Science.gov

Sample records for afforested colliery spoil

  1. Pumped spoiling experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Sladky, J. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This report documents a series of wind tunnel tests on a sample airfoil designed to evaluate and quantify the ''pumped spoiling'' concept. The test airfoil was a Sandia National Laboratories natural laminar flow section designated SAND-1850. All tests were operated at a Reynolds Number of 1.5 million with a model having a 1-ft chord and a 9-ft span. The spoiling perforations consisted of 1.6 mm diameter holes on 6.35 mm centers. The pressure in the internal plenum that supplied the spoiling air to the perforations was maintained at the tunnel dynamic head. Test results were consistent and repeatable. Up to an angle of attack of 6/sup 0/, there was very little difference in the lift coefficient among the many test arrangements studied. Past 8/sup 0/, however, the lift coefficient trends were very sensitive to the test configuration of the model. The report includes the test results for 32 combinations of the spoiling arrangements ranging from ''clean'' baseline airfoil to spoiling flow through all perforations. In addition to the section coefficients, the report presents model force data and section pressure profiles. 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  3. Harworth Colliery: Rockbolted support in weak roof at depth

    SciTech Connect

    Bigby, D.; Egan, J.

    1996-12-01

    Harworth Colliery, operated by RJB Mining (UK) Ltd, is successfully mining the Deep Soft Seam at a depth of 1000m using single face retreat longwalling. The seam is characterized by a weak roof generally comprising 4 to 6m of well bedded carbonaceous mudstones overlain by weak siltstones. The paper describes the layout and support design strategies which have enabled the colliery to adopt sole support by rock reinforcement techniques for its longwall gateroads. To achieve this success the colliery layout has had to be radically modified to take account of the in-situ horizontal stress field. The layout is also closely controlled by environmental considerations, the seam being one of the gassiest in the UK. Economic support by strata reinforcement has been achieved using a combination of rockbolting of the roof and sides installed at the face of the heading, and systematic double birdcage cable bolting installed on drivage and supplemented ahead of the retreating panel. The layout and support strategies have been developed through a combination of detailed underground measurement of support and stress parameters backed up by numerical modelling using FLAC. The FLAC modelling has paid particular attention to careful representation of bedding properties and validation through underground stress measurement.

  4. Hydrological response of afforestation in a Mediterranean mountain area: the Araguás Afforestation catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lana-Renault, Noemi; Regüés, David

    2015-04-01

    The fraction of forest cover in the Mediterranean region is increasing due to afforestation programs conducted by national forest services and also due to natural revegetation processes. Literature review suggests that afforestation might threaten water resources because it (i) reduces the number of floods and many rainfall events produce no notable flow; (ii) decreases annual water yield and low flows; (iii) delays peak flows but increases the duration of floods; and (iv) increases rainfall interception, reducing the water reaching the soil. Also, afforestation typically reduces erosion risk and the volume of sediment reaching the streams, but not during the first years after plantation due to high geomorphic activity when invasive techniques are used. Although the great amount of literature on these topics, there is still considerable scientific uncertainty about the impact of afforestation on extreme events and groundwater dynamics. The MED-AFFOREST project studies the effects of afforestation on the hydrological response of a small catchment (Araguás afforestation catchment) monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. In this study, we present the first results , as an example of the likely effects of afforestation in Mediterranean mountain areas. The results show that the hydrological response in the afforestation area is variable and complex, because the discharge was generated by a combination of different runoff generation processes. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  5. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  6. The effect of colliery waste on the feeding of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Brian T.; Davies, Mark S.

    1999-09-01

    Sandy shores in northeast England that are heavily contaminated by colliery waste (essentially coal particles) have lower species richnesses and diversities than less contaminated shores. Analyses of the sediment utilised putatively as food, the gut contents, and the faecal casts of lugworms Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta) from a heavily contaminated site (Newbiggin) and a site lightly contaminated (Seahouses) were performed to determine the effect of colliery waste on the feeding of this deposit-feeder, which has been reported to decline in abundance at contaminated sites. Colliery-waste content of sediment was 10 to 18 times greater at Newbiggin than at Seahouses. At Newbiggin the sediment contained significantly higher levels of colliery waste than did the gut contents or faeces, which were not significantly different from each other. At Seahouses the colliery-waste contents of sediment, gut, and faeces were not significantly different. Particle-size distributions in sediment, gut, and faeces from lugworms at Seahouses were similar, while at Newbiggin the sediment contained a greater proportion of larger particles (>250 μm) than did the gut contents or the faeces. These results suggest that lugworms at heavily contaminated sites are selective feeders, rejecting coal particles perhaps on the basis of particle size. We did not detect selectivity in animals at the less contaminated site. Lugworms from Seahouses, however, avoided burrowing into sediment containing colliery waste both when the waste was on the surface and buried. Lugworms from Newbiggin avoided burrowing into colliery waste only when it was buried. These data suggest a chemosensory response to colliery waste.

  7. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  8. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  9. Role of lime in salty spoil genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, J.H.; Evangelou, V.P.

    1982-12-01

    Acid pyritic spoils are often limed to facilitate revegetation efforts. Substantial quantities of soluble sulfate salts are associated with such spoils, before and after liming. Such salts can cause revegetation attempts to fail at seeding and/or during drought stress periods. As magnesium sulfate (MgSO/sub 4/) is more soluble than gypsum (calcium sulfate) under field conditions, MgSO/sub 4/ has more often been associated with soluble salt problems. Since lime reaction chemistry can influence salt genesis in spoils, this was evaluated in a incubation study using calcite and dolomite amendments to an acid, pyritic spoil. Rates of 0, 14.4, and 28.8 meq/100 g (rate equal to total potential acidity) of lime were used. Amended spoils were maintained at 30/sup 0/C and -100 cm moisture tension. Samples were taken periodically and a portion suspended in water at a soil:solution ratio of 1:20 for two hours. Unamended spoil extract pH dropped from 4.8 to 3.2 in nine weeks. Soluble magnesium sulfate doubled (from 2.9 to 6.1 meq/100 g) in the unlimed spoil between weeks one and sixteen. Dolomite amended spoils generated twice as much magnesium salt as calcite amended spoils. Pyrite oxidation, acid generation, i.e., salt genesis, was reduced when calcitic lime was used at the recommended rate based on a measure of total potential acidity. A prompt liming program with calcitic lime can substantially alter the quantity and quality of soluble salts released. The results suggest that dolomite is unacceptable as a liming material for sandy spoils with an appreciable pyrite content.

  10. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand N; Zeng, De-hui; Chen, Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil. PMID:15900783

  12. Stress Monitoring during Wonwawilli Extraction in 3 North Panel, Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, L.J.; McNabb, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes investigations at the Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland, involving monitoring of stresses and convergences during Wongawilli (rib pillar) extraction in 3 North Panel. The project involved the installation of 16 vibrating wire stressmeters and 10 telescopic convergence rods. The aim of the project was to monitor changes in the stress distribution during extraction.

  13. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  14. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil. 715.15 Section 715.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.15 Disposal of excess spoil. (a) General requirements. (1) Spoil not required...

  15. Catchment scale afforestation for mitigating flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Bathurst, James; Birkinshaw, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    After the 2013-14 floods in the UK there were calls to 'forest the uplands' as a solution to reducing flood risk across the nation. At present, 1 in 6 homes in Britain are at risk of flooding and current EU legislation demands a sustainable, 'nature-based solution'. However, the role of forests as a natural flood management technique remains highly controversial, due to a distinct lack of robust evidence into its effectiveness in reducing flood risk during extreme events. SHETRAN, physically-based spatially-distributed hydrological models of the Irthing catchment and Wark forest sub-catchments (northern England) have been developed in order to test the hypothesis of the effect trees have on flood magnitude. The advanced physically-based models have been designed to model scale-related responses from 1, through 10, to 100km2, a first study of the extent to which afforestation and woody debris runoff attenuation features (RAFs) may help to mitigate floods at the full catchment scale (100-1000 km2) and on a national basis. Furthermore, there is a need to analyse the extent to which land management practices, and the installation of nature-based RAFs, such as woody debris dams, in headwater catchments can attenuate flood-wave movement, and potentially reduce downstream flood risk. The impacts of riparian planting and the benefits of adding large woody debris of several designs and on differing sizes of channels has also been simulated using advanced hydrodynamic (HiPIMS) and hydrological modelling (SHETRAN). With the aim of determining the effect forestry may have on flood frequency, 1000 years of generated rainfall data representative of current conditions has been used to determine the difference between current land-cover, different distributions of forest cover and the defining scenarios - complete forest removal and complete afforestation of the catchment. The simulations show the percentage of forestry required to have a significant impact on mitigating

  16. Factors controlling water movement in acid spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelou, V.P.; Grove, J.H.; Phillips, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of water movement through toxic spoils plays a major role in reclamation. The toxic chemical constituents found in spoils need to be leached beyond the six inch depth (the usual depth of lime incorporation) since they can easily move upward during periods of high evapotranspiration. The rate of water infiltration plays a role in effective utilization of rain water, and conversely, the amount of surface runoff dictates the degree of surface erosion. Underground water quality may be affected by rates of water movement through a toxic spoil zone. Factors that control water movement through acid spoils were investigated through the use of a column one meter long and 8.0 cm in internal diameter. The maximum hydraulic conductivity was observed in the upper portion of the column where minimum salt buildup occurred. The hydraulic conductivity in this region was 0.5 cm/hr. In the middle portion of the column where a salty (14.0 mmhos/cm) solution was encountered, the hydraulic conductivity was 0.08 cm/hr. In the lower portion of the column where the maximum salt buildup took place (16.8 mmhos/cm), the hydraulic conductivity was found to be 0.03 cm/hr. Similar results were obtained with a small column experiment using calcite and dolomite as different lime sources. The hydraulic conductivity in the dolomitic small column remained relatively unchanged with time and salt depletion.

  17. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  18. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this part of the study is to investigate the oxidation-reduction (redox) environment that favor the release of selenium from coal mine spoils. It is anticipated that the study will help answer critical questions as to the form, solubility, and mobility of selenium from the spoil site to the surrounding environment. This investigation will evaluate the conditions which favor the speciation of selenium from coal mine spoils as affected by changes in the oxidation states of selenium.

  19. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects. PMID:24516135

  20. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Shi; Piao, Shilong; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Zhou, Liming; Li, Laurent Z X; Myneni, Ranga B; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-25

    China has the largest afforested area in the world (∼62 million hectares in 2008), and these forests are carbon sinks. The climatic effect of these new forests depends on how radiant and turbulent energy fluxes over these plantations modify surface temperature. For instance, a lower albedo may cause warming, which negates the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from planted forests and adjacent grasslands or croplands in China to understand how afforestation affects LST. Afforestation is found to decrease daytime LST by about 1.1 ± 0.5 °C (mean ± 1 SD) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on average. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapotranspiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease with average rainfall. Afforestation in dry regions therefore leads to net warming, as daytime cooling is offset by nighttime warming. Thus, it is necessary to carefully consider where to plant trees to realize potential climatic benefits in future afforestation projects. PMID:24516135

  1. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  4. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria. PMID:23905790

  5. Carbon: nitrogen stoichiometry following afforestation: a global synthesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Li, Dejun; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ruan, Honghua; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Though carbon (C): nitrogen (N) stoichiometry has been widely studied in terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about its variation following afforestation. By synthesizing the results of 53 studies, we examined temporal and spatial variation in C: N ratios and in N-C scaling relationships of both the organic and the mineral soil horizons. Results showed that C: N ratios remained constant in the mineral horizon but significantly decreased in the organic horizon over the age sequence following afforestation. Among different climate zones, C: N ratios of the organic and the mineral horizons increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) (decreasing latitude). Pasture exhibited higher C: N ratios than cropland in the organic horizon while C: N of the mineral horizon did not change much among different land use types. For both the organic and the mineral horizons, hardwoods exhibited lower C: N ratios than pine and softwoods. Additionally, N and C in general scaled isometrically in both the organic and the mineral horizons over the age sequence and among different climate zones, land use types, and plantation species following afforestation. Our results suggest that C and N may remain coupled following afforestation. PMID:26743490

  6. Carbon: nitrogen stoichiometry following afforestation: a global synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xia; Li, Dejun; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ruan, Honghua; Luo, Yiqi

    2016-01-01

    Though carbon (C): nitrogen (N) stoichiometry has been widely studied in terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about its variation following afforestation. By synthesizing the results of 53 studies, we examined temporal and spatial variation in C: N ratios and in N-C scaling relationships of both the organic and the mineral soil horizons. Results showed that C: N ratios remained constant in the mineral horizon but significantly decreased in the organic horizon over the age sequence following afforestation. Among different climate zones, C: N ratios of the organic and the mineral horizons increased and decreased, respectively, with increasing mean annual temperature (MAT) (decreasing latitude). Pasture exhibited higher C: N ratios than cropland in the organic horizon while C: N of the mineral horizon did not change much among different land use types. For both the organic and the mineral horizons, hardwoods exhibited lower C: N ratios than pine and softwoods. Additionally, N and C in general scaled isometrically in both the organic and the mineral horizons over the age sequence and among different climate zones, land use types, and plantation species following afforestation. Our results suggest that C and N may remain coupled following afforestation. PMID:26743490

  7. Soil properties following reforestation or afforestation of marginal cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reforestation or afforestation of marginal agricultural lands offers opportunities to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) and improve the quality of degraded soils. The objectives of this study were to identify the extent and distribution of marginally productive cropland that was originally under f...

  8. The Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and 4.6 g N m-2 yr-1, respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m-2 yr--1 and 6.7 g N m-2yr-1, respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0–40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0–20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China. PMID:25706724

  9. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  10. Lignite mine spoil characterization and approaches for its rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Praveen-Kumar; Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Choudhary, A.; Gehlot, K.

    2005-01-15

    Open cast mining of lignite leaves behind stockpiles of excavated materials (dumps) and refilled mining pits (spoils). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of both kinds of sites were estimated to identify the reasons for their barrenness. Subsequently, surface modifications were attempted, first in a greenhouse and later infield to develop a suitable approach for their rehabilitation. Dumps had low pH (4.8) and high Na{sup +} (2.5 mg g{sup -1}), spoils high pH (8.7) and high Na{sup +} (1.59 mg g{sup -1} soil). Both sites had low available nitrogen and phosphorus and showed very low dehydrogenase and phosphatases activity but no nitrification. The extreme physicochemical conditions and inert nature of damps and spoils explained their barrenness. In the greenhouse experiment, 14 plant species sown in surface materials of dumps and spoils after spreading a 0.15 m thick layer of dune sand, germinated ({gt}85%), and their seedlings survived for two months. This technique was followed at a spoil site (modified spoil site). After three years of stabilization the modified spoil site had only one-fifth Na{sup +} of that in spoil surface in the beginning and also showed higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity and nitrification. Pearl millet and Cenchrus ciliaris grown in modified spoil produced 128 to 394 kg and 2.25 to 3.50 Mg dry matter ha{sup -1}. Addition of farmyard manure with N and P fertilizers increased pearl millet yields.

  11. Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160552.html Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out A ... They can cause problems with your food and water that could put your family's health at risk. ...

  12. Arsenic fractionation in mine spoils 10 years after aided phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Mench, Michel

    2012-07-01

    Aided phytostabilization using a combination of compost, zerovalent iron grit and coal fly ash (CZA) amendments and revegetation effectively promoted the biological recovery of mining spoils generated at a gold mine in Portugal. Selective dissolution of spoil samples in combination with solid phase characterization using microbeam X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy and microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping were used to assess As associations in spoils ten years after CZA treatment. The results show that As preferentially associates with poorly crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides as opposed to crystalline Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide phases. The crystalline Fe(III)-phases dominated in the treated spoil and exceeded those of the untreated spoil three-fold, but only 2.6-6.8% of total As was associated with this fraction. Correlation maps of As:Fe reveal that As in the CZA-treated spoils is primarily contained in surface coatings as precipitates and sorbates. Arsenic binding with poorly crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides did not inhibit As uptake by plants. PMID:22481180

  13. The Influence of Land Surface Properties on Sahel Climate. Part II. Afforestation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Shukla, Jagadish

    1996-12-01

    A numerical experiment was performed to explore the nature of and mechanisms for the effect of large-scale afforestation in the sub-Saharan area on the climate. This sensitivity study, which consists of several short-term integrations of a climate model, suggests that afforestation would enhance the rainfall in the region and would have the largest impact during dry years. While the rainfall increased in the afforestation area, it decreased to the south of that region. It was found that this land surface change altered the surface energy balance and induced a circulation change that led to a change in rainfall. The influences of different vegetation species and the extent of the afforestation area on the rainfall were tested and are discussed. Reducing the afforestation area by about 50% still resulted in a positive simulated rainfall anomaly. A detailed analysis of the surface energy balance is presented. A comparison between the effects of afforestation and desertification is also made.

  14. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Abigail L. S.; Fung, Inez Y.; Chiang, John C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO2, but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation. PMID:22190490

  15. Ecosystem carbon-water interactions of tropical pasture and afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Eugster, W.; Buchmann, N.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical ecosystems for global carbon and water cycling, eddy covariance flux measurements in the tropics are still scarce and globally underrepresented within FLUXNET. In addition, previous studies have been predominantly conducted in tropical forests with only very few observations, often unpublished, from other tropical land-use types like pastures, croplands and savannas. As recently emphasized by global synthesis activities, C4 dominated ecosystems account for more than 20 % of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) but represent less than 20 site-years of data within FLUXNET. Consequently, an expansion of observations for tropical C4 ecosystems is needed to understand their role in the global carbon and water cycling. We have performed comparative eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes in a tropical pasture and an adjacent, young afforestation in Panama from 2007 to 2009. Our results show a larger intra-annual variability of CO2 and H2O fluxes at the pasture compared to the afforestation. In addition, the tropical pasture was more sensitive to water limitations and seasonal drought. Moreover, observed differences in water use efficiency (WUE) between both ecosystems tend to become smaller after the establishment phase of the afforestation. Our results highlight the role of land management on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes in the tropics. Implications of our results for further research and synthesis activities will be discussed.

  16. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L S; Fung, Inez Y; Chiang, John C H

    2012-01-17

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO(2), but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation. PMID:22190490

  17. Control Room operations: an investigation of the task of the operator in a Colliery Control Room. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.C.; Best, C.F.; Ferguson, C.A.; Graveling, R.A.; Nicholl, A.G.M.

    1982-09-01

    A detailed study of the ergonomics aspects of four representative Colliery Control Rooms was carried out. Numerous ergonomics limitations, many common to each of the control rooms studied, were identified particularly in relation to workspace dimensions, console layout and lighting. In order to overcome these limitations in future designs, a report detailing the Ergonomics Principles of Colliery Control Room design and Layout was prepared on the basis of the information obtained. Task analysis carried out during the studies revealed that control room operators could have a direct effect on production and that ergonomics aspects were involved in these situations. Indications of potential ergonomics problems in the wider sphere of job design were also identified particularly in relation to information handling.

  18. Operating parameters of water-only cyclone at washing of steam coal from the Cigel Colliery in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Hredzak, S.; Lovas, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Mockovciakova, A.; Lesko, M.

    1999-07-01

    The contribution gives attention to the determination of water-only (WO) cyclone operating parameters. The samples of steam coal and fines from the Cigel colliery have been washed in the laboratory type of WO cyclone. The products of washing were subjected to sink-float analyses. From the results of sink-float analyses the basic separation characteristics of the WO cyclone have been computed.

  19. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  20. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  1. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  2. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  3. Measurements and modelling of self-heating in spoil piles from open-cut coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Carras, J.N.; Saghafi, A.; Bainbridge, N.W.

    1996-12-31

    Open-cut coal mining produces large quantities of spoil. Spoil consists of clays, rock, minerals and other carbonaceous materials (including thin coal seams) which have little or no economic value. When exposed to the elements, in spoil piles, the spoil interacts with water and air as part of the weathering process. Some interactions, for example those involving coal, carbonaceous materials, and pyrite are exothermic. If the rate at which heat is generated within the spoil is greater than the rate at which heat is liberated, the temperature of the spoil rises. If the heating remains unchecked spontaneous combustion can occur. This paper describes the major sources of heat in spoil piles from open cut coal mining and presents laboratory and field measurements of spoil heating. A numerical model of self-heating is described and an example of its use is presented.

  4. Stream acidification and base cation losses with grassland afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Kathleen A.; PiñEiro, Gervasio; Palmer, Sheila M.; JobbáGy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2008-07-01

    Afforestation of natural grasslands with fast-growing pine and eucalyptus species is increasing globally, but little is known about its effect on ecosystems and watersheds and, ultimately, the quality of water resources. To investigate the biogeochemical and hydrological consequences of this land use change, we sampled stream water in paired watersheds in Uruguay and Argentina. In watersheds planted with pine, we found no change in stream pH following afforestation, while in watersheds planted with eucalyptus, pH was 0.7 units lower on average than in streams draining grasslands. To further investigate the mechanism behind the decrease in pH, we sampled soils and streams of eucalypt catchments in Uruguay and analyzed exchangeable base cation concentrations, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). At these sites, Ca, Mg, and Na concentrations were >30% lower in afforested soils than in grassland soils, and pH was significantly lower below 10 cm depth. Stream measurements taken over three years illustrate that these soil changes were also manifested in stream water chemistry. In the eucalypt watersheds, base cation concentrations were >40% lower, and alkalinity and DIC were halved in stream water. A test with data from additional sites where both pines and eucalypts were planted nearby showed that eucalyptus has a stronger acidifying effect than pine. Overall, our data suggest that repeated harvesting cycles at some locations could negatively impact the soil store of base cations and reduce downstream water quality. Our results can be used to help minimize negative impacts of this land use and to inform policy in this and other regions targeted for plantation forestry.

  5. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  6. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  7. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  8. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  9. Potential impacts of afforestation on climate change and extreme events in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Salami, Ayobami T.; Matthew, Olaniran J.; Odedokun, Sola

    2013-07-01

    Afforestation is usually thought as a good approach to mitigate impacts of warming over a region. This study presents an argument that afforestation may have bigger impacts than originally thought by previous studies. The study investigates the impacts of afforestation on future climate and extreme events in Nigeria, using a regional climate model (RegCM3), forced with global climate model simulations. The impacts of seven afforestation options on the near future (2031-2050, under A1B scenario) climate and the extreme events are investigated. RegCM3 replicates essential features in the present-day (1981-2000) climate and the associated extreme events, and adequately simulates the seasonal variations over the ecological zones in the country. However, the model simulates the seasonal climate better over the northern ecological zones than over the southern ecological zones. The simulated spatial distribution of the extreme events agrees well with the observation, though the magnitude of the simulated events is smaller than the observed. The study shows that afforestation in Nigeria could have both positive and negative future impacts on the climate change and extreme events in the country. While afforestation reduces the projected global warming and enhances rainfall over the afforested area (and over coastal zones), it enhances the warming and reduces the rainfall over the north-eastern part of the country. In addition, the afforestation induces more frequent occurrence of extreme rainfall events (flooding) over the coastal region and more frequent occurrence of heat waves and droughts over the semi-arid region. The positive and negative impacts of the afforestation are not limited to Nigeria; they extend to the neighboring countries. While afforestation lowers the warming and enhances rainfall over Benin Republic, it increases the warming and lowers the rainfall over Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The result of the study has important implication for the ongoing climate

  10. 30 CFR 784.19 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil. 784.19 Section 784.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING...

  11. 30 CFR 780.35 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil. 780.35 Section 780.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING...

  12. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... actively mined bench to a lower pre-existing bench by means of gravity transport is permitted provided that... by the operator that the spoil to be disposed of by gravity transport is not necessary...

  13. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... actively mined bench to a lower pre-existing bench by means of gravity transport is permitted provided that... by the operator that the spoil to be disposed of by gravity transport is not necessary...

  14. 30 CFR 715.15 - Disposal of excess spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engineer or other qualified professional specialist experienced in the construction of earth and rockfill... actively mined bench to a lower pre-existing bench by means of gravity transport is permitted provided that... by the operator that the spoil to be disposed of by gravity transport is not necessary...

  15. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... doors, it may be assumed that the spoil is jettisoned immediately after damage and that the bottom doors... jettisoned immediately after damage if— (1) The hull is designed so that— (i) The complete separation...

  16. 46 CFR 174.330 - Jettisoning of spoil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... doors, it may be assumed that the spoil is jettisoned immediately after damage and that the bottom doors... jettisoned immediately after damage if— (1) The hull is designed so that— (i) The complete separation...

  17. Enteric listeriosis in grazing steers supplemented with spoiled silage.

    PubMed

    García, Juan A; Micheloud, Juan F; Campero, Carlos M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Odriozola, Ernesto R; Moreira, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of enteric listeriosis in steers that were fed spoiled silage is reported. The outbreak started 2 days after ~200 animals in a single paddock were given a supplement of spoiled silage. Forty animals (20%) were affected, and 13 (6.5%) died over a period of 10 days. Affected animals were recumbent, depressed, and had diarrhea with mucus and fibrin. Gross and microscopic findings in 3 animals that were subjected to autopsy included excess peritoneal fluid, congestion and edema of abomasum, suppurative enteritis and colitis, and suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis. Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one of serotype 1/2c from the gallbladder and one of serotype 1/2b from the spoiled silage. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal wall of 1 animal by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical history and signs, gross and microscopic findings, bacterial isolation, and IHC results confirmed a diagnosis of enteric listeriosis. The source of infection was likely the spoiled silage. PMID:26699524

  18. Microbial succession and mineral leaching in an artificial coal spoil.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A P

    1978-01-01

    An artificial pyritic coal spoil was prepared and examined over a period of 1.5 years for changes in the population of various physiological varieties of bacteria and also for mineral leaching. Heterotrophic bacteria were the first to dominate the spoil, acquiring a population of 10(7) cells per g within 2 weeks. Bacteria capable of utilizing choline sulfate as the sole source of energy comprised approximately 1% of the total heterotrophic bacteria. Sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria (Thiobacillus) and finally iron-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) increased in the population, the latter becoming the dominant species where acidity was greatest. Partition of species paralleled partition of acidity in the spoil. Maximum acidity (pH 2.6) and maximum population of T. ferrooxidans (greater than 10(7) cells per g) occurred at the summit. Molds (notably, Aspergillus), algae (Chlorococcales, Oscillatoria, Navicula), cilliated and flagellated protozoa, an arthropod (Podura aquatica), and a moss (aberrant Physcomitrium pyriforme) were observed. The mineral salts leached from the spoil, in decreasing order, were the sulfates of magnesium (predominantly hexahydrite), calcium (gypsum), sodium, aluminum (alunogenite), and iron. PMID:736542

  19. The Effect of Afforestation on Soil Moisture Content in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yitong; Wang, Xuhui; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Liu, Yongwen; Peng, Shushi; Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Widespread afforestation programs sequester carbon from the atmosphere and mitigate the rising of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Meanwhile, afforestation carbon sequestration may cost soil water. However, changes in soil moisture content (SMC) after large-scale afforestation or reforestation have rarely been quantified. In this study, we measured changes in SMC following afforestation using a paired plots method with data from 757 plots in Northeastern China. We found a marginally significant decline in soil moisture content of the top 1-m soil (SMC0-1m) after afforestation (P = 0.08) at the regional scale. The SMC responses to afforestation also vary across species. For example, significant SMC decrease are found for Populus spp. plantations (P < 0.05) and plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (P < 0.05). Splitting the first meter of the soil profile into different depth intervals revealed that SMC declined significantly in shallow layers (0-30 cm) for Populus spp. and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We also found that when SMC in the control exceeded a specific threshold, SMC for all five tree species considered tended to decrease, suggesting that the effects of afforestation on soil hydrology vary across different regions. PMID:27513001

  20. The Effect of Afforestation on Soil Moisture Content in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yitong; Wang, Xuhui; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Liu, Yongwen; Peng, Shushi; Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Widespread afforestation programs sequester carbon from the atmosphere and mitigate the rising of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Meanwhile, afforestation carbon sequestration may cost soil water. However, changes in soil moisture content (SMC) after large-scale afforestation or reforestation have rarely been quantified. In this study, we measured changes in SMC following afforestation using a paired plots method with data from 757 plots in Northeastern China. We found a marginally significant decline in soil moisture content of the top 1-m soil (SMC0-1m) after afforestation (P = 0.08) at the regional scale. The SMC responses to afforestation also vary across species. For example, significant SMC decrease are found for Populus spp. plantations (P < 0.05) and plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (P < 0.05). Splitting the first meter of the soil profile into different depth intervals revealed that SMC declined significantly in shallow layers (0–30 cm) for Populus spp. and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. We also found that when SMC in the control exceeded a specific threshold, SMC for all five tree species considered tended to decrease, suggesting that the effects of afforestation on soil hydrology vary across different regions. PMID:27513001

  1. Role of arthropods in developing soils on mine spoils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, W.G.; Elkins, N.Z.; Parker, L.W.

    1981-06-01

    In laboratory microcosms of coal mine spoil amended with bark and wood chips, the activity of termites increased organic matter and increased total nitrogen. Termite survival was reduced in microcosms with spoil and paper or straw amendments. Field studies evaluating the efficacy of organic amendments in developing a soil biota showed that decomposition rates of wood chip-bark amended spoil were the same as unmined soil and that decomposition rates were lower than all other mulch-spoil combinations. Wood and bark amended-spoil had the highest density and diversity of soil fauna. Top dressing spoils with borrow soil did not improve any of the soil biological parameters measured. Based on these data it was recommended that reclamation procedures be changed to eliminate borrow soil top-dressing and that wood removed from mined areas be returned to the contoured spoil as wood chip amendment in addition to straw mulch.

  2. Mycobacteria in water used for personal hygiene in heavy industry and collieries: a potential risk for employees.

    PubMed

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-03-01

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people. PMID:25749321

  3. Mycobacteria in Water Used for Personal Hygiene in Heavy Industry and Collieries: A Potential Risk for Employees

    PubMed Central

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people. PMID:25749321

  4. Measuring Dust Exposure with the Thermal Precipitator in Collieries and Foundries

    PubMed Central

    Roach, S. A.

    1959-01-01

    The standard thermal precipitator has been modified for field surveys of airborne dust exposure so as to make it more portable. A microprojector is used when assessing the samples and for coal-mine dusts the counts are restricted to the range 0·5 to 5 microns. In industrial environments the dust concentration appears to vary with a standard deviation of more than 50% of the mean. Part of this variability is due to errors of the thermal precipitator. The standard error of a count of a sample is about 10% to 15% in practical work and the combined effect of this and other errors is that the standard error of a single result is about 15%. However, in practice this can be neglected since the dust concentration itself is so variable. A more important source of error is the bias, due to overlapping among the particles on the cover glasses. The count may give a serious underestimate of the number of airborne particles if high sample densities are used. The product of average concentration and duration of exposure is probably a good index of the dose of dust retained in a man's lungs. The duration of exposure is measured by a simple time study made at the same time as the concentration is measured. Samples are taken near workers chosen at random to give unbiased estimates of the dust exposure. Ideally successive samples are taken alongside different workers. However, in a survey at a colliery it was not possible to do this and each day had to be spent with one collier. The mean dust exposure of the coal-getters was 2,860 particle-hours per shift, of those on stone work 2,250 particle-hours per shift, and the remainder had a mean dust exposure of 1,010 particle-hours per shift. In a survey at a steel works successive samples could be taken alongside different workers. It was found that the dustiness was unrelated to the apparently dusty processes and as the dust was very fine it was suspected that it was the normal atmospheric pollution of the neighbourhood. This was

  5. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    PubMed Central

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  6. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    PubMed

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  7. Stability of spoil piles at two coal mines in Turkey: Geotechnical characterization and design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kasmer, O.; Ulusay, R.

    2006-11-15

    One of the major problems in surface mining of coal is the stability of disposed overburden materials. Geotechnical considerations are thus very important in rational planning for disposal, reclamation, treatment, and utilization of mine waste material. The subject of this study is the stability of spoil piles at open pit coal mines located in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal is produced from two adjacent open pits. While a large portion of the spoil piles dumped at the Central Pit has experienced slope failure, no spoil pile instability has been experienced at the South Pit. This article outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanism of the spoil pile failure in the Central Pit and the geotechnical design considerations for the spoil piles at the South Pit based on the experience gained from the previous spoil failures. Limit equilibrium analysis carried out for the large-scale spoil failure indicated that deep-seated sliding along the interface between underclay and dragline spoil piles and rotational slip through the overburden spoil material may be all occurring simultaneously as water migrates through these areas. Sensitivity analyses revealed that spoil pile instability is not expected at the South Pit when the current spoil placement method is used as long as the generation of high water pressures in the spoil piles is not permitted. Comparisons between the results of finite element analysis and long-term monitoring data also confirmed the results of sensitivity analyses and indicated a vertical deformation associated with compaction of the spoil material.

  8. Soil Phosphorus Gains and Losses with Afforestation: A Meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, D.; Deng, Q.; Xiang, Y.; Yu, C. L.; Hui, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Afforestation, the planting of trees on previously non-forested land, is commonly practiced around the world to provide wood, reduce erosion, and restore degraded agricultural land. Although afforestation has the potential to meet these objectives while increasing carbon uptake, its net impact on the soil depends on environmental conditions and land-use history. Availability of vital plant nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), may be altered by afforestation, but prior work has largely focused on soil carbon, and changes in soil P had not been quantitatively reviewed. We conducted a literature meta-analysis of changes in total and plant-available soil P with afforestation, compiling 49 studies representing 186 independent forest stands on five continents. Over the full dataset, mean concentration of plant-available phosphorus (mg kg-1 soil) increased by 22.7% with afforestation (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval = [15.1%, 30.7%]), while mean concentration of total phosphorus decreased by 13.5% (95% CI = [-18.4%, -8.6%]). These data reflect trends in upper mineral soil horizons, with sampling depths clustered around 20 cm and few studies reporting data below 50 cm. Differences in prior land use partially explain the substantial variation in effect size, with larger increases in available P and smaller decreases in total P when trees were planted on degraded soils. Trends in both available and total P were also enhanced with increasing time since afforestation, suggesting that changes in soil P concentrations are driven by cumulative processes rather than site preparation and planting. Our meta-analysis suggests that 1. afforestation can transform phosphorus into more plant-accessible forms, while potentially depleting total soil stocks of P, and 2. land-use history, more than climate or species planted, determines the effects of afforestation on soils' ability to meet the nutrient needs of vegetation.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  10. Gully evolution and geomorphic adjustments of badlands to recent afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Francisco Martín-Duque, Jose; Corona, Christophe; Lucia, Ana; María Bodoque, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Badlands and gullied areas are among the geomorphic environments with the highest erosion rates worldwide, however records on their evolution are very scarce and often limited to presumed initial conditions and the known present state. In this communication, we present a unique and very dense and annual record and outstanding example of erosion processes in a Mediterranean environment in Central Spain, where badland and gullying processes on sandy slopes of a set of mesas have been presumably triggered by quarrying activities since Medieval times. The gully channel evolution here analyzed provides an exceptional example of a larger setting of geomorphic. Besides the analysis of geomorphic adjustments to historical land-use changes induced by historical quarrying and gullying dynamics, we also quantified the impact of current geomorphic adjustments to 20th century afforestation by combining multiproxy such as aerial photography, historical archives, and large dataset of exposed roots to date, quantify, and reconstruct the morphology of a rapidly evolving channel in a gullied catchment. In this analysis, more than 150 exposed roots were analyzed to quantify and report channel incision; widening and gully retreatment rates during the last decades, as well as to quantify sheet erosion on different soil units. Our results suggest that, rather than stabilizing gully evolution, the afforestation carried out during 1960s has played an important role in water-sediment balance and connectivity and would have triggered the initiation of channel incision processes in the 1980s. Therefore, we observe that the channel incision match with a significant increase of the vegetation cover, which leads a significant decrease in sheet erosion rates. Based on our long-term annual gully reconstruction, we observed that sediment delivery does not correlate with the estimated intensity of precipitation (Fourier index). Instead, we observe abrupt morphological changes in the gully are

  11. Preparation of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite with Novel In situ Ceramic Composite Particulates, Developed from Waste Colliery Shale Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Siva, S. B.; Sahoo, K. L.; Ganguly, R. I.; Dash, R. R.; Singh, S. K.; Satpathy, B. K.; Srinivasarao, G.

    2013-08-01

    A novel method is adapted to prepare an in situ ceramic composite from waste colliery shale (CS) material. Heat treatment of the shale material, in a plasma reactor and/or in a high temperature furnace at 1673 K (1400 °C) under high vacuum (10-6 Torr), has enabled in situ conversion of SiO2 to SiC in the vicinity of carbon and Al2O3 present in the shale material. The composite has the chemical constituents, SiC-Al2O3-C, as established by XRD/EDX analysis. Particle sizes of the composite range between 50 nm and 200 μm. The shape of the particles vary, presumably rod to spherical shape, distributed preferably in the region of grain boundaries. The CS composite so produced is added to aluminum melt to produce Al-CS composite (12 vol. pct). For comparison of properties, the aluminum metal matrix composite (AMCs) is made with Al2O3 particulates (15 vol. pct) with size <200 μm. The heat-treated Al-CS composite has shown better mechanical properties compared to the Al-Al2O3 composite. The ductility and toughness of the Al-CS composite are greater than that of the Al-Al2O3 composite. Fractographs revealed fine sheared dimples in the Al-CS composite, whereas the same of the Al-Al2O3 composite showed an appearance of cleavage-type facets. Abrasion and frictional behavior of both the composites have been compared. The findings lead to the conclusion that the in situ composite developed from the colliery shale waste material has a good future for its use in AMCs.

  12. Assessing the Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic C Sequestration by Means of Sequential Density Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Weiwei; Ren, Tusheng; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation is a prevalent practice carried out for soil recovery and carbon sequestration. Improved understanding of the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and dynamics is necessary to identify the particular processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation and/or decomposition that result from afforestation. To elucidate these mechanisms, we have used a sequential density fractionation technique to identify the transfer mechanisms of forest derived C to soil fractions and investigate the impact of afforestation on SOC sequestration. Surface soil samples from continuous maize crop land (C4) and forest land (C3), which had been established 5, 12 and 25 yr, respectively, on the Northeast China Plain were separated into five density fractions. SOC, nitrogen (N) concentration and δ13C data from the three forests and adjacent cropland were compared. Afforestation decreased SOC concentration in the < 2.5 g cm-3 fractions from 5 yr forest sites, but increased SOC content in the < 2.0 g cm-3 fractions from 25 yr forest sites. Afforestation did not affect soil mass distribution, SOC and N proportional weight distributions across the density fractions. The < 1.8 g cm-3 fractions from 12 and 25 yr forests showed higher C/N and lower δ13C as compared to other fractions. Incorporation of forest litter-derived C occurred from low density (< 1.8 g cm-3) fractions to aggregates of higher density (1.8-2.5 g cm-3) through aggregate recombination and C transport in the pore system of the aggregates. Some forest litter-derived C could transfer from the light fractions or directly diffuse and adsorb onto mineral particles. Results from this study indicate that microaggregate protection and association between organic material and minerals provide major contribution to the SOC sequestration in the afforested soil system. PMID:25705896

  13. Soil C and N changes with afforestation of grasslands across gradients of precipitation and plantation age.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Piñeiro, Gervasio; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of unforested lands to forests, is a tool for sequestering anthropogenic carbon dioxide into plant biomass. However, in addition to altering biomass, afforestation can have substantial effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) pools, some of which have much longer turnover times than plant biomass. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the effect of afforestation on SOC may depend on mean annual precipitation (MAP). The goal of this study was to test how labile and bulk pools of SOC and total soil nitrogen (TN) change with afforestation across a rainfall gradient of 600-1500 mm in the Rio de la Plata grasslands of Argentina and Uruguay. The sites were all former grasslands planted with Eucalyptus spp. Overall, we found that afforestation increased (up to 1012 kg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) or decreased (as much as 1294 kg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) SOC pools in this region and that these changes were significantly related to MAP. Drier sites gained, and wetter sites lost, SOC and TN (r2 = 0.59, P = 0.003; and r2 = 0.57, P = 0.004, respectively). Labile C and N in microbial biomass and extractable soil pools followed similar patterns to bulk SOC and TN. Interestingly, drier sites gained more SOC and TN as plantations aged, while losses reversed as plantations aged in wet sites, suggesting that plantation age in addition to precipitation is a critical driver of changes in soil organic matter with afforestation. This new evidence implies that longer intervals between harvests for plantations could improve SOC storage, ameliorating the negative trends found in humid sites. Our results suggest that the value of afforestation as a carbon sequestration tool should be considered in the context of precipitation and age of the forest stand. PMID:22471076

  14. Runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingbin; Zhang, Lu; Gallichand, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    Afforestation has been suggested as a means of improving soil and water conservation in north-western China, especially on the Loess Plateau. Understanding of the hydrological responses to afforestation will help us develop sustainable watershed management strategies. A study was conducted during the period of 1956 to 1980 to evaluate runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed on the Loess Plateau with an area of 1·15 km2, using a paired watershed approach. Deciduous trees, including locust (locusta L.), apricot (praecox L.) and elm (ulmus L.), were planted on about 80% of a treated watershed, while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged. It was estimated that cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 32% as a result of afforestation. A significant trend was also observed that shows annual runoff reduction increases with the age of the trees planted. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September, which was ascribed to greater rainfall and utilization by trees during this period. Afforestation also resulted in reduction in the volume and peak flow of storm runoff events in the treated watershed with greater reduction in peak flow. Copyright

  15. Contribution of Afforestation Practices to Changing Hydrology in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Meng, S.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are generally susceptible to land degeneration due to limited precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration (ET). Afforestation has been assumed to be a feasible strategy to conserve water and to improve ecological environment. For example, the Northern China, as a typical arid and semi-arid region has experienced large-scale and long-term afforestation practices since the early 1980s. The land cover has been altered to some degree as tree planting with increasing greenness. However, the effectiveness of afforestation might not be as expected due to the interference of climate change. In this study, we attempted to quantify the contribution of afforestation practices to the hydrological system in the Northern China. A macro-scale hydrological model, i.e., the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was employed to simulate ET, soil moisture and runoff for the period 1959 - 2009. Fractional simulation scenarios were designed regarding different conditions of land cover and climate changes. The results indicate that the land cover has minor impact on the variability of hydrological variables at regional scale, comparing with the climate change. Particularly, the decreasing precipitation plays a dominant role in shaping the trends of ET, soil moisture and runoff. The findings have significant implications for the implementation of the afforestation practices and for the management of water resources in arid and semi-arid regions.

  16. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and...

  17. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and...

  18. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and...

  19. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and...

  20. 33 CFR 67.15-10 - Spoil banks, artificial islands, and dredged channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spoil banks, artificial islands..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Miscellaneous Marking Requirements § 67.15-10 Spoil banks, artificial islands, and...

  1. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 817.73 Section 817.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  2. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 816.73 Section 816.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  3. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 816.73 Section 816.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  4. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 816.73 Section 816.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  5. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 817.73 Section 817.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  6. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. 817.73 Section 817.73 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... water and will not degrade to soil material. Where used, noncemented clay shale, clay spoil, soil...

  7. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  8. Neural Correlates of the Perception of Spoiled Food Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christoph A.; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T.

    2016-01-01

    The elicitation of disgust by the view of spoiled and rotten foods is considered as an adaptation preventing the ingestion of harmful microorganisms and pathogens. To provide an effective behavioral defense, inedible food items need to be detected automatically, i.e., in the absence of explicit processing goals, early in the processing stream, and triggering an alarm response, i.e., increased attentional capture. To examine these hypotheses, a set of stimulus material consisting of images of perishable foods (i.e., dairies, meats, fruits, and vegetables) at various stages of natural decay ranging from appetitive to disgusting was developed. In separate sessions, functional imaging and dense sensor event related potential (ERP) data were collected while participants (N = 24) viewed the stimulus materials. Functional imaging data indicated larger activations in the extrastriate visual cortex during the processing of inedible as compared to edible food items. Furthermore, ERP recordings indicated that the processing of inedible food stimuli was associated with a relative positivity over inferior occipital sensor sites already at early stages of processing (<200 ms), and subsequently, an increased late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital sensor regions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the brain’s sensitivity to visual cues of foods that are spoiled or rotten. PMID:27445746

  9. Influence of afforestation on water regime in Jizera Catchments, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, Renata; Kulasová, Alena; Ředinová, Jana; Blazková, Sárka

    2012-08-01

    This paper studies the influence of afforestation on the water regime in two catchments in the Jizera Mountains that are similar in size and altitude but have different afforestation pattern. In this paper a range of different modelling tools is used to establish whether the differences in catchment water regime can be quantified and attributed to differences in catchment characteristics. Frequency analysis of low and high flows and a number and duration of flows over a threshold value are used to look for the differences in flow regime in both catchments. Low flow conditions are modelled using the Wittenberg nonlinear store approach. A rainfall-runoff process is modelled using a Data Based Mechanistic approach. The results indicate that the differences in the catchment response to external climatic factors outweigh the influence of land use apart from the low flows, where the changes in the response might be attributed to afforestation.

  10. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Zipper, Carl E; Eick, Matt; Beck, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm(-1). Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm(-1) (±150) to 247 μS cm(-1) (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data. PMID:25912885

  11. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. PMID:26597564

  12. Spoil hydrology and hydrochemistry at the Battle River site in the plains of Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, M.R.; Moran, S.R.

    1982-12-01

    The planned expansion of coal strip mining activities in Alberta has prompted research into the hydrogeology and groundwater chemical evolution of reclaimed lands. In the Battle River area of central Alberta, where coal beds occur in the Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation, the spoil areas of two mines have been intensely instrumented as part of this research. The cast overburden at the Diplomat Mine is derived from calcareous till; at the Vesta Mine the overburden which forms the spoil is a mixture of sodic shale, siltstone and sandstone. Recharge to the spoil at both mines is occurring by leakage from surface ponds and vertical infiltration through the spoil. At Diplomat Mine lateral inflow from the adjacent unmined coal is also contributing to the resaturation of the spoil. Groundwater flow at Diplomat Mine is controlled by a valley that developed during the mining process, and which is acting as a subsurface drain. At Vesta Mine a groundwater mound has developed in the spoil causing migration of spoil water into adjacent unmined areas. In both settings high water table conditions appear to be directly related to the presence of surface ponds in the reclaimed landscape. The chemical makeup of groundwater in the spoil at both mines is characterized by levels of Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup =/ and total dissolved solids that are several times higher than in the unmined coal. In spoil groundwater total dissolved solids concentration up to 12,300 mg/l and SO/sub 4//sup =/ concentration up to 8400 mg/l have been detected.

  13. Settlement of mine spoil fill from water infiltration: Case study in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Karem, W.A.; Kalinski, M.E.; Hancher, D.E.

    2007-09-15

    Mine spoil valley fills are a by-product of mountaintop removal mining in the Appalachian coal mining region of the United States. These fills often result in large expanses of relatively flat land covering thousands of acres, which can be used for commercial or industrial development. However, this material is susceptible to damaging settlement, and highly publicized failures of structures built on mine spoil fills have led to reluctance on the part of investors to develop these areas. A key settlement mechanism in mine spoil is water infiltration. Percolating water slakes the shaly, angular spoil material at interparticle stress points, leading to excessive deformation and settlement. A lumber processing facility in Hazard, Ky., is an example of a structure that sustained serious damage as a result of settlement caused by water infiltration. A forensic site investigation of the facility revealed that excavation of existing surface mine spoil beneath the building footprint removed the low-permeability crust that forms on the top of mature mine spoil fill deposits. The removal of the crust allowed the infiltration of surface water. This, coupled with the unique configuration of the storm water drainage system at the facility and surface water drainage toward the building, led to differential settlement up to 1:120 (vertical: horizontal) and angular distortion up to 1: 150 over a period of several months. Foundation underpinning was performed to remedy the situation. For future development on mine spoil sites, recommended mitigating measures include presaturation of the mine spoil, design of drainage systems to adequately convey surface water away from the building, and use of geosynthetic barrier layers to prevent infiltration of surface water into the mine spoil beneath the structure.

  14. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  15. Runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Zhang, L.; Gallichand, J.

    2003-04-01

    Afforestation has been suggested as a means of imroving soil and water conservation in Northwestern China, especially in the Loess Plateau. Understanding of the hydrological responses to afforestation will help us develop sustainable watershed management strategies. A study was conducted during the period of 1956 to 1995 to evaluated runoff responses to afforestation in a watershed in the Loess Plateau, using a paired watershed approach. Deciduoud tress, including locust, apricot and elm, were planted on about 80% of a treated watershed, while a natural grassland watershed remained unchanged. It was estimated that cumulative runoff yield in the treated watershed was reduced by 32% as a result of afforestation. Asignificant trend was also observed that shows annual runoff reduction increases with the age of the trees planted. Reduction in monthly runoff occurred mainly from June to September, which was ascribed to greater rainfall and utilization by trees during this period. Afforeststion also resulted in reduction in the volume and peak flow of storm runoff events in treated watershed with greater reduction in peak flow.

  16. [Work difficulty and the physical work capacity of female afforestation workers in forestry].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Dunev, S; Polianska, L

    1986-01-01

    The severity of labour in manual soil-preparation and planting has been studied and the physical capacity for work of the female workers--determined, who performed those basic afforestation activities in the national forestry. The severity of labour has been characterized by the values of oxygen consumption, energy-expenditure and pulse rate during work. The physical capacity for work has been determined by physical loading on the Lanoy bicycle ergometer , with submaximum degrees of loading. The maximum working capacity was calculated by the values of the pulse rate with submaximum degrees of loading according to Astrand method. The physical loading during manual soil-preparation is high (6.6 kcal/min, 27.6 kJ resp.), and that of planting--moderate. The maximum aerobic capacity of the afforestation female workers examined, was characterized by maximum oxygen consumption 2.04 dm3/min, 29.6 cm3/kg/min resp., and maximum pulse rate--177 beats/min. Energy losses during work surpassed, to a considerable degree, 30 per cent of the maximum aerobic capacity of the female afforestation workers. On the base of the results obtained, measures are proposed for the reduction of the severity of labour and for improvement of the organization of the work during the afforestation activities in national forestry. PMID:3823039

  17. Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

  18. Water in the face of afforestation in the Nile Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The Nile is the longest river in the world with catchment area of more than 3 × 106 km2 that is home to a fast growing population of some 2 × 107 people. The specific runoff of the River Nile is far less than that of other major world rivers. Much of the rain falling on the catchment, ca 86%, is lost to evapotranspiration which in turn account for the relatively low specific runoff. Afforestation in the Nile Basin is one the major developmental activities in Africa with more than 80% the continent's tree plantation located in the basin. National and continental greening programs, biofuel production, land acquisition and carbon trade are some of the reasons behind the large scale afforestation. Given the complex relationship between forests and water availability, afforestation program needs to give proper consideration to their influence on water availability. Background studies in the Basin indicate that the low flow is highly dependent on the availability of grassland and woodland land covers; while the concurrent biofuel plantation and land investments have been carried out in the areas of grasslands and woodlands, as remote sensing analysis shown. The same studies on the Basin, as well as other studies from similar areas elsewhere in the world suggest that forest impacts on hydrology tend to be localized, where there may also be regional climatic impacts. So, afforestation programs in the Nile Basin need to embrace local impacts with special focus to grasslands and woodlands.

  19. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  20. A meta-analysis of soil carbon stock change following afforestation in Northern Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcena, Teresa G.; Vesterdal, Lars; Kiær, Lars P.; Marta Stefánsdóttir, Helena; Gundersen, Per; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.

    2013-04-01

    Studies of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock change after afforestation have shown different patterns in terms of magnitude, direction (gain, loss or no change) and duration. Due to data shortage at regional or national scales, global datasets have commonly been evaluated by meta-analysis to address the effects of land-use changes on SOCs. Few syntheses on afforestation effects have been conducted at more constrained spatial scales where the influence of site-specific factors is smaller. Here, we present a meta-analysis of relative change in SOC within the Northern European region (including 123 observations), which has not been well represented in previous syntheses. Effect sizes were determined by log response ratios (RR) for each control-afforested pair. The first objective was to quantify effects of afforestation on SOC stocks in forest floors and mineral soils (0-10 cm and 0-20/30 cm). We tested the influence of different former land use classes, such as croplands and grasslands, forest age and forest type on the estimated SOC stock changes. The second objective was to address the influence of study design. SOC stock estimates from control/afforested plots have an implicit spatial dependency according to the experimental approach used (e.g. paired site studies, chronosequences sharing a common control site and repeated sampling design), however, this has not been accounted for in meta-analyses of afforested soils. In addition, changes in SOC stocks (in 0-10 cm) were expressed on equivalent soil mass and equivalent soil volume to estimate possible differences in effect size originating from these two SOC accounting methods. Preliminary results indicate an overall positive effect of afforestation on SOC accumulation with age, supported by the oldest age classes (>30 years). This effect was enhanced when the forest floor was included in the total SOC stock, in particular for coniferous forests, highlighting the importance of this layer in soil C sequestration

  1. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J. H. Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  2. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  3. Seasonal variability of CO2 and H2O fluxes in tropical pasture and afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Eugster, W.; Buchmann, N.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical ecosystems play an important role for the global carbon and water cycle. However, eddy covariance flux measurements in the tropics are still scarce and previous studies have been predominantly conducted in tropical forests. With ongoing deforestation, the tropics are increasingly influenced by agroecosystems and pastures but only few observations have covered these land-use types so far. Comparative eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes were performed in a tropical pasture and an adjacent afforestation site in Sardinilla, Panama from 2007 to 2009. We observed a larger seasonal variability of ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes at the pasture compared to the afforestation site, which was largely related to the rooting depth of grasses versus trees. Radiation and soil moisture were the main environmental controls of these fluxes in both ecosystems. The pasture ecosystem was more sensitive to water limitations by seasonal drought and in addition, periodical overgrazing significantly contributed to persisting carbon losses from the pasture. Substantial carbon sequestration was found at the afforestation site and was in agreement with independent assessments of biomass and soil inventories. In contrast to the largely differing carbon budgets, the afforestation of tropical pasture only marginally increased total annual evapotranspiration in Sardinilla. Our results clearly indicate the potential for carbon sequestration of tropical afforestation but also highlight the risk of carbon losses from pasture ecosystems in a seasonal tropical climate. Predicted increases in precipitation variability will very likely impact the seasonal variability of CO2 and H2O fluxes in Panama, in particular of pasture ecosystems. At the end of this talk, the overall significance of seasonality in tropical ecosystems will be discussed.

  4. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  5. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions...

  6. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions...

  7. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions...

  8. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the..., natural or manmade water courses, or wet weather seeps, the fill design shall include diversions...

  9. Microbial properties of mine spoil materials in the initial stages of soil development

    SciTech Connect

    Machulla, G.; Bruns, M.A.; Scow, K.M.

    2005-08-01

    The early years of soil genesis during mine spoil reclamation are critical for vegetative establishment and may help predict reclamation success. Mine spoils in the Halle-Leipzig region of Germany were analyzed for microbial changes following a hay mulch-seeding treatment without topsoil or fertilizer application. Microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of spoils were measured each year in the first 3 yr after treatment. In the third year, bacterial community DNA fingerprints were compared with those from a reference soil. Microbial indicators were measured at three depths in the upper 10 cm of spoils at three sites with contrasting parent materials: glacial till (sandy loam), limnic tertiary sediments (high-lignite sandy clay loam), and quaternary sand and gravel (loamy sand). Before reclamation, C{sub mic} means and standard deviations of surface spoils (0-1 cm) were 9{+-}6, 39{+-}11, and 38{+-}16 mg kg{sup -1} for the loamy sand, high-lignite sandy clay loam, and sandy loam spoils, respectively. Within one year, mean C{sub mic} at the surface increased to 148{+-}70, 229{+-}64, and 497{+-}167 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, and was significantly higher at 0 to 1 cm than at lower depths. Highest DHA and DNA yields were obtained in the 0- to 1-cm depth of the sandy loam spoils. Microbial biomass C values exhibited significant correlations with DHA, DNA yield, and extractable C for all three mine spoils. Soil microbial indices were more responsive than plant measurements to differences in parent materials.

  10. Viability of seed produced on highly sodic coal-mine spoils. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.Z.; McDonough, W.T.; Farmer, E.E.

    1984-10-01

    An adapted plant species must not only grow on a particular site, but also produce viable seeds capable of germination and establishment on the site. Ten species of rangeland grasses had been successfully used to revegetate sodic mine spoils at the Decker Coal Mine in southeastern Montana. However, the effect of the sodic spoils on seed viability, and hence the potential for regeneration, was unknown. Seeds produced by these plants were tested for viability and germination.

  11. Interactions between properties of amended strip mine spoils and microbial activities

    SciTech Connect

    Utsalo, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of strip mine spoils before and after amendment with varying levels of carbon and nitrogen sources are characterized and compared with properties of similarly amended garden soil samples. Changes in spoils as reflected in the stimulation of microbial populations, rate of nitrate formation, the turnover of microbial biomass and the growth yields of white clover and rye grass are evaluated. Limed spoils and garden soils were fertilized and incubated at 25/sup 0/C following amendments with organic substrates. Changes in parameters related to soil fertility status were analyzed on a weekly basis. The possible identity and the toxic effects on white clover and a Rhizobium of acidity factors present in strip mine spoils were evaluated using soil experiments and pure culture studies in artificial culture media. The results indicate that acid spoils contain low numbers of viable microorganisms which readily respond to soil amendment with substrates. No nitrification occurs in acid spoils but liming and inoculation with compost infusion stimulate active nitrification. Aluminum, manganese and acidity appear to be important factors which inhibit the survival of plants and microbes in spoils. Adequate liming improves rhizobial survival and growth and nodulation of white clover in spoils. Acidity factors have greater impact on Rhizobium than on the white clover host under nutritionally independent conditions. Increase in inoculum size enhances nodulation and growth of clover at low aluminum levels. Reducing the time of exposure of rhizobia to acidity factors outside the symbiotic host does not appear to enhance the growth yield of clover under symbiotic conditions. Molds appear to contribute more to the increased aggregate stability observed in amended soils than bacteria and actinomycetes.

  12. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  13. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. PMID:26187837

  14. Mapping afforestation and its carbon stock using time-series Landsat stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Three Norths Shelter Forest Programme (TNSFP) is the largest afforestation reconstruction project in the world. Remote sensing is a crucial tool to map land cover and cover changes, but it is still challenging to accurately quantify the plantation and its carbon stock from time-series satellite images. In this paper, the Yulin district, Shaanxi province, representing a typical afforestation area in the TNSFP region, was selected as the study area, and there were twenty-nine Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ epochs were collected from 1974 to 2012 to reconstruct the forest changes and carbon stock in last 40 years. Firstly, the Landsat ground surface reflectance (GSR) images from 1974 to 2013 were collected and processed based on 6S atmospheric transfer code and a relative reflectance normalization algorithm. Subsequently, we developed a vegetation change tracking method to reconstruct the forest change history (afforestation and deforestation) from the dense time-series Landsat GSR images based on the integrated forest z-score (IFZ) model, and the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time-series stacks in the last forty years and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages, with a RMSE value of 4.32 years and a determination coefficient (R²) of 0.824. Then, the AGB regression models were successfully developed by integrating vegetation indices and tree age. The simple ratio vegetation index (SR) is the best candidate of the commonly used vegetation indices for estimating forest AGB, and the forest AGB model was significantly improved using the combination of SR and tree age, with R² values from 0.50 to 0.727. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in six counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360%. For the forest area since 1974, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t

  15. Response of soil microbial community composition to afforestation with pure and mixed tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Smith, Andrew; Godbold, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation of agricultural land affects soil ecosystem functions by inducing carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration and promoting shifts in microbial community structure. Soil C and N stocks undergo progressive changes over several decades after forest establishment, particularly in successional forests. In contrast, microbial community structure can be shifted already in the first decade and thus, direct effect of tree species can be revealed. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how soil microbial community composition is altered by afforestation with either one, two or three species mixtures of trees, which possess strongly contrasting functional traits. The study was conducted at the BangorDIVERSE temperate forest experiment established in 2004 on a former arable soil. Soil samples were collected under single, two and three species mixtures of alder, birch, beech and oak, while contiguous field was chosen as a control. Soil samples were analysed for key quality indicators (total C and N, pH, nitrate and ammonium), and microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. Ten years after afforestation, total soil C, N and C/N ratios were not strongly affected, with the highest positive changes (up to 20%) for the birch, alder+oak and birch+beech plots. Decrease of C and N contents were observed for the pure beech plot. pH decreased by 1-1.2 units for all forest plots compare to the control soil. Total PLFAs content (370-630 nmol g‑1 soil) increased in comparison to the control (315 nmol g‑1 soil), resulting in the changes in total PLFAs content from 20 to 100%. Thus, changes of chemical properties (C, N) occur slower than changes of microbial biomarkers at the early stage of afforestation. Bacterial PLFA content was shifted by 20-120%, whereas fungal PLFAs were changed by 50-300%, reflecting stronger impact of afforestation on the recovery of fungal communities than on bacterial. Principal component analysis

  16. A global meta-analysis of soil exchangeable cations, pH, carbon, and nitrogen with afforestation.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-12-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested lands to forest plantations, can sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the rapid growth and harvesting of biomass may deplete nutrients and degrade soils if managed improperly. The goal of this study is to evaluate how afforestation affects mineral soil quality, including pH, sodium, exchangeable cations, organic carbon, and nitrogen, and to examine the magnitude of these changes regionally where afforestation rates are high. We also examine potential mechanisms to reduce the impacts of afforestation on soils and to maintain long-term productivity. Across diverse plantation types (153 sites) to a depth of 30 cm of mineral soil, we observed significant decreases in nutrient cations (Ca, K, Mg), increases in sodium (Na), or both with afforestation. Across the data set, afforestation reduced soil concentrations of the macronutrient Ca by 29% on average (P < 0.05). Afforestation by Pinus alone decreased soil K by 23% (P < 0.05). Overall, plantations of all genera also led to a mean 71% increase of soil Na (P < 0.05). Mean pH decreased 0.3 units (P < 0.05) with afforestation. Afforestation caused a 6.7% and 15% (P < 0.05) decrease in soil C and N content respectively, though the effect was driven principally by Pinus plantations (15% and 20% decrease, P < 0.05). Carbon to nitrogen ratios in soils under plantations were 5.7-11.6% higher (P < 0.05). In several regions with high rates of afforestation, cumulative losses of N, Ca, and Mg are likely in the range of tens of millions of metric tons. The decreases indicate that trees take up considerable amounts of nutrients from soils; harvesting this biomass repeatedly could impair long-term soil fertility and productivity in some locations. Based on this study and a review of other literature, we suggest that proper site preparation and sustainable harvest practices, such as avoiding the removal or burning of harvest residue, could minimize the impact of afforestation on

  17. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  18. Greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions from soils following afforestation in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The effects of afforestation are of great importance for terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, the consequences of afforestation for greenhouse gas (GHG, CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes remain poorly quantified. We investigate the temporal variations in CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in afforested soils (implementing woodland and shrubland) and the adjacent uncultivated area in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. We examined the effects of soil factors [e.g. soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic nitrogen (SON)], litter exclusion and vegetation types on GHG fluxes. Our results revealed that afforestation lead to a higher average CO2 flux from soils by 63.96% and a higher N2O flux by 54.53% in the observed year. The peak CO2 and CH4 fluxes from afforested soils occurred in summer, while the peak N2O flux occurred in winter. Afforestation also enhanced CH4 flux from soil with the largest increase by 247.94% in woodland and by 188.18% in shrubland in spring compared with the open area. On average, surface litter exclusion reduced soil CO2 fluxes by 18.84% and N2O fluxes by 27.93% in the woodland. The surface litter exclusion did not significantly affect CH4 flux from the afforested soils. The CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soils were strongly influenced by soil temperature, moisture and SOC content across seasons. The N2O flux was also strongly affected by SON content in our experimental field. Our results suggested that afforestation enhanced GHG fluxes from soils; however, the magnitude of the GHG fluxes should also be considered from various environmental conditions and vegetation types.

  19. Acetobacter oeni sp. nov., isolated from spoiled red wine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis R; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Rivas, Raúl; Swings, Jean; Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated B13T, was isolated from spoiled red wine from the Dão region, Portugal. The strain was Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that B13T belonged to the genus Acetobacter within the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest related species was Acetobacter aceti, with 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that B13T constituted a taxon separate from the Acetobacter species with validly published names. The DNA G+C content of B13T was 58.1 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics of B13T allowed its differentiation from the recognized Acetobacter species. B13T produced 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, but no 2-ketogluconic acid. It produced catalase, but no oxidase. It utilized glycerol, but not maltose, ethanol or methanol as carbon sources. On the basis of the results obtained, B13T represents a novel species for which the name Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B13T (= LMG 21952T = CECT 5830T). PMID:16403860

  20. Characterization and enhanced production of prodigiosin from the spoiled coconut.

    PubMed

    Siva, R; Subha, K; Bhakta, D; Ghosh, A R; Babu, S

    2012-01-01

    Many bacterial secondary products are bioactive substances that play an important role in biotechnology and pharmacology (e.g., as antibiotics or antitumor agents). Over the past few years interest in prodigiosin has been increased due to its promising anti-cancer activity. Prodigiosin is also of potential clinical interest because it is reported to have anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-protozoal/anti-malarial, and immunosuppressive activity. Thus there is a need to develop a high-throughput and cost-effective bioprocess for the production of prodigiosin. In the present study, Serratia rubidaea was isolated from colored portion of a spoiled coconut and further it was authenticated by MTCC, India. The various parameters like temperature, pH, salt concentration, and precursors were optimized for the production of prodigiosin. We now report that the pigment production was higher in our isolated strain than S. marcescens. It was observed that prodigiosin binds with plastic, paper, and fibers and thus in near future, it can also be used as a natural dye. PMID:22072139

  1. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach. PMID:25427895

  2. Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

  3. Acupunctural Afforestation for Desertification Mitigation over Semi-Arid Regions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, B.; Choi, Y.; Park, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Desertification over the arid/semi-arid regions in East Asia and dust transports from the regions have been serious concerns for the societies not only in adjacent Asian countries but also in the western US. One of the strategies for desertification mitigation is tree planting over the semi-arid areas. However, unless the newly planted vegetation changes the feedback characteristics between land-surface and the atmosphere, the impact is not profound and effective for a long time. Here we show afforestation effects on the coupling strength between the land-surface and atmosphere, measured by the monthly anomalies of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The coupling strength is an important parameter to diagnose the aridity of a region since the stronger coupling strength is indicative of the higher vulnerability of the local climate to droughts. Simulations of a regional vegetation-climate coupled model reveal that afforestation substantially modulates local coupling strength mainly through controlling variability of evapotranspiration. The coupling strength decreases most significantly with an increase of unit vegetation fraction over the northern and central China including Manchurian Plains and highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The coupling characteristics of these regions are expected to reduce the occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts by alleviating positive responses of the surface to precipitation deficit. Therefore, afforestation concentrated on these regions, which is called "acupunctural afforestation", may most effectively contribute to desertification mitigation than other regions by attenuating mechanisms maintaining warm season droughts. This study suggests that our attention should be paid to understanding the coupling strength between land and the atmosphere for desertification mitigation.

  4. Hydraulic properties of surface mine spoils of the northern Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    Aquifer tests were conducted on over 125 mine spoil wells from 18 surface mines located in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. These tests (primarily slug tests) were used to determine the range, variability, and predictability of surface mine spoil hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity). Test results show that hydraulic properties of mine spoil aquifers are highly variable and relatively unpredictable. Hydraulic conductivity ranged over 7 orders of magnitude from a very low permeability of 4.45 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m/s to a highly transmissive 7.58 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} m/s. The hydraulic conductivity measured at mines with 5 or more wells frequently ranged over 3 orders of magnitude and none ranged less than one. A few statistical relationships between geologic and mining conditions and the hydraulic properties were observed. Spoil aquifers that were under 30 months old and those over 100 months old exhibited significantly lower (95% confidence level) hydraulic conductivities than those between 30 and 100 months old. The influence of spoil lithology on the hydraulic conductivity does not appear to be strong, probably because of masking by other factors introduced during reclamation. No significant trends were observed between spoil thickness and hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of hydraulic conductivity derived from slug and constant-discharge tests performed on the same wells indicate that slug tests tend to yield lower values. A few spoil wells exhibited an oscillatory water-level response during slug testing, similar to that observed during testing of some karst and glacial aquifers.

  5. The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Weiss, Yasmin S; Sassmann, Stefan; Steinhauser, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Baumann, Nils; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-09-01

    Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation. Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats. Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock. PMID:27185350

  6. [Effect of afforestation modes on soil microbial community and nitrogen functional genes in Hippophae rhamnoides plantation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Jin-liana; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Yu, Ze-qun

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of different afforestation modes on microbial composition and nitrogen functional genes in soil. Soil samples from a pure Hippophae rhamnoides stand (SS) and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabuliformis (SY), H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB), H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC) were selected. The results showed that the total PLFA (TPLFA), bacterial PLFA, gram positive bacterial PLFA (G⁺PLFA) were significantly higher in soil samples from other three stands than those of the pure one. However, no significant difference was found for fungal PLFA among them. The abundance of nifH, amoA, nirK and narG genes were higher in SY and SC than in SS. The TPLFA, G⁺PLFA, gram negative bacterial PLFA (G⁻PLFA), and all of the detected gene abundance were significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available potassium. Afforestation modes affected indirectly soil microbial composition and functional genes through soil properties. Mixing P. tabuliformis or P. orientalis with H. rhamnoides might be suitable afforestation modes, which might improve soil quality. PMID:27111999

  7. Spectroscopic Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in Afforestation Forest Soil of Miyun District, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Shi, Zong-Hai; Zhong, Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Li, Jun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, soil samples collected from different plain afforestation time (1 year, 4 years, 10 years, 15 years, and 20 years) in Miyun were characterized, including total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available K (K+), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOM in the soil samples with different afforestation time was further characterized via DOC, UV-Visible spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results suggested that the texture of soil sample was sandy. The extracted DOM from soil consisted mainly of aliphatic chains and only a minor aromatic component. It can be included that afforestation can improve the soil quality to some extent, which can be partly reflected from the indexes like TOC, TN, TP, K+, MBC, and DOC. And the characterization of DOM implied that UV humic-like substances were the major fluorophores components in the DOM of the soil samples, which consisted of aliphatic chains and aromatic components with carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups. PMID:27433371

  8. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  9. Low effect of young afforestations on bird communities inhabiting heterogeneous Mediterranean cropland

    PubMed Central

    Rey Benayas, José M.; Carrascal, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agricultural Policy have spread tree plantations on former cropland. These afforestations attract generalist forest and ubiquitous species but may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated the effects of young (<20 yr) tree plantations dominated by pine P. halepensis on bird communities inhabiting the adjacent open farmland habitat in central Spain. We hypothesize that pine plantations located at shorter distances from open fields and with larger surface would affect species richness and conservation value of bird communities. Regression models controlling for the influence of land use types around plantations revealed positive effects of higher distance to pine plantation edge on community species richness in winter, and negative effects on an index of conservation concern (SPEC) during the breeding season. However, plantation area did not have any effect on species richness or community conservation value. Our results indicate that the effects of pine afforestation on bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean cropland are diluted by heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. PMID:26664801

  10. Mapping afforestation and forest biomass using time-series Landsat stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangyun; Peng, Dailiang; Wang, Zhihui; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Satellite data can adequately capture forest dynamics over larger areas. Firstly, the Landsat ground surface reflectance (GSR) images from 1974 to 2013 were collected and processed based on 6S atmospheric transfer code and a relative reflectance normalization algorithm. Subsequently, we developed a vegetation change tracking method to reconstruct the forest change history (afforestation and deforestation) from the dense time-series Landsat GSR images, and the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time-series stacks in the last forty years and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages. Then, the above ground biomass (AGB) regression models were greatly improved by integrating the simple ratio vegetation index (SR) and tree age. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in six counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360%. For the forest area, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t/ha in 1986 to 44.53 t/ha in 2013, with an annual rate of about 1 t/ha. The results present a noticeable carbon increment for the planted artificial forest in Yulin District over the last four decades.

  11. Low effect of young afforestations on bird communities inhabiting heterogeneous Mediterranean cropland.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Oliver, Juan S; Rey Benayas, José M; Carrascal, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agricultural Policy have spread tree plantations on former cropland. These afforestations attract generalist forest and ubiquitous species but may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated the effects of young (<20 yr) tree plantations dominated by pine P. halepensis on bird communities inhabiting the adjacent open farmland habitat in central Spain. We hypothesize that pine plantations located at shorter distances from open fields and with larger surface would affect species richness and conservation value of bird communities. Regression models controlling for the influence of land use types around plantations revealed positive effects of higher distance to pine plantation edge on community species richness in winter, and negative effects on an index of conservation concern (SPEC) during the breeding season. However, plantation area did not have any effect on species richness or community conservation value. Our results indicate that the effects of pine afforestation on bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean cropland are diluted by heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. PMID:26664801

  12. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%). PMID:26524272

  13. Plant species influence on soil C after afforestation of Mediterranean degraded soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Maria T.; García-Vargas, Carlos; Madejón, Engracia; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    Increasing C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main current environmental challenges to mitigate climate change. Afforestation of degraded and contaminated lands is one of the key strategies to achieve an increase in C sequestration in ecosystems. Plant species differ in their mechanisms of C-fixation, C allocation into different plant organs, and interaction with soil microorganisms, all these factors influencing the dynamics of soil C following the afforestation of degraded soils. In this work we examine the influence of different woody plant species on soil C dynamics in degraded and afforested Mediterranean soils. The soils were former agricultural lands that were polluted by a mining accident and later afforested with different native plant species. We analysed the effect of four of these species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot., Populus alba L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss.) on different soil C fractions, soil nutrient availability, microbial activity (soil enzyme activities) and soil CO2 fluxes 15 years after the establishment of the plantations. Results suggest that the influence of the planted trees and shrubs is still limited, being more pronounced in the more acidic and nutrient-poor soils. Litter accumulation varied among species, with the highest C accumulated in the litter under the deciduous species (Populus alba L.). No differences were observed in the amount of total soil organic C among the studied species, or in the concentrations of phenols and sugars in the dissolved organic C (DOC), which might have indicated differences in the biodegradability of the DOC. Microbial biomass and activity was highly influenced by soil pH, and plant species had a significant influence on soil pH in the more acidic site. Soil CO2 fluxes were more influenced by the plant species than total soil C content. Our results suggest that changes in total soil C stocks after the afforestation of degraded Mediterranean

  14. Prenatal correlates of indigent mothers' attitudes about spoiling their young infants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, J M; Solomon, R

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with indigent mothers' attitudes about spoiling their young infants. Mothers who believe that young infants can be spoiled may be more likely to misperceive their infants' basic needs for nurturing and thus undermine their infants' sense of security and trust. One hundred twenty-nine consecutive pregnant women who were at approximately 15 weeks' gestation completed measures to assess depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and social support (Maternal Social Support Index). One hundred seventeen mothers (91%) completed a simple three-question Spoiling Index when their infants were about 1 month old. Fifty-eight percent were single, never married, 73% multiparous, 66% Euro-American, 28% African-American, and 84% at least 20 years old. Fifty-eight percent of mothers believed infants younger than 5 months old could be spoiled. After including maternal age, race, marital status, prenatal social support, and number of prenatal clinic visits in the hierarchical logistic regression model, "spoilers" were more likely to be primigravida mothers (odds ratio = 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 7.06) and more likely to be depressed during pregnancy (odds ratio = 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 6.19). Primigravida indigent mothers and mothers with higher levels of prenatal depressive symptoms are more likely to believe they can spoil their young infants. PMID:7868705

  15. Mineralogy of weathering processes on the spoil dumps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Matysek, D.; Bielesz, M.

    1994-12-31

    Exploitation of coal in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is accompanies by the accumulation of large amounts of waste materials: spoil rocks from mine works, wastes from processing plants, and coal slurries. This waste often is sued for landscape preparation, or it is deposited on spoil dumps. According to their composition, carboniferous materials (siltstones, silt-claystones with admixtures of coal matter prevailing, and fine-grained feldspathic sandstones and subgraywackes) are considered to be relatively harmless to the environment. Problems resulting from reclaiming spoil dumps have resulted in more detailed study of the relationship between carboniferous materials and the environment, specifically, the relationship between spoil dumps and such factors as the ecosystems and acidification, geochemical reactivity of carboniferous rocks,a nd stability of minerals. Geological processes of environmental concern in this case include the mineralogy of weathering products with production of salts (evaporation) and the degradation of clay fractions. Geochemical and botanical factors of origin of soils on spoil dumps were described by Stalmachova and Matysek. The authors report a study in which changes in the clay minerals from dumps are compared with paragneiss of clay minerals on the carboniferous outcrops.

  16. Impact of afforestation on peroxidase activity and iron ions in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysner, T.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Oxidation-reduction reactions play a key role in ecologically important biogeochemical processes in soil and influence on soil chemical and physical properties. For understanding of processes in soil system the direction of oxidation and reduction processes is needed. Researches were carried out in the afforestation as biogeochemical barrier and adjoining cultivated field located in the Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km south of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). This afforestation was created approximately 200 years ago and includes mainly of Robinia pseudacacia. It is 2 kilometres long and 36 meters wide. The accumulation of organic matter level achieves a depth of 15 cm. Times of sampling were collected from June to November in 2008 from the layer at 0-20 cm depth. Five soil samples from each site were pooled together to give the so-called average mixed sample. The peroxidase activity in soils was determined by Bartha and Bordeleau method, ferrous ions by phenanthroline and ferric ions by thiocyanate method. The dissolved organic carbon and a total organic carbon were estimated using analyzer TOC-5050A facilities, Solid Sample Module SSM-5000A, Shimadzu, Japan. As is well known, the role of enzymes in coupling reactions leading to polymerization is limited to the oxidation of the substrates. Peroxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols and aromatic amines in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor in the reactions. This study showed that the peroxidase activities were higher in the soils under afforestation (from 14.16ṡ10-4 to 126.16ṡ10-4μmolṡh-1ṡg-1) than under cultivated field (from 0.76ṡ10-4 to 2.75ṡ10-4μmolṡh-1ṡg-1) during whole period of sampling. Its many chemical conversions are due to its two valence states, ferrous and ferric ions as well as the range of oxidation-reduction potentials associated with transition in various iron-containing compounds. It was observed that the concentrations of total iron ranged

  17. The biogeophysical effect of large-scale afforestation in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yosef, Gil; Avissar, Roni; Walko, Robert; Medvigy, David; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Forestation in the semi-arid region can significantly influence the surface energy budget and, in turn, the local atmospheric circulations. Such effects could be particularly important in regions under the influence of monsoon regimes, such as the Sahel and North Australia. In these regions, summer solar heating leads first to migration of the equatorial through and the tropical convergence zones (ITCZ) and to the monsoon rain. And second, to a meridional surface temperature gradient that generates low-level easterly jet that acts as a barrier to the penetration of the precipitation into the semi arid areas. In this study we tested the hypothesis that large-scale afforestation in these semi-regions can result in changes in local and regional atmospheric circulation and, consequently, in the precipitation and potential changes in land cover and land use. The GCM OLAM was used to performing high-resolution simulations (50km horizontal grid scale and 50 vertical layers) of afforestation scenarios in the Sahel and North Australia. These areas (Sahel 2.6 E6 km2 and North Australia 2.1 E6 km2) were afforested with a mature pine forest, using the extensive data form the long-term semi-arid Yatir forest in Israel as a reference forest for surface parameterization. The regional effect of the afforestation was analyzed for the following parameters; Surface energy budget, temperature, Easterly jet stream location and intensity, above forest atmospheric instability, water recycling and precipitation. Afforestation in the Sahel resulted in large increase of the surface net radiation (45 W m-2), mainly as a result of decrease in albedo (43 W m-2), decrease of incoming short wave radiation (21 W m-2) and increase of downward long wave radiation (13 W m-2) due to higher clouds cover, and decrease in long wave upward radiation (10 W m-2), as a result of the lower surface temperature. Increasing soil moisture because of the new forest is expressed into higher evapotranspiration, i

  18. Contour bench terrace afforestation systems in the semi-arid Israeli Negev: Effects on soil quality and geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavi, Ilan; Argaman, Eli

    2015-04-01

    Afforestation activities are a widely accepted means of restoring degraded lands. In the semi-arid Negev of southern Israel, extensive lands have been modified for runoff-harvesting-based afforestation projects comprised of contour bench terrace systems (also called shichs/shychs/shikim). However, some alarming evidence in recent years calls for assessing the environmental impact of these afforestation lands. We assessed the effects of contour bench terrace afforestation systems on the soil quality of the uppermost layer (0-5 cm depth) and the 0-80 cm profile, as well as on herbaceous vegetation productivity in 2-year-old and 9-year-old afforestation systems, and natural, undisturbed hillslopes. Results showed considerable differences between the sink (contour bench terraces) and source (inter-terrace spaces) areas of the afforested lands. Normalizing data to the relative cover of these areas revealed similar herbaceous vegetation biomass and soil wetting front values for the natural hillslopes (1.47 Mg ha-1 and 59.8 cm, respectively) and 9-year-old afforestation systems (1.64 Mg ha-1 and 59.3 cm, respectively), and significantly lower values for the 2-year-old systems (0.07 Mg ha-1 and 49.4 cm, respectively). Unexpectedly, the opposite trend was recorded for soil hygroscopic moisture content, which was significantly smaller for the natural hillslopes (1.7%) and 9-year-old systems (1.9%) than the 2-year-old systems (3.2%). Soil bulk density was also significantly affected by afforestation treatment, following the trend 2-year-old systems > 9-year-old systems > natural hillslopes (1.57, 1.55, and 1.53 Mg m-3, respectively). Soil penetration resistance varied greatly throughout the 80-cm soil profile. There was no significant effect of afforestation treatment on soil gravimetric moisture content (in the spring). Overall, soil quality and herbaceous vegetation cover were only slightly greater on the north-facing hillsides than those on the south-facing hillsides. We

  19. Understanding the salinity issue of coal mine spoils in the context of salt cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofang; Park, Jin Hee; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Coal mine spoils (CMSs), the solid wastes originated from the rock formations and soil cover overlying or interbedded with coal seams, are a worldwide environmental management challenge. Previous studies have shown that salinity is of most concern among the CMSs' environmental impacts, especially in Australia. With increasing concerns from both the governments and communities, there is a real need for the coal mining industry to understand the source, dynamics and management options of CMS salinity. We reviewed the general properties of CMSs from coal mine sites worldwide and the current understanding of the CMS salinity, which are in a limited number of available published reports. Properties (e.g., pH, electrical conductivity and hydraulic conductivity) of studied CMSs varied largely due to its complex lithological origination. A conceptual model was proposed to illustrate the origin, dispersion paths and transformations dynamics of salts in spoils, taking the scenario of a coal mine in Australia as an example. The major factors governing the salt dynamics in CMSs are summarized as mineral weatherability and salt leachability of the spoils. Management of CMS salinity is still a vague area awaiting more extensive studies. Three topics related to the management were explored in the review, which are pre-mining planning, spatial variability of spoil properties and remediation including electrokinetics and phytoremediation. Particularly, based on the geological classification of CMSs and the leachate chemistry of spoils of various sources, a clear relationship between salinity and geounits was established. This association has a potential application in pre-mining planning for the management of salinity from coal mine spoils. PMID:24096942

  20. Evaluation of microbial populations, Rhizobium Trifolii, and endomycorrhizal associations in reclamation of surface mine spoils in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in mixed overburden mine spoils has resulted in interest in strategies to minimize fertilizer application. In this study, the abundance of microbial populations, with emphasis on those involved in nitrogen cycle transformations was estimated in variously aged spoils. Two beneficial plant-microbe associations, the clover-Rhizobium trifolii symbiosis and endomycorrhizal associations, were investigated in field and laboratory studies. While most groups of microorganisms regained pre-mining levels in revegetated spoils within 1.5 years after disturbance, algal populations were still reduced ten years after mining. Populations of nitrifying bacteria and asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria were as high in all spoils as in unmined soil. Indigenous populations of ineffective R. trifolii were present in spoil banks and older revegetated spoil. A laboratory study of survival of three commercial strains of R. trifolii for subterranean clover showed lethal effects of high temperature (45/sup 0/C) especially in moist spoil, and superior survival of strain 162X95. Endomycorrhizal associations, evaluated by assessment of root infection in bermudagrass, reached pre-mining levels by three to seven years after disturbance. Growth chamber studies to investigate the effects of the two symbiotic associations on subterranean clover in mine spoil at different fertility levels indicated that dual infection with Rhizobium and VAM fungi was most beneficial for plant growth, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents.

  1. Soil microbial community and its interaction with soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics following afforestation in central China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qi; Cheng, Xiaoli; Hui, Dafeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Ming; Zhang, Quanfa

    2016-01-15

    Afforestation may alter soil microbial community structure and function, and further affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Here we investigated soil microbial carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN) and microbial community [e.g. bacteria (B), fungi (F)] derived from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis in afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) and adjacent croplands in central China. Relationships of microbial properties with biotic factors [litter, fine root, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and inorganic N], abiotic factors (soil temperature, moisture and pH), and major biological processes [basal microbial respiration, microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2), net N mineralization and nitrification] were developed. Afforested soils had higher mean MBC, MBN and MBN:TN ratios than the croplands due to an increase in litter input, but had lower MBC:SOC ratio resulting from low-quality (higher C:N ratio) litter. Afforested soils also had higher F:B ratio, which was probably attributed to higher C:N ratios in litter and soil, and shifts of soil inorganic N forms, water, pH and disturbance. Alterations in soil microbial biomass and community structure following afforestation were associated with declines in basal microbial respiration, qCO2, net N mineralization and nitrification, which likely maintained higher soil carbon and nitrogen storage and stability. PMID:26410698

  2. Weathering of clean coal technology (CCT) by-products and mine spoil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, R.K.; Soto, U.I.; Bigham, J.M.; Traina, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Three CCT by-products (pH range 10.5 to 12.5) and two mine spoils (pH`s of 3.0 and 5.2) were mixed at four rates of CCT (0, 10, 20, and 40 wt. %) to simulate field application conditions. All samples were sequentially extracted with water at six sampling events over a 132 day period, The effect of by-product rate and mine spoil characteristics on leachate composition and final reaction products will be discussed.

  3. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks. PMID:26734816

  4. Case study for the assessment of the biogeophysical effects of a potential afforestation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change. Results Based on the simulation results, biogeophysical effects of the hypothetic potential afforestation may lead to cooler and moister conditions during summer in most parts of the temperate zone. The largest relative effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15–20% of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50% for precipitation. In northern Germany and France, potential afforestation may enhance the effects of emission change, resulting in more severe heavy precipitation events. The probability of dry days and warm temperature extremes would decrease. Conclusions Large contiguous forest blocks can have distinctive biogeophysical effect on the climate on regional and local scale. In certain regions of the temperate zone, climate change signal due to greenhouse gas emission can be reduced by afforestation due to the dominant evaporative cooling effect during summer. Results of this case study with a hypothetical land cover change can contribute to the assessment of the role of forests in adapting to climate change. Thus they can build an important basis of the future forest policy. PMID:23369380

  5. Afforestation contribution to Carbon and Nitrogen budgets of forest in a natural park in south Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Forests are important ecosystems because they provide wood products to society as well as many services (recreation, habitat functions, the regulation of water, erosion, and air quality). However, the society has recently focused its attention on forests for two reasons; sequestration of carbon, on the one hand, and provision of biomass for bioenergy, on the other, also illustrates the possible trade-off even within the theme of climate change mitigation. Due to this fact, the forest surface has increased in Spain, as well in Europe in the last decades. The area covered by forest represents 34% in Europe and 35.6% in Spain compared to the total surface. A powerful afforestation policy was carried out in Spain from the 40's decade in forward. The main objective was to increase the forest surface with trees. Two main actions were developed under these repopulations, the transformation of pasture land in forest, on the one hand, and the introduction of fast-growing tree species, on the second hand. Therefore, currently, there are a lot of forest areas in Spain in which the introduced species coexist with native. In addition, the spatial variation of soil properties is significantly influenced by some environmental factors such as topographic aspect that induced microclimate differences, topographic (landscape) positions, parent materials, and vegetation communities. Topographic aspect induces local variation in temperature and precipitation solar radiation and relative humidity, which along with chemical and physical composition of the substrate, are the main regulators of decomposition rates of organic matter. The aim of this study were, i) to evaluate the effect of afforestation policies on carbon and nitrogen budgets in a natural park in Spain and ii) to study the topographic aspect effect on the capacity of SOC and N storage. Our results show how the afforestated areas (in which there are simultaneously both, natural species and introduced species) had higher soil

  6. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, M. U. F.; Whitehead, D.; Dean, S. M.; Beets, P. N.; Shepherd, J. D.; Ausseil, A.-G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, afforestation also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes. We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew. We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of -104 GJ tC-1 yr-1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha-1 yr-1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha-1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17-24 %.

  7. Regionalisation of climate change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas.

    PubMed

    Witt, Anke; Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes how to use sectoral planning information from forestry to predict and up-scale information on Climate Change sensitive forest development types for potential afforestation areas. The method was developed and applied in the frame of the project RegioPower with focus on the case study region 'Oberes Elbtal-Osterzgebirge'. The data for our study was taken from forest management planning at level of the Federal State of Saxony, Germany. Here, a silvicultural system is implemented, which describes best practices to develop our actual forests into Climate Change adapted forest development types. That includes the selection of drought resistant tree species, a broad range of tree species mixtures per eligible forest development type and the tending, harvesting and regeneration strategies to be applied. This information however, exists only for forest areas and not for areas which could be potentially afforested. The eligibility of the forest development types within the actual forest areas depends on site information, such as nutrient potential, exposition and hydrological soil parameters. The regionalisation of the forest development types to landscape scale had to be based on topographical parameters from the digital elevation model and hydrological soil parameters from soil mapping. In result, we could provide maps for regional planning and decision making with spatially explicit information on the eligible forest development types based on forest management planning information. These maps form a valuable input for testing and optimising afforestation areas with regard to improving the ability of our case study region to mitigate Climate Change effects such as water erosion or drought. PMID:22925545

  8. Central European afforested pine stand carbon exchange in the contexts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Even though there have been several studies concerning the carbon cycle or the net CO2 exchange between coniferous forests (both temperate and boreal) and the atmosphere, little is known about carbon dioxide dynamics in afforested pine areas in central part of Europe. Since January 2008 we have carried out continuous measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) between a 62-year-old afforested pine stand near the town of Tuczno in north-western Poland, using the open-path eddy-covariance system. The site is incorporated into the international Fluxnet network (PL-Tcz). The pine stands of similar age and structure are both the most representative forest types and the most effective sinks in terms of CO2 in Poland. Our analysis indicated that the stand was a very productive forest, which has sequestered 32.25 t of carbon dioxide per ha within 5 years (2008-2009 and 2011-2013). The climatic conditions during this period represented mostly warm part of temperature-precipitation combinations (i.e. warm dry, warm wet, cold dry, cold wet conditions as compared to multiyear means). The average annual net ecosystem production (NEP) during this period was equal to 645 g C m-2 and ranging from 765 to 494 g C m-2 in 2009 and 2012 respectively. We assumed that interannual variations in total NEP among investigated years were mainly resulted from ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), since deliverables from the 5-years-mean GEP value were much higher than that of respiration (R). The annual NEP decreasing tendency was found and it was more likely determined by weather conditions than stand ageing - decreasing spring temperature seemed to be the main reason. If this trend will continue in the future the productivity of investigated afforested pine stand will most probably decrease, although further studies are needed to investigate the response of such ecosystem to climatic conditions from cooler and drier part of temperature-precipitation combinations.

  9. The short and long term effects of conifer afforestation on a sensitive freshwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nadeem; Nisbet, Thomas; Broadmeadow, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Our study was driven by concerns that afforesting the headwater catchments of the Upper Halladale River in the Scottish Highlands would affect water quality and the local salmon fishery. The main uncertainty, on the sensitivity of the catchment to acid deposition, led to a preliminary study in 1993 by a consortium of research organisations; they concluded that the site was not significantly acidified and not at risk of acidification from the planned afforestation. The planting, therefore, went ahead and presented us with an opportunity to look at the short, medium and long-term effects of afforestation on the chemistry and biology of a sensitive freshwater system, to review the conclusions of the preliminary report and assess the efficacy of good management practices employed. Water samples were taken from six sites in the Upper Halladale Catchment and analysed for a wide range of chemical parameters to monitor changes in water quality due to cultivation (ploughing, drainage, road building and planting), fertiliser application and forest growth. The results demonstrate that water quality remained high during site preparation with little or no adverse chemical or biological impacts in the short-term (4 years) after planting. We do find significant changes in hydrochemistry in the long-term data (15+ years); some of these were expected, a decrease in non-marine sulphate and a general increasing trend for dissolved organic carbon, for example, but there are fluctuations within the long-term data for these and other parameters that warrant further explanation and discussion. We found that the most significant changes in hydrochemistry occur after marked meteorological events and that the effects are not always short-lived, sometimes lasting for years; the results indicate that climate, not land use, exerts the greatest control on chemistry within the Upper Halladale catchment.

  10. Preliminary results on the effects of afforestation of maize soils with Populus alba L., on carbon metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Campos, Elena; Zorita, Félix; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Transformation of a natural soil to agricultural land is generally assumed to be accompanied by increased mineralization of the organic matter and increased CO2emissions; in contrast, afforestation of agricultural soil is thought to lead to sequestration of carbon and incorporation of atmospheric CO2 into the organic matter. In other words the type of management and land use determine whether soils act as carbon sinks or sources, so that transformation of agricultural land to forest land is generally considered to be accompanied by an increase in edaphic carbon, although it is not clear whether this effect is always produced or if it depends on the agricultural history of the land being afforested. In light of the recognised importance of forest land in sequestering C, and therefore in regulating climate change, in 1992 the EU established Regulation 2080 to promote the afforestation of marginal agricultural land. This had strong repercussions in regions such as Galicia (NW Spain) as the afforestation was mainly applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. Although, as a result, large areas of agricultural land have been afforested in Galicia, the associated effects on edaphic carbon have not been widely investigated. The present study involves analysis of large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia (NW Spain), with the aim of investigating the effects on carbon metabolism in agricultural soils transformed for forestry use. Here we report the preliminary results concerning the observed effects on carbon metabolism in six soils afforested with poplar, Populus alba L., of age between 4 and 8 years. In addition to the six soils planted with poplars, adjacent agricultural soils (x6) were analyzed. In each case the adjacent soil was the same as the original soil prior to afforestation, and all were maize soils. Samples of the soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting

  11. Soil organic carbon dynamics following afforestation in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Liski, J.; Chang, R. Y.; Akujärvi, A.; Wu, X.; Jin, T. T.; Wang, Y. F.; Fu, B. J.

    2013-07-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and sensitive to land use and cover change; its dynamics is critical for carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we combined a modeling approach and field measurements to examine the temporal dynamics of SOC following afforestation of former arable land at six sites under different climatic conditions in the Loess Plateau during 1980-2010. The results showed that the measured mean SOC increased to levels higher than before afforestation when taking the last measurements (i.e., at age 25 to 30 yr), although it decreased in the first few years at the wetter sites. The accumulation rates of SOC were 1.58 to 6.22% yr-1 in the upper 20 cm and 1.62 to 5.15% yr-1 in the upper 40 cm of soil. The simulations reproduced the basic characteristics of measured SOC dynamics, suggesting that litter input and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) were the major causes for SOC dynamics and the differences among the sites. They explained 88-96, 48-86 and 57-74% of the variations in annual SOC changes at the soil depths of 0-20, 0-40, and 0-100 cm, respectively. Notably, the simulated SOC decreased during the first few years at all the sites, although the magnitudes of decreases were small at the drier sites. This suggested that the modeling may be advantageous in capturing SOC changes at finer time scale. The discrepancy between the simulation and measurement was a result of uncertainties in model structure, data input, and sampling design. Our findings indicated that afforestation promoted soil carbon sequestration at the study sites, which is favorable for further restoration of the vegetation and environment. Afforestation activities should decrease soil disturbances to reduce carbon release in the early stage. The long-term strategy for carbon fixation capability of the plantations should also consider the climate and site conditions, species adaptability, and

  12. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  13. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 816.71 Section 816.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.71 Disposal...

  14. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in...

  15. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the fill if required for stability, control of erosion, to conserve soil moisture, or to... included in the topsoil to control erosion, promote growth of vegetation or increase the moisture retention of the soil. (2) Excess spoil shall be transported and placed in a controlled manner in...

  16. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 817.71 Section 817.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.71...

  17. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  18. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  19. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    PubMed Central

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  20. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26634759

  1. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  2. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to a lower preexisting bench by means of gravity transport may be approved by the regulatory authority provided that— (1) The gravity transport courses are determined on a site-specific basis by the..., and downslope of the lower bench should excess spoil accidentally move; (2) All gravity...

  3. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 816.71 Section 816.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.71 Disposal...

  4. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 817.71 Section 817.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.71...

  5. 30 CFR 817.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 817.71 Section 817.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.71...

  6. 30 CFR 816.71 - Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: General requirements. 816.71 Section 816.71 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.71 Disposal...

  7. Vegetation and soil condition development on spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Stalmachova, B.; Matysek, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses both soil and vegetation development on mine spoil heaps of different age, as well as some environmental factors that are involved. The course of natural plant succession fired and unfired mine spoil heaps and the dominant species of several developmental stages (plant communities) are examined. Mainly, the exposure of slopes and the surface temperature are considered in studying the vegetation of spoil heaps. Anemochoral terophytes and hemicryptophytes dominate on south to west slopes in the first stages of development; development of vegetation on north and east slopes is different. Anemochoral phanerophytes dominate in the first developmental stages. Later, the plant cover includes high herbs and grasses, and the tree layer exhibits zoochoral tree species. The final stage on the spoil heaps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is probably the Betulo-Quercetum Tx. 1937 community with complete stratification. The study area, an underground mining area in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, lies in the south part of the Silesian Basin. From a phytogeographical point of view, this area is identified as the Ostrava basin--the 83rd district of the Mesophyticum capraticum--phytogeographical province, with the flora of the upper hill country belt (gradus supracollinus).

  8. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  9. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  10. Remediation of acid mine drainage within strip mine spoil by sulfate reduction using waste organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, J.; Rose, A.W.; Michaud, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    Many treatment options for AMD, like wetlands and anoxic limestone drains, are limited by acidity, metal loadings, flow rate or areal requirements so as to be inapplicable at many sites. In-situ bacterial sulfate reduction is proposed as a solution for certain settings. Requirements for successful in-situ bacterial sulfate reduction include dissolved sulfate, an organic substrate, permanent anaerobic conditions, a mixed culture of bacteria, appropriate nutrients, and a sufficient AMD contact time. These requirements can be provided within mine spoil by injection of waste organic matter into an extensive zone of saturated spoil. Laboratory experiments on cheese whey, lactate, non-degraded sawdust, partially degraded sawdust, pulped newspaper and mushroom compost have all yielded sulfate reduction, increased alkalinity and iron sulfide precipitate in AMD with pH < 4.0. The addition of a small amount of dolomite to the organic matter creates alkaline microenvironments that facilitate the initiation of sulfate reduction. The rates of sulfate reduction using cellulose materials are slow but the rate for milk products is much more rapid. A field test utilizing partially degraded sawdust is underway. A total of 11.3 tons of sawdust mixed with 5% dolomite, 5% sewage sludge and a mixed bacterial culture was successfully injected into 4 drill holes in mine spoil as 13% w/v suspension, The spoil had enough coarse porosity for injection into the saturated subsurface at about 300 L/min, Data on in-situ SO{sub 4} reduction rates and water quality are being collected in preparation for a full remediation program at the site, which has an extensive zone of saturated spoil 10-20 m thick.

  11. Effect of Afforestation and Reforestation of Pastures on the Activity and Population Dynamics of Methanotrophic Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Tate, Kevin R.; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B.; Macdonald, Catriona A.; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J. Colin

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils. PMID:17574997

  12. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century forests accounted for only 1% of the total Irish land cover (Pilcher & Mac an tSaoir, 1995). However, due to the efforts of successive governments there has been rapid afforestation since the 1960s resulting in a 10.0% forest land cover as of 2007 (The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, 2007). A large proportion of this afforestation took place after the mid-1980s and was fueled by government grant incentive schemes targeted at private landowners (Renou & Farrell 2005). Consequently, 54% of forests are less than 20 years old (Byrne, 2006). This specific land use change provides an opportunity for Ireland to meet international obligations set forth by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992). These obligations include the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions to 13% above 1990 levels. In order to promote accountability for these commitments, the UNFCCC treaty and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997) mandate signatories to publish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories for both greenhouse gas sources and removals by sinks. Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol allows changes in C stocks due to afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation since 1990 to be used to offset inventory emissions. Therefore, due to the rapid rate of afforestation and its increased carbon sequestration since 1990, Ireland has the potential to significantly offset GHG emissions. There is little known as to the impacts of afforestation on the carbon stocks in soils over time, and even less known about the impact on Irish soils. The FORESTC project aims to analyse this impact by undertaking a nationwide study using a method similar to that of the paired plot method in Davis and Condron, 2002. The study will examine 42 forest sites across Ireland selected randomly from the National Forest Inventory (National Forest Inventory, 2007). These 42 sites will be grouped based on the forest type which includes

  13. Long-term changes in stream bank soil pipes and the effects of afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A. A.; Cottrell, C. I.

    2007-03-01

    Natural soil pipes are now recognized as potentially significant elements in hillslope drainage systems, sometimes developing into open channel tributaries or contributing often substantial volumes of quick flow to streams. However, there has been no detailed, long-term monitoring study of the evolution of pipe networks to indicate how permanent they are or how readily they may develop into open channels. This paper reports a resurvey of a section of stream bank in the English Peak District and compares it with the original survey 35 years previous. Comparison of the distribution, size, and shape of pipes on both banks of a 250 m stretch of the stream reveals significant changes. There were no cases of roof collapse forming new open channels. However, there has been a significant change in land use within the basin, with afforestation of the east bank. The resurvey shows a marked reduction in the number and size of pipes on the forested bank, but no significant change on the opposite bank that has remained moorland. The number of pipe outlets on the afforested bank halved over the period, and their mean diameter has reduced by 30%. In combination with the reduced number the smaller size resulted in a 71% reduction in the total area of stream bank occupied by pipe outlets on the forested bank. It is postulated that the change is primarily due to a change in the amount of throughflow beneath the forest caused by an increase in evapotranspiration.

  14. Response of methanotrophic communities to afforestation and reforestation in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Nazaries, Loïc; Tate, Kevin R; Ross, Des J; Singh, Jagrati; Dando, John; Saggar, Surinder; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin; Singh, Brajesh K

    2011-11-01

    Methanotrophs use methane (CH(4)) as a carbon source. They are particularly active in temperate forest soils. However, the rate of change of CH(4) oxidation in soil with afforestation or reforestation is poorly understood. Here, soil CH(4) oxidation was examined in New Zealand volcanic soils under regenerating native forests following burning, and in a mature native forest. Results were compared with data for pasture to pine land-use change at nearby sites. We show that following soil disturbance, as little as 47 years may be needed for development of a stable methanotrophic community similar to that in the undisturbed native forest soil. Corresponding soil CH(4)-oxidation rates in the regenerating forest soil have the potential to reach those of the mature forest, but climo-edaphic fators appear limiting. The observed changes in CH(4)-oxidation rate were directly linked to a prior shift in methanotrophic communities, which suggests microbial control of the terrestrial CH(4) flux and identifies the need to account for this response to afforestation and reforestation in global prediction of CH(4) emission. PMID:21593799

  15. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils. PMID:17574997

  16. Local habitat and landscape influence predation of bird nests on afforested Mediterranean cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Oliver, J. S.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Carrascal, L. M.

    2014-07-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agrarian Policy have contributed to spread tree plantations on former cropland. Nevertheless these afforestations may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated predation of artificial bird nests at young tree plantations and at the open farmland habitat adjacent to the tree plantations in central Spain. Predation rates were very high at both tree plantations (95.6%) and open farmland habitat (94.2%) after two and three week exposure. Plantation edge/area ratio and development of the tree canopy decreased predation rates and plantation area and magpie (Pica pica) abundance increased predation rates within tree plantations, which were also affected by land use types around plantations. The area of nearby tree plantations (positive effect), distance to the tree plantation edge (negative effect), and habitat type (mainly attributable to the location of nests in vineyards) explained predation rates at open farmland habitat. We conclude that predation rates on artificial nests were particularly high and rapid at or nearby large plantations, with high numbers of magpies and low tree development, and located in homogenous landscapes dominated by herbaceous crops and pastures with no remnants of semi-natural woody vegetation. Landscape planning should not favour tree plantations as the ones studied here in Mediterranean agricultural areas that are highly valuable for ground-nesting bird species.

  17. Effects of afforestation on runoff and sediment load in an upland Mediterranean catchment.

    PubMed

    Buendia, C; Bussi, G; Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Sabater, S; Palau, A; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses annual and seasonal trends in runoff and sediment load resulting from climate variability and afforestation in an upland Mediterranean basin, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). We implemented a hydrological and sediment transport distributed model (TETIS) with a daily time-step, using continuous discharge and sediment transport data collected at a monitoring station during the period 2009-2013. Once calibrated and validated, the model was used to simulate the hydrosedimentary response of the basin for the period 1971-2014 using historical climate and land use data. Simulated series were further used to (i) detect sediment transport and hydrologic trends at different temporal scales (annual, seasonal); (ii) assess changes in the contribution of extreme events (i.e. low and high flows) and (ii) assess the relative effect of forest expansion and climate variability on trends observed by applying a scenario of constant land use. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test indicated upward trends for temperature and decreasing trends (although non-significant) for precipitation. Downward trends occurred for annual runoff, and less significantly for sediment yield. Reductions in runoff were less intense when afforestation was not considered in the model, while trends in sediment yield were reversed. Results also indicated that an increase in the river's torrential behaviour may have occurred throughout the studied period, with low and high flow events gaining importance with respect to the annual contribution, although its magnitude was reduced over time. PMID:26188652

  18. Nitrogen related constraints of carbon sequestration by afforestation under management and climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Land use change and land management contribute to the exchange of greenhouse gases and are an important factor for man-made climate change. However, land use and land management can also be used to counteract climate change, which is analysed in this study. Large-scale afforestation is expected to increase terrestrial CO2 uptake due to expansion of forested areas and due to higher biomass production under CO2 fertilization. Management of those areas, particularly harvesting biomass, is an important factor influencing the CO2 sequestration potential. However, productivity of forests can be limited by N availability. Especially under higher harvest, nutrients are continuously removed from the ecosystem which is then prone to nutrient limitation. In this study, the interference of N availability with the C-sequestration potential of afforestation and land management under climate change conditions is quantified by conducting scenario simulations with the land component of the MPI Earth System Model. Especially the efficiency of applying N fertilizer to counteract N limitation under moderate and high harvest, and potential offsets due to higher N2O emissions, are shown.

  19. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied. PMID:23644772

  20. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g‑1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g‑1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were

  1. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3‑-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau.

  2. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27334692

  3. The effects of uncertainty under a cap-and-trade policy on afforestation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Jerome Dumortier,

    2013-12-01

    To combat climate change, cap-and-trade policies have been proposed and implemented in countries around the world. The stochastic carbon price that results from a cap-and-trade policy makes investment decisions in carbon mitigating and sequestering practices more complex. This letter illustrates the consequence of uncertainty by analyzing forest carbon offset credits under a potential cap-and-trade policy in the United States. The effects of uncertainty on afforestation, carbon sequestration, cropland allocation, and commodity prices using a real option framework are assessed. When compared with deterministic models, less land gets converted from cropland to forestry over the projection period of 40 years because landowners find it optimal to wait before changing land-use to gain more information about the carbon price evolution. The simulation shows that most afforestation occurs in the south and the northeast with almost no conversion in the Corn Belt. The lesson for policy makers is that under carbon price uncertainty, lower afforestation and carbon sequestration takes place. To foster afforestation, mechanisms are necessary to reduce uncertainty at the expense of higher commodity prices.

  4. Responsiveness of soil nitrogen fractions and bacterial communities to afforestation in the Loess Hilly Region (LHR) of China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chengjie; Sun, Pingsheng; Kang, Di; Zhao, Fazhu; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27334692

  5. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  6. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  7. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Changes following Afforestation of Marginal Cropland across a Precipitation Gradient in Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Yihe; Liu, Guohua; Fu, Bojie

    2014-01-01

    Cropland afforestation has been widely found to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN); however, the magnitudes of SOC and STN accumulation and regulating factors are less studied in dry, marginal lands, and therein the interaction between soil carbon and nitrogen is not well understood. We examined the changes in SOC and STN in younger (5–9-year-old) and older (25–30-year-old) black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., an N-fixing species) plantations that were established on former cropland along a precipitation gradient (380 to 650 mm) in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. The SOC and STN stocks of cropland and plantations increased linearly with precipitation increase, respectively, accompanying an increase in the plantation net primary productivity and the soil clay content along the increasing precipitation gradient. The SOC stock of cropland decreased in younger plantations and increased in older plantations after afforestation, and the amount of the initial loss of SOC during the younger plantations’ establishment increased with precipitation increasing. By contrast, the STN stock of cropland showed no decrease in the initial afforestation while tending to increase with plantation age, and the changes in STN were not related to precipitation. The changes in STN and SOC showed correlated and were precipitation-dependent following afforestation, displaying a higher relative gain of SOC to STN as precipitation decreased. Our results suggest that the afforestation of marginal cropland in Loess Plateau can have a significant effect on the accumulation of SOC and STN, and that precipitation has a significant effect on SOC accumulation but little effect on STN retention. The limitation effect of soil nitrogen on soil carbon accumulation is more limited in the drier area rather than in the wetter sites. PMID:24416408

  8. Soil carbon and nitrogen changes following afforestation of marginal cropland across a precipitation gradient in Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ruiying; Jin, Tiantian; Lü, Yihe; Liu, Guohua; Fu, Bojie

    2014-01-01

    Cropland afforestation has been widely found to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN); however, the magnitudes of SOC and STN accumulation and regulating factors are less studied in dry, marginal lands, and therein the interaction between soil carbon and nitrogen is not well understood. We examined the changes in SOC and STN in younger (5-9-year-old) and older (25-30-year-old) black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., an N-fixing species) plantations that were established on former cropland along a precipitation gradient (380 to 650 mm) in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. The SOC and STN stocks of cropland and plantations increased linearly with precipitation increase, respectively, accompanying an increase in the plantation net primary productivity and the soil clay content along the increasing precipitation gradient. The SOC stock of cropland decreased in younger plantations and increased in older plantations after afforestation, and the amount of the initial loss of SOC during the younger plantations' establishment increased with precipitation increasing. By contrast, the STN stock of cropland showed no decrease in the initial afforestation while tending to increase with plantation age, and the changes in STN were not related to precipitation. The changes in STN and SOC showed correlated and were precipitation-dependent following afforestation, displaying a higher relative gain of SOC to STN as precipitation decreased. Our results suggest that the afforestation of marginal cropland in Loess Plateau can have a significant effect on the accumulation of SOC and STN, and that precipitation has a significant effect on SOC accumulation but little effect on STN retention. The limitation effect of soil nitrogen on soil carbon accumulation is more limited in the drier area rather than in the wetter sites. PMID:24416408

  9. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored

  10. Population differentiation in Andropogon virginicus L. between abandoned coal strip mine spoil and old field habitats in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of Andropogon virginicus L. from abandoned coal mine spoils and old fields in southeastern Ohio were studied to determine whether ecotypic differentiation had occurred. Three mine spoil and three old field populations were paired for reciprocal transplant studies. A uniform garden was also established. Mine spoil and old field populations were compared for differences in demographic patterns, vegetative growth and phenology, reproductive output, and physiology. There were a greater number of seedlings and smaller individuals in the mine spoils, but seed production was similar between habitats. Seeds disperse farther in mine spoils and there was no or very little seedling establishment in 8 to 35 year old fields. Plants attained greater height in mine spoils. Population differentiation between one of the mine sites and one of the old fields was evident for seed weight, numbers of seeds per plant, and plant biomass. The three old field populations also differed from each other in reproductive characteristics. Mine spoil plants contained significantly more nitrogen within seeds despite the fact that mine soils had only half the available nitrogen as old field soils. Old field plants had a higher magnesium content in leaves. Chlorophyll content of leaves was higher for plants in old fields than for plants in mines. Undisturbed plants from both habitats had significantly higher photosynthetic rates than transplants. Old field plants had significantly greater photosynthetic rates than mine plants when grown in the uniform garden even though transpiration rates were similar. Differentiation between some coal mine spoil and old field populations of A. virginicus was evident for height growth, seed weight, photosynthesis, seed nitrogen content, magnesium content, and seed germination. Local population differentiation in plant height, seed weight, and in the timing of plant maturation was also observed.

  11. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  12. Quantifying the Impacts of Afforestation Induced Vegetation Changes on Surface Climate in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Jiang, B.

    2011-12-01

    The three-north China region is one of the most environmental vulnerable regions. In late 1970s, Chinese government launched the Three-North Shelter Forest Programme, one of the largest afforestation programs in the world. It leads to the significant changes in vegetation. Although many studies have evaluated their impacts on local climate, the results were highly inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the evidence for the local climate impacts of vegetation change using remote sensing data and ground measurements from 1982 to 2006 by conducting the Granger causality test and lag correlation analysis. Results showed that the significant increase in vegetation had strong feedback on the precipitation, specific humidity, and wind speed, which have significant implications to this dry landscape. However, the feedbacks vary in different climate zones within the entire region and in different months.

  13. Pb and Cd Contents in Soil, Water, and Trees at an Afforestation Site, South China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-11-01

    Pb and Cd contents in 13 plantation tree species (leaf and branch components), soil, water (groundwater and river water) at a young (3-5 year-old) seashore afforestation stand were investigated in Nansha district, Guangzhou city in southern China. The results showed that (1) soil, rather than water or trees, had the highest content of both Pb (averagely 48.79 mg/kg) and Cd (0.50 mg/kg), demonstrating that soil might function as a major reservoir for extraneously derived heavy metals; (2) Pb content was higher in branches than in leaves, but Cd content appeared similar in both components, implying possibly different accumulation mechanisms in trees; (3) Pb and Cd appeared to accumulate differently among some tree taxa, whereas almost no significant difference was detected between introduced and indigenous species. The study indicated that trees were potentially useful to remediate sites contaminated with Pb and Cd in the urbanized areas. PMID:26242803

  14. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  15. Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Gundersen, Per; Vesterdal, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration. PMID:24753073

  16. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Calvin, Kate; Jones, Andrew; Collins, William; Edmonds, Jae; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter; Thomson, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.

  17. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-11-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across integrated assessment and earth system models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario

  18. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  19. Comparing regeneration techniques for afforesting previously farmed bottomland hardwood sites in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockhart, B.R.; Keeland, B.; McCoy, J.; Dean, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    A study was implemented to test site preparation methods and artificial regeneration of three oak (Quercus spp.) species on four agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in Louisiana, USA. Six years after establishment, few consistent differences were found in oak density between sowing acorn methods (seed drill versus broadcast seeding), autumn sowing versus spring sowing, and sowing acorns versus planting oak seedlings. Results indicated that some degree of site preparation is needed to establish oak seedlings but few differences were found between site preparation treatments. These results indicate that no one prescription for oak regeneration fits all potential afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Successful bottomland hardwood afforestation projects will require plans that include specific objectives, site evaluation, and a regeneration prescription prior to sowing the first seed or planting the first seedling.

  20. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  1. Afforestation impacts microbial biomass and its natural (13)C and (15)N abundance in soil aggregates in central China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Fan; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-10-15

    We investigated soil microbial biomass and its natural abundance of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in aggregates (>2000μm, 250-2000μm, 53-250μm and <53μm) of afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) soils, adjacent croplands and open area (i.e., control) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. The afforested soils averaged higher microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) levels in all aggregates than in open area and cropland, with higher microbial biomass in micro-aggregates (<250μm) than in macro-aggregates (>2000μm). The δ(13)C of soil microbial biomass was more enriched in woodland soils than in other land use types, while δ(15)N of soil microbial biomass was more enriched compared with that of organic soil in all land use types. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N of microbial biomass were positively correlated with the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of organic soil across aggregates and land use types, whereas the (13)C and (15)N enrichment of microbial biomass exhibited linear decreases with the corresponding C:N ratio of organic soil. Our results suggest that shifts in the natural (13)C and (15)N abundance of microbial biomass reflect changes in the stabilization and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby imply that afforestation can greatly impact SOM accumulation over the long-term. PMID:27285796

  2. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, M. U. F.; Whitehead, D.; Dean, S. M.; Beets, P. N.; Shepherd, J. D.; Ausseil, A.-G. E.

    2011-08-01

    Increased carbon storage with afforestation leads to a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and thus decreases radiative forcing and cools the Earth. However, land-use change also changes the reflective properties of the surface vegetation from more reflective pasture to relatively less reflective forest cover. This increase in radiation absorption by the forest constitutes an increase in radiative forcing, with a warming effect. The net effect of decreased albedo and carbon storage on radiative forcing depends on the relative magnitude of these two opposing processes. We used data from an intensively studied site in New Zealand's Central North Island that has long-term, ground-based measurements of albedo over the full short-wave spectrum from a developing Pinus radiata forest. Data from this site were supplemented with satellite-derived albedo estimates from New Zealand pastures. The albedo of a well-established forest was measured as 13 % and pasture albedo as 20 %. We used these data to calculate the direct radiative forcing effect of changing albedo as the forest grew. We calculated the radiative forcing resulting from the removal of carbon from the atmosphere as a decrease in radiative forcing of -104 GJ tC-1 yr-1. We also showed that the observed change in albedo constituted a direct radiative forcing of 2759 GJ ha-1 yr-1. Thus, following afforestation, 26.5 tC ha-1 needs to be stored in a growing forest to balance the increase in radiative forcing resulting from the observed albedo change. Measurements of tree biomass and albedo were used to estimate the net change in radiative forcing as the newly planted forest grew. Albedo and carbon-storage effects were of similar magnitude for the first four to five years after tree planting, but as the stand grew older, the carbon storage effect increasingly dominated. Averaged over the whole length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17-24 %.

  3. Improving artificial forest biomass estimates using afforestation age information from time series Landsat stacks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangyun; Peng, Dailiang; Wang, Zhihui; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    China maintains the largest artificial forest area in the world. Studying the dynamic variation of forest biomass and carbon stock is important to the sustainable use of forest resources and understanding of the artificial forest carbon budget in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of Landsat time series stacks for aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation in Yulin District, a key region of the Three-North Shelter region of China. Firstly, the afforestation age was successfully retrieved from the Landsat time series stacks in the last 40 years (from 1974 to 2013) and shown to be consistent with the surveyed tree ages, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) value of 4.32 years and a determination coefficient (R (2)) of 0.824. Then, the AGB regression models were successfully developed by integrating vegetation indices and tree age. The simple ratio vegetation index (SR) is the best candidate of the commonly used vegetation indices for estimating forest AGB, and the forest AGB model was significantly improved using the combination of SR and tree age, with R (2) values from 0.50 to 0.727. Finally, the forest AGB images were mapped at eight epochs from 1985 to 2013 using SR and afforestation age. The total forest AGB in seven counties of Yulin District increased by 20.8 G kg, from 5.8 G kg in 1986 to 26.6 G kg in 2013, a total increase of 360 %. For the persistent forest area since 1974, the forest AGB density increased from 15.72 t/ha in 1986 to 44.53 t/ha in 2013, with an annual rate of about 0.98 t/ha. For the artificial forest planted after 1974, the AGB density increased about 1.03 t/ha a year from 1974 to 2013. The results present a noticeable carbon increment for the planted artificial forest in Yulin District over the last four decades. PMID:25034235

  4. Impacts of afforestation on water and sediment connectivity in NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodríguez-Blanco, Mariluz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Ermitas Rial-Rivas, María; Keesstra, Saskia; Keizer, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The northwestern Iberian peninsula has experienced strong afforestation in the XXth century. Plantation forests have mostly replaced a traditional agricultural landscape consisting of irrigation terraces, which probably imposed strong limitations on water and sediment connectivity. The new forests have their own impacts on connectivity, including occasional enhancements due to landscape disturbances caused by wildfires, clearcutting and soil management operations. However, both the ancient and new landscapes have been poorly studied; in consequence, the impacts of afforestation on hydrological and sediment processes in this region are not well understood, posing a challenge for watershed managers to understand the hydrological and sediment processes in their systems and how to make them comply with the Water Framework Directive. This work analyses these issues using observations from an agricultural and forested catchment in northwestern Portugal. The valley is still occupied by traditional terraced agriculture, while the slopes are planted with eucalypt and maritime pines. Observations include 2 years of hydrological and sediment data from a representative terrace, and 4 years of erosion features mapping and hydrological and sediment data at the catchment scale. During this time, a wildfire burned part of the catchment, which experienced important post-fire management operations (plowing and replanting), allowing a comparison of the hydrological and sediment connectivity impacts of terraces and forests in their normal and disturbed conditions. Preliminary results indicate a strong impact of terraces in delaying lateral flow, creating saturated zones behind them and promoting surface runoff. Possibly this leads to slower hydrograph recession when compared with forested catchments. Terraces also limit sediment export; in contrast, the burnt forest slopes experienced strong erosion and sediment export, particularly after soil management operations. Preliminary

  5. Biogeophysical effects of afforestation on temperature and precipitation extremes - case studies for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, B.; Sieck, K.; Rechid, D.; Haensler, A.; Teichmann, C.; Kindermann, G.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    Europe is the only continent with a significant increase of forest cover in recent times. In the last two decades the annual area of natural forestation and forest planting amounted to an average of 0.78 million hectares/year[1]. As large-scale forest cover changes influence regional atmospheric circulation, regional-scale sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change for Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analyzed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been investigated, whether the potential forest cover change would reduce or enhance the effects of emission change. The magnitude of the biogeophysical feedbacks of afforestation on temperature and precipitation means has been determined relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal. Based on the simulation results a significant climate change mitigating effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15-20 % of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50 % for precipitation. The analysis of the impacts on temperature and precipitation extremes is focusing on regional differences within Europe, based on the following research questions: · Does the increased forest cover induce any changes in temperature and precipitation extremes and in the climate variability? · How big are the land cover change feedbacks compared to the projected climate change signal? · What are the differences by bioclimatic regions, which regions show the largest effect on the simulated climate through forest cover increase? Results may help to identify regions, where forest cover increase has the most favourable effect and should be supported to reduce the projected climate change. Data provide an

  6. Quantitative Assessment of the Potential of Afforestation for Carbon Dioxide Removal: Evaluating carbon sequestration and biogeophysical impacts in a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littleton, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a new method for representing permanent afforestation in Earth System models. Afforestation has attracted interest as an option to help to slow or reverse the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the next century. However, its potential is poorly constrained with regard to land availability, rates of tree growth and carbon accumulation, and potential side effects. This study aims to provide quantitative assessment of the carbon removal potential and side effects of 21st century afforestation using a dynamic global vegetation model, in contrast to the majority of previous estimates which have used bookkeeping methods. The land surface model JULES was used to simulate needleleaf afforestation on abandoned agricultural land during the 21st century under two future pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). These results are compared to a control scenario in which natural succession is allowed to act on the same area of land. This study finds considerable spatial variation in the final carbon sequestration potential of afforestation sites. In addition to dieback and marginal growth in many regions, many sites showed minimal additionality of forest areas compared to natural succession. The most suitable sites were in Eastern Europe, central China and central North America. There was no major difference in the general spatial pattern of suitability between RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 by 2100. Overall, this study produced a significantly smaller estimate of the CDR potential of permanent afforestation than previous studies have. The additional carbon stored in suitable sites by 2100 was only 19 Pg C (RCP4.5) and 2.1 Pg C (RCP8.5), a mean of 68 tC/ha. This research also explored the biogeophysical impacts of afforestation on surface energy balance and hydrological cycles. The decrease in albedo caused by afforestation significantly offset the radiative forcing benefits of the carbon removal, although this effect was very sensitive to input assumptions. Flooding results

  7. Management of mine spoil for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments.

    PubMed

    Ram, L C; Srivastava, N K; Tripathi, R C; Jha, S K; Sinha, A K; Singh, G; Manoharan, V

    2006-04-01

    Long-term field trials using lignite fly ash (LFA) were carried out in rice crops during the period 1996-2000 at Mine I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Tamil Nadu. LFA, being alkaline and endowed with an excellent pozzolanic nature, silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve the texture, fertility, and crop productivity of mine spoil. The rice crops were the first, third, fifth, and sixth crops in rotation. The other crops, such as green gram (second) and sun hemp (fourth), were grown as green manure. For experimental trials, LFA was applied at various dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha), with and without press mud (10 t/ha), before cultivation of the first crop. Repeat applications of LFA were made at the same dosages in treatments of up to 50 t/ha (with and without press mud) before cultivation of the third and fifth crops. Press mud, a lightweight organic waste product from the sugar industry, was used as an organic amendment and source of plant nutrients. Also, a recommended dosage of chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer as supplementing agents, was applied in all the treatments, including control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA, from 5 to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), the crop yield (grain and straw) increased significantly (p < 0.05), in the range from 3.0 to 42.0% over the corresponding control. The maximum yield was obtained with repeat applications of 20 t/ha of LFA with press mud in the third crop. The press mud enhanced the yield in the range of 1.5-10.2% with various dosages of LFA. The optimum dosage of LFA was 20 t/ha for both one-time and repeat applications. Repeat applications of LFA at lower dosages of up to 20 t/ha were more effective in increasing the yield than the corresponding one-time applications of up to 20 t/ha and repeat applications at 50 t/ha. One-time and repeat applications of LFA of up to 20 t/ha (with and without press mud), apart from

  8. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of marine sediments and dredge spoils with the MicrotoxR bioassay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, G.T.; Hoke, R.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Winger, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    The MicrotoxR bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of sediment and dredge spoil elutriates from several potentially-contaminated sites in Mobile and Pascagoula Bays. Elutriates were prepared using either local seawater or distilled deionized water (osmotically adjusted with NaCl prior to testing), and MicrotoxR assays were performed with the elutriates and three reference toxicants. There were marked differences in the toxicity of several elutriates and reference toxicants in the two different waters, with the seawater generally resulting in the same or lesser toxicity than the osmotically-adjusted distilled deionized water.

  10. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  11. Modelling the effect of chemical heterogeneity on acidification and solute leaching in overburden mine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Molson, John W.; Frind, Emil O.

    1998-08-01

    The generation of acid mine drainage from overburden spoil piles at open-pit lignite mines is impacting the quality of groundwater and surface water bodies in large parts of the Lusatian mining area in Germany. Values of pH as low as 1 have been observed in the groundwater. After decommissioning, mine pits are generally converted to lakes which may also be acidic owing to the acidic groundwater discharge. The acidic effluent is generated by sulphide oxidation in the unsaturated zone of the spoil pile which generally extends to large depths as a result of dewatering. The long-term evolution of the acidification is still largely unknown. Our research focuses on the effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity caused by mixing of soil materials that may have already been oxidized to different degrees during the deposition of the spoil pile. Processes considered include variably saturated groundwater flow, oxygen diffusion in the soil gas, kinetic pyrite oxidation and acidic effluent generation, advective-dispersive transport of the aqueous components, equilibrium geochemical reactions between the chemical components and the soil minerals, and possible buffering and acid neutralization. Several existing numerical codes were coupled to represent the complete set of processes. Simulations were carried out in one- and two dimensions using representative characteristics of mine spoil piles, with the two-dimensional representation being based on spatially heterogeneous random fields of hydraulic conductivity and sulphide mineral fractions. Results show the long-term evolution of the oxidation front, the mass flux of oxidation products and the effects of system heterogeneity. Under conditions of constant flow, the system is found to return to neutral conditions over a time period on the order of several decades. Further work, including sensitivity analyses with respect to the controlling parameters and model calibration using site-specific field data, will be necessary to

  12. An appraisal of the potential use of fly ash for reclaiming coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Ram, Lal C; Masto, Reginald E

    2010-01-01

    Growing dependence on coal-fired power plants for electrical generation in many countries presents ongoing environmental challenges. Burning pulverized coal in thermal power plants (TPPs) generates large amounts of fly ash (FA) that must be disposed of or otherwise handled, in an environmentally-sound manner. A possible option for dealing with fly ash is to use it as an amendment for mine spoil or other damaged soil. It has been demonstrated through studies in India and other countries that FA alone or in combination with organic or inorganic materials can be used in a productive manner for reclamation of mine spoil. The characteristics of FA, including silt-sized particles, lighter materials with low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity, favorable pH and significant concentrations of many essential plant nutrients, make it a potentially favorable amendment for mine spoil reclamation. Studies have indicated that the application of FA has improved the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soil to which it is applied. The release of trace metals and soluble salts from FA could be a major limitation to its application. This is particularly true of fresh, un-weathered FA or acidic FA, although perhaps not a concern for weathered/pond ash or alkaline FA. Some potential contaminants, especially metals and other salt ions, could be immobilized and rendered biologically inert by the addition of certain inorganic and organic amendments. However, in view of the variability in the characteristics of FAs that are associated with location, feed coal, combustion conditions and other factors, the suitability of a particular FA for a specific soil/mine spoil needs to be critically evaluated before it is applied in order to maximize favorable results and eliminate unexpected consequences. FA generated in India tends to be mostly alkaline, with lower levels of trace elements than are often found in FAs from other countries. The concentrations of potential

  13. Natural Regeneration of Trees in Three Types of Afforested Stands in the Taihang Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

  14. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Model’s (GCAM’s) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM’s afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM’s pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  15. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  16. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils. PMID:23115509

  17. Coal-spoil and ground-water chemical data from two coal mines; Hanna Basin and Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented describing chemical and mineralogical composition of spoil material and chemical quality of groundwater at 2 Wyoming mine sites. Samples were collected at Medicine Bow-Seminoe Number 1 mining area in the Hanna basin and at the Cordero Mine in the Powder River basin. The data collected from these sites, along with similar data from other coal-mining states in the West, are used to evaluate methods used in predicting post-mining groundwater quality. The data include mineral-composition analyses, paste-extract analyses, and sulfur-forms analyses of coal spoil, chemical analyses of water from batch-mixing experiments; and analyses of water samples collected from wells in the coal aquifers and from wells in the saturated spoils. (USGS)

  18. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  19. Possible production of ceramic tiles from marine dredging spoils alone and mixed with other waste materials.

    PubMed

    Baruzzo, Daniela; Minichelli, Dino; Bruckner, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Lorenzo; Bachiorrini, Alessandro; Maschio, Stefano

    2006-06-30

    Dredging spoils, due to their composition could be considered a new potential source for the production of monolithic ceramics. Nevertheless, abundance of coloured oxides in these materials preclude the possibility of obtaining white products, but not that of producing ceramics with a good mechanical behaviour. As goal of the present research we have produced and studied samples using not only dredging spoils alone, but also mixtures with other waste materials such as bottom ashes from an incinerator of municipal solid waste, incinerated seawage sludge from a municipal seawage treatment plant and steelworks slag. Blending of different components was done by attrition milling. Powders were pressed into specimens which were air sintered in a muffle furnace and their shrinkage on firing was determined. Water absorption, density, strength, hardness, fracture toughness, thermal expansion coefficient of the fired bodies were measured; XRD and SEM images were also examined. The fired samples were finally tested in acidic environment in order to evaluate their elution behaviour and consequently their environmental compatibility. It is observed that, although the shrinkage on firing is too high for the production of tiles, in all the compositions studied the sintering procedure leads to fine microstructures, good mechanical properties and to a limitation of the release of many of the most hazardous metals contained in the starting powders. PMID:16343751

  20. Acidification-neutralization processes in a lignite mine spoil amended with fly ash or limestone.

    PubMed

    Seoane, S; Leirós, M C

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the longterm effects of amending sulfide-rich lignite mine spoil with fly ash (originating from a coal-fired power station and largely comprised of aluminosilicates) and/or agricultural limestone. The experiment was carried out with soil moisture maintained at field capacity or alternate cycles of wetting and drying. Results obtained suggest that the principal acidification processes were oxidation of sulfide and formation of hydroxysulfate (FeOHSO4), whereas the main neutralization processes were weathering of aluminosilicates in fly ash-treated samples and dissolution of calcium carbonate in limestone-treated samples. The highest dose of limestone rapidly raised the pH of the spoil, but this increase was not maintained throughout the one-year experiment. In contrast, fly ash-treated samples showed a more sustained increase in pH, attributable to the gradual weathering of aluminosilicates. The best results (i.e., good short- and long-term neutralization) were obtained in samples treated with both fly ash and limestone. The low liming capacity of the fly ash (47.85 cmol kg(-1)) means that it must be used in large quantities, an advantage in achieving the further aim of disposing of the fly ash. PMID:11476521

  1. The effects of land abandonment and long-term afforestation practices on the organic carbon and lignin content of a Mediteranean soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijsiger, Romy; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation is an important strategy that can decrease atmospheric carbon in sequestering it in biomass and soils (Pérez-Crusado et al., 2014). In Spain an active afforestation program was adopted in the 1950s, when after wide spread land abandonment the soils were severely eroded (FAO, 2015). In this research the organic carbon and lignin content of the soils in the Araguás catchment area in the Spanish Pyrenees were examined. This research is part of a larger research examining the effect of afforestation over time (Med Afforest Project, PIEF-GA-2013-624974). The research area was afforested with both the P. sylvestris (Scotts Pine) and the P.nigra (Black Pine). Both sites were compared to bare soil (representing severely eroded soil), natural secondary succession (re-vegetation) and meadows. The method used to assess the lignin content is Curie-point pyrolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The results showed a reducing trend for the soil organic carbon (SOC) content with depth. The highest SOC and lignin contents in the topsoil were found under P.nigra and secondary succession. This decline in lignin content corresponds with a high degradation rate (Ad/Al) in the top soil and lower degradation rates in depths of >20 cm. Meadows showed an increased SOC content in deeper horizons, which corresponds to high lignin content as well. In which the meadows showed an increase in lignin content for the soil depths of >20 cm that was unusual and could not be explained by the S/G and P/G ratios and the degradation ratio (Ad/Al). According to the results, P. nigra was the best afforestation practice for increasing the SOC and lignin contents in the soil. The P. sylvestris was considered but proved to be less successful than natural secondary succession. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974). JC also acknowledges the VALi+d postdoctoral contract (APOSTD/2014

  2. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands.

    PubMed

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher W; Piñeiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-10-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH(4)(+) in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils. PMID:19700539

  3. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Pineiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  4. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN COAL SURFACE MINING. PART I. THE LIMNOLOGY AND BIOTA OF MINE SPOILS PONDS IN NORTHWEST COLORADO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physico-chemical conditions, zooplankton, and benthos were investigated in coal strip-mine ponds in northwesten Colorado. There were no discernible effects of mine drainage on a variety of physico-chemical parameters. In stark contrast to spoils ponds in the eastern and midwester...

  6. Pisolithus tinctorius, a gasteromycete, associated with Jeffrey and Sierra lodgepole pine on acid mine spoils in the Sierra Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. )

    1989-01-31

    Basidiocarps of Pisolithus tinctorius, a gasteromycetous fungus adapted to harsh sites, were observed in association with Jeffrey and Sierra lodgepole pine on acid mine spoils in northeastern California. Subterranean mycelial strands were traced from these basidiocarps to the root systems of the two pine species, which had ectomycorrhizae characteristic of those formed by this fungus in symbiotic relationships with conifer hosts.

  7. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks. PMID:24271733

  8. From Land Use to Land Cover: Restoring the Afforestation Signal in a Coupled Integrated Assessment - Earth System Model and the Implications for CMIP5 RCP Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K. V.; Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P. E.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the CESM land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between IAM and ESM models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as

  9. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as some ESMs might

  10. Dielectrophoresis chips improve PCR detection of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in apple juice.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Jaramillo, Maria; Huttener, Mario; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Homs-Corbera, Antoni; Samitier, Josep; Torrents, Eduard; Juárez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of cells present in real samples is challenging. We show in this work that an interdigitated DEP chip can be used to trap and wash a population of the food-spoiling yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii that contaminates a sample of apple juice. By previously calibrating the chip, the yeast population loaded is efficiently trapped, washed, and recovered in a small-volume fraction that, in turn, can be used for efficient PCR detection of this yeast. DEP washing of yeast cells gets rid of PCR inhibitors present in apple juice and facilitates PCR analysis. This and previous works on the use of DEP chips to improve PCR analysis show that a potential use of DEP is to be used as a treatment of real samples prior to PCR. PMID:25808673

  11. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  12. Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Daniels, W L; Zipper, C E; Orndorff, Z W; Skousen, J; Barton, C D; McDonald, L M; Beck, M A

    2016-09-01

    Appalachian USA surface coal mines face public and regulatory pressure to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) in discharge waters, primarily due to effects on sensitive macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance (SC) is an accurate surrogate for TDS and relatively low levels of SC (300-500 μS cm(-1)) have been proposed as regulatory benchmarks for instream water quality. Discharge levels of TDS from regional coal mines are frequently >1000 μS cm(-1). The primary objectives of this study were to (a) determine the effect of rock type and weathering status on SC leaching potentials for a wide range of regional mine spoils; (b) to relate leachate SC from laboratory columns to actual measured discharge SC from field sites; and (c) determine effective rapid lab analyses for SC prediction of overburden materials. We correlated laboratory unsaturated column leaching results for 39 overburden materials with a range of static lab parameters such as total-S, saturated paste SC, and neutralization potential. We also compared column data with available field leaching and valley fill discharge SC data. Leachate SC is strongly related to rock type and pre-disturbance weathering. Fine-textured and non-weathered strata generally produced higher SC and pose greater TDS risk. High-S black shales produced the highest leachate SC. Lab columns generated similar range and overall SC decay response to field observations within 5-10 leaching cycles, while actual reduction in SC in the field occurs over years to decades. Initial peak SC can be reliably predicted (R(2) > 0.850; p < 0.001) by simple lab saturated paste or 1:2 spoil:water SC procedures, but predictions of longer-term SC levels are less reliable and deserve further study. Overall TDS release risk can be accurately predicted by a combination of rock type + S content, weathering extent, and simple rapid SC lab measurements. PMID:27323343

  13. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ(15)N and dual stable isotopes of δ(15)N and δ(18)O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ(15)N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ(15)N and δ(18)O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3(-) fertiliser. PMID:27112514

  14. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3− fertiliser. PMID:27112514

  15. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3‑ fertiliser.

  16. Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland in Denmark: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 12 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Bárcena, Teresa G.; Gundersen, Per

    2013-04-01

    Surplus of agricultural products and the increasing demand for environmental services has induced the conversion of cropland to plantation forests. Several environmental processes change as a result of such land-use change, e.g. water recharge, nitrate leaching, and soil properties, but also effects on carbon sequestration have attracted research efforts due to its role in climate change mitigation. In Denmark, monocultures of oak (Quercus robur L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (l.) Karst.) have been common in afforestations during the last decades. Chronosequences are commonly used to address SOC sequestration after land-use change, however, no previous study has combined and compared results of the chronosequence approach and repeated sampling. As a part of the GHG Europe project we conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) that has been successively afforested with both tree species over the past 40 years. This area is well suited for land-use change and tree species effect studies as it has homogeneous soil conditions and includes differently aged stands providing decadal time scales. Previous carbon stock data from 1998 showed increasing carbon storage along the chronosequence in forest floors, while soil organic carbon stocks (0-25 cm) decreased, within a time span of 30 years. Our objective was to investigate whether resampling of the same chronosequences after 12 years would show evidence of a tree species-specific effect on soil carbon after afforestation, or if the tree species effect would still be constrained to forest floors. The chronosequence trajectory showing an increase in forest floor carbon stocks was validated by resampling after 12 years, however, carbon accumulation rates decreased for both tree species from 1998 to 2010, from 0.35 to 0.14 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in spruce and from 0.08 to 0.01 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the oak chronosequence. In addition, current carbon sequestration rates in forest floors

  17. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  18. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-11-01

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  19. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y. Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.; Behrens, C.; Helml, W.

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  20. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2016-04-01

    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  1. The disposal of a lime water treatment residue on soil and spoil material from a coalmine: a glasshouse investigation.

    PubMed

    Titshall, L W; Hughes, J C; Morris, C D; Zacharias, P J K

    2007-01-01

    Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., and Digitaria eriantha Steud. were grown in a soil (Psammentic Haplustalf) and spoil material from a coalmine both treated with a lime water treatment residue (WTR) at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g kg(-1). The yield of the grasses, from the sum of the three harvests, and concentrations of B, Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, and Zn in foliage from the second harvest were determined. The yield of grasses grown in the soil decreased exponentially as WTR application increased. The yields of C. ciliaris, D. eriantha, and E. tef (in the 400 g kg(-1) WTR treated soil) decreased by 74.4, 78.7, and 59.8%, respectively, when compared with the control treatments. In the spoil, the yield of E. tef and D. eriantha decreased by 13.6% and and D. eriantha by 23.9%, while an increase was observed for C. ciliaris (45.4%), at the highest WTR application rate. No relationship existed between yield of E. tef and WTR application rate when grown in the spoil, while a weak negative linear relationship (p < 0.05) was found for D. eriantha and a positive linear relationship existed for C. ciliaris. Magnesium concentrations of the grasses were positively correlated to WTR application rate. Grasses grown in the soil had higher Na concentrations, while those grown in the spoil typically had higher B, N, and Zn concentrations. The decreases in yield were attributed to nutrient deficiencies (notably Zn), induced by high WTR application rates that led to high substrate pH. Disposal of high rates of WTR on the mine materials was not recommended. PMID:17332261

  2. The use of compost in afforestation of Mediterranean areas: Effects on soil properties and young tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Ballini, Christine; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Montès, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    In Mediterranean frequently burnt areas, fire and erosion result in the decrease of soil fertility, so afforestation is a major concern. We carried out an in situ experiment of compost amendment to improve survival and growth of planted tree seedlings. One-year-tree seedlings of native species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea) were planted on a frequently burnt calcareous site. Three rates of fresh co-composted sewage sludge and greenwastes (control without compost, 20 and 40 kg m(-2) of compost) were incorporated into the soil at each seedling stem. Changes of soil properties and tree development were studied during 3 years (2001-2003) and 2 years (2002-2003) respectively. The compost improved survival of Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea seedlings in severe drought conditions, but had no effect on Pinus halepensis. For all species seedling length and radial growth and NPK nutrition were increased for both rates of amendment. Amendment improved soil fertility, but available P concentration increased 13 fold in the neighbouring soil of seedlings amended at the maximal rate compared to control. However, amendment did not significantly increase concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils or tree seedlings. It increased Cu and Zn total and available concentrations in soils, while foliar Cu and Zn concentrations in the seedlings remained similar in all plots. Compost can efficiently help afforestation of dry soils with low organic matter content. However, sewage sludge concentrations in P, and to a lesser extent in Cu and Zn, limit rates of application that can be applied without environmental hazard. PMID:16762400

  3. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Paloma Hueso and co-workers (2014; 2015) researched the impact of soil treatment on soil erosion and organic matter recovery in Mediterranean types ecosystems and they demonstrated that the surface wash and the soil quality is determined by the soil management. Afforestation and proper management with fertilizers, mulches and vegetation recovery, are common strategies to flight against soil erosion in Mediterranean type ecosystems García Orenes et al., 2010; Barbera et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2012; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Jiménez et al., 2015; Tengberg et al., 2015; Tesfaye et al., 2015). However, Hueso et al., (2014; 2015) did not paid attention to the impact that water repellency can trigger in the runoff generation and water repellency when soils increase the organic matter. In Eastern Spain, afforestation with Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was very popular during the XX century, although little is know about his impact on soil hydrology. Many of the impacts of afforestation were found positive (García et al., 2000; Maestre et al., 2003; Bellot et al., 2004; Maestre and Cortina, 2004; Chirino et al., 2006; Querejeta et al., 2008; ). This research shows the impact of Pinus halepensis Mill. on soil water repellency, in comparison to the natural scrubland and the cover of Quercus ilex. Within the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station five types of vegetation covers were selected: Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex, Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Brachypodium retusum. The Water Drop Penetration Time method (Cerda and Doerr; 2007; 2008) was applied. A hundred drops were applied at the soil surface, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth 5 times along the year 2013 under different soil moisture content. The results show that the water repllency of the soils is: Pinus Pinus halepensis > Quercus coccifera > Rosmarinus officinalis > Quercus ilex > Thymus vulgaris > Brachypodium retusum. This is related to the higher

  4. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications.

    PubMed

    Céspedes-Payret, Carlos; Piñeiro, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Ofelia; Panario, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A(11) and A(12) subhorizons (~20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10Å spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p<0.01) to highly significant ones under eucalyptus, particularly in these subhorizons, where on average soil organic matter decreased by 43%; K(+) by 34%; Ca(2+) by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. PMID:23064181

  5. Preliminary study on the relationships between aboveground storage and remotely sensed data at Pingdong plain afforestation land in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Chen, J. M.; Yu, J.; Cheng, C.; Lai, Y.; Chiang, P.; Hong, C.; Chang, C.; Wey, T.; Tsai, M.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This research aims on the relationships between LAI and five vegetation index (BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI) from remotely sensed images, in situ measurements and aboveground storage for 10-11yr old plain afforestation (14 species) located at Wanlong farm of subtropical-tropical region at the southern part of Taiwan which originally governed by Taiwan Sugar Corporation. The preliminary results show the aboveground storage is 14.19×9.19 m3 ha-1 and the correlation coefficient between aboveground storage and BR, SRBR, BD, NDVI and TNDVI is 0.331 (p=0.211), 0.317 (p=0.232), 0.310 (p=0.244), 0.714 (p=0.002) and 0.706 (p=0.002) while NDVI performs the best correlation. LAI value using Fisheye or Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) is 0.76×0.37 and 3.89×2.81, respectively. Besides, CI measured by TRAC is 0.83×0.09 and the correlation coefficient with LAI is 0.868 (p<0.001). It shows feasible to estimate aboveground storage using ground investigation incorporating remotely sensed data for young plain afforestation stand. Due to the mixed-plantation and difference between growing and non-growing season at the sample site, the relationship between aboveground storage, LAI and VI is yet to be developed for independent species and may need to modify due to seasonally and inter-annually variation.

  6. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from Metalliferous Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants. PMID:23667449

  7. A processing fluency-account of funniness: running gags and spoiling punchlines.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Earlier theories on humour assume that funniness stems from the incongruity resolution of the surprising punchline and thus an insight into the joke's meaning. Applying recent psychological theorising that insight itself draws on processing fluency being the ease and speed with which mental content is processed, it is predicted that increasing the fluency of processing the punchline of a joke increases funniness. In Experiments 1 and 2, significant nouns from the punchlines or from the beginnings of jokes were presented before a joke was rated in funniness. Pre-exposing punchline words 15 minutes and even only 1 minute before the eventual joke led to increased funniness ratings. In contrast, pre-exposing punchline words directly before a joke led to decreased funniness ratings. Furthermore, pre-exposing the beginning of a joke 1 minute before the joke had no effects on funniness. Experiment 3 ruled out exposure-facilitated punchline anticipation as alternative mechanism, and Experiment 4 replicated this fluency effect with typing font as manipulation. These findings also show that pre-exposing a punchline, which in common knowledge should spoil a joke, can actually increase funniness under certain conditions. PMID:24320137

  8. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    X.C. Qiao; P. Si; J.G. Yu

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminium from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900{degree}C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminium extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800{degree}C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO{sub 2} phase was able to be formed at 500{degree}C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600{degree}C, and the SiO{sub 2} rejoined the reaction at 800{degree}C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600{degree}C was optimal for both CS and MKC. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Dump Stability and Soil Fertility of a Coal Mine Spoil in Indian Dry Tropical Environment: A Long-Term Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K.

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g-1, net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g-1 month-1, MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g-1, and root biomass from 28 to 566 g-2. Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation ( P < 0.01). From the numerical modelling it was analyzed that revegetation increased the dump slope stability with a factor of safety of 1.7 and 2.1 after 6 and 12 years of plantation on dump slope, respectively, while it was 1.2 before revegetation. Thus, long term revegetation was found to have direct impact on dump stability and indirect impact on soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  10. Copper-Adapted Suillus luteus, a Symbiotic Solution for Pines Colonizing Cu Mine Spoils

    PubMed Central

    Adriaensen, K.; Vrålstad, T.; Noben, J.-P.; Vangronsveld, J.; Colpaert, J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural populations thriving in heavy-metal-contaminated ecosystems are often subjected to selective pressures for increased resistance to toxic metals. In the present study we describe a population of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus that colonized a toxic Cu mine spoil in Norway. We hypothesized that this population had developed adaptive Cu tolerance and was able to protect pine trees against Cu toxicity. We also tested for the existence of cotolerance to Cu and Zn in S. luteus. Isolates from Cu-polluted, Zn-polluted, and nonpolluted sites were grown in vitro on Cu- or Zn-supplemented medium. The Cu mine isolates exhibited high Cu tolerance, whereas the Zn-tolerant isolates were shown to be Cu sensitive, and vice versa. This indicates the evolution of metal-specific tolerance mechanisms is strongly triggered by the pollution in the local environment. Cotolerance does not occur in the S. luteus isolates studied. In a dose-response experiment, the Cu sensitivity of nonmycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings was compared to the sensitivity of mycorrhizal seedlings colonized either by a Cu-sensitive or Cu-tolerant S. luteus isolate. In nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by the Cu-sensitive isolate, root growth and nutrient uptake were strongly inhibited under Cu stress conditions. In contrast, plants colonized by the Cu-tolerant isolate were hardly affected. The Cu-adapted S. luteus isolate provided excellent insurance against Cu toxicity in pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu levels. Such a metal-adapted Suillus-Pinus combination might be suitable for large-scale land reclamation at phytotoxic metalliferous and industrial sites. PMID:16269769