael E; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D; Levy, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2μg/m3, higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 μg/m3) compared to summer (8.0 μg/m3). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m3 (mean 310.7 ng/m3). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared to summer (620.0 vs. 85.0 ng/m3; 95% CI: 71.7 – 998.2). Smoking related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities which may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities, and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure, and protect nonsmokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

  12. 77 FR 54602 - Notice of Intent To Conduct Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing Demonstration in Baltimore, MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...Through this proposed demonstration, HUD seeks to encourage developers and owners of multifamily housing properties in ``communities of opportunity''--as defined by Thompson v. HUD--in the Baltimore, Maryland, SMSA to make units in these properties affordable to low-income persons. HUD seeks to determine if, as proposed in this notice, providing developers with financial incentives, to create......

  13. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Development Act of 1968 (12 U.S.C. 1701u) and HUD's implementing regulations in 24 CFR part 135, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Development Act of 1968 (12 U.S.C. 1701u) and HUD's implementing regulations in 24 CFR part 135, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development Act of 1968 (12 U.S.C. 1701u) and HUD's implementing regulations in 24 CFR part 135, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Development Act of 1968 (12 U.S.C. 1701u) and HUD's implementing regulations in 24 CFR part 135, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Development Act of 1968 (12 U.S.C. 1701u) and HUD's implementing regulations in 24 CFR part 135, to the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing...

  18. Affordable In-Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, L. A.; VanDyke, M. K.; Lajoie, R. M.; Woodcock, G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Current and proposed launch systems will provide access to low-Earth orbit (LEO), and destinations beyond LEO, but the cost of delivering payloads will preclude the use of these services by many users. To develop and encourage revolutionary commercial utilization of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and to provide an affordable means to continue NASA space science and exploration missions, the transportation costs to in-space destinations must be reduced. The principal objective of this study was to conceptually define three to four promising approaches to in-space transportation for delivery of satellites and other payloads, 3,000- to 10,000-lb class, to GEO destinations. This study established a methodology for evaluating in-space transportation systems based on life-cycle cost. The reusable concepts seemed to fare better in the evaluation than expendable, since a major driver in the life-cycle cost was the stage production cost.

  19. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK...

  20. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  1. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known. 1282.19 Section 1282.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level definitions—tenant income is not known....

  2. Housing, income support and mental health: Points of disconnection

    PubMed Central

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Joplin, Libbey; Schofield, Ruth; Csiernik, Rick; Gorlick, Carolyne; Turner, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    There exists a disconnection between evolving policies in the policy arenas of mental health, housing, and income support in Canada. One of the complexities associated with analysing the intersection of these policies is that federal, provincial, and municipal level policies are involved. Canada is one of the few developed countries without a national mental health policy and because of the federal policy reforms of the 1970s, the provincial governments now oversee the process of deinstitutionalization from the hospital to the community level. During this same period the availability of affordable housing has decreased as responsibility for social housing has been transfered from the federal government to the provincial and/or municipal levels of government. Canada also stands alone in terms of being a developed nation without national housing policy instead what is considered "affordable" housing is partially dependant upon individuals' personal economic resources. As well, over the past decade rates of income supports have also been reduced. Psychiatric survivors have long been identified as being at risk for homelessness, with the disconnection existing between housing, income and mental health policies and the lack of a national policy in any of these policies areas further contributing to this risk. PMID:18072980

  3. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  4. Agonistic onset during development differentiates wild house mouse males (Mus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krackow, Sven

    2005-02-01

    Wild house mouse populations have been suggested to locally adapt to varying dispersal regimes by expressing divergent aggressivity phenotypes. This conjecture implies, first, genetic polymorphism for dispersive strategies which is supported by the finding of heritable variation for male dispersal tendency in feral house mice. Secondly, aggressivity is assumed to translate into dispersal rates. This speculation is reinforced by experimental evidence showing that non-agonistic males display lower dispersal propensity than same-aged males that have established agonistic dominance. However, the actual ontogenetic behavioural pattern and its variability among populations remain unknown. Hence, in this study the timing of agonistic onset is quantified within laboratory-reared fraternal pairs, and compared between descendants from two different feral populations. Males from the two populations (G and Z) differed strongly in agonistic development, as Z fraternal pairs had a 50% risk of agonistic onset before 23.5±2.7 days of age, while this took 57.3±5.4 days in males from population G. This difference coincided with significant genetic differentiation between the males of the two populations as determined by 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Furthermore, in population G, males from agonistic and amicable fraternal pairs exhibited significant genetic differentiation. These results corroborate the supposition of genetic variability for dispersive strategies in house mice, and identify the ontogenetic timing of agonistic phenotype development as the potential basis for genetic differentiation. This opens a unique opportunity to study the genetic determination of a complex mammalian behavioural syndrome in a life history context, using a simple laboratory paradigm.

  5. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  6. From Social Motives to Spiritual Development: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Communal Spiritual Development in a Korean American House Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, SinWoong Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on a unique culturally shaped church formation, a Korean house church in the U.S., and how the members of the Korean house church learn and develop their spirituality in their communal relations and activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest…

  7. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines, Announcements, and other IPM information Advancing Healthy Housing: A Strategy For Action What is a Healthy Home? Apply for a Grant Healthy Home Rating System File a Housing Discrimination ...

  8. California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. National Center Report #07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, William; Frankle, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the affordability gaps faced by California's community colleges. Despite the lowest tuition in the country and tuition waivers for the lowest-income students, many California students struggle to afford the total cost of education, which includes housing, food, health care, and textbooks. And although California students are…

  9. Land Use Planning and Wildfire: Development Policies Influence Future Probability of Housing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for

  10. Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Massada, Avi Bar; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for

  11. Affordability of Meteorology Graduate Programs in the United States and Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Matthew S.; Toracinta, E. Richard

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed 55 university departments in the United States and Canada that grant doctor of philosophy and/or master of science degrees in meteorology or the atmospheric sciences. Two-thirds of university departments responded. Survey topics included graduate student income (stipends and health insurance benefits) and mandatory costs (tuition, fees, and health insurance costs) incurred for fall 1996.Results show that most graduate students do have funding but only one-quarter of departments indicate that health insurance benefits are provided to graduate assistants. The largest mandatory cost is typically housing, which was estimated (except for Canadian schools) with 1996 Fair Market Rent data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. For schools not providing it, the second largest cost is typically health insurance. The smallest costs are typically tuition (waived for graduate assistants in most cases) and fees.The difference between income and mandatory costs over a nine-month period gives an "effective income." Evidence was found associating greater effective income with larger departments and with locations where housing costs are larger. No significant evidence was found to associate differences in effective income with city size or geographic region. The broad range in effective income between the departments suggests that some graduate programs may be much more affordable than others.This information can aid university departments in planning budgets that keep them competitive with one another. This paper will also help prospective graduate students by raising awareness about important issues of graduate program affordability.

  12. 24 CFR 248.147 - Housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing standards. 248.147 Section 248.147 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  13. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  14. Housing of the Rural Elderly. Rural Development Research Report Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Gail D.

    Based on the 1979 Annual Housing Survey, the elderly--especially the rural elderly--are more likely than other groups to live in inadequate housing. Housing was defined as inadequate if it had one or more of the following flaws: incomplete plumbing facilities, incomplete kitchen facilities, leaking roof, holes in walls or ceilings, and exposed…

  15. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  16. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  17. Advances in the development of FRIDA's mechanisms control system and house-keeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Meza, R.; Garcés, J.; Lara, G.; Sánchez, B.; Espejo, C.; Keiman, C.; Cuevas, S.; Díaz, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    FRIDA will be a near infrared imager and integral field spectrograph covering the wavelength range from 0.9 to 2.5 microns. Primary observing modes are: direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy. This paper describes the main advances in the development of the electronics and control system for both the mechanisms and house-keeping of FRIDA. In order to perform several tests of mechanisms in both room and cryogenic environments, a set of programs had been developed. All variables of the vacuum control system were determined and the main control structure based on one Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) had been established. A key function of the FRIDA's control system is keeping the integrity of cryostat during all processes, so we have designed a redundant heating control system which will be in charge of avoiding cryostat inner overheating. In addition, some improvements of cryogenic and room temperature cabling structure are described.

  18. In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4 MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15 min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study. PMID:25244351

  19. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  20. Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in developed countries: can developing countries afford and learn from this experience?

    PubMed

    Nsimba, Stephen E D

    2010-03-01

    Use of illicit substances of abuse is a major public health problem in developed countries like the US. However, this problem of illicit substance use has spread like a tumor to include currently developing countries where most of its youths and adolescents are actively engaged in this illegal practice. This problem is even more worse in poor resource countries, as use of these substances is accompanied with a lot of HIV- risk behaviours, and for cocaine and heroin drug injectors often share injecting equipments hence increasing the chances of contracting and spreading HIV infection. Apart from HIV infection, other infections include hepatitis B, C, abscesses and other ill-health problems such as drug dependence manifested with complex set of behaviours related to mental illnesses. For non-drug injectors, the chances of contracting and spreading HIV through their unsafe/unprotected sexual behaviours especially those having multiple partners is there. Use of these illicit substances have other consequences like compromising the dosing schedule or adherence / poor compliance to ARTs/ARVs among those enrolled. Furthermore, use of illicit substances may be accompanied with domestic sexual violence which is done without using any protective (condoms) measures) leading to HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancies. However, various studies and preventive approaches have been tried in the US on drug abusers in order to prevent the associated adverse health outcomes. There are many reasons why people use drugs. In many situations, drugs are being used as artificial problem-solvers such as frustrations, stress or tiredness. Drugs can often make a problem disappear for a short time but not usually the answer for solving the problem. They just help to remove it temporarily. Other people choose to use drugs to enjoy the feelings or for recreational purposes which many drugs produce. For example, many people, especially young people, experiment with using drugs to find out more about

  1. Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

  2. Bringing Researchers and Community Developers Together to Revitalize a Public Housing Project and Improve Health

    PubMed Central

    LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Hutson, Malo A.; Dare, Ramie; Falk, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Billions of dollars are invested annually to improve low-income neighborhoods, the health impacts of which are rarely studied prospectively. University of California researchers and Mercy Housing/The Related Companies formed a “Learning Community” with the dual goals of examining the health impacts of a large-scale San Francisco redevelopment project and informing the development team of best public health practices. Early experiences highlight challenges and opportunities, including differences in stakeholders, incentives, and funding, the strengths of local partnerships, and fresh insights from new analytic tools and perspectives. Research suggests interventions that ameliorate upstream causes of poor health would save health care dollars, but policy makers must incentivize collaboration in order to spread a Learning Community model. PMID:22068398

  3. A development and integration analysis of commercial and in-house control subsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.M.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    The acquisition and integration of commercial automation and control subsystems in physics research is becoming more common. It is presumed these systems present lower risk and less cost. This paper studies four subsystems used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonance-control cooling subsystem (RCCS), the high-power RF subsystem and the RFQ vacuum subsystem were outsourced; the low-level RF (LLRF) subsystem was developed in-house. Based on the authors experience a careful evaluation of the costs and risks in acquisition, implementation, integration, and maintenance associated with these approaches is given.

  4. Nurturing Opportunities for Educational Leadership: How Affordance and Leadership Interconnect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study focused on the affordances that facilitated the emergence of leadership, capturing a range of perspectives on leadership and leadership development of four groups: district superintendents; teacher-educators; mentor-teachers and graduates. The term "affordances" implies a reciprocal relationship…

  5. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  6. Affording the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Just when campus technologists think they've got a handle on daily campus IT needs, demands to develop smart classrooms come along and spoil everything. Between admissions officers demanding smart classrooms in order to prove to prospective families that the institution is up to speed, and professors asking for smart classrooms so that they can…

  7. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... revitalization strategy under § 91.215(e)(2) of its consolidated plan or Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that...

  8. 24 CFR 92.254 - Qualification as affordable housing: Homeownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... revitalization strategy under § 91.215(e)(2) of its consolidated plan or Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community application under 24 CFR part 597 has incorporated the type of market data described above, that...

  9. 24 CFR 983.52 - Housing type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing type. 983.52 Section 983.52 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  10. 24 CFR 982.352 - Eligible housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible housing. 982.352 Section 982.352 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE:...

  11. 24 CFR 248.221 - Approval of a plan of action that involves termination of low income affordability restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... involves termination of low income affordability restrictions. 248.221 Section 248.221 Housing and Urban... LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES PREPAYMENT OF LOW INCOME HOUSING MORTGAGES Prepayment and Plans of Action Under the Emergency Low Income Preservation Act of...

  12. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  13. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  14. Current Status Of The ASTRO-H SXT Development -- New Housing Design And EM Reflectors --

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Ishida, M.; Mori, H.; Tawara, Y.; Awaki, H.; Iizuka, R.; Kunieda, H.

    2010-03-01

    ASTRO-H is an X-ray astronomical observatory slated to be launched from Japan in 2014. Its objectives range from high resolution imaging and spectroscopy below 20 keV to studying the hard X-ray sky out to 80 keV, along with a gamma-ray spectrometer up to 500 keV, which covers an unprecedentedly wide energy range with great sensitivity on the single X-ray astronomy satellite ever. To accomplish these goals, it will carry, among other instruments, four grazing incidence imaging telescopes, two covering the soft X-ray band and the remaining the higher energies. All the imaging telescopes are of the Wolter I variety, implemented in an approximate scheme with nested conical reflectors, constructed of thin aluminum substrate (150-300 µm), with an epoxy replicated buffer layer, supporting the reflecting surface. Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) employs gold mono layer coatings to make use of the total external reflection. The diameter and the focal length are 45 cm and 5.6 m, respectively. Expected performance is an effective area of about 400 cm^2 @ 6keV, and an angular resolution of 1.3 arcmin (HPD). By the HEAD meeting in early March, 2010, we will have a preriminaly mirror housing design. Most of forming mandrels will be fabricated and more than half of the reflector production for an engineering model (EM) will be done. In this paper, we report the current status of the SXT development and discuss the new housing design, quality of the reflectors, and expected performance based on the EM reflectors.

  15. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  16. Boltless Seal for Electronic Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawe, R. H.; Evans, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Spring clips seal housings for electronic circuitry, preventing electromagnetic interference from entering or leaving housings. Clips also keep dust out of housing. Since no bolts are used, housing can be opened quickly; unlike bolts, clips can be used on thin-walled housing. Seal was developed for an X-band array amplifier.

  17. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  18. Students in My Backyard: Housing at the Campus Edge and Other Emerging Trends in Residential Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John; Allen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to building student housing, the stakes for universities and colleges have never been higher. From competing for prospective students and environmental bragging rights to contesting for space on the typical campus, institutions face a fundamentally different landscape than they did when housing previous generations of students. A…

  19. Development and Validation of the University Student Housing Application and Student Matching and Placement Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishno, Aaron Scott

    2010-01-01

    Every year, on-campus student housing at colleges and universities throughout the United States populates with over 2.6 million students, many of which are first-time freshmen. To students in housing, finding the right roommate can decrease the effects of homesickness, minimize roommate conflict, and help build long-lasting relationships. Research…

  20. Developing Housing and Education Partnerships: Lessons from the Field. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Schools and youth-serving organizations often struggle to better meet the needs of low-income students and to connect them to resources that can stabilize their lives and strengthen their academic competencies. Assisted-housing providers, including housing authorities, are in a unique position to support educators, low-income students, and their…

  1. Definition of squatter housing.

    PubMed

    Gedik, A

    1993-01-01

    One of the most critical urban problems of developing countries is squatter housing. Squatter housing was defined as housing illegally established and roughly constructed. The initial structure was small in size, made of low-quality materials, and built with nominal labor costs on squatter land with a nominal rent. The basic housing unit may be expanded over time. Squatter housing arises out of a variety of circumstances, including an inadequate supply of old depleted formal housing near the central business district. Squatter housing is attractive to migrants and others in low-income and insecure employment. Improvements in squatter housing locations are possible when spatial location problems are not a concern. Policies concerning squatter housing have changed over time. Most government policies accept the inevitability of squatter housing and seek to improve and upgrade housing and public service conditions. The literature on squatter housing spans a variety of forms of housing. The variety of forms was due to the variety of levels of development within countries, changes over time, and changes toward a more permanent population in the labor force rather then temporary migrants. The forms of housing were identified as legal-formal residential housing which excluded slums, residential slums, squatter housing, and other residential housing. Set theory was used to clarify, with explicitness and a minimum of redundancies, 14 different sets. The 14 sets revolved around socioeconomic levels, housing and environmental conditions, construction process, land ownership, zoning regulations, subdivision regulations, and building construction regulations. Legal-formal housing meant legal land ownership and conformity to legal zoning, subdivision, and building construction regulations. Usually housing was of higher quality and construction was according to a time schedule. Slum housing also conformed to legal status and a regular time span for construction, but the

  2. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  3. NOTE: An in-house developed resettable MOSFET dosimeter for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verellen, Dirk; Van Vaerenbergh, Sven; Tournel, Koen; Heuninckx, Karina; Joris, Laurent; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Gevaert, Thierry; Reynders, Truus; Van de Vondel, Iwein; Coppens, Luc; Depuydt, Tom; De Ridder, Mark; Storme, Guy

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to report the feasibility and clinical validation of an in-house developed MOSFET dosimetry system and describe an integrated non-destructive reset procedure. Off-the-shelf MOSFETs are connected to a common PC using an 18 bit/analogue-input and 16 bit/output data acquisition card. A reading algorithm was developed defining the zero-temperature-coefficient point (ZTC) to determine the threshold voltage. A wireless interface was established for ease of use. The reset procedure consists of an internal circuit generating a local heating induced by an electrical current. Sensitivity has been investigated as a function of bias voltage (0-9 V) to the gate. Dosimetric properties have been evaluated for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams and in vivo benchmarking was performed against thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for conventional treatments (two groups of ten patients for each energy) and total body irradiation (TBI). MOSFETS were pre-irradiated with 20 Gy. Sensitivity of 0.08 mV cGy-1 can be obtained for 200 cGy irradiations at 5 V bias voltage. Ten consecutive measurements at 200 cGy yield a SD of 2.08 cGy (1.05%). Increasing the dose in steps from 5 cGy to 1000 cGy yields a 1.00 Pearson correlation coefficient and agreement within 2.0%. Dose rate dependence (160-800 cGy min-1) was within 2.5%, temperature dependence within 2.0% (25-37° C). A strong angular dependence has been observed for gantry incidences exceeding ±30° C. Dose response is stable up to 50 Gy (saturation occurs at approximately 90 Gy), which is used as threshold dose before resetting the MOSFET. An average measured-over-calculated dose ratio within 1.05 (SD: 0.04) has been obtained in vivo. TBI midplane-dose assessed by entrance and exit dose measurements agreed within 1.9% with ionization chamber in phantom, and within 1.0% with TLD in vivo. An in-house developed resettable MOSFET-based dosimetry system is proposed. The system has been validated and is currently

  4. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  5. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  6. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 24 CFR 1006.210 - Housing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.210 Housing services. NHHBG funds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing services. 1006.210 Section 1006.210 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  8. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  9. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  10. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Rural Development, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings to design affordable HERS-8 homes (60 w/o PV), with double-stud walls heavy insulation, low-load sealed-combustion gas space heaters, triple-pane windows, solar water heating, and PV

  11. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 1282.17 Section 1282.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals §...

  12. Development of economic house types based upon passive solar energy utilization and energy conservation for high density urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The project develops house types and their corresponding nesting patterns for high density, low-rise urban neighborhoods having the following characteristics: utilizing the sun for warming in winter, self-cooling in summer, energy conserving, low building cost and ingracture costs, and efficiently using land. Implementing these criteria will produce a range of about 25 designs and proposals for neighborhoods using them. Designs included are one-story, two-story, and split level. Basic houses forms have been determined. A precision model of one complete 800 unit neighborhood proposal has been finished. Samples of work in progress in the form of photographs are presented. (MCW)

  13. Small Community Needs: A Study of Small Community Needs as Related to Federal Housing and Community Development Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other specified Federal agencies regarding their responsiveness to the problems and needs of small communities. A major objective was to define a "small" community and to determine how its problems and needs differ from those of a large…

  14. Funding Opportunities for Social Work Doctoral Students through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) as a potential funding source for social work doctoral students. HUD's two doctoral research grant programs (i.e., the Early Doctoral Students Research Grant and the Doctoral Dissertation Research Grant) are nontraditional, largely untapped funding sources for social…

  15. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  16. Neonatal Exposure to Pneumococcal Phosphorylcholine Modulates the Development of House Dust Mite Allergy during Adult Life

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  17. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. PMID:25957171

  18. An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Christopher D.; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P.; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  19. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea. PMID:24432008

  20. An affordable open-source turbidimeter.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christopher D; Krolick, Alexander; Brunner, Logan; Burklund, Alison; Kahn, Daniel; Ball, William P; Weber-Shirk, Monroe

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an internationally recognized criterion for assessing drinking water quality, because the colloidal particles in turbid water may harbor pathogens, chemically reduce oxidizing disinfectants, and hinder attempts to disinfect water with ultraviolet radiation. A turbidimeter is an electronic/optical instrument that assesses turbidity by measuring the scattering of light passing through a water sample containing such colloidal particles. Commercial turbidimeters cost hundreds or thousands of dollars, putting them beyond the reach of low-resource communities around the world. An affordable open-source turbidimeter based on a single light-to-frequency sensor was designed and constructed, and evaluated against a portable commercial turbidimeter. The final product, which builds on extensive published research, is intended to catalyze further developments in affordable water and sanitation monitoring. PMID:24759114

  1. Geographic Inequalities in the Availability of Government-Subsidized Rental Housing for Low-Income Older Persons in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golant, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent to which government-subsidized affordable rental units available to low-income older persons are unequally and unfairly distributed throughout Florida's counties. Design and Methods: Primary data sources from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Census were analyzed using…

  2. Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2013

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-4

    2012-06-20

    06/29/2012 Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 440. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. 24 CFR 906.24 - Protections available to non-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing. 906.24 Section 906.24 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING... housing other than public housing. Residents of non-public housing that would be displaced by...

  4. 24 CFR 906.24 - Protections available to non-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing. 906.24 Section 906.24 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING... housing other than public housing. Residents of non-public housing that would be displaced by...

  5. 24 CFR 906.24 - Protections available to non-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-purchasing residents of housing other than public housing. 906.24 Section 906.24 Housing and Urban... FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING... housing other than public housing. Residents of non-public housing that would be displaced by...

  6. Equal Opportunity in Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This overview of developments in housing opportunities for minorities and women includes an historical review of housing discrimination, its nature, and its effects. Federal legislation and Federal actions which were taken to assure equal housing opportunities for women and minorities are described. Other topic areas addressed include minority…

  7. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  8. Develop security architecture for both in-house healthcare information systems and electronic patient record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhuang, Jun; Jiang, Jianrong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Dongqing; Huang, H. K.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, we presented a new security approach to provide security measures and features in both healthcare information systems (PACS, RIS/HIS), and electronic patient record (EPR). We introduced two security components, certificate authoring (CA) system and patient record digital signature management (DSPR) system, as well as electronic envelope technology, into the current hospital healthcare information infrastructure to provide security measures and functions such as confidential or privacy, authenticity, integrity, reliability, non-repudiation, and authentication for in-house healthcare information systems daily operating, and EPR exchanging among the hospitals or healthcare administration levels, and the DSPR component manages the all the digital signatures of patient medical records signed through using an-symmetry key encryption technologies. The electronic envelopes used for EPR exchanging are created based on the information of signers, digital signatures, and identifications of patient records stored in CAS and DSMS, as well as the destinations and the remote users. The CAS and DSMS were developed and integrated into a RIS-integrated PACS, and the integration of these new security components is seamless and painless. The electronic envelopes designed for EPR were used successfully in multimedia data transmission.

  9. Sources of nitrate in ground water in a sewered housing development, Central Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flipse, W.J., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Lindner, J.B.; Markel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in ground water on Long Island, New York, have increased markedly in the last 30 years. A significant amount of this increase has been attributed to lawn and garden fertilizers in addition to cesspool and septic-tank discharges. The increase in nitrate concentration is of particular concern in the central and eastern part of the island, where ground water is the sole source of drinking water. Ground-water samples were collected from 14 wells screened near the water table in the sewered Twelve Pines housing development constructed in Medford, Suffolk County, in 1970. Samples were collected during 1972-79 and analyzed for total ammonium, organic nitrogen, and nitrate. Statistical analyses indicate that concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in water from 10 of the wells increased significantly during 1972-79; those in water from the other four wells did not. Nitrogen loads were estimated to be 2,300 kg/yr from fertilizers, less than 80 kg/yr from irrigation water, 200 kg/yr from animals, and less than 670 kg/yr from precipitation. Leakage from sewers was considered negligible. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope ratios also suggest that the greatest source of nitrogen is from cultivation sources (either mineralized soil nitrogen or fertilizers) rather than human or animal wastes.

  10. Electricity Security and Affordability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Whitfield, Ed [R-KY-1

    2014-01-09

    05/08/2014 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 374. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. 75 FR 66977 - Housing Trust Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... rule published on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63938). The allocation formula will be renumbered and... National Affordable Housing Act of 1992, the HOME program is the largest Federal block grant program that...-assisted housing. Section 1338(c)(9) of FHEFSSA requires an eligible recipient of a grant from a...

  12. Thermo-structural development of the ITER ICRF strap housing module

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, K.; Shannon, M.; Lockley, D.

    2014-02-12

    Since March 2010 the preliminary design of the ITER ICRF Antennas have been developed by CYCLE, a consortium consisting of IPP (Garching), CCFE (Culham), CEA (Cadarache), Politecnico di Torino (Torino) and LPPERM/KMS (Brussels). This paper describes the steps taken to develop the present geometry of the triplet pair Strap Housing Module from a thermal and structural perspective, and shows the critical areas of the structure. Key issues are the manufacturability, (achieved by HIPing - Hot Isostatic Pressing), the ability to handle the radiating plasma thermal flux of 0.35 MW/m{sup 2}, the RF losses and the neutronic radiation. HIPing is necessary to achieve the complicated system of cooling channels inside the structure, which divides the coolant equally in order to supply each strap in the triplet with 1 l/s of water. The components have also to withstand the strong mechanical forces generated by plasma disruptions affecting all internal structures and the elevated design cooling water pressure of 5MPa. In order to maximise reliability, joints between different materials in the cooling water system have been kept to a minimum. Therefore, in the interests of fabricability and availability, the whole structure is manufactured out of stainless steel (316L(N)IG). The low conductivity of 316L(N)IG demands small wall thicknesses to avoid hot spots; however this reduces the mechanical strength. Consequently an in depth FEM analysis is presented, which was used to find and to improve the critical aspects of this important component and was the best means of finding the optimum between thermal and mechanical performance.

  13. Thermo-structural development of the ITER ICRF strap housing module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, K.; Shannon, M.; Lockley, D.

    2014-02-01

    Since March 2010 the preliminary design of the ITER ICRF Antennas have been developed by CYCLE, a consortium consisting of IPP (Garching), CCFE (Culham), CEA (Cadarache), Politecnico di Torino (Torino) and LPPERM/KMS (Brussels). This paper describes the steps taken to develop the present geometry of the triplet pair Strap Housing Module from a thermal and structural perspective, and shows the critical areas of the structure. Key issues are the manufacturability, (achieved by HIPing - Hot Isostatic Pressing), the ability to handle the radiating plasma thermal flux of 0.35 MW/m2, the RF losses and the neutronic radiation. HIPing is necessary to achieve the complicated system of cooling channels inside the structure, which divides the coolant equally in order to supply each strap in the triplet with 1 l/s of water. The components have also to withstand the strong mechanical forces generated by plasma disruptions affecting all internal structures and the elevated design cooling water pressure of 5MPa. In order to maximise reliability, joints between different materials in the cooling water system have been kept to a minimum. Therefore, in the interests of fabricability and availability, the whole structure is manufactured out of stainless steel (316L(N)IG). The low conductivity of 316L(N)IG demands small wall thicknesses to avoid hot spots; however this reduces the mechanical strength. Consequently an in depth FEM analysis is presented, which was used to find and to improve the critical aspects of this important component and was the best means of finding the optimum between thermal and mechanical performance.

  14. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2 (1989 edition). Solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1 were developed to provide a sound technical basis for housing under numerous programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These Intermediate Minimum Property Standards for Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems are intended to provide a companion technical basis for the planning and design of solar heating and domestic hot water systems. These standards have been prepared as a supplement to the Minimum Property Standards (MPS) and deal only with aspects of planning and design that are different from conventional housing by reason of the solar systems under consideration. The document contains requirements and standards applicable to one- and two-family dwellings, multifamily housing, and nursing homes and intermediate care facilities references made in the text to the MPS refer to the same section in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1.

  15. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  16. Optics learning through affordable kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  17. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... (actual or prospective tenants). In determining whether a rental unit is affordable to very-low, low-, or..., and affordability determined as follows: (a) For moderate-income, the income of prospective...

  18. Lifetime development of behavioural phenotype in the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With each trajectory taken during the ontogeny of an individual, the number of optional behavioural phenotypes that can be expressed across its life span is reduced. The initial range of phenotypic plasticity is largely determined by the genetic material/composition of the gametes whereas interacting with the given environment shapes individuals to adapt to/cope with specific demands. In mammalian species, the phenotype is shaped as the foetus grows, depending on the environment in the uterus, which in turn depends on the outer environment the mother experiences during pregnancy. After birth, a complex interaction between innate constitution and environmental conditions shapes individual lifetime trajectories, bringing about a wide range of diversity among individual subjects. In laboratory mice inbreeding has been systematically induced in order to reduce the genetic variability between experimental subjects. In addition, within most laboratories conducting behavioural phenotyping with mice, breeding and housing conditions are highly standardised. Despite such standardisation efforts a considerable amount of variability persists in the behaviour of mice. There is good evidence that phenotypic variation is not merely random but might involve individual specific behavioural patterns consistent over time. In order to understand the mechanisms and the possible adaptive value of the maintenance of individuality we review the emergence of behavioural phenotypes over the course of the life of (laboratory) mice. We present a literature review summarizing developmental stages of behavioural development of mice along with three illustrative case studies. We conclude that the accumulation of environmental differences and experiences lead to a “mouse individuality” that becomes increasingly stable over the lifetime. PMID:26816516

  19. Development of piglets raised in a new multi-litter housing system vs. conventional single-litter housing until 9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the development until 9 wk of age of piglets raised in either a multi-litter (ML) system or a conventional single-litter (SL) system. The ML system consisted of a multi-suckling system with 5 sows and their litters before weaning, followed by housing in a pen with enrichment in a group of 40 piglets after weaning. In the SL system, piglets were housed with a crated sow before weaning, followed by postweaning housing in groups of 10 littermates in a standard pen. Fifty litters were used in 5 batches and piglets were weaned at 4 wk of age. Preweaning mortality was higher in the ML system than in the SL system (3.22 ± 0.42 vs. 1.52 ± 0.25 piglets per litter, < 0.01), mainly due to crushing before grouping of litters. Litter size at grouping did not differ between systems. ML piglets showed more feed-directed behavior at 2 wk of age (6.80 ± 0.96 vs. 2.35 ± 0.59, < 0.01), suggesting an earlier start of feed exploration, possibly due to social learning from the floor-fed sows and other piglets. Moreover, before weaning, ML piglets showed less damaging oral manipulation (e.g., tail biting) than SL piglets (1.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.3 freq/h, < 0.001), which was likely related to the more enriched environment in the ML system. After weaning, ML piglets ate 81% more feed between d 1 and 2 (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.16 ± 0.03 kg/piglet, < 0.01) and had an 82% higher weight gain until d 5 than SL piglets (1.35 ± 0.21 vs. 0.75 ± 0.17 kg, < 0.05) despite a similar weaning weight (ML: 8.4 ± 0.2 kg, SL: 8.3 ± 0.2 kg). Within the first 2 wk after weaning, ML piglets had a lower fecal consistency score (0.27 ± 0.03 vs. 0.39 ± 0.03, < 0.05), indicating a lower occurrence of diarrhea compared with SL piglets. Over the entire 5-wk postweaning phase, ML piglets had a 24% higher weight gain ( < 0.05) and showed more play behavior (4.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.3 freq/h, < 0.05) and less damaging oral manipulation (1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 freq/h, < 0.01) than SL piglets

  20. 24 CFR 8.25 - Public housing and multi-family Indian housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public housing and multi-family... ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.25 Public housing and multi-family Indian housing. (a) Development and alteration of public housing and multi-family...

  1. 24 CFR 8.25 - Public housing and multi-family Indian housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public housing and multi-family... ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.25 Public housing and multi-family Indian housing. (a) Development and alteration of public housing and multi-family...

  2. 24 CFR 8.25 - Public housing and multi-family Indian housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public housing and multi-family... ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.25 Public housing and multi-family Indian housing. (a) Development and alteration of public housing and multi-family...

  3. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 75 FR 5338 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...In accordance with section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department in a competition for funding under the 2009 Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Section 4 Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing grants program. This announcement......

  5. 24 CFR 125.501 - Fair Housing Organizations Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair Housing Organizations Initiative. 125.501 Section 125.501 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING...

  6. 24 CFR 886.109 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing assistance payments to owners. 886.109 Section 886.109 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  7. 24 CFR 886.309 - Housing assistance payment to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing assistance payment to owners. 886.309 Section 886.309 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  8. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing assistance payments to owners. 884.106 Section 884.106 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  9. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. 200.625 Section 200.625 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  10. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing plan requirements. 1006.101 Section 1006.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.215 - Housing management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing management services. 1006.215 Section 1006.215 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING...

  12. 24 CFR 886.309 - Housing assistance payment to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing assistance payment to owners. 886.309 Section 886.309 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  13. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing assistance payments to owners. 884.106 Section 884.106 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  14. 24 CFR 886.109 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing assistance payments to owners. 886.109 Section 886.109 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  15. 24 CFR 200.630 - Notice of housing opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of housing opportunities. 200.630 Section 200.630 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  16. Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-3

    2014-05-27

    06/12/2014 Received in the Senate. Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 430. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.83, which became Public Law 113-235 on 12/16/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Library Service to Residents of Public Housing Developments: A Study and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiller, Deborah J.; Baker, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project in which the library needs of public housing residents were assigned a survey of residents, and in which the survey itself was carried out by residents. The methods used to train residents to conduct interviews are described, the survey results are presented, and the need for resident involvement is discussed. (11 references)…

  18. Cinematic College: "National Lampoon's Animal House" Teaches Theories of Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucciarone, Krista M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to analyze how potential college-bound and current college students make meaning about the higher education experience from the legendary film that is pivotal in the American college culture, sets the trend for future college-themed films, and is a national phenomenon--"National Lampoon's Animal House"…

  19. Six Basic Plan Concepts Used for California School Housing. A Sequential Development from 1900 to Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of School Planning.

    A floor plan accompanies each of six chronologically arranged schemes for housing educational programs. Scheme A represents the in-line corridor plan whose main characteristics are--(1) double loaded corridors with fixed bearing walls, (2) single window walls providing minimal light and ventilation, and (3) small classrooms with fixed desks and…

  20. Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-3

    2013-07-02

    07/30/2013 Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union rises leaving H.R. 2610 as unfinished business. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3547, which became Public Law 113-76 on 1/17/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Mammography dosimetry using an in-house developed polymethyl methacrylate phantom.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Mayya, Y S; Chourasiya, G

    2012-08-01

    Phantom-based measurements in mammography are well-established for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures involving equipment performance and comparisons of X-ray machines. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is among the best suitable materials for simulation of the breast. For carrying out QA/QC exercises in India, a mammographic PMMA phantom with engraved slots for keeping thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) has been developed. The radiation transmission property of the developed phantom was compared with the commercially available phantoms for verifying its suitability for mammography dosimetry. The breast entrance exposure (BEE), mean glandular dose (MGD), percentage depth dose (PDD), percentage surface dose distribution (PSDD), calibration testing of automatic exposure control (AEC) and density control function of a mammography machine were measured using this phantom. MGD was derived from the measured BEE following two different methodologies and the results were compared. The PDD and PSDD measurements were carried out using LiF: Mg, Cu, P chips. The in-house phantom was found comparable with the commercially available phantoms. The difference in the MGD values derived using two different methods were found in the range of 17.5-32.6 %. Measured depth ranges in the phantom lie between 0.32 and 0.40 cm for 75 % depth dose, 0.73 and 0.92 cm for 50 % depth dose, and 1.54 and 1.78 cm for 25 % depth dose. Higher PSDD value was observed towards chest wall edge side of the phantom, which is due to the orientation of cathode-anode axis along the chest wall to the nipple direction. Results obtained for AEC configuration testing shows that the observed mean optical density (O.D) of the phantom image was 1.59 and O.D difference for every successive increase in thickness of the phantom was within±0.15 O.D. Under density control function testing, at -2 and -1 density settings, the variation in film image O.D was within±0.15 O.D of the normal density

  2. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  3. Towards sentiment analysis application in housing projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadzir, Nurul Husna; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-08-01

    In becoming a develop nation by 2020, Malaysia Government realized the need in providing affordable house to the public. Since Second Malaysia Plan, government has implemented various affordable housing projects and it continues until recent Malaysia Plan. To measure the effectiveness of the initiatives taken, public opinion is necessary. A social media platform has been seen as the most effective mechanism to get information on people's thought and feeling towards certain issues. One of the best ways to extract emotions and thoughts from what people post in social media is through Sentiment Analysis (SA). There are three different levels of analysis: document level, sentence level and feature level. Most of previous research focused on the classification of sentiment at document or sentence level. Unfortunately, both document and sentence level does not discover what exactly people like or not. While the analysis based on feature, there exist accuracy problem when classifying the sentiment scores. This paper will propose a new framework that focuses on sentiment classification scores at feature level to overcome the uncertainty and accuracy issues on the result.

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Health Behaviors Among Racially/ Ethnically Diverse Residents of Low-Income Housing Developments

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Amy E.; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne M.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Walker, Renee; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine behavioral patterns and sociodemographic predictors of diet, inactivity and tobacco use among a diverse sample of residents from low-income housing developments. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Households and residents were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Setting Twenty low-income housing developments in the Boston metropolitan area. Participants 828 residents completed the survey (response rate=49.3%). Forty-one percent of participants were Hispanic and 38% were non-Hispanic Black. Measures Outcomes measured were diet, inactivity, and tobacco use. Predictors measured were age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, country born, language spoken, and financial hardship. Analysis Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of three health behaviors with sociodemographic factors. Results Age, gender, language spoken, and financial hardship showed significant relationships with all three behaviors. For example, those who reported less financial hardship (OR=1.75) were more likely to eat healthier. Residents who spoke no English, or at least one language in addition to English, were significantly more likely to report healthier eating (OR=2.78 and 3.30 respectively) than those who spoke English only. Men were significantly more likely to report less healthy eating (OR=0.65) than women. Similar trends emerged for inactivity and tobacco use. Conclusion Effective health promotion interventions in low-income housing developments that leverage protective factors while addressing risk factors have the potential to reduce income-related health disparities in these concentrated resource-deprived neighborhoods. PMID:24359221

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public... costs of housing or public facilities. This Grant Agreement covers the following described real property... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR,...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public... costs of housing or public facilities. This Grant Agreement covers the following described real property... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR,...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public... costs of housing or public facilities. This Grant Agreement covers the following described real property... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR,...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public Facilities and/or Services B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1948 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE,...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—Grant Agreement (Public Bodies) for Site Development and/or Site Acquisition for Housing and/or Public... costs of housing or public facilities. This Grant Agreement covers the following described real property... Copeland “Anti-Kick Back” Act (18 USC 874) as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (29 CFR,...

  10. Educational Research, Development, and Dissemination Excellence Act. House of Representatives, 103d Congress, 1st Session. Report To Accompany H.R. 856.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The House Committee on Education and Labor reports on the bill (H.R. 856) to improve education in the United States by promoting excellence in research, development, and the dissemination of information. The committee reports favorably on the bill, with an amendment, and recommends that the House pass the bill as amended. Consideration of H.R. 856…

  11. Increasing the Supply of Quality, Accessible, Affordable Child Care: An Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Region. NCRCRD Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brown, Brentt

    2005-01-01

    The child care industry has not been fully integrated into economic development activities despite its growing importance in the economy. This is, in large part, because child care is not usually thought of as an element of economic development. As a result, states in the North Central region are not maximizing the economic benefits from quality,…

  12. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  13. 24 CFR 570.204 - Special activities by Community-Based Development Organizations (CBDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Housing Development Organization (CHDO) under 24 CFR 92.2, designated as a CHDO by the HOME Investment... affordable housing accessible to existing or planned jobs and those activities specified at 24 CFR 91.1(a)(1... HUD under the provisions of 24 CFR 91.215(e) shall not be subject to the limitations in §...

  14. 24 CFR 570.204 - Special activities by Community-Based Development Organizations (CBDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing Development Organization (CHDO) under 24 CFR 92.2, designated as a CHDO by the HOME Investment... affordable housing accessible to existing or planned jobs and those activities specified at 24 CFR 91.1(a)(1... HUD under the provisions of 24 CFR 91.215(e) shall not be subject to the limitations in §...

  15. 24 CFR 570.204 - Special activities by Community-Based Development Organizations (CBDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing Development Organization (CHDO) under 24 CFR 92.2, designated as a CHDO by the HOME Investment... affordable housing accessible to existing or planned jobs and those activities specified at 24 CFR 91.1(a)(1... HUD under the provisions of 24 CFR 91.215(e) shall not be subject to the limitations in §...

  16. 24 CFR 570.204 - Special activities by Community-Based Development Organizations (CBDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Housing Development Organization (CHDO) under 24 CFR 92.2, designated as a CHDO by the HOME Investment... affordable housing accessible to existing or planned jobs and those activities specified at 24 CFR 91.1(a)(1... HUD under the provisions of 24 CFR 91.215(e) shall not be subject to the limitations in §...

  17. 24 CFR 570.204 - Special activities by Community-Based Development Organizations (CBDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Development Organization (CHDO) under 24 CFR 92.2, designated as a CHDO by the HOME Investment... affordable housing accessible to existing or planned jobs and those activities specified at 24 CFR 91.1(a)(1... HUD under the provisions of 24 CFR 91.215(e) shall not be subject to the limitations in §...

  18. 24 CFR 8.33 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  19. 24 CFR 3.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing. 3.405 Section 3.405 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.405 Housing. (a)...

  20. 24 CFR 3.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing. 3.405 Section 3.405 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.405 Housing. (a)...

  1. 24 CFR 8.33 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  2. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313 Section 214.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  3. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313 Section 214.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  4. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313 Section 214.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  5. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313 Section 214.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  6. 24 CFR 214.313 - Housing counseling fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing counseling fees. 214.313 Section 214.313 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  7. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy. 200.300 Section 200.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  8. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy. 200.300 Section 200.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. Development of sputter coatings for the gravity probe B gyroscope housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, P.; Cheung, S.; Lydic, T.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Cu/Ti coatings have been applied by sputter deposition to fused quartz housings to serve as the electrodes and lands of electrostatically supported gyroscopes. Niobium-coated fused quartz gyro rotors have been successfully suspended and spun up in those housings. The Cu/Ti bilayer coating and alternative multilayer coatings (Cu/Mo, Mo/Cu/Ti and Mo/Cu/Mo) with 2-micron thickness produced by sputter deposition on flat, fused quartz substrates have been examined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and four-point resistivity measurement techniques. The multilayer coatings with a molybdenum bonding layer appear to produce smoother surfaces than those with a titanium bonding layer. All multilayer coatings survived thermal cycling to 77 K without adhesion failure.

  10. Limited analytical capacity for cyanotoxins in developing countries may hide serious environmental health problems: simple and affordable methods may be the answer.

    PubMed

    Pírez, Macarena; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto; Sienra, Daniel; Ferrari, Graciela; Last, Michael; Last, Jerold A; Brena, Beatriz M

    2013-01-15

    In recent years, the international demand for commodities has prompted enormous growth in agriculture in most South American countries. Due to intensive use of fertilizers, cyanobacterial blooms have become a recurrent phenomenon throughout the continent, but their potential health risk remains largely unknown due to the lack of analytical capacity. In this paper we report the main results and conclusions of more than five years of systematic monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in 20 beaches of Montevideo, Uruguay, on the Rio de la Plata, the fifth largest basin in the world. A locally developed microcystin ELISA was used to establish a sustainable monitoring program that revealed seasonal peaks of extremely high toxicity, more than one-thousand-fold greater than the WHO limit for recreational water. Comparison with cyanobacterial cell counts and chlorophyll-a determination, two commonly used parameters for indirect estimation of toxicity, showed that such indicators can be highly misleading. On the other hand, the accumulated experience led to the definition of a simple criterion for visual classification of blooms, that can be used by trained lifeguards and technicians to take rapid on-site decisions on beach management. The simple and low cost approach is broadly applicable to risk assessment and risk management in developing countries. PMID:23220602

  11. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan § 1006.101 Housing plan requirements. The DHHL must submit a housing plan for each Federal Fiscal Year grant. The housing plan has two components... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing plan requirements....

  12. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan § 1006.101 Housing plan requirements. The DHHL must submit a housing plan for each Federal Fiscal Year grant. The housing plan has two components... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing plan requirements....

  13. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan § 1006.101 Housing plan requirements. The DHHL must submit a housing plan for each Federal Fiscal Year grant. The housing plan has two components... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing plan requirements....

  14. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Housing Plan § 1006.101 Housing plan requirements. The DHHL must submit a housing plan for each Federal Fiscal Year grant. The housing plan has two components... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing plan requirements....

  15. Immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Chu, A C

    1997-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a lack of correlation between sunscreen sun protection factor and protection of the skin immune system, potentially allowing greater damage to the skin by removing the natural protective erythemal response to sun exposure. Despite this, routine testing of immune protection afforded by sunscreens is not performed by industry. Current laboratory methods for investigating the efficacy of sunscreen protection of epidermal immune function use the induction of contact hypersensitivity or epidermal cell alloantigen presentation. Animal models, cell culture systems, and in vivo human studies are commonly employed, but all these systems have significant drawbacks for use in routine testing. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro system for testing the immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in human skin. Five test sunscreens plus a vehicle control were tested in a "blind" fashion for their in vitro level of immune protection. Creams were applied in a standard manner to human whole skin explants and were irradiated over a range of physiologic doses using an Oriel solar simulator. A mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction was used to quantify epidermal alloantigen-presenting capacity, in the presence or absence of test cream, for five explants. Results consistently demonstrated that all the test sunscreens protected beyond their designated sun protection factors, whereas the vehicle conferred no protection. The explant-mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction system gave consistent, reproducible results and may prove useful for the allocation of an immune protection factor to all sunscreens. PMID:9182811

  16. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  17. Development and Evaluation of an Affordable Real-Time Qualitative Assay for Determining HIV-1 Virological Failure in Plasma and Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Kliphuis, Aletta; Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Balinda, Sheila; Stevens, Wendy; Spieker, Nicole; de Oliveira, Tulio; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Virological failure (VF) has been identified as the earliest, most predictive determinant of HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Due to the high cost and complexity of virological monitoring, VF assays are rarely performed in resource-limited settings (RLS). Rather, ART failure is determined by clinical monitoring and to a large extent immunological monitoring. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost, dried blood spot (DBS)-compatible qualitative assay to determine VF, in accordance with current WHO guideline recommendations for therapy switching in RLS. The assay described here is an internally controlled qualitative real-time PCR targeting the conserved long terminal repeat domain of HIV-1. This assay was applied to HIV-1 subtypes A to H and further evaluated on HIV-1 clinical plasma samples from South Africa (n = 191) and Tanzania (n = 42). Field evaluation was performed in Uganda using local clinical plasma samples (n = 176). Furthermore, assay performance was evaluated for DBS. This assay is able to identify VF for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes with equal specificity and has a lower detection limit of 1.00E+03 copies/ml for plasma samples and 5.00E+03 copies/ml for DBS. Comparative testing yielded accurate VF determination for therapy switching in 89% to 96% of samples compared to gold standards. The assay is robust and flexible, allowing for “open platform” applications and producing results comparable to those of commercial assays. Assay design enables application in laboratories that can accommodate real-time PCR equipment, allowing decentralization of testing to some extent. Compatibility with DBS extends access of sampling and thus access to this test to remote settings. PMID:23596235

  18. High-speed Rail Development Act of 1994. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 10, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The House report on H. R. 4867, the High-Speed Rail Development Act of 1994, authorizes activities to assist in the implementation of steel-wheel high-speed rail transportation. The Bill authorizes preconstruction activities for corridor planning.

  19. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  20. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...